27-01_pptlect
27 Pages

27-01_pptlect

Course Number: HENRY 2458, Fall 2009

College/University: UT Arlington

Word Count: 904

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Frederic H. Martini Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Fundamentals of Chapter 27, part 1 Fluid, Electrolyte, and AcidBase Balance PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Explain what is meant by "fluid balance,"...

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H. Frederic Martini Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Fundamentals of Chapter 27, part 1 Fluid, Electrolyte, and AcidBase Balance PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Explain what is meant by "fluid balance," "electrolyte balance," and "acidbase balance" Compare the compositions of intracellular and extracellular fluids Identify the hormones that play important roles in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance Describe the movement of fluid that takes place within the ECF, between the ECF and the ICF, and between the ECF and the environment Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Discuss how sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions are regulated to maintain electrolyte balance Explain the buffering systems that balance the pH of the intracellular and extracellular fluids Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in acidbase balance Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 27-1 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-base Balance: An Overview Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintenance of normal fluid volume and composition is vital Extracellular fluid (ECF) Interstitial fluid, plasma, and other body fluids Intracellular fluid (ICF) The cytosol Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fluid and electrolyte balance Fluid balance The amount of water gained each day equals the amount lost Electrolyte balance The ion gain each day equals the ion loss Acidbase balance H+ gain is offset by their loss Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 27-2 An Introduction to Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The ECF and the ICF are two distinct fluid compartment ICF The cytosol of cells Makes up about twothirds of the total body water ECF Major components include the interstitial fluid and plasma Minor components include all other extracellular fluids Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 27.1 The Composition of the Human Body Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 27.1a Regulation of fluids and electrolytes Homeostatic mechanisms respond to changes in ECF No receptors directly monitor fluid or electrolyte balance Respond to changes in plasma volume or osmotic concentrations All water moves passively in response to osmotic gradients Body content of water or electrolytes rises if intake exceeds outflow Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 27.2 Cations and Anions in Body Fluids Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 27.2 Primary regulatory hormones Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates water conservation and the thirst center Aldosterone Controls Na+ absorption and K+ loss along the DCT Natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) Reduce thirst and block the release of ADH and aldosterone Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Interplay between fluid balance and electrolyte balance Different regulate mechanisms fluid and electrolyte balance This distinction is vital in the clinical setting Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 27-3 Fluid Balance Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fluid movement within the ECF Fluid moves freely within ECF compartment Water losses are normally balanced by gains Eating Drinking Metabolic generation Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 27.3 Fluid Exchanges Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 27.3 Fluid exchange with the environment The major routes of fluid exchange with the environment include: Water loss Temperature rise from fever Water gains Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water excess and depletion Hyponatremia Na+ concentration in the ECF is reduced (overhydration) Hypernatremia Na+ in the ECF is abnormally high Dehydration Develops when water loss outpaces water gains Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fluid shifts Water movement between ECF and ICF If ECF becomes hypertonic relative to ICF, water moves from ICF to ECF If ECF becomes hypotonic relative to ICF, mater moves from ECF into cells PLAY Animation: Introduction to Body Fluids Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 27-4 Electrolyte Balance Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Problems with Electrolyte Balance Usually result from sodium ion imbalances Potassium imbalances are less common, but more dangerous Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sodium balance Rate of sodium uptake across digestive tract directly proportional to dietary intake Sodium losses occur through urine and perspiration Shifts in sodium balance result in expansion or contraction of ECF Large variations corrected by homeostatic mechanisms Too low, ADH...
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