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Course: CHE 294, Fall 2009
School: University of Alabama...
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Outline Types Topic of Tests Definitions Stress Strain Strain Ratio Area Reduction and Elongation Terminology Your Responsibilities CHE 294 1 Types of Tests What questions might we ask about the mechanical behavior of a material? How does it stretch? How does it bend? How does it withstand cyclic loads? How does it withstand sudden impacts? How long does it last under a load? Tensile Test Flex Test Fatigue...

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Outline Types Topic of Tests Definitions Stress Strain Strain Ratio Area Reduction and Elongation Terminology Your Responsibilities CHE 294 1 Types of Tests What questions might we ask about the mechanical behavior of a material? How does it stretch? How does it bend? How does it withstand cyclic loads? How does it withstand sudden impacts? How long does it last under a load? Tensile Test Flex Test Fatigue Test Impact Test Creep Test CHE 294 2 Stress Stress is a measure of the force applied to an area of the component. Tensile Forces applied load F A area force applied normal to area Engineering (Tensile) Stress = F / Ao (initial area) The area changes as the piece stretches. True Stress Shear Forces applied load F A area force applied in the plane Shear Stress =F/A =F/A CHE 294 3 CHE/MAE 294 S97 Topic 10a Introduction 1 Strain Strain is a measure of the deformation that occurs. applied load F A area Engineering Strain l length applied load F A area = ( l lo ) / lo True Strain d = dl / l = ln ( l / lo ) Shear Strain = tan CHE 294 4 Strain Ratio Under tension loads, the ratio of transverse to axial deformation is Poisson's ratio. transverse = strain t (r ro) / ro Poisson's ratio axial strain a = (l lo) / lo Why does this have a negative sign? For ideal materials, < 1 / 3 CHE 294 5 = t / a Area Reduction and Elongation These also measure the deformation of the material. % area reduction = 100 (Ao A) Ao (the relative amount of area reduction) %elongation = 100 (lbreak l) l (the amount left to stretch a component until it breaks) CHE 294 6 CHE/MAE 294 S97 Topic 10a Introduction 2 Terminology Flexible The component bends easily and returns to its original shape after bending. Stiff The component is difficult to bend without permanently deforming it (plastically). Brittle The component breaks before it bends ...

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