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ENGLISH DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR FOR ESL/EFL TEACHERS
Alan A. Seaman, Ph.D.
Office: BGC M220 x7044 Effective teachers of English as a second or foreign language must, among other things, have a mastery of the content they are teaching -- the English language itself. This entails much more than being a native speaker of English. As a TESOL professional, you will be expected to be an expert in the grammatical and discourse structures of the English language. This course is intended to provide you with a sound basis for dealing with grammar and discourse in the classroom.
Intercultural Studies Department Vision: To develop professionals skilled in theory and practice for culturally-sensitive service in a dynamically changing world. TESOL Program Goal: To develop specialists in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages who demonstrate a high level of professionalism as the foundation for cross-cultural work.
Course Goals: 1. To provide ESL/EFL teachers with a survey of the English grammatical system, featuring detailed knowledge of English morphology, syntax, and discourse, [SP3] 2. To survey the various levels and modes of discourse and to provide an introduction to written discourse analysis, 3. To encourage creative, effective teaching by discussing and practicing various pedagogical techniques related to grammar. [SP6] Texts: Celce-Murcia, Marianne. The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher's
Course. 2nd ed. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1999. Azar, Betty. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999. NOTE: A packet of handouts related to this course should be purchased through the bookstore. Supplementary Text: Ur, Penny. Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Several copies of this excellent resource are available at the Wheaton College Bookstore. Course Requirements: Two tests during the course (40 %) Final examination (30%) Participation in discussions and class activities; completion of assigned exercises, including three authentic language cards (10%) Presentation of a lesson plan (20%)
(a) Tests and Final Exam - The three tests will constitute 70 % of the course grade. The first two tests will involve material covered in the Celce-Murcia and Azar texts and in our class discussions. The final exam, in a take-home format, will be a comprehensive review of the material covered in the course, including the three chapters in Hatchs book (on reserve). [SP3] (b) Participation and Completion of Assigned Exercises - The course textbooks provide plenty of exercises for practice, review, and application. The assigned exercises will be due at the beginning of class and are expected to be the basis for discussion. Along with the exercises in the books, youll be asked to collect and turn in three index cards with authentic language that exemplifies the grammar points weve been covering. The authentic language grammar card due dates are listed in the course syllabus. [SP3] (c) Presentation of a Lesson Plan - Another requirement involves developing a grammarbased lesson plan during the second and third segments of the course. For this lesson you should prepare to present and discuss a lesson plan involving the days grammar point. Your lesson plan should focus on a particular context and level of instruction and should include at least one creative teaching idea that you will try out with our class. Not only will you gain experience with translating the course content into a lesson, but you will also leave the course with a collection of lesson plans and teaching ideas to use in the future. [SP6] (Required for
the TESOL portfolio.)
Office Hours: My office hours (and a sign-up sheet) are posted on my door. Generally, I will be available during the afternoon between 3:15 and 4:30 on Mondays and Fridays, and from
2:00-4:00 on Thursdays. If you need to schedule a different time, please send me an e-mail. I'm more than happy to talk with you about the course or about any other interests and concerns. Attendance: Attendance at all class sessions is an expectation. If you cannot attend a class for some reason, please give me a call (at home or at my office) and let me know. Policy on Academic Honesty: It is expected that all Wheaton College students, faculty, and staff subscribe to the ideal of academic integrity and that they take full personal responsibility and accountability for their work. Wheaton College considers academic dishonesty a serious offense against the basic meaning of an academic community and our standards of excellence and integrity. In this course, students are expected to follow the instructions and observe the time limits set by the professor for all take-home examinations, and to do their own work on assignments such as the lesson plan presentation.
OUTLINE OF SYLLABUS: INTR 612 Note: In many cases, the topic is introduced one class before the relevant reading assignment. Day/Date M Wk 1 Topics and Assignments Introduction/ Course Overview.
PART I: FOUNDATIONAL AREAS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. W Wk 1 Grammar and Language Pedagogy Celce-Murcia, Ch. 1 Grammatical Terminology No reading assignment No class Martin Luther Kings Birthday The Lexicon: Teaching Vocabulary Celce-Murcia, Ch. 2: Azar, Appendix A Teaching Vocabulary, Part 2 C-M, Ch. 3 The Copula and Subject-Verb Agreement C-M, Ch. 4; Azar, Ch. 6 Word Order and Phrase Structure Rules: The Noun Phrase No reading assignment. No class Phrase Structure Rules, Part 2: Verb Phrases/Auxiliaries C-M, Ch. 5 Review of Phrase Structure Rules/The Tense-Aspect System, Part I C-M, Ch. 6 The Tense-Aspect System Azar, Ch. 1 (charts) Verb Tenses and Modal Auxiliaries C-M, Ch. 7 Modals, Part 2 C-M, Ch. 8; Azar, Ch. 2
F Wk 1
M Wk 2 W Wk 2
F Wk 2
M Wk 3
W Wk 3
F Wk 3 M Wk 4
W Wk 4
F Wk 4
M Wk 5
W Wk 5
F Wk 5
Discourse Analysis: Tense-Aspect-Modality C-M, Ch. 9 Negation and Yes-No Questions C-M, Ch. 10
M Wk 6
W Wk 6
Questions: Yes-No and WhC-M, Ch. 11 ** Authentic Language Grammar Card #1 Due ** Imperatives C-M, Ch. 13 and review sheet Imperatives and Review for Test #1 C-M, Ch. 12 Test #1 Illinois TESOL/BE State Convention: No class SPECIFIC PROBLEM AREAS FOR ESL/EFL LEARNERS. The Article System Pronouns and Possessives C-M, Ch. 15 Partitives, Collectives,Quantifiers C-M, Ch. 16; Azar, Ch. 8 Spring Break: March 8-16
F Wk 6
M Wk 7
W Wk 7 F Wk 7 PART II: M Wk 8 W Wk 8
F Wk 8
M Wk 9
The Passive Voice C-M, Ch. 17 Prepositions C-M, Ch. 18 Good Friday No class Indirect Objects C-M, Ch. 21 Phrasal Verbs C-M, Ch. 19
W Wk 9
F Wk 9 M Wk 10
W Wk 10
F Wk 10
Discourse Analysis: It and There as Subjects C-M, Ch. 22 ** Authentic Language Grammar Card # 2 Due ** Review for Test #2 C-M, Ch. 23 Test # 2 TOWARD MORE COMPLEX SYNTAX. Discourse Analysis: Genre Introduction to Coordination Hatch, Ch. 5 (reserve) Coordinating Conjunction C-M, Ch. 24 Adverbials (Adverb Clauses) C-M, Ch. 25 Adverbials and Logical Connectors C-M, Ch. 26 Conditional Sentences C-M, Ch. 27 Discourse Analysis: Coherence, Cohesion, Deixis Hatch, Ch. 6 (reserve) Relative Clauses (Adjective Clauses) C-M, Ch. 28, Azar, Ch. 13 Relative Clauses, Part 2 and review of clause forms No reading assignment Infinitives and Gerunds C-M, Ch. 31, Azar, Chs. 14-15 Reported Speech and Writing (Noun Clauses) C-M, Ch. 33; Azar, Ch. 7 Comparatives and Equatives C-M, Ch. 34
M Wk 11
W Wk 11 PART III: F Wk 11
M Wk 12
W Wk 12
F Wk 12
M Wk 13
W Wk 13
F Wk 13
M Wk 14
W Wk 14
F Wk 14
M Wk 15
W Wk 15
Superlatives C-M, Ch. 35 ** Authentic Language Grammar Card # 3 Due ** Discourse Analysis: Planned and Unplanned Discourse Hatch, Ch. 7 (reserve) Review for Test #3 Receive take-home exam
F Wk 15
Final Examination: 1:30 p.m. Tuesday, _______________ Although the final exam is a take-home test, you should plan to attend this important class session. We will discuss grammar teaching methods, error correction strategies, and well have a chance to peruse a number of grammar-related textbooks.
PART ONE Textbook Assignments During the first week you will become acquainted with The Grammar Book as the primary text for this course. Although this is a very good textbook, it is also an acquired taste. Let me offer some suggestions to help you better use this book. (1) When reading a chapter, move at a slow, steady pace, highlighting key points and/or taking notes. Don't get stuck on something you don't understand. Instead, keep reading and ask for clarification in class. Not everything presented in each chapter is important; usually, I'll ask you to learn only some of the rules presented by Celce-Murcia. During this course, I will often assign a chapter to be read after the grammar topic has been introduced in class. (2) After reading the chapter, look over the teaching ideas and do the exercises assigned. Generally, these exercises will ask you to (a) diagram a few sentences, and (b) diagnose what is wrong with sentences containing errors * When diagramming sentences, you will only need to do the basic tree diagram. You won't need to provide all of the transformation (mapping) rules. * When diagnosing errors, you will only need to provide a clear explanation of the rule which has been violated. You do NOT need to provide teaching ideas, as requested by the book.
Specific Assignments Foundational Areas of English Grammar
W _____ Read C-M, Ch. 2. On p. 25, write out exercise 2. For a quick review of standard terminology, read Azar, Appendix A, pp. A1-A6. As with all Azar assignments, you do not need to do the exercises. Key concepts to read for: Open and closed categories, nouns (mass, count, common, proper), verbs (intransitive, transitive, linking, prepositional), adjectives, adverbs, intensifiers, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions, clause vs. phrase, sentences(simple, compound, complex), mood, voice, register, genre. (Note that not all of the material presented in C-M is on this list.)
Read C-M, Ch. 3. On pp. 48-49, write out exercises 2, 3. (For #3, simply identify the errors; do not provide teaching exercises.) Key concepts to read for: free vs. bound morphemes, inflectional morphemes, determiner-noun restrictions, adjective-preposition restrictions, verb-noun restrictions, co-occurrence, compounding, derivational affixes, conversion, polysemy, semantic fields, collocation, lexical phrases. Read C-M, Ch. 4. On pp. 74-75, write out exercise 5. See Azar, Ch. 6. (Read Charts 6-1 to 6-5 for subject-verb agreement.) Key concepts to read for: BE (copular vs. auxiliary forms), subject verb agreement errors (general rule, collective nouns, proximity principle, nonintervention principle). Look carefully at the variation in questionnaire data. Read C-M, Ch. 5. On pp. 92-93, write out exercises 2 and 3 Key concepts to read for: Word order, phrase structure (linearity, hierarchy, categorality), sentence modifier, determiners, prepositional phrases, noun phrases, adjective phrases, adverbial phrases, adverbial clauses, ordering of sentence-final adverbials. Read C-M, Ch. 6. On p. 107, write out exercises 2 and 3. Key concepts to read for: Tenses, modals, perfect and progressive aspects, auxiliary, verb phrase, object noun predicates, objects (direct, indirect, preposition), mapping rules. Look at the verb tense described system in Azar, Ch. 1 (pp. 6-7). Become familiar with Azars diagrams. Read C-M, Ch. 7. On p. 133, write out exercises 1 and 5. For clarification, see charts in Azar, Ch. 2-4. Key concepts to read for: The 12 tenses (p. 110), simple aspect (present, past, future), perfect aspect (present, past, future), progressive aspect (present, past, future), summary on p. 119, stative verbs, adverbs of time, simple past vs. present perfect, simple future vs. other ways of indicating futurity.
Read C-M, Ch. 8. On pp. 155-57, write out exercises 3, 5. See charts in Azar, Chs. 9-10. (Be sure to bring your Azar book to class in order to go through some of these charts.) Key concepts to read for: Modal vs. phrasal modal, historical present vs. historical past tense modals, logical probability modals, modals and negation, social uses (requests, advice), other uses of modals. Read C-M, Ch. 9. On pp. 176-178, write out exercises 8, 9. Key concepts to read for: The Bull Framework, Chafes observations, historical present/past, modal/phrasal modal sequences, Read C-M, Ch. 10. On pp. 201-202, write out exercises 2, 4. See Azar, Appendix D. Key concepts to read for: Negative particle NOT, multiple negation, lexical negation, phrase-level negation, sentence-level negation, rules for NOT placement and contraction, rejection vs. denial, some/none vs. any, NOT vs. no, contracted negatives, operator. Read C-M, Ch. 11. On p. 223, write out exercises 2, 5. See Azar, Appendix B Key concepts to read for: subject-operator inversion, intonation questions, short-form answers, negative vs. affirmative Y/No questions, uninverted questions, elliptical questions, contracted vs. uncontracted questions.
** Authentic Language Grammar Card #1 - Bring to class a card with a quotation or passage from a real-life context which illustrates a grammar rule or concept that weve covered in the course so far.
Your Name XX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XX - Source of quote Identify underlined feature
Read C-M, Ch. 13. On p. 257, write out exercises 2 and 5. Also read over Ch. 14, pp. 259-263. Key concepts to read for: Subject vs. predicate wh-questions, whfronting, wh-question words, uninverted wh-questions, negative whquestions, elliptical questions, display questions.
Read C-M, Ch. 12. On p. 238, write out exercises 2, 3. Key concepts to read for: Moods in English, imperative forms, negative imperatives, imperatives with copula BE, diffuse imperatives, inclusive imperatives, politeness. You will receive a review sheet to complete for this lesson.
Textbook Assignments, Part 2 Specific Problem Areas for ESL/EFL Learners/
During the next segment of the course, I will be collecting the assignments from time to time to see how you are doing. Often, well be going over the diagnosis exercises near the beginning of class, so it will be helpful to have the assignments done by then in order to discuss them and check your understanding of the material. W _____ Read C-M, Ch. 15. On p. 293, write out exercises 4, 5. Key concepts to read for: Classification of nouns (chart on p. 272), Count/mass nouns, common/proper nouns, indefinite/definite articles, generic vs. nongeneric meanings, topic-specific uses. C-M, Ch. 16. Exercises 2, 3 on pp. 319-320. See charts in Azar, Ch. 8. Key concepts to read for: Personal pronouns, possessive determiners, reflexive pronouns, reciprocal pronouns, demonstratives, possessive noun forms, indefinite pronouns. C-M, Ch. 17. Exercises 2, 4 on pp. 339-340. See Azar, Ch. 7, pp. 119-128. Key concepts to read for: Partitive structure, measure phrases, idiomatic partitives, numbers vs. partitives (328) collective nouns, the quantifier system (330), quantifiers with count/mass nouns, using of, register and quantifiers. C-M, Ch. 18. Exercises 2, 6 on p 358. See charts in Azar, Ch. 11. Key concepts to read for: Passive vs. active voice, passive forms, be vs. get passives, the middle voice (ergative verbs), agented vs. agentless passives, distribution of the passive among genres. C-M, Ch. 21. Exercises 2, 3 on p. 420 See Azar, Appendix E (A 21-23). Key concepts to read for: Prepositions, co-occurrence, deletion of prepositions, spatial prepositions, cases (dative, benefactive, agentive, ablative, genitive, comitative, proxy), three types of errors (p. 416).
C-M, Ch. 19. Exercises 2, 5 on p. 376. Key concepts to read for: postverbal vs. post-prepositional indirect objects, obligatory vs. deletable direct objects, verbs which take each position (364), indirect object alternation. C-M, Ch. 22. Exercises 2, 4 on p. 438-9. Key concepts to read for: Phrasal verb, particle, transitive vs. intransitive PVs, PVs with prepositions, separable vs. inseparable PVs, PVs vs. verbPreposition co-occurrence (429-430), literal vs. idiomatic PVs, register. ** Authentic Language Grammar Card #2 Due**
C-M, Ch. 23. Exercises 2, 4. Key concepts to read for: nonreferential it and there; uses of there.
Complete the Review Sheet for Test #2. _____________________________________________________________________________
Textbook Assignments Part 3 Toward More Complex Syntax
F _____ Read Hatch, Ch. 5. Take note of the various rhetorical genres; no exercises are due. Read C-M, Ch. 24. Do ex. 2, 5 on p. 486. See charts in Azar, Ch. 16. Key concepts to read for: Coordination, conjunction, simple vs. complex conjunctions, ellipsis, optional deletion rule, subject-operator inversion cases, uninverted/inverted forms, pro-forms, gapping, correlative conjunctions, the seven coordinating conjunctions (472) study the differences in usage.
Read C-M, Ch. 25. Do ex. 2, 3 on p. 513. See charts in Azar, Chs. 17-18 Key concepts to read for: sentence-final adverbials vs. sentence-initial adverbials, reducing adverbial clauses, adverbial participles, dangling modifier problems, preverbal adverbs of frequency PAVs (504-511), adverb placement (movement) rule. Read C-M, Ch. 26. Do ex. 2, 5 on pp. 540-41. See charts in Azar, Chs.17, 19. Key concepts to read for: Adverbial subordinators (simple, complex), conjunctive adverbials, punctuation issues, meaning categories (529-30), problems with similar meanings, register issues, overuse.
Read C-M, Ch. 27. Do ex. 2 (a, c), 4 on p. 566. See charts in Azar, Ch. 20. Key concepts to read for: Conditionals (syntax), three types of conditionals (548, 552), factual, predictive, imaginative, the subjunctive mood, hope vs. wish, frequency of conditionals (557). Read Hatch, Ch. 6. Do exercises 6.1 #1, 6.4 #1, 6.6 #1. Key concepts to read for: Coherence, cohesion, deixis, and the various ways these are marked in discourse. Read C-M, Ch. 28. Do ex. 2, 4 on p. 588. See charts in Azar, Ch. 13. Key concepts to read for: Relative clause, embedding, problems for ESL students, relative pronouns, order of difficulty in clause types (577-78), fronting the preposition, possessive determiners as rel. pronouns, uses in conversation, uses in writing. Read C-M, Ch. 31. Do ex. 3, 4 on p. 658. See charts in Azar, Chs. 14-15. Key concepts to read for: Complementation types (629-632), that-complements (noun clauses), infinitives (634-641), gerunds (641-643), verbs taking infinitives (646-7), verbs taking gerunds (648), infinitives vs. gerunds (648-650), bare-stem infinitives (651). A good summary of this difficult chapter is found on pages 655656. Please do not worry about the diagrams. Read C-M, Ch. 33. Do ex. 3, 8 on pp. 712-3. See charts in Azar, Ch. 12, especially 12-6 and 12-7. Key concepts to read for: Direct speech (quotation), indirect reported speech, noun clause (that-clauses), backshifting of tenses, subjunctives, indirect questions and imperatives, complementizer types, deictic shifts (697), reporting verbs. Read C-M, Ch. 34. Do ex. 3, 5 on p. 735. Key concepts to read for: Typical learner problems, construction types, -er vs. more, irregular forms, less vs. fewer, equative patterns, negative equatives, using negative equatives. ** Authentic Language Grammar Card #3 Due ** Read C-M, Ch. 35. Do ex. 2, 5 on pp. 753-4. Key concepts to read for: Comparative vs. superlative structures, superlative inflections, comparative vs. superlative meanings. Read Hatch, Ch. 7. Note the distinctions between planned and unplanned discourse. How do they relate to the material weve covered in this class? Complete the review sheet exercises in preparation for the final exam.
Descriptive English Grammar for ESL/EFL Teachers
Presentation of a Grammar Lesson
During the early weeks of the semester we will be covering the more fundamental areas of English grammar the large systems such as the lexicon, phrase structure rules, verb tenses, and modal auxiliaries (Chapters 1-13). The chapters after Chapter 13 in The Grammar Book are more specific, dealing with those areas of the English grammatical system which particularly give ESL/EFL students trouble. During the remainder of the course, the structure of the class sessions will change somewhat to include presentations by class members. You should sign up to share a short lesson for one of the classes. Your presentation should include the following: a. opening the class in prayer (you may also do a short devotional if you wish); b. after the professor has presented the basic grammar material on the topic, presenting an example of how you would integrate the rules and teaching ideas into a one-class lesson for a particular ESL/EFL context; c. demonstrating at least one teaching technique or activity related to the grammar feature. This demonstration should be participatory, involving everyone in the class in some way. Your presentation (b and c) should be around 10 minutes in length. (If you run over 15 minutes, I may have to cut your presentation short.) Each of you should provide your classmates with a 1-2 page handout describing your lesson plan. You should plan to cover your lesson plan in an interesting way during the first five minutes or so of your presentation. During this part of the presentation, be sure to let the class know about your teaching context (real or hypothetical) and how the lesson is appropriate to that group. Feel free to use an overhead transparency or some other visual aid to get the information across memorably. After the lesson plan has been presented, you should demonstrate a teaching activity related to the plan. Get everyone in our class involved in the presentation during this second phase. Your audience for the presentation will be your classmates; we will not be pretending to be ESL/EFL students. Think of this as a "workshop for teachers" which includes the demonstration of one or more teaching techniques. The lesson plan, of course, should target the ESL/EFL students in the context you have chosen. My grading of these presentations will focus on the content of the lesson plans, although Ill have a small section on delivery. I'll be using a checklist to provide you with some feedback. Since this is practice, I'm mainly looking for a sincere effort to get the material across to the class and for evidence of careful and appropriate preparation of a lesson plan.
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