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CAGED APPENDIX ANIMALS
The following information will not be part of the State of Michigan pesticide applicator certification examination.
The Michigan Department of Agriculture Animal Industry Division is responsible for licensing and regulating animal shelters, dog pounds, pet shops, riding stables and research facilities. The humane treatment of animals is one of the divisions priorities. The MDA Animal Industry Division inspects animal facilities to assure they are clean and not overcrowded and that wholesome food is provided to the animals. If problems are found, inspectors work with company personnel to bring the conditions up to high standards for the welfare of the animals. Provided below are some guidelines for establishing these standards for caged animals. Persons in this industry should obtain a copy of the Animal Welfare Act of 1976 and learn the standards for the care of animals outlined in it. For more information contact the MDA Animal Industry Division at (517) 373-8782. Information on ferrets is not included because it is illegal to have ferrets as pets in Michigan, according to Act 277 of 1927, Ferrets and Fitchews. With permission, the information in this appendix has been adapted from the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) training materials.
temporary housing. The animals should be removed from shipping containers immediately after arrival at your establishment and provided fresh water. Visual inspection of the container should verify that the number of animals agrees with the number stated on the bill of lading. If an animal is discovered to be dead on arrival or the count does not agree with the number stated on the bill of lading, note this information on the bill of lading before signing for the shipment. The carrier and your supplier should be notified of the incident and copies of the necessary airline report forms should be filed.
Persons who handle animals should be trained on correct handling and restraining techniques to avoid injury to the handler and the animal. Animals are often fearful when in unfamiliar surroundings and should be handled with extreme caution. Correct use of holds may benefit both the animal and the handler. Inspecting an animal may be accomplished effectively with two persons, one acting as handler and the other as examiner. Not all animals will require firm restraining. The amount of restraint needed will depend on the environment and the animals behavior. Animal behavior will vary greatly, and handlers must learn to read the animals body language. Speak to the animal initially in a soothing voice to prevent startling it. Obtain animal handling training to protect yourself and the animal. The following information may be used as general guidelines for picking-up and holding some small animals commonly found in pet stores. Always seek assistance if you are uncertain about a particular animal, how it may react and how it should be handled.
If you work in a pet store-type business, the following guidelines provide an overview of the minimum standards that you should adhere to and be familiar with when acquiring and caring for small animals. The method of animal shipping and receiving varies with species and means of transportation. Those sent by commercial airlines usually arrive in wood or cardboard containers that provide
How to Pick Up a Hamster
The hamster should be fully awake before you attempt to pick it up. Grasp the hamster with both hands, as shown in the illustration, to lift it out of the cage. To prevent the hamster from escaping, a small animal box or new container should be close by to facilitate the transfer.
The one-hand method of grasping a hamster, as shown in the illustration below, should be used only with very tame hamsters. This type of grip prevents the hamster from falling.
The hamster has very loose skin in the neck area. When picking up a hamster, use the method shown in the following illustration. A good deal of fur and skin should be grasped to prevent the hamster from wiggling loose or turning around and biting.
How to Handle a Gerbil
To grasp a gerbil, the over-the-back grip is recommended.
You can also use a receptacle to scoop up a hamster. This facilitates the transfer from the cage without the possibility of being bitten.
To pick up a gerbil, grip the base of the tail. NEVER attempt to pick up a gerbil by the end of the tail because the tuft and tail skin may pull off.
How to Pick Up a Rat
Pick up the rat by grasping it over the back and rib cage. Using this method you can place the pet in a small container to examine it. (Note: rats will struggle if turned belly up.)
How to Hold a Guinea Pig
The chest area must be supported to prevent injury. The rump is supported to prevent back injury and to restrain the guinea pig from kicking.
If the rat is in a wire mesh bottom cage, grasp as above and by the base of the tail, to aid in freeing the claws from their grip on the mesh.
How to Pick Up a Mouse
Grasp loose skin along back to restrain a mouse.
Mice, like gerbils, can be picked up at the base of the tail. NEVER pick up the animal at the tip of the tail because the skin may slough off.
Small Animal Housing
The environment that animals are maintained in significantly affects their well-being. Their housing should be adequate in size, clean and free from sharp edges. The following suggestions will help ensure animal comfort: 1. Use only cages fabricated of smooth, corrosion-resistant material impervious to moisture and easily sanitized. Select glass aquariums with tight fitting screen lids easy to maintain. 2. Metal cages should be constructed of galvanized metal, stainless steel, aluminum or similar metal alloys. 3. Metal cages may have bottoms of expanded metal or a galvanized wire mesh. Wire mesh floors should be smooth and free of sharp protrusions, and the grid should be small enough to prevent feet from falling through openings. 4. Small animals should be separated according to sex when possible to aid employees in making sales presentations. 5. Fresh water should be available at all times. 6. Cage lids, food and water containers, and cages should be cleaned and sanitized periodically, as needed.
How to Pick Up a Rabbit
It is important that rabbits be picked up properly. NEVER pick up the animal by the earsit can harm the rabbit and cause it to be frightened whenever it is approached. Place one hand beneath the rabbits hind legs and the other around its chest. Make sure that the rabbit doesnt kick out of your grasp.
7. Bedding material should be absorbent and of a type that can be eaten by the animals. It should not contain fine particles that might be inhaled. 8. Soiled bedding should be removed from the cages. Loose hair should also be removed to reduce likelihood of clogging vents. 9. Keep cages dry to avoid fly breeding, especially in corners, with resultant growth of maggots. 10. Where possible, use an ultraviolet light equipped with a Woods filter to detect evidence of ringworm. This is a common problem in guinea pigs.
When selecting housing and placing animals in cages, consider the following behaviors and precautions: Hamsters Do not overcrowd or mix strangers in with an established colony. Try not to mix sexes because of the potential for fighting or breeding. Keep cool to prevent wet tail. Gerbils Do not overcrowd or mix strangers in with an established colony. Strange adult males will fight.
Guinea pigs Do not overcrowd. Long-haired guinea pigs should be housed separately from short hairs because the short-haired ones will eat the long hair. Rats Do not overcrowd. Rabbits Do not overcrowd or overheat. Mice Do not overcrowd.
General Small Animal Maintenance Program
DAILY: 1. Visually inspect animals for signs of distress or illness. Report illness to manager and/or consult a veterinarian. 2. Medicate as approved by cooperating veterinarian. 3. Determine whether odor problem exists. Correct immediately, if necessary. 4. Separate sick or injured animals. 5. Remove open water containers, wash, disinfect, rinse and refill. Examine sipper-type water bottles and clean, if needed. 6. Remove food containers, wash, disinfect, rinse, dry and refill. 7. Wipe clean aquarium glass inside and out. 8. Wipe off and check screen covers for secure fit. 9. Remove fecal material and other debris. 10. Vacuum or mop floor. 3 to 5-day Intervals: 1. Change bedding. 2. Clean each cage, wash thoroughly with cleaning solution of warm water and detergent. Make sure all fecal material is removed. Wipe down with hypochlorite (bleach) and water solution. Mix solution: 1 part hypochlorite to 28 parts water. Recommend using 32-ounce bottle with 1ounce markings on side. CAUTION: Do not mix ammonia and hypochlorite. Mixing ammonia disinfectants with any hypochlorite solution causes intense heat and highly toxic fumes dangerous to humans and animals. 3. Wash, disinfect and rinse all sipper-type water bottles or drinking devices. 4. Replace all cracked aquariums, damaged cages, and/or damaged screen covers. 5. Check drug, food, cleaning supplies inventory. Prepare list of needed supplies for manager.
Special Housing Considerations
Hamsters Special housing requirements for hamsters include a temperature of approximately 68 degrees F and low (50 percent) humidity. High heat and/or humidity can contribute to a serious condition called wet tail. Twelve hamsters in a 10 gallon tank can raise the ambient temperature 6 to 8 degrees. Therefore, room temperature should ideally be kept at 62 degrees F. Because this is impractical (and hazardous to most other animals), it is recommended that hamsters be placed in wire cages rather than tanks. This allows good air circulation. Hamsters should not be housed in fish or grooming rooms because of the high humidity. If a tank must be used, observe the following guidelines: 1. Dont overcrowd12 animals per 10-gallon tank is maximum. 2. Use a screen cover and locate the tank in a well ventilated area. 3. Clean tank (or cage) regularly to prevent urine buildup. Add ground corncob to wood shavings (1:3 ratio) for super absorption of urine and humidity. Gerbils may be housed in an aquarium or tank equipped with screen covers, sipper-type water bottles and ground corncob bedding. Aquarium size should be determined by the number of animals in inventory. Corncob bedding is importantits granular shape simulates the natural sand substrate. When animals burrow, the bedding removes excess hormone buildup from around the muzzle area, thus preventing the hair loss syndrome common in gerbils. Rats, mice and guinea pigs. An aquarium with screen cover, sipper-type water bottles, and cedar or pine shavings constitutes an adequate housing unit. Aquarium size should be determined by the number of animals in inventory. Rabbits may be housed on a wire grid in a pentype structure. A medium mesh base is recommended for rabbits because of their high urine output. Consider a combination floor for animal comfort.
Potential Caged Animal Disorders
The environmental conditions of an animal greatly influence its health and well-being. Good sanitation, a fresh water supply and adequate space will help ensure animal comfort. From time to time, problems may arise. Observe animals daily and note any abnormal conditions or behaviors. Consult with a veterinarian when you discover animal health problems.
The following information will not be part of the State of Michigan pesticide applicator certification examination. This information is provided for persons who
care for and work with birds. The Michigan Department of Agriculture Animal Industry Division is responsible for licensing and regulating pet shops, animal shelters, dog pounds, riding stables and research facilities. The humane treatment of animals is one of the divisions priorities. The MDA Animal Industry Division inspects animal and bird facilities to assure they are clean and not overcrowded, and that proper, wholesome food is provided to the animals and birds. If problems are found, inspectors work with company personnel to bring the conditions up to high standards for the welfare of the animals. Provided below are some guidelines for establishing these standards for caged animals. Persons in this industry should obtain a copy of the Animal Welfare Act of 1976 and learn the standards for the care of animals outlined in it. For more information, contact the MDA Animal Industry Division at (517) 373-8782. With permission, the information in this appendix has been adapted from the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) training materials. erinary specialist to examine and supervise the medication and treatment of birds. Even though federal regulations do not require that bird shipments be picked up within four hours after arrival, PIJAC urges that the four hour rule be followed for birds. Upon receipt, check the birds against the information on the shipping documents. Before receiving new birds, check to be sure that all necessary supplies are available and the receiving cages have been cleaned and sanitized and are ready with food and water. Check with your suppliers to determine the birds diet. Be prepared to continue feeding the birds previous diet to avoid sudden dietary changes which may result in unnecessary stress. Gradually change the birds food to the diet preferred in your facility. Do not give gritstressed birds may overeat. Birds should be unpacked quickly and then left alone with adequate light to allow them to find food and become acquainted with their new environment. If the birds arrive at night, dimmed lights should be left on.
Birds should be purchased only from reputable breeders or brokers or from USDA-approved quarantine stations. Any individual offering birds at a bargain price may be attempting to sell stolen or smuggled birds. Such birds may be incubating a fatal disease that could destroy your aviary and your reputation. Periodically review published price lists and advertisements in avicultural magazines to get an idea of current prices. Check both Federal and state laws to determine which species of birds are prohibited and which require permits to be brought into the state to sell or possess. Check each bird against the original order to ascertain that the correct species and number are received. The Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC) strongly endorses the use of an avian vet119
All birds should receive a cursory examination as they are removed from the crate and placed in the cage. The following preliminary examination should take only minutes and will not add significant stress to the shipping procedure. Obtain assistance from an experienced professional or veterinarian. Newly arrived birds will usually look healthy. They will assume a flight or fight posture except when they are so debilitated they would be unable to fly. When placed in the new cage, they should remain alert and tightly feathered until the transfer is completed and the receiver has left the area. Observe birds daily. The first observance should be from a distance of greater than 10 feet to prevent the birds from feeling intimidated and assuming the flight or fight position. Observe each bird and take notes on all birds that act list-
less or appear to have fluffed feathers. As you enter the area where the birds are housed, the birds should become alert and watch you. Birds exhibiting abnormal behavior should be isolated and individually examined with the assistance of a veterinarian. Examine the birds: s Weight. s Eyes. s Nose. s Feathers. s Beak and mouth. s Feet, legs and wings. NOTE: Failure to eat is common following shipment, but any bird that does not eat after 24 hours is in danger of starvation and may require forcefeeding. Check with the supplier for suggestions on diet or management.
Perches in the sales area may be wooden dowels of adequate size to afford the bird a secure, comfortable grip. Natural limbs, however, provide better foot exercise and chewing opportunities and are aesthetically pleasing. Branches are replaced easily and should be pesticide free and from non-toxic trees such as northern hardwoods, citrus, eucalyptus or Australian pine. Sandpaper perches should not be used. A single well placed perch may be adequate for agile climbers. Passerine birds should be provided two perches to fly or hop between. In cages with more than one bird, all perches should be at the same height to avoid fighting over the highest perch. Perch space should be adequate so that all birds can sit comfortably on the perches simultaneously.
10. Discard wooden perches used by a sick bird. 11. If a perch is detrimental to the health of a particular species, perches should be omitted. 12. Feed cups and water containers should be located for easy accessibility by the bird. 13. Food and water containers should be hooded, if necessary, or placed away from perches to prevent fecal contamination. 14. Grit is not necessary for psittacine birds, though a few pieces provided once or twice yearly are not harmful. 15. During the molting of feathers, additional fat, protein and vitamins are recommended and the bird may require more time to sleep. 16. A healthy bird can tolerate temperatures that are normally comfortable to humans. Sudden temperature changes may be a potential threat to sick birds. 17. Cages or aviaries should be cleaned daily. 18. Daily paper change and weekly cage washing are recommended. 19. Many birds benefit from the availability of a hiding place such as a box or paper bag. 20. Toys are useful as mental diversions and tend to encourage exercise and beak wear. Chewable items are preferred and safety must be considered in toy selection. A few toys, which may be provided alternately, are preferable to many toys filling a cage. 21. A healthy, tamed, trained bird is easier to sell than a bird that is not socially adapted to human contact. Make sure to take time each day to play with and talk to the birds in your store. Birds must socialize before being handled. Birds that respond to customers will help sell themselves.
1. Caging should be constructed of materials that are impervious to moisture, easy to disinfect and strong enough to withstand chewing of occupants. The paint on cages from foreign countries should be checked as a potential source of lead. Birdsexcept for long-tailed speciesuse horizontal cage space more efficiently than vertical space. Horizontal cages have more floor space, reduce fecal contamination of food and water supplies, as well as soiling of other birds, and provide better space for exercise. Height provides security for birds. Housing birds at or above eye level reduces stress and limits access to the birds by curious children or mammals that may escape or be allowed to roam in the shop. Cages must be strong enough to prevent birds from pulling them apart. Cages for long-tailed birds should have adequate room for the bird to fully open the wings without touching the sides and top. Natural wood perches from non-toxic trees provide the best foot exercise as well as chewing material for psittacines (parrots). Finches and canaries should have two perches available to encourage them to fly between them. Parrots and other large bird species should have sufficient cage space or sufficient T-stand perch space. Perches in the isolation area should be of an impervious material such as PVC to allow for easy disinfection (wood surfaces are too porous).
Minimum Perch Length Guidelines
5 inches of perch per bird.
3 inches of perch per bird.
4 inches of perch per bird.
9 inches of perch per bird. 6 inches of perch per bird.
MACAWS & COCATOOS
10 inches of perch per bird.
Feeding and Nutrition
Providing the most accurate, up-to-date information on bird care is a vital function of the pet shop. The sale of high quality nutritional items and bird care products, along with suitable housing for the bird, make it a better companion pet. Over-the-counter remedies should be available for those customers who will not seek veterinary care. Shop personnel, however, should avoid playing veterinarian. The following recommendations should provide a basis for bird care in the shop as well as recommendations to customers. Proper nutrition and a varied diet should be stressed. Many good commercial pelleted or extruded diets are on the market. These products may be fed exclusively but should be mixed with seeds and other foodstuffs. Mixes should contain a variety of seeds and must be clean, fresh and free of insects. Feed should be stored in closed bins. The diet should be supplemented with fresh fruits, vegetables (dark green and meaty yellow vegetables), beans and whole grain products. Consult a veterinarian for proper types and proportions of foods that should be fed to seed-eating or soft-billed birds.
Feathers are puffed and dull or bird is not fully feathered and has bare spots. 5. Eyes are dull, not bright and clear. Any scabs on the eyelids, cere or toes should be noted they may indicate pox virus infection. 6. Eye or nasal discharge is visible. 7. Beak is overgrown or asymmetrical. 8. Respiration is labored or accompanied by tail bobbing or open mouth breathing. Listen for wheezing, coughing or sneezing. 9. Fecal material has accumulated on the feathers or feet. 10. Bird is lethargic. 11. Bird is off feed look for scraps on cage floor. 12. Growths or enlargements are obvious. Any suspicious bird condition should be examined by your veterinarian and reported to the supplier as soon as illness is suspected.
Bird Maintenance Program
1. Observe each bird for signs of distress or illness. Note appetite, abnormal droppings or other problems on health records. Report illness, abnormality or loss to manager or veterinarian. Remove birds exhibiting distress or illness to isolation area. Advise manager and consult veterinarian. Remove and empty all water and seed cups. Wash, disinfect, rinse, dry and refill seed cups with fresh seed. Replace in cage. Wash, disinfect, rinse and refill water cups with fresh water. Replace in cage. Remove and change cage paper as needed. Clean and reposition perches as needed. Remove fecal matter, loose feathers and excessive debris from cage. Wipe off all cages with damp cloth to remove dust and fecal material. Clean glass.
The most important tool for early identification and treatment of illness is observation. Part of your daily review of the bird department must include time spent observing each bird. In addition to recognizing disease symptoms early enough for effective treatment, you may prevent the spread of a disease among other birds. Birds can regress rapidly when ill. Early diagnosis and a veterinarians assistance and treatment are essential in helping the bird recover. The following list and chart will help you identify illness and other disorders, treat the birds and prevent the spread of the problem. For additional information you should refer to your bird supplier, publications on aviculture and your veterinarian.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Warning Signs of Bird Problems:
1. Birds should appear calm and be sitting on the perch or climbing around the cage. A bird that is sitting on the floor is usually either frightened or ill and should be examined. The bird should be able to bear weight on both feet and both feet should grip the perch. Nails are overgrown. Wings are not held in proper position and are not symmetrical.
10. Clean window glass and door glass. 11. Remove all loose seed, feathers and debris from bird area,including display shelves, cage stands and floor.
Table 1. Some Bird Pests and Parasites.
Scaly face Scaly leg Mite Tassel foot Feather mites (Red mites)
All birds parakeets, canaries most common
White, scaly deposits on eyelids, beak corners, legs, toes and vent
Skin scraping examined by microscope
Restlessness, severe scratching, feather picking, skin irritation
Small, moving red dots on white cloth hung over cage at night (red mites are nocturnal). Use magnifying glass. Red mites live in crevices in cage and feed on birds at night. Eggs or lice attached to feathers. Lice are elongated.
Dismantle, clean and spray cage. Use approved insecticide spray on bird according to label directions.
Same as feather mites; feathers appear moth eaten
Apply approved insecticide according to label. Be sure to apply under wings. Veterinarian
Poor feather condition, weight loss, loose droppings
Stool sample long, thin, white worms Microscopic exam of stool specimen
All birds; parakeets and macaws most likely
Loss of appetite, weight loss, loose droppings, regurgitation, poor plumage
SOFT-BILLED BIRDS Same maintenance procedure as above, plus: 1. Wash, disinfect, rinse, dry and refill food cup with fresh food. Replace cup in cage. 2. Check cages several times during day to remove fecal materials as needed. 3. Check food several times a day to prevent contamination or souring.
WEEKLY: 1. Scrape all perches, wash and disinfect cages and trays. 2. Inspect and wipe clean ventilation system in bird area. 3. Redistribute bird inventory so there are no empty cages.
Check drug, food and cleaning supplies inventories. Prepare list of needed supplies for manager.
RECORDKEEPING: (Use a bird log sheet) A record of sale of each psittacine bird should be maintained. Include: PURCHASES By species, the common and scientific name, the number, date of receipt, the name, address and telephone number of supplier. Verify name and address from identification document (drivers license) if supplier does not normally supply pet store. SALES By species, the common and scientific name, the number, date of sale, and name, address, and telephone number of customer.
To advance in your field and to stay up to date on information and practices, it is beneficial to become involved with professional organizations affiliated with the small animal industry. It is also valuable to acquire resources to use as references for your work. The following list was created from suggestions by the industry committee that provided guidance in the development of this category 7G training manual. Reference to these resources, associations, products or companies does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Natural Health for Dogs and Cats. Richard H. Pitcairn, D.V.M., Ph.D., and Susan Hubble Pitcairn. 1982. Rodale Press. Emmaus, PA 18049. The New Natural Cat: A Complete Guide for Finicky Owners. Anitra Frazier with Norma Eckroate. 1990. New York, N.Y. 10014. Penguin books USA, Inc. Pet Allergies: Remedies for an Epidemic. Alfred J. Plechner, D.V.M., and Martin Zucker, 1986. Inglewood, CA 90309. Very Healthy Enterprises. Your Healthy Pet: A Practical Guide to Choosing and Raising Happier, Healthier Dogs and Cats. Amy Marder. 1994. Rodale Press. The columnist for Prevention shares her years of experience as a veterinarian by offering insights into cat and dog care, including: understanding symptoms of illness, feeding and weight maintenance, travelling with a pet, caring for teeth and proper vaccinations.
Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council, 1710 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Telephone (202) 452-1525. Michigan Professional Groomers Association. To become involved with the associations activities and training, contact a current member. Use the telephone directory to find current members by noting their affiliation in their advertisements. They will be able to provide you information about membership.
MAGAZINES, NEWSLETTERS, SUPPLIERS
Advocate, 9725 E. Hampden Ave., Denver, CO 80231. Offical magazine of the American Humane Society. Borderline, 4575 Galley Rd., Suite 400-A, Colorado Springs, CO 80915. Official magazine of the American Boarding Kennels Association. Cat Fancy, P.O. Box 6050, Mission Viejo, CA 92690. Dog Fancy, P.O. Box 6050, Mission Viejo, CA 92690. Twelve issues for $17.97. Dog World, P.O. Box 6500, Chicago, IL 60680. Newsstand sales or subscriptions available. DVM Newsmagazine, 120 W. 2nd, Duluth, MN 55820. Veterinary magazine. Groom & Board, 207 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60604. Groomer and kennel operator magazine with annual buyers guide. Free to pet care professionals. Groomer to Groomer, 341 N. 19th St., Camp Hill, PA 17011. Business-building newsletter with seminar information and letters from groomers nationwide. Free to purchasers of Barkleigh products or $15/year.
The Book of The Cat. Michael Wright and Sally Walters. Summit Books. 1980. New York, N.Y. 10020. Cat Owners Veterinary Handbook. Carlson and Griffin, Howell Publishers. The Complete Dog Book. 18th Edition, American Kennel Club, Howell Publishers. The Cornell Book of Cats. Cornell Feline Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, 618 VRT, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401. Dog Owners Home Veterinary Handbook. Delbert G. Carlson, D.V.M., and James M. Giffin, M.D. 1989. New York, N.Y. 10169. Howell Book House. Manual of Clinical Procedures In the Dog and Cat. Steven E. Crow, D.V.M. and Sally O. Walshaw, M.A., V.M.D. 1987. J.B. Lippincott Company, PA. Merck Veterinary Manual. 7th Edition, 1991. Merck.
Groomers Voice, P.O. Box 101, Clark, PA 16113. Newsletter for members of National Dog Groomers Association of America. This group also sponsors continuing education training. Off Lead, P.O. Box Drawer A, 13 Clinton St., Clark Mills, NY 13321. Dog obedience training magazine. New England Serum Company, Groomer/Kennel Products Division, P.O. Box 128, Topsfield, MA 01983. 1-800-637-3786. Pet Age, 207 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60604. Free to pet professionals. Pet Business, 5400 N.W. 84th Ave., Miami, FL 33166. The Pet Dealer, 567 Morris Ave., Elizabeth, NJ 07802. Contains groomer column and calender. Special subscription rate. Pets-Supplies-Marketing, E. First St. Duluth, MN 55802. Contains groomer calender and Shirlee Kalstones grooming column plus buyers guide. Free to pet professionals.
Pure Bred Dogs-AKC Gazette, 51 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010. $18/year. Veterinary Forum, 1610-A Fredrica Rd., St. Simons Islands, GA 31522. $15/year.
PESTICIDE USE AND SAFETY INFORMATION
Pesticides: How They Work, Human Poisoning Treatments. MSU Extension bulletin E-0789. Pesticide Emergency Information. May 1994, MSU Extension bulletin AM-37 or AM-37SP (Spanish version). 10 Tips for Laundering Pesticide Soiled Clothing. MSU Extension bulletin E-2149.
OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES:
Michigan Department of Agriculture Pesticide and Plant Pest Management Division P.O. Box 30017 Lansing, MI 48909 East Lansing, MI 48823 (517) 373-1087 Michigan Department of Agriculture Animal Industry Division 1615 South Harrison Road (517) 373-8782
Regional MDA Offices:
REGION 1 Room 117 State Office Bldg Escanaba, MI 49829 (906) 786-5462 (616) 947-3171 Bldg. 42, Apt 132 701 S. Elmwood Ave Traverse City, MI 49684 State Office Bldg. 350 Ottawa, N.W. Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (616) 456-6988 (517) 771-1778 Saginaw State Office Bldg 411-F East Genesee Saginaw, MI 48607 4032 M-139, Bldg. 116 St. Joseph, MI 49805-964 (616) 428-2575 Lansing, MI 48933
611 W. Ottaw North Ottawa Bldg. (517) 373-1087 Lahser Center Bldg. 26400 Lahser Road Southfield, MI 48034
Michigan State University Extension county- and campus-based personnel. County office locations and telephone numbers are listed in the white pages of your telephone book.
Answer Key to Pest Management for Small Animals Review Questions
Chapter 1 Pesticide Laws and Regulations
1. FIFRA 2. Certified pesticide applicators 3. False 4. True 5. d 6. a 7. Department of Transportation (DOT) 8. Michigan Department of Agriculture 9. b 10. True 11. False 12. Agreements between states to allow certified applicators in one state to use pesticides in another state. 13. b 14. True 15. c 16. Michigan Department of Natural Resources 17. True 18. True 19. Animal Welfare Act of 1976 Act 224 of 1969, Use of Dogs and Cats For Research Act 287 of 1969, Pet Shops, Dog Pounds, and Animal Shelters
4. An organism the pest is associated with. 5. True 6. Dermatitis is the direct damage and inflamma tory reactions of animal skin caused by arthro pod bites and body secretions. 7. The four groups of important animal insect pests are: -biting and non-biting flies. -invasive flies. -chewing and sucking lice. -fleas. 8. Integrated pest managementthe use of all available strategies to manage pests so that an acceptable yield and quality can be achieved economically with the least disruption to the environment. 1. Detection, 2. Identification, 3. Economic or medical significance, 4. Control method selection, and 5. Evaluation. 9. Early detection of small pests: -allows the manager more control options. -reduces animal discomfort by preventing increased pest populations. 10. Identifying the pest allows the animal manager to gather information about that particular pest (life cycle, biology) so that the pests susceptible life stage can be targeted for control. 11. Economic injury levels are most important in agricultural settings (livestock, etc.). 12. The fifth step in IPM is evaluation of the pest control method used. 13. The applicator must consider dose-response relationships and pesticide choice.
Chapter 2 Pests and Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
1. Adult insects have three body regions: head, thorax and abdomen, and three pairs of legs. 2. b 3. c
14. IPM strategies include: biological use of predators and parasites. cultural keep pet well groomed and its environment clean, provide adequate diet and exercise. mechanical- groom pets, vacuum area regularly, use lights to attract pests away from animals.
physical sticky flypaper, separate animals, clean up after infested animals. pest-resistant breeds use breeds of animals that are resistant to certain conditions and characteristics of that area. sanitation keep kennels, pet exercise areas, houses and bedding clean. quarantines isolate a new animal to confirm it is pest-free. chemical- pesticides.
product is labeled for use on small animals; determine if there are use restrictions for certain animals, such as young ones or cats; type and percentage of active ingredient; toxi city; formulation; equipment required to make the application; requirements for retreatment. 17. An incompatible mixture of pesticides is either ineffective or unsafe for the applicator or the animal being treated. 18. Physical, chemical, host tolerance, timing and timing incompatibility. See these sections of the chapter for definitions. 19. On the pesticide label. 20. Nontarget organisms may be people, animals, insects or plants that are not intended to be treated or exposed to a pesticide application.
Chapter 3 Pesticides
1. e 2. 1. Types of pests managed, 2. How pesticides work, 3. Pesticide chemistry, 4. Pesticide formulations. 3. insects 4. e 5. True 6. Tremors, vomiting, salivation, ataxia, loss of appetite, diarrhea, seizures, breathing difficulty, weakness, death. 7. Organophosphates and carbamates. A wide range of insects including fleas, ticks, mites and lice. 8. True 9. False 10. b 11. Contact pesticides kill pests when they come into contact with them; systemic pesticides are absorbed by one part of the animal or plant and then are distributed internally to other parts of the plant or animal to kill the pest. 12. a 13. True 14. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids. 15. A premise spray will persist in an animals living area for a long period of time. A space or area spray does not have residual qualities and kills only the pests present at the time of application. 16. Identify the pest to be sure the product is effective in controlling it; determine if the
Chapter 4 Pesticides and the Environment
1. Any of the following: adsorption, absorption, volatilization, runoff, leaching, microbial degradation, chemical degradation, photodegradation. 2. Falsevapor drift is not visible. 3. Run-off; leaching 4. aquifers. 5. The rate of breakdown will be slower because of less available light, heat and oxygen. 6. Point source contamination is from a discharge at a single location. Nonpoint sources include land runoff, precipitation, acid rain and percolation. 7. Prevention 8. See section titled Keeping Pesticides Out of Groundwater in the chapter. 9. c 10. Animals eat granules, baits or treated seed; they become exposed directly to a spray; they eat the treated crop or contaminated water; they feed on pesticide-contaminated prey.
Chapter 5 Pesticides and Human Health
1. Toxicity measures the capacity of a pesticide to cause injury. Hazard is the potential for injury.
2. True. Wear a hat or face shield. 3. False 4. Children 5. Inhaling pesticides during mixing, loading or application. Any activity where pesticides enter the mouth, such as siphoning a pesticide with your mouth, or eating or drinking while working with pesticides. 6. Chronic, acute 7. e 8. b 9. b 10. Pesticide label 11. Organophosphates, carbamates 12. Cholinesterase 13. People who work with organophosphates or carbamates for an extended time. 14. Pesticide label 15. Remove contaminated clothing; drench skin with water, wash with soap and rinse twice; dry and wrap person in a blanket; cover chemical burns with a loose, clean, soft cloth. 16. e 17. Get to fresh air; loosen tight clothing; give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if needed; keep victim quiet; prevent chilling. 18. Toxicity, exposure 19. False 20. d 21. Wash clothing at the end of each day of use. 22. True
7. During mixing, you may see excessive clumping, poor suspension, layering or abnormal coloration. The target pest may not be controlled. 8. Apply the pesticide in a recommended manner listed on the label. 9. See the section titled Cleaning and Disposing of Containers. 10. Michigan Department of Natural Resources Waste Management Division False 11. 12. Securely in the back of a truck. 13. True 14. Pesticides containing oils or petroleum solvents. 15. Any of the points listed under the section Pesticide Fire Safety. 16. Clear everyone from the area.
Chapter 7 The Label
1. True 2. True 3. False 4. d 5. False 6. True 7. Health and safety information about a particular pesticide. They are available from chemical dealers. 8. Yes 9. No 10. d 11. False 12. Yes. Birds, fish and bees. 13. False
Chapter 6 Pesticide Handling, Storage and Disposal
1. False 2. 5.0, 7.0 3. See the section titled Storage Area. 4. b 5. True 6. The date will help you determine if the pesticide is too old to be effective and allows you to use older products first.
Chapter 8 Fleas
1. True 2. An allergic condition that can be brought on by a single flea bite in an allergic or sensitized animal.
3. Hot spots occur when the animal continually scratches at highly inflamed sites on the skin caused by flea bites, creating conditions for bacterial infection. A hot spot is painful to the animal and may exude pus. 4. False 5. A few eggs per day and several hundred over the course of her life. 6. True 7. d 8. Treating for fleas on the host animal and in the hosts environment at the same time. 9. True 10. It is an illegal use of the products and can harm you, your family or your pets by creating dusts or fumes that could be inhaled. 11. They prevent flea larvae from developing to the adult stage. 12. fires or explosions.
8. True 9. They occur in cats and rabbits but also occasionally in dogs. 10. Detection and identification of non-burrowing mange mites requires skin scrapings. 11. True 12. True 13. In the scaly skin condition, skin thickens and wrinkles and hair falls out. Skin turns color from normal to red or bruised-looking. In the pustular skin condition, pimples or pustules filled with pus develop. The pustules can develop into severe abscesses or nodules filled with fluid and pus. This skin condition usually develops after the scaly condition and reflects the development of secondary bacterial infections in the follicles. In both conditions, itching occurs. 14. These skin conditions are collectively called demodectic mange. 15. True 16. False 17. 1. they cause blood loss, 2. their feeding causes inflammation and irritation of the skin, 3. they may stimulate hypersensitive allergic reactions, 4. they may cause a toxic reaction in the host, complicated by paralysis (called tick paralysis), and 5. they transmit microorganisms that cause disease. 18. True 19. True 20. On animals, tick control can be achieved using approved acaricides by dipping, spraying the entire animal or applying whole animal dusts.
Chapter 9 Mites and Ticks
1. 1. four pairs of legs (insects have three pairs); 2. two major body unitsthe cephalothorax and the abdomenwhile insects have three body unitshead, thorax and abdomen. 2. 1. by damaging tissues and causing dermatitis; 2. by causing blood or body fluid loss; 3. by causing allergic reactions; or 4). by creating conditions for secondary bacterial infection. 3. Mange or scabies. Mange is a deterioration of the skins condition, leading to hair or feather loss, skin often disfiguring, and in severe cases, lethargy and weakness. 4. Mites mate and the females lay eggs. Eggs hatch and six-legged larvae emerge. Larve feed and molt to the eight-legged nymph. Later, after feeding, the nymphs molt and become adult male or female mites. 5. As little as eight days to as long as four weeks, depending on the species of mite and temperature and humidity. 6. Because of their burrowing behavior and feeding. 7. True
Chapter 10 Chewing and Sucking Lice
1. Sucking lice feed on blood. Their mouthparts penetrate the skin of an animal and they draw the food from blood vessels. 2. False 3. The head of a sucking louse is narrower than the thorax. The head of a chewing louse is wider than the thorax. 4. Grooming; animals immune system can help protect against lice.
5. If parents, especially the mother, do not have lice, offspring will not risk infestation through exposure to them. 6. life cycle
5. All of them 6. True 7. 1. Modification of the habitat and environment to reduce the sources of the flies. 2. Separate animals from the flies through physical means i.e., keep animals indoors when flies are biting. 3. Use of repellents on the bodies of animals and insecticides applied to the animals directly or in their immediate environment where the flies occur. 8. They degrade manure to simpler components and reduce the volume of waste material. 9. True 10. Space or area sprays typically control flies at the time of application, whereas residual sprays offer longer control activity.
Chapter 11 Flies
1. One 2. Blood-feeding flies not associated with manure or animal waste. Filth flies associated with animal waste or manure. Parasitic bot flies. 3. Worm-like and may be true maggots. 4. Mosquitoes, black flies, biting midges, deer flies and horse flies are blood-feeding flies.
Acari Scientific grouping of organisms within the class Arachnida, including mites and ticks. Acariasis Veterinary term for an infestation of mites in or on an animal. Acaricides Pesticides that control mites or ticks. Active immunity Immunity (antibodies and immune cells) developed by an animal in response to a disease challenge or a vaccine antigen, as opposed to passive immunity, which is immunity conferred by the mother through internal antibodies. Active immunity is long-lived. Passive immunity is short-lived. Active ingredient (a.i.) The chemical(s) in a formulated product that is (are) principally responsible for the pesticidal effects and that is (are) shown as active ingredient(s) on pesticide labels. Acute exposure Exposure to a single dose of pesticide. Acute toxicity The quality or potential of a substance to cause injury or illness shortly after exposure to a relatively high dose. Additive A chemical added to a pesticide formulation to increase its effectiveness or safety; same as adjuvant. Adsorption The process by which a pesticide bonds with a surface; e.g., a soil colloidal surface. Adulterated (1) A pesticide whose strength or purity falls below that specified on the label. (2) A food, feed or product that contains illegal pesticide residues. Agitation The process of stirring or mixing in a sprayer. Agricultural animals Those used for production of food and fiber; livestock.
Allergic effects statement A statement on a pesticide label that tells whether tests or other data indicate that a pesticide product has the potential to cause allergic effects, such as skin irritation or asthma. Sometimes the labeling refers to allergic effects as sensitization. Allergies Hypersensitivity to substances that are harmless to most other individuals. Alopecia Hair, feather or wool loss: may be due to any of a variety of causes. Complete loss of hair is usually a hormonal problem. Amitraz A formamidine chemical with insecticidal and acaricidal properties. Anaphylactic shock An often severe and sometimes fatal systemic reaction in a susceptible animal upon exposure to a specific antigen (such as wasp or fly venom) after previous sensitization; characterized especially by respiratory symptoms, fainting, and itching. Ancylostoma caninum Canine hookworm. Anemia Reduction or loss of red blood corpuscles. Anemic Weakened; lack of vitality due to blood loss or iron deficiency. Antagonism An interaction of two or more chemicals whose combined effect is less than the effect predicted on the basis of the activity of each chemical applied separately. Antibiotics Chemical substances that destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria and some other organisms. A veterinarian may prescribe antibiotics for a viral disease to prevent secondary bacterial infections, but antibiotics do not affect the viruses themselves. Antidote A substance used as a medical treatment to counteract poisoning.
Anti-siphoning device An attachment to the filling hose designed to prevent backward flow into the water source. Arachnids Organisms from the class Arachnida, such as spiders, mites and ticks. Ascarids Any of the genus of parasitic roundworms. Attractants Substances that lure insects to traps or to poison-bait stations; bait. Bacteria Extremely small, single-celled microorganisms that usually lack chlorophyll, reproduce by fission (splitting of the cell into two equal halves) and may cause diseases. Bioaccumulation The buildup of pesticides or other chemicals in the bodies of animals (including humans), particularly in fat tissue. Biological controls Control by pathogens, predators and parasites, either naturally occurring or introduced. Biotic Relating to living organisms. Biotype A population within a species that has distinct genetic variation. Bitch Female canine. Bordetella Infectious bacterium that can cause tracheobronchitis. Botanicals An insecticide/acaricide class that includes rotenone and pyrethrin, which are derived from plants; they may be synergized in certain formulations with PBO. Broad-spectrum pesticide A pesticide that is effective against a wide range of species. Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchial passages (branches of the windpipe and passages in the lungs). Calibration The process of equipment adjustment to obtain a desired application rate and distribution. Carbamates An insecticide/acaricide class similar to organophosphates in activity; includes carbaryl and methomyl. Carcinogenic Capable of causing cancer in animals or humans. Carrier A gas, liquid or solid substance used to dilute, propel or suspend a pesticide during its application. Chemical degradation The breakdown of a pesticide by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis or other chemical means.
Chemical name Name applied to a pesticide active ingredient that describes its chemical structure according to rules prescribed by the American Chemical Society and published in the Chemical Abstracts Indexes. Cherry eye Swollen gland of the third eyelid of an animal that is visible as a large red mass on the inner corner of the eyelids. Chigger A six-legged mite larva that sucks the blood of vertebrates and causes intense irritation. Chlorinated hydrocarbons An insecticide/acaricide class that includes lindane, methoxychlor and naled. Chorioptic mange Veterinary term for infestation of Chorioptes bovis, a species of non-burrowing mange mites. Cholinesterase An enzyme that helps to control the transmission of nerve impulses in animals and humans. Chronic exposure Exposure to repeated doses of a pesticide over a period of time. Chronic toxicity Quality or potential of a substance to cause injury or illness after repeated exposure over an extended period of time. Closed mixing systems Systems in which liquid pesticide concentrates are transferred from their original containers to mix or spray tanks through a closed series of hoses, pipes, etc. Such systems are designed to prevent or minimize human exposure to the concentrates. Coccidia Parasitic protozoan that infests the digestive tract and can cause blood-tinged diarrhea in young puppies. Colostrum Mammary secretion containing antibodies of the bitch. Puppies receive this fluid upon the first suckling and receive maternal antibodies and passive immunity to those diseases to which the bitch has immunity. Comatose Inactive, as in a coma. Common name (1) When referring to a pesticide, an abbreviated name applied to a herbicide active ingredient; usually agreed upon by the American National Standards Institute and the International Organization for Standardization. (2) When referring to an organism, a name derived from local common usage that is agreed upon by some accepted authority but may not be unique. Companion animals Pets such as dogs and cats. Compatibility Mixable in the formulation or in the spray tank for application in the same carrier without undesirable alterations in the characteristics or effects of the individual components.
Concentration The amount of active ingredient or herbicide equivalent in a quantity of diluent expressed as percent, pounds per gallon (lb/gal), kilograms per liter (kg/l), etc. Congenital Condition existing at time of birth. Cross-contamination When one pesticide gets into or mixes with another pesticide accidentally; usually occurs in a pesticide container or in a poorly cleaned sprayer. Cultural control Control by changing management practices to reduce pest numbers without using pesticides; includes maintaining overall good health of animals. Degradation The breakdown of a pesticide into a simpler compound that is usually, but not always, non-toxic; may be either chemical, physical or biological or any combination of the three. Dehydration Caused by insufficient fluid intake or abnormal loss of fluids. Dew claws Claws high on the inner side of dogs legs that serve no useful function for most breeds. Consult veterinarian regarding removal. Demodectic mange A variety of skin conditions caused by an infestation of follicle mites. Dermatitis The direct damage and inflammatory reaction of an animals skin to arthropod bites or body secretions. Detection The first step in an IPM program; requires thorough and regular monitoring of animals for pest infestations or other signs and symptoms that indicate a pest is present on the animal or in the animals environment. Diluent Any gas, liquid or solid material used to reduce the concentration of an active ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Dilute To make less concentrated by adding water, another liquid or a solid. Directed application Precise application to a specific area. Dirofilaria immitis Canine heartworm. Disinfection Disinfection is the act of maintaining animals and birds in an environment that is cleaned and sanitized daily, including kennels, doors, grids, eating bowls, water bottles, walls, ceiling, floors, food utensils, isolation areas, puppy rooms, runs, exercise areas and examination areas. Maintenance personnel should wear clean clothes daily and wash hands and arms after handling any animals with a disease problem. Dispersible granule A dry, granular formulation that will separate or disperse to form a suspension when added to water.
Distemper Common worldwide disease of dogs caused by canine distemper virus. Dock Shorten tail by cutting. Dog Male canine. Dose (1) Amount, quantity or portion of a pesticide that is applied to a target. (2) A measure of exposure used in animal testing to determine acute and chronic toxicities; usually expressed in milligrams per kilogram of body weight. Drift (1) The movement of pesticides through the air to non-target areas, either as solid or liquid particles or as vapors. (2) (Legal definition) The drifting or movement of pesticide by air currents or diffusion onto property beyond the boundaries of the target area to be treated with pesticide, other than by pesticide overspray. Dust A dry pesticide formulation. Ear mites Parasite that inhabits the ear canal and feeds by piercing the skin. Mites are visible to the naked eye. Ear mite infestation can be suspected if the ear passage contains a dark brown exudate with a characteristic odor. Eastern equine encephalitis Disease of horses, pheasants and humans caused by a virus transmitted by swamp mosquitoes among wild birds. Ecto Prefix meaning outside of the body. Ectoparasite Organism that lives on the outside of the host body, more or less in permanent association. Ecology The science that studies the interrelationships of living organisms and their environment. Economic damage The amount of injury that will justify the cost of applied control measures. Efficacy Effectiveness of a vaccine, pesticide or medication. Emulsifier A surface-active substance that promotes the suspension of one liquid in another; e.g., a chemical that allows a petroleum-based pesticide to mix with water. Emulsion The suspension of one liquid as minute globules in another liquid; e.g., oil dispersed in water. Encapsulated formulation A pesticide enclosed in capsules or beads of thin polyvinyl or other material to control the rate of release of the chemical and thereby extend the period of activity. Endangered species A group of organisms on the brink of extinction. Endo Prefix meaning inside the body.
Endoparasite Organism that invades internal body parts of the host. EPA Environmental Protection Agency. Eradication The complete elimination of a pest from a site, an area or a geographic region. Euthanize Destroy in a humane manner. Exotic Native to other regions, countries or continents. Facultative myiasis Infestation by flies that are attracted to and lay eggs in wounds or injuries on animals. FDA Food and Drug Administration. FIFRA The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act The federal law dealing with pesticide regulations and use. Flowable (F or L) A pesticide formulation in which the active ingredient is impregnated on a diluent such as clay that is then finely ground and suspended in a small amount of liquid; the resulting paste or cream-like formulation is added to water in the spray tank and forms a suspension. Food chain A group of plants, animals and/or microorganisms linked together as sources and consumers of food. Formulation (1) A pesticidal preparation supplied by a manufacturer for practical use. (2) The process, carried out by manufacturers, of preparing pesticides for practical use. Fowl pox Viral disease of domestic fowl and wild birds. Fungus A largely undifferentiated, usually microscopic organism lacking chlorophyll and conductive tissues and living either as a saprophyte or a parasite. The vegetative body of a fungus is normally composed of hyphae, and reproduction is by sexual and/or asexual spores. GPA Gallons per acre. GPM Gallons per minute. Granule or granulation A dry formulation of pesticide and other components in discrete particles, generally less than 10 cubic millimeters, and designed to be applied without a liquid carrier. Growth regulator A substance used for controlling or modifying insect or plant growth processes. Hazard The risk of harmful effects. Hazard depends on both the toxicity of the substance and the exposure received in a given situation.
Health certificate Document signed by a veterinarian that states an animal is free of clinical evidence of disease. Considered in most states to be an official document. Heartworm Thread-like worms (Dirofilaria immitis) that reside mostly in the right ventricle of the heart; transmitted by mosquitoes. Prevention possible. Herbicide A chemical used to control, suppress or kill plants or to severely interrupt their normal growth process. Hereditary defect Abnormal condition of the sire or dam, or of past generations of the sire or dam, that may be passed on to the current generation of animals. Hookworms An endoparasite (Ancylostoma caninum) that attaches to the intestinal wall and ingests blood. Infestation can lead to severe anemia and death. Hormone mimics A class of insecticides that prevents development of immature insects to the adult stage. These chemicals simulate the activity of juvenile hormone, the hormone in insects that maintains immature characteristics. (See insect growth regulator.) Host Organism on which a pest is located. Hypersensitivity An extreme allergic reaction to insect bites, stings or secretions. Hypostome Feeding apparatus of a mite. Immunized Creation of antibody levels high enough to prevent a disease. Incompatibility When two or more pesticides cannot be effectively mixed without a loss in activity, an increase in toxicity or hazard to the applicator, or harm to the crop or the environment. Incubation Period of time between exposure to disease and development of clinical evidence of the disease. Inert ingredients The materials in a pesticide formulation that have no pesticide activity. Ingestion Eating or swallowing. Ingredient name The active ingredients and the amount of each ingredient (as a percentage of the total product) in a pesticide listed by the official chemical name and/or common name for each active ingredient. Inhalation toxicity A measure of the capacity of a pesticide to cause injury when absorbed through the lungs.
Inoculation Injection of a vaccine or bacterium. Inorganic pesticides Pesticides of mineral originthey do not contain carbon. Insecticide A chemical used to control insects. Insect growth regulators A class of insecticides that prevent development of immature insects to the adult stage. Integrated pest management An ecological approach to pest management that consolidates all available necessary techniques into a unified program to manage pest populations so as to avoid economic damage and minimize adverse effects to the environment and nontarget organisms. Intermediate host A host that is usually used by a parasite in the course of its life cycle and in which it may multiply. Intranasal Administration of antigen via nasal passages. Invertebrates A class of animals that lack spinal cords. Ivermectins Group of insecticides labeled as drugs, that often come into use for pest control on animals. Isolate Set apart to prevent disease transmission. Isolation area An area or caging constructed to prevent spread of contagious conditions. The area or cage should have a ventilation system that prevents commingling of air from the isolation area with air in the healthy animal area. Label The information printed on or attached to the pesticide container or wrapper. Labeling The pesticide label and all additional product information provided by the manufacturer such as brochures and flyers provided by the dealer. Larva The immature stage of an insect. Larvicide A pesticide that controls immature insects. LC50 The concentration of a chemical in air (inhalation toxicity) or water (aquatic toxicity) that will kill 50 percent of the organisms in a specific test situation. LD50 The dose (quantity) of a chemical calculated to be lethal to 50 percent of the organisms in a specific test situation. It is expressed in weight of the chemical (mg) per unit of body weight (kg) of the test organism. The toxicant may be fed (oral LD50) or applied to the skin (dermal LD50).
Leaching Downward movement of a pesticide or other soluble material through the soil as a result of water movement. Lesions Damage to an organ or tissue. Lethal Causing or capable of causing death. Lethargy Lack of energy, drowsy, dull, sluggish or inactive. Life cycle The progression of stages in the development of an organism. Lime sulfur Inorganic chemical (calcium polysulfide) used for lice control. Mange Deterioration of the skins condition, leading to hair or feather loss, skin discoloration, often disfiguring and, in severe cases, lethargy and weakness. Associated with mite infestation. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) These data sheets contain specific information on toxicity, first aid, personal protection equipment, storage and handling precautions, spill and leak cleanup and disposal practices, transportation, physical data and reactivity data. MSDS are available from manufacturers. Mechanical control Pest control by physically altering the environment; e.g., use of screens as barriers to insects. Metabolite A compound derived from metabolic transformation of a chemical by plants or other organisms. Microfilaria Immature stages of canine heartworm that circulate in the blood. Microorganism An organism that is so small that it cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope. Mineral oil Barrier against biting flies; also a diluent in some ear mite treatments that contain carbaryl. Miticide Pesticide that controls mites. Mode of action The way in which a pesticide exerts a toxic effect. Monitoring The process of information gathering and collection through observation of a site or target organism. Mucopurulent White or yellowish discharge containing mucus and pus, typically seen from the eyes or nose. Natural enemies The predators and parasites that attack a species. Neoprene A synthetic rubber.
Nits The eggs of lice. Nontarget species Species not intentionally affected by a pesticide. Nymphs Larvae that emerge from insect eggs of many insects and arthropods. Obligatory myiasis Infestation of bot flies in animals occurring when the larval stages are living inside the skin or tissues of the animal. Ocular Pertaining to the eye. Oncogenic Capable of producing or inducing tumors in animals, either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Oral toxicity A measure of the capacity of a pesticide to cause injury when taken by mouth. Organic pesticides Pesticides that contain carbon. Most are synthetic; some are derived or extracted from plants. Organophosphates An insecticide/acaricide class that includes chlorpyrifos, malathion, DDVP, ronnel, stiriphos and others. They range from acutely mildly to toxic to animals. Parainfluenza Pneumonia-like infection caused by canine parainfluenza virus. Parasite Plant or animal that lives in or on another organism. Parts per million, weight (PPMW) One part of a substance in one million parts of another substance, by weight. Parasiticide Substance that kills parasites. Parvovirus Virus that attacks growing tissues (especially the intestinal tract) in puppies that are not immunized. Passive immunity Immunity not of the young animals own making, for example from maternal antibodies that offer only temporary protection. Patella Kneecap. Pelleted formulation A dry formulation of pesticide and other components in discrete particles, usually larger than 10 cubic millimeters, and designed to be applied without a liquid carrier. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Clothing and devices worn to protect the human body from contact with pesticides or pesticide residues. Pesticide interaction The action or influence of one pesticide upon another and the combined effect of the pesticide on the pest(s) or crop system. Physical control Control for animal pests that may include the use of sticky flypaper to reduce nuisance flying insects in confined areas.
Pour-ons High-concentrate, low-volume pesticide formulations applied directly to animals from the containers they are purchased in. Premise spray An insecticide that will persist on the surfaces in an animals living area for a period of time. Psoroptic mange Veterinary term for infestation of Psoroptes ovis, species of non-burrowing mange mites. pH A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Photodecomposition Degradation of a pesticide by light. Phytotoxic Injurious or lethal to plants. PPB Parts per billion. One ppb equals 1 pound in 500,000 tons. PPM Parts per million. One ppm equals 1 pound in 500 tons. PPT Parts per trillion. One ppt equals 1 pound in 500,000,000 tons. Precipitate A solid substance that will no longer remain dissolved in water because of some physical or chemical process. Predator An animal that attacks, kills and feeds on other animals. PSI Pounds per square inch. Psittacines Birds related to parrots. Pustules Eruptions containing pus, such as boils or pimples. Rabies Virus that affects the central nervous system. Rate The amount of active ingredient applied per unit area or other treatment unit. RCRA The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the federal law regulating the transport, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes. Ready to use Formulation requiring no mixing or combining with other ingredients or diluents and applied directly from the manufacturer s container. Registration The regulatory process designated by FIFRA and conducted by the EPA through which a pesticide is legally approved for use. Repellents A class of insecticide/acaricide that helps prevent animal pest establishment, though repellents are not always insecticidesdiethylmeta-toluamide (DEET), butoxypolyproplylene glycol, and diproplyl isocinchomeronate are repellents that have activity against certain arthropods.
Residue That quantity of a pesticide remaining in or on the soil, plant tissue, animal tissue, whole organisms and surfaces after an application. Restricted use pesticide A pesticide that may be used only by a certified applicator. It is designated as such by the Environmental Protection Agency because of its potential to cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment, including injury to the applicator. Resurgence A dramatic increase in the population level of a target pest some time after a pesticide application because the pesticide destroyed its natural enemies. Pest numbers may soon surpass pretreatment levels. Ringworm Ring-shaped patch on skin caused by a fungus. Roundworm Internal parasitic worm (ascarid). Runoff Movement of water carrying with it other liquid compounds, soil with contaminants bound to it or both. Sarcoptic mange mite Parasite that burrows under the skin, causing intense itching; can be transmitted to people. Scabies Any skin condition of man or animal associated with a mite; a particularly serious, debilitating, mange condition. Scientific name The Latin name of the genus and species of an organism, designated by taxonomists and universally accepted. Scientific names are used to avoid the confusion that can result from the use of common names, which may vary from one area to another. Scouting Checking a crop or animal on a regular basis and in a prescribed manner to determine pest population levels and the extent of pest damage (monitoring). Sebaceous glands Oil glands. Secondary infection Infection that occurs following the primary infection, as a result of lowered immunity; e.g., infection following the scratching of flea bites. Selectivity The ability of a chemical to be more toxic to some species than to others; may be a function of dosage or mode of application. Self-limiting Refers to a disease or condition that will clear up by itself after a period of time. Shampoo Formulation of insecticide and other ingredients that is applied to an animals wet fur and worked into a lather. Signal words The signal words DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION must appear, by law, in
large letters on the front panel of a pesticide label. They indicate how acutely toxic to humans the product is. Site The animal, crop or area infested by a pest and to which a pesticide is applied. Space spray Method of application of an insecticide that kills the insects that are in the area at the time of application. Spot-ons High-concentrate, low volume pesticide formulation applied directly to the animal from the container the product is sold in. Solubility The ability of a solid to dissolve in a liquid. Solution A homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) in another substance (solvent), which is usually a liquid. The solutes are completely dissolved and will not settle out or separate under normal conditions. Solvent A liquid in which one or more substances dissolve to form a true solution. Species The basic unit of taxonomic classification, designating a group of closely related individuals that are capable of interbreeding. Spot treatment Application of pesticides to limited area(s) of a whole unit; e.g., treatment of spots or patches of cracks and crevices within a larger kennel or building area. Spray drift Movement of airborne spray from the intended area of application. Staphylococcus Type of bacterium frequently associated with skin infectioStatement of practical treatment (first aid) Instructions on how to respond to an emergency exposure involving a pesticide product. Subclinical Not readily apparent disease. Surfactant A material that improves the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, wetting or other surface-modifying properties of liquids. Susceptibility The sensitivity to or degree to which a plant is injured by a pesticide treatment. (See tolerance.) Suspension A mixture containing finely divided particles evenly dispersed in a solid, liquid or gas. Symptom (1) Any detectable change in an organism resulting from the activities of a pathogen or other pest. (2) An indication of pesticide poisoning. Synergism An interaction of two or more chemicals whose combined effect is greater than the
effect predicted on the basis of the activity of each chemical applied separately. Synergist Something that enhances the effectiveness of the active ingredient(s) in a formulation. Synthetic chemical A manufactured chemical. Synthetic pyrethroids A class of insecticides/acaricidesincluding permethrin, resmethrin and allethrinthat shows properties of low mammalian toxicity but good activity against insects, ticks and mites. Systemic pesticide A chemical that is absorbed and translocated (moved) within a plant or animal. Tapeworm Intestinal parasitic worm (Cestode). Tank-mix combination Mixing two or more pesticides in the spray tank at the time of application. Target organism The pest against which a particular pesticide or other control method is directed. Taxonomy The classification of living organisms into groups on the basis of similarities and relationships. Terrestrial Living or growing on land; not aquatic. Tolerance (1) Capacity to withstand pesticide treatment without marked deviation from normal growth or function. (See susceptibility.) (2) The concentration of pesticide residue that will be allowed in or on agricultural products. Topical External, upon the skin. Toxemia An abnormal condition associated with the presence of toxic substances in the blood. Toxicity The quality or potential of a substance to cause injury or illness. Toxicology The study of the principles or mechanisms of toxicity. Tracheobronchitis Upper respiratory infection. Common name is kennel cough. Trade name A trademark applied to a product such as a pesticide formulation by its manufacturer.
Trichuris vulpis Endoparasite (whipworm) that attaches to the intestinal wall and ingests blood. Ulceration Open sore. USDA United States Department of Agriculture. Vaccine Antigens introduced into the body that stimulates the formation of protective immunity. Vapor drift The movement of chemical vapors from the area of application. Note: vapor injury and injury from spray drift are often difficult to distinguish. Venomous Having a venom-producing gland and able to inflict a poisoned wound. Vertebrate An animal with a spinal column. Viral Involving or relating to viruses. Virulent Highly infectious; capable of causing disease. Watershed The area of land draining into a body of water. Weed A plant growing where it is not desired; any plant that is objectionable or interferes with the activities or welfare of humans. Wettable powder (WP) A fine textured, dry pesticide formulation that can be suspended in water. Wetting agent (1) A substance that serves to reduce interfacial tensions and causes spray solutions or suspensions to make better contact with treated surfaces (see surfactant). (2) A substance in a wettable powder formulation that causes it to wet readily when added to water. Whipworm Internal parasite (Trichuris vulpis) that infests lower intestinal tract . Wipes Pesticide formulation applied directly to the animal; cloths or sponges saturated with the product. Woods lamp Ultraviolet light with an eye-protecting filter; helpful in identifying some kinds of ringworm.
(PLEASE POST IN AN APPROPRIATE PLACE)
PESTICIDE EMERGENCY INFORMATION
For any type of an emergency involving a pesticide, immediately contact the following emergency information centers for assistance.
Current as of May 1994
Human Pesticide Poisoning
Eastern Half of Michigan *(313) 745-5711
Poison Control Center Childrens Hospital of Michigan 3901 Beaubien Detroit, MI 48201
Western Half of Michigan
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
within Marquette city proper:
Contact local hospital emergency room.
Upper Peninsula only:
U.P. Poison Control Center Marquette General Hospital 420 West Magnetic Street Marquette, MI 48955
Special Pesticide Emergencies
Animal Poisoning ................................
Pesticide Fire ..............................
Local fire department:
Traffic Accident ...............................
Local police department or sheriffs department:
Environmental Pollution ...............................
Pollution Emergency Alerting System (PEAS}, Michigan Department of Natural Resources: _____________________
or Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (Toxicology) Michigan State University:
and Fire Marshal Division, Michigan State Police: M F: 8 12, 1 5
and Operations Division, Michigan State Police:
and For environmental emergencies:
Pesticide disposal information .........................................................
Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Waste Management Division. Monday Friday: 8 a.m.5 p.m.
National Pesticide Telecommunications Network ........................................................................
Provides advice on recognizing and managing pesticide poisoning, toxicology, general pesticide information and emergency response assistance, Funded by EPA, based at Texas Tech University Health Services Center. Monday Friday: 8:00 a.m. 6:00 p.m. Central Time Zone
Michigan State University Extension Extension Bulletin AM 37 (Revised May 1994 Destroy previous editions)
* Telephone Number Operated 24 Hours
MICHIGAN STA TE
U N I V E R S I T Y
MSU is an Affirmative-Action Equal Opportunity Institution. Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, disability, age or religion. s Issued in furtherance of Extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8, and June 30,1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Gail L. Imig, director, Michigan State University Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824.
Larry G. Olsen Pesticide Education Coordinator
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