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631 ARCH Fall 2008 Professor Ann Nichols
Nicole Hoffman Mark Navarro Kimberly Nordhoff Stephanie Schwindel Chris Williams
Original Building
Architects: Joseph Urban and George P. Post & Sons Opened in 1928, $2 million "Important monument in the architectural heritage of New York" The building was structurally reinforced to accommodate an office tower that was never realized Cast limestone faade with fluted columns and decorative statues
New Tower Expansion
Architect:
Foster + Partners Structural Engineer: WSP Cantor Seinuk Construction Management: Turner Construction New 46-story tower completed in 2006 856, 000 sq ft. office building Project cost:$500 million New York City's first LEED Gold Accredited Skyscraper
Lord Norman Foster
Honored into knighthood in1990 Pritzker Prize in 1999 Life Peerage (Lord Foster of Thames Bank) Began Foster + Partners in 1967. Received 470 awards and citations for excellence and has won more than 86 international and national competitions.
Existing Building Renovations
Interior of original building was
completely gutted Limestone faade was saved to serve as a historic reminder to the past Additional framing added behind limestone faade for extra lateral strength Made room for independent steel and glass mega structure to set inside
Foundation and Soil
Separate foundation system from existing building Large difference in elevation of the bedrock under site A few feet to 30 feet Half of tower supported on spread footings Half of tower supported on caissons Assumptions: Take into account weight of "Ice-fall" water feature in lobby
SPREAD FOOTING CAISSON
Mega Column and Super Diagonal System
Located at the exterior of the new tower Comprised of built-up steel tube sections that are in-filled with concrete Extend from the foundation to the 10th floor of the tower Allow for open interior atrium Carry gravity loads of tower to ground and provide lateral stability
Skylight glass "skirt"
Spans from new tower exterior columns to existing exterior masonry faade Solves problem of connecting existing to new "Floating" tower appearance
Diagrid System
Chosen early in design process 40 foot spans horizontally and 8 stories vertically Node connections every 4 floors System begins on 10th floor "Triangulated truss interconnecting all four faces of the tower" Assumption: Diagrid members act as beam columns Consumed 20% less steel than conventional skyscrapers
NODE 8 STORIES
40' SPANS
Floor System
ONE WAY Comprised of steel and concrete Act as horizontal diaphragms Assumptions: Behave like one way slabs Shorter interstitial members are placed between floor beams on two sides of tower for lateral support
DETAIL OF FLOOR PLATE
Node Connections
Not larger than the cross dimension of the diagrid elements Prefabricated off-site and bolted in place Two types: Interior: planar, transmit loads two dimensionally Corner: more complicated, transmit loads three dimensionally Act as hubs where the member forces are redirected Assumption: Rigid, moment resisting connections
"Bird's Mouth"
Occurs on all four corners Produced because of structural arrangement created by diagrid Alleviates problem of having 20 feet cantilevers in corners (typically left behind by diagrid) visual Adds interest to building Allows for expansive views Unique feature as opposed to box-like neighbors
Wind loads most significant, but seismic loads were also calculated according to NYC Building Code requirements Existing perimeter columns and beams in existing 6-story building were kept for lateral support Additional framing added to existing building satisfy new seismic requirements
Elevator core shifted to westward side of building, additional cross bracing required around core Diagrid structure is tube structure Floors act as diaphragms High redundancy
ELEVATOR CORE
Loads travel down diagrid members in plane on the facade of the building, down the mega columns and super diagonal members to the spread footing or caisson foundations and spread across an area of soil large enough so that the allowable bearing stress of the soil is not exceeded.
Modeling Procedure
Building was simplified and modeled with steel wide flange members Connections made rigid and members at base fixed to ground Largest members -Super diagonals Mega columns Medium size members- Diagrid members Smallest members- beams for floors
Mega columns and super diagonals too large to be shipped in one monolithic piece Escalator hoisted into building through roof of existing building and covered with plywood Tolerance for error at connections was smaller than normal, so prefabrication offsite was required Needed custom made scaffolding to install windows and cladding A typical floor had up to 30 different window configurations
ARCH 631 Fall 2008 Professor Ann Nichols
Architect: Foster + Partners
Addition of new tower within an existing building Foundation System: spread footing and caissons Main Structure System: Diagrid, mega columns, and super diagonals Nodes: Rigid moment connections Lateral System: horizontal diaphragm and diagrid elements Tolerance for construction errors minimal
Ching, Francis D.K. and Cassandra Adams. Building Construction Illustrated Third Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. Foster + Partners. "Facts and Figures." 2 March 2007. "Hearst Magazine Building." NYCArchitecture.com. <http://www.nyc architecture.com/MID/MID124.htm>. Milliard, Bill. "Hearst Tower, NY by Foster and Partners." BD Magazine Nov. 2006.<http://www.bdonline.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=719& storycode= 3077506>. Nolan, David. "Hearst Tower Reinventing the Skyscraper." Popular Mechanics April 2006.<http://www.popularmechanics.com/ technology/industry/ 2591931.html>. Rahimian, Ahmad, and Yoram Eilon. "New York's Hearst Tower A Restoration, an Adaptive Reuse, and a Modern Steel Tower Rolled into One." Structure Feb. 2006. <http://ecow.engr.wisc.edu/cgi bin/getbig/cee/340/davidcamac/readings/hearsttowerfeb06.pdf>. Schodek, Daniel L. and Martin Bechthold. Structures Sixth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Welch, Adrian and Isabelle Lomholt. "Hearst Tower New York." Earchitect 2007.<http://www.earchitect.co.uk/new_york/ hearst_tower_new_york.htm> Images taken from Foster and Partners, Structure, EArchitect, and Popular Mechanics (references listed above).
THANK YOU!
Nicole Hoffman Mark Navarro Kimberly Nordhoff Stephanie Schwindel Chris Williams

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