4396usermanual
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4396usermanual

Course Number: EE 382, Fall 2009

College/University: SDSMT

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Agilent 4396B Network/Spectrum/Impedance Analyzer User's Guide SERIAL NUMBERS This manual applies directly to instruments which have the serial number prex JP1KE. Agilent Part No. 04396-90031 Printed in Japan February 2001 Fourth Edition c Copyright 1997, 2000, 2001 Agilent Technologies Japan, Ltd. Manual Printing History The manual printing date and part number indicate its current edition. The printing date...

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4396B Agilent Network/Spectrum/Impedance Analyzer User's Guide SERIAL NUMBERS This manual applies directly to instruments which have the serial number prex JP1KE. Agilent Part No. 04396-90031 Printed in Japan February 2001 Fourth Edition c Copyright 1997, 2000, 2001 Agilent Technologies Japan, Ltd. Manual Printing History The manual printing date and part number indicate its current edition. The printing date changes when a new edition is printed. (Minor corrections and updates that are incorporated at reprint do not cause the date to change.) The manual part number changes when extensive technical changes are incorporated. March 1997 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : First Edition (part number: 04396-90021) July 1997 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Second Edition (part number: 04396-90031) March 2000 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Third Edition (part number: 04396-90031) February 2001 : : : : : : : : : : Fourth Edition (part number: 04396-90031) iii Certication Agilent Technologies certies that this product met its published specications at the time of shipment from the factory. Agilent Technologies further certies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institution's calibration facility, or to the calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization members. Warranty This Agilent Technologies instrument product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from the date of shipment, except that in the case of certain components listed in General Information of this manual, the warranty shall be for the specied period. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies will, at its option, either repair or replace products that prove to be defective. For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility designated by Agilent Technologies. Buyer shall prepay shipping charges to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Technologies shall pay shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to Agilent Technologies from another country. Agilent Technologies warrants that its software and rmware designated by Agilent Technologies for use with an instrument will execute its programming instruction when property installed on that instrument. Agilent Technologies does not warrant that the operation of the instrument, or software, or rmware will be uninterrupted or error free. Limitation Of Warranty The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modication or misuse, operation outside the environmental specications for the product, or improper site preparation or maintenance. No other warranty is expressed or implied. Agilent Technologies specically disclaims the implied warranties of merchantability and tness for a particular purpose. iv Exclusive Remedies The remedies provided herein are buyer's sole and exclusive remedies. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages, whether based on contract, tort, or any other legal theory. Assistance Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available for Agilent Technologies products. For any assistance, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Oce. Addresses are provided at the back of this manual. v Safety Summary The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specic WARNINGS elsewhere in this manual may impair the protection provided by the equipment. In addition it violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. The Agilent Technologies assumes no liability for the customer's failure to comply with these requirements. Note Note Ground The Instrument 4396B comply with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II and POLLUTION DEGREE 2 in IEC1010-1. 4396B are INDOOR USE product. LEDs in this product are Class 1 in accordance with IEC825-1. CLASS 1 LED PRODUCT To avoid electric shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to a safety earth ground by the supplied power cable with earth blade. DO NOT Operate In An Explosive Atmosphere Do not operate the instrument in the presence of ammable gasses or fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a denite safety hazard. Keep Away From Live Circuits Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal adjustments must be made by qualied maintenance personnel. Do not replace components with the power cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may exist even with the power cable removed. To avoid injuries, always disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them. DO NOT Service Or Adjust Alone Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering rst aid and resuscitation, is present. DO NOT Substitute Parts Or Modify Instrument Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or perform unauthorized modications to the instrument. Return the instrument to a Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Oce for service and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained. vi Dangerous Procedure Warnings Warnings , such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous procedures throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the warnings must be followed. Warning Dangerous voltages, capable of causing death, are present in this instrument. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting this instrument. vii Safety Symbols General denitions of safety symbols used on equipment or in manuals are listed below. Instruction manual symbol: the product is marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instruction manual. Alternating current. Direct current. On (Supply). O (Supply). In position of push-button switch. Out position of push-button switch. Frame (or chassis) terminal. A connection to the frame (chassis) of the equipment which normally include all exposed metal structures. This Warning sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or death to personnel. This Caution sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the product. This Note sign denotes important information. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which is essential to highlight. Axed to product containing static sensitive devices use anti-static handling procedures to prevent electrostatic discharge damage to component. viii Typeface Conventions Bold Italics Boldface type is used when a term is dened. For example: icons are symbols. Italic type is used for emphasis and for titles of manuals and other publications. Italic type is also used for keyboard entries when a name or a variable must be typed in place of the words in italics. For example: copy lename means to type the word copy, to type a space, and then to type the name of a le such as file1. Computer font is used for on-screen prompts and messages. Labeled keys on the instrument front panel are enclosed in 4 5. Softkeys located to the right of the CRT are enclosed in . NNNNN Computer 4HARDKEYS5 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN SOFTKEYS ix How To Use This Manual This is a user's guide for the 4396B Network/Spectrum Analyzer. This manual contains two quick start tours, measurement examples, an installation and setup guide and a table that tells you where to nd more information. Installation and Setup Guide Chapters 1 provides installation information that includes an initial inspection, power line setting, test-set setup, and keyboard connection. If you do not prepare the analyzer yet, read this section rst. Quick Start Tour Chapters 2 and 3 provide step-by-step instructions for you if you are operating the analyzer for the rst time. By performing these tours, you will become familiar with the basic operations of the analyzer. Chapter 2 is for the spectrum analyzer mode, and chapter 3 is for the network analyzer mode. Measurement Examples Chapters 4 and 5 provide how to use the analyzer for typical network and spectrum measurement. Chapter 4 contains measurement examples of spectrum measurement applications, and chapter 5 contains examples of network measurement applications. For More Information Appendix A provides a table that helps you nd the information you need in the documentation set. x Documentation Map The following manuals are available for the analyzer. User's Guide (Agilent Part Number 04396-90031) The User's Guide walks you through system setup and initial power-on, shows how to make basic measurements, explains commonly used features, and typical application measurement examples. After you receive your analyzer, begin with this manual. Task Reference (Agilent Part Number 04396-90030) Task Reference helps you to learn how to use the analyzer. This manual provides simple step-by-step instructions without concepts. Function Reference (Agilent Part Number 04396-90052) The Function Reference describes all function accessed from the front panel keys and softkeys. It also provides information on options and accessories available, specications, system performance, and some topics about the analyzer's features. Programming Guide (Agilent Part Number 04396-90043) The Programming Guide shows how to write and use BASIC program to control the analyzer and describes how HP Instrument BASIC works with the analyzer.. GPIB Command Reference (Agilent Part Number 04396-90044) The GPIB Command Reference provides a summary of all available GPIB commands. It also provides information on the status reporting structure and the trigger system (these features conform to the SCPI standard). Option 010 Operating Handbook (Option 010 only) (Agilent Part Number 04396-90036) The option 010 Operation Handbook describes the unique impedance measurement functions of the 4396B with option 010. HP Instrument BASIC Manual Set (Agilent Part Number E2083-90000) The HP Instrument BASIC User's Handbook introduces you to the HP Instrument BASIC programming language, provide some helpful hints on getting the most use from it, and provide a general programming reference. It is divided into three books, HP Instrument BASIC Programming Techniques, HP Instrument BASIC Interface Techniques, and HP Instrument BASIC Language Reference. Performance Test Manual (Agilent Part Number 04396-90130) The Performance Test Manual explains how to verify conformance to published specications. Service Manual (Option 0BW only) (Agilent Part Number 04396-90121) The Service Manual explains how to adjust, troubleshoot, and repair the instrument. This manual is option 0BW only. xi Contents 1. Installation and Setup Guide Incoming Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-6 1-6 1-6 1-7 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-8 1-9 1-11 1-12 1-14 1-14 1-15 1-17 1-18 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-8 2-8 2-9 Replacing Fuse . . . . . . . . . . Fuse Selection . . . . . . . . . . . Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . Power Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . Operation Environment . . . . . . . . Ventilation Requirements . . . . . . . Instruction for Cleaning . . . . . . . . Rack/Handle Installation . . . . . . . Option 1CN Handle Kit . . . . . . . Installing the Handle . . . . . . . Option 1CM Rack Mount Kit . . . . . Mounting the Rack . . . . . . . . Option 1CP Rack Mount & Handle Kit Mounting the Handle and Rack . . Front View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode . . Connecting an Active Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . For Spectrum Analyzer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . For Network Analyzer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Up a 75 Measurement For Spectrum Analyzer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Spectrum Analyzer Tour Before You Leave On The Tour . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Preparing for a Measurement . . . . . . . . Turning ON the analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting the Test Signal Source . . . . . . . . . Step 2: Setting Up the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Active Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Analyzer Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Frequency Range . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Making a Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . Reading the Peak Level Using the Marker . . . . . Setting the Resolution Bandwidth to See Low Level Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents-1 Searching for Harmonics Using the Search Function Step 4: Saving and Recalling Analyzer Settings . . . . Preparing the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entering the File Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recalling the Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 2-12 2-12 2-13 2-13 2-15 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-12 3-12 3-14 3-14 3-14 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-8 4-8 3. Network Analyzer Tour Before You Leave On The Tour . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Preparing for the Measurement . . . Turning ON the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . Connecting the DUT . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: Setting up the Analyzer . . . . . . . Setting the Active Channel . . . . . . . . Setting the Analyzer Type . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Input . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Frequency Range . . . . . . . Performing the Automatic Scaling . . . . . Step 3: Making a Calibration . . . . . . . . Step 4: Reading a Measurement Result . . . . Reading a Measured Value by Using Marker Step 5: Printing Out the Measurement Result Conguring and Connecting a Printer . . . Making a Hardcopy of the LCD Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Spectrum Measurement Examples Basic Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonic Distortion Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . Test Signal and Test Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Peak Search and Marker List For Harmonic Distortion Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . C/N Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed 1Marker and Noise Format for C/N Measurement Tracking a Drifting Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tracking an Unstable Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Measurement with Spectrum Monitor . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performing Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents-2 Monitoring the Leakage Signal at the B Input Using the Spectrum Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrier Amplitude and Frequency Measurement Using the Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modulating Frequency and Modulation Index Measurement Using 1Marker . . . . . . . . . . . FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency Deviation of Wide Band FM Signal . . . . Frequency Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrier Level and Modulating Frequency . . . . . . Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . Burst Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gated Sweep for Burst Signal Measurement . . . . . Zero Span for Time Domain Measurement . . . . . . 4-9 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-12 4-13 4-14 4-16 4-16 4-16 4-16 4-16 4-17 4-17 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-10 5-10 5-10 5-10 5-11 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-13 5. Network Measurement Examples Basic Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example DUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring Transmission Characteristics of a Filter Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performing Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Read Out Insertion Loss Using the Marker . . . 3 dB Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ripple or Flatness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring Phase Response . . . . . . . . . . Using the Expanded Phase Mode . . . . . . . Measuring Electrical Length . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Length Adjustment . . . . . . . . . Measuring Phase Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deviation from Linear Phase . . . . . . . . . Group Delay Measurement . . . . . . . . . . Smoothing Group Delay Trace . . . . . . . . Where to Find More Information . . . . . . . Reection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents-3 Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . Performing Calibration . . . . . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . Return Loss and Reection Coecient . . Standing Wave Ratio . . . . . . . . . . S-Parameters Measurement . . . . . . . Data Readout Using the Marker . . . . Impedance Measurement . . . . . . . . Admittance Measurement . . . . . . . . List Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sweep Time Reduction . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Sweep List . . . . . . . . . Performing List Sweep . . . . . . . . Dynamic Range Enhancement . . . . . . Filter Testing Using Limit Lines . . . . . . Example of Limit Lines For Filter Testing Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . Performing Limit Test . . . . . . . . . Separated Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . Gain Compression Measurement . . . . . . Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analyzer Settings . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Calibration . . . . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute Output Level Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 5-13 5-14 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-19 5-19 5-19 5-20 5-20 5-21 5-22 5-22 5-22 5-22 5-23 5-24 5-25 5-25 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-26 5-27 A. For More Information Index Contents-4 Figures 1-1. 1-2. 1-3. 1-4. 1-5. 1-6. 1-7. 1-8. 1-9. 2-1. 3-1. 3-2. 3-3. 4-1. 4-2. 4-3. 4-4. 4-5. 4-6. 4-7. 4-8. 4-9. 4-10. 4-11. 4-12. 4-13. 4-14. 4-15. 4-16. 4-17. 4-18. 4-19. 4-20. 4-21. 4-22. 5-1. 5-2. 5-3. 5-4. 5-5. 5-6. Power Cable Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rack Mount Kits Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . Connecting a Transmission/Reection Test Set . . . . Connecting an S-parameter Test Set . . . . . . . . . Spectrum Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe) . . . . . Network Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe) . . . . . Network Analyzer Mode (Two Active Probes) . . . . Using a Transmission/Reection Test Set . . . . . . . Connecting a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Required Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission/Reection Test Set Setup . . . . . . . . S-Parameter Test Set Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Connection for Spectrum Measurement . . . . . Harmonics Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . Using Multiple Peak Search and Marker List to Measure Harmonic Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Markers and Noise Format to Measure C/N Ratio Display When Starting Signal Track . . . . . . . . . Display After Signal Has Drifted . . . . . . . . . . . Inuence on Network Measurement by Leakage from an Adjacent Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Measurement With Spectrum Monitor Setup . Transmission Measurement Result (Inuenced by Leakage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spectrum Monitoring Result at the B Input . . . . . . Dual Display of Network and Spectrum Measurement . Carrier Amplitude and Frequency of AM Signal . . . Modulating Frequency of AM Signal . . . . . . . . . Wide Band FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . . Zooming Carrier Signal of FM Signal . . . . . . . . . Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement . . . . . . . . Maximum and Minimum Envelopes of Narrow Band FM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superimposing Spectrum and Envelopes . . . . . . . Burst Signal Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . Burst Signal Measurement Result Using Normal Sweep Burst Signal Measurement Using Gated Sweep . . . . Burst Signal Spectrum and Test Signal Envelope . . . Transmission Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . Response of a Dielectric Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Marker to Determine 3 dB Bandwidth . . . Using Peak Search to Determine Ripple . . . . . . . Amplitude and Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter . Expanded Phase Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1-7 1-12 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-18 2-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-11 4-11 4-13 4-14 4-14 4-15 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-17 4-18 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 Contents-5 5-7. Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter Over a 50 MHz Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8. Electrical Length Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9. Deviation From Linear Phase . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10. Group Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11. Reection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12. Reection Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13. Return Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14. SWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15. S11 on Polar Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16. Impedance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17. Admittance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18. Sweep List Edit Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19. Dynamic Range Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20. Editing the Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21. Separated Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22. Gain Compression Measurement Setup . . . . . . . 5-23. Gain Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24. Input vs. Output Power Level at the 01 dB Gain Compression Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-20 5-21 5-23 5-24 5-25 5-26 5-27 Contents-6 Tables 1-1. Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Fuse Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Rack Mount Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1-3 1-7 Contents-7 1 Installation and Setup Guide This chapter provides installation and setup instructions. It contains the following information: Incoming Inspection Replacing Fuse Power Requirements Operation Environment Ventilation Requirements Instruction for Cleaning Rack/Handle Installation Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode Connecting an Active Probe Connecting a Keyboard Setting Up a 75 Measurement For Spectrum Analyzer Mode Incoming Inspection Warning To avoid hazardous electrical shock, do not turn on the 4396B when there are signs of shipping damage to any portion of the outer enclosure (for example, covers, panel, or display) Inspect the shipping container for damage. If the shipping container or cushioning material is damaged, it should be kept until the contents of the shipment have been checked for completeness and the 4396B has been checked mechanically and electrically. The contents of the shipment should be as listed in Table 1-1. If the contents are incomplete, if there is mechanical damage or defect, or if the analyzer does not pass the power-on selftests, notify the nearest Agilent Technologies oce. If the shipping container is damaged, or the cushioning material shows signs of unusual stress, notify the carrier as well as the Agilent Technologies oce. Keep the shipping materials for the carrier's inspection. Installation and Setup Guide 1-1 Table 1-1. Contents Description Agilent Part Number Network/Spectrum/Impedance Analyzer Documents Task Reference User's Guide Function Reference Programming Guide GPIB Command Reference Performance Test Manual N to BNC adapter (50 ) BNC cable Sample Program Disk (2 disks) 3.5inch 2HD Disk (blank) mini-DIN Keyboard Power Cable1 Option 0BW only Service Manual Option 1D5 only BNC Adapter Option 1D7 only 50 /75 Minimum Loss Pad 50 BNC-75 N Adapter Option 1CN Handle Kit Handle Kit Option 1CM Handle Kit Rack Mount Kit Option 1CP Rack Mount & Handle Kit Rack Mount & Handle Kit 5062-3985 1 The power cable depends on where the instrument is used,see Figure 1-1. 4396B 04396-90030 04396-90031 04396-90052 04396-90043 04396-90044 04396-90130 1250-0780 8120-1839 04396-61002 9164-0299 C3757-60401 04396-90121 1250-1859 11852B option 004 1250-2438 5062-3991 5062-3979 1-2 Installation and Setup Guide Replacing Fuse Fuse Selection Select proper fuse according to the Table 1-2. Table 1-2. Fuse Selection Fuse Rating/Type Fuse Part Number 5A 250Vac UL/CSA type Time Delay 2110-0030 For ordering the fuse,contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Oce. Lever a small minus screwdriver to dismount the fuse holder above the AC line receptacle on the rear panel. To check or replace the fuse, pull the fuse holder and remove the fuse. To reinstall the fuse, insert a fuse with the proper rating into the fuse holder. Installation and Setup Guide 1-3 Power Requirements The 4396B requires the following power source: Voltage : 90 to 132 Vac, 198 to 264 Vac Frequency : 47 to 63 Hz Power : 300 VA maximum Power Cable In accordance with international safety standards, this instrument is equipped with a three-wire power cable. When connected to an appropriate ac power outlet, this cable grounds the instrument frame. The type of power cable shipped with each instrument depends on the country of destination. Refer to Figure 1-1 for the part numbers of the power cables available. Warning For protection from electrical shock, the power cable ground must not be defeated. The power plug must be plugged into an outlet that provides a protective earth ground connection. 1-4 Installation and Setup Guide Figure 1-1. Power Cable Supplied Installation and Setup Guide 1-5 Operation Environment The 4396B must be operated under within the following environment conditions, and sucient space must be kept behind the 4396B to avoid obstructing the air ow of the cooling fans. Temperature: 0 C to 40 C Humidity: less than 95% RH at 40 C Note The 4396B must be protected from temperature extremes which could cause condensation within the instrument. Ventilation Requirements To ensure adequate ventilation, make sure that there is adequate clearance of at least 180mm behind and 60mm sides. Instruction for Cleaning To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the 4396B power cable from the receptacle before cleaning. Wipe with a dry cloth or a soft cloth that is soaked with water and wrung tightly without undeue pressure to clean the casing. Do not attempt to clean the 4396B internally. 1-6 Installation and Setup Guide Rack/Handle Installation The analyzer can be rack mounted and used as a component in a measurement system. Figure 1-2 shows how to rack mount the analyzer. Option 1CN 1CM 1CP Table 1-3. Rack Mount Kits Description Handle Kit Rack Mount Kit Rack Mount & Handle Kit Agilent Part Number 5062-3991 5062-3979 5062-3985 Figure 1-2. Rack Mount Kits Installation Option 1CN Handle Kit Option 1CN is a handle kit containing a pair of handles and the necessary hardware to attach them to the instrument. 1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strips from the left and right 1 front sides of the analyzer. 2. Attach the front handles to the sides using the screws provided. 3 3. Attach the trim strips to the handles. 4 Installation and Setup Guide 1-7 Installing the Handle Option 1CM Rack Mount Kit Option 1CM is a rack mount kit containing a pair of anges and the necessary hardware to mount them to the instrument in an equipment rack with 482.6 mm (19 inches) horizontal spacing. Mounting the Rack 1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strips from the left and right 1 front sides of the analyzer. 2. Attach the rack mount ange to the left and right front sides of 2 the analyzer using the screws provided. 3. Remove all four feet (lift bar on the inner side of the foot, and slide the foot toward the bar). Option 1CP Rack Mount & Handle Kit Option 1CP is a rack mount kit containing a pair of anges and the necessary hardware to mount them to an instrument which has handles attached, in an equipment rack with 482.6 mm (19 inches) spacing. Mounting the Handle and Rack 1. Remove the adhesive-backed trim strips from the left and right 1 front sides of the analyzer. 2. Attach the front handle and the rack mount ange together 3 5 on the left and right front sides of the analyzer using the screws provided. 3. Remove all four feet (lift bar on the inner side of the foot, and slide the foot toward the bar). 1-8 Installation and Setup Guide Front View 1. LCD displays measured results, softkey menus, current settings, system messages, error messages, and Instrument BASIC programs. 2. 4LINE5 switch turns the analyzer ON and OFF. 3. 3.5 inch disk drive is used to store measurement results, instrument settings, display images, and Instrument BASIC programs. 4. CAL OUT (spectrum analyzer calibration output port) supplies a reference signal (20 MHz, -20 dbm) for reference level calibration. 5. S input (spectrum analyzer input) receives a signal for a spectrum measurement. INSTALLATION CATEGORY I 6. RF OUT (RF signal output port) supplies a source signal for network measurements. Installation and Setup Guide 1-9 7. R, A, and B inputs (RF signal inputs) mainly accept signals for network measurements, but can also be used as spectrum measurement inputs. INSTALLATION CATEGORY I MARKER block contains keys related to the marker functions. INSTRUMENT STATE block contains keys related to setting analyzer functions. ENTRY block contains numerical keys, rotary knob, increment/decrement keys, edit keys, and unit-terminator keys. Rotary knob changes displayed value by turning the knob. SWEEP block contains keys related to the sweep functions. MEASUREMENT block controls the measurement and display functions. ACTIVE CHANNEL block selects the active channel as 1 or 2. Softkeys used with hierarchical menus that are displayed by pressing hardkeys. Pressing a softkey activates the displayed function or accesses a lower level menu. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1-10 Installation and Setup Guide Rear View 16. TEST SET-I/O INTERCONNECT connects the S-parameter test set to the analyzer. Caution If you connect a printer with the TEST SET-I/O INTERCONNECT,it may cause damage to the printer. Do not connect a printer to this connector. 17. Parallel interface connects the printer to the analyzer. 18. GPIB interface controls an GPIB instrument or can be controlled by an external controller. 19. Power cable receptacle connects the power cable. Fuse is held in the cover of the receptacle. Installation and Setup Guide 1-11 Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode To use the network analyzer mode of the analyzer, a test set is required to measure the transmission and reection characteristics of the device under test (DUT). You can use either the 87512A/B transmission/reection (T/R) test set or the 85046A/B S-parameter test set. The 87512A/B T/R test set measures reection and transmission in the forward direction only. The 85064A/B S-parameter test set measures both the forward and reverse directions without reconnection. For more information about the test sets, see chapter 9 of the Function Reference manual. Connecting a Transmission/Reection Test Set Figure 1-3. Connecting a Transmission/Reection Test Set 1. Place the transmission/reection (T/R) test set in front of the analyzer. 2. Connect the R and A ports of the analyzer and the T/R test set to each other. 3. Connect the RF OUT port of the analyzer and the RF IN port of the T/R test set with a semi-rigid cable. 1-12 Installation and Setup Guide Note When you use the 87512B, press 4Cal5 MORE SET Z0 . Then press 475 455 4215 to set the characteristic impedance (Z0 ) to 75 . NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Connecting an S-parameter Test Set Figure 1-4. Connecting an S-parameter Test Set 1. Place the analyzer on the S-parameter test set. 2. Connect the TEST SET-I/O INTERCONNECT interface on the rear panel of the analyzer and the NETWORK ANALYZER-I/O INTERCONNECT interface of the test set using the cable furnished with the test set. 3. Connect the RF OUT, R, A, and B inputs of the analyzer to the S-parameter test set to each other. Note When you use the 85064B, press 4Cal5 MORE SET Z0 . Then press 475 455 4215 to set the characteristic impedance (Z0 ) to 75 . NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Installation and Setup Guide 1-13 Connecting an Active Probe The active probe allows you to analyze an in-circuit signal or device that has no port for connecting to the test set. The active probe can be used for both spectrum and network measurements. The analyzer can use the following active probes: 85024A High Frequency Probe (300 kHz to 3 GHz) 41800A Active Probe (5 Hz to 500 MHz) 41802A 1 M Input Adapter (5 Hz to 100 MHz) 51701A Active Probe (DC to 2.5 GHz) 11945A Close-eld Probe Set 1141A Dierential Probe For more information about these active probes, see chapter 9 of the Function Reference manual. For Spectrum Analyzer Mode Figure 1-5. Spectrum Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe) 1. Connect the output connector of the active probe to the S port of the analyzer. 2. Plug the probe power plug into the PROBE POWER connector. 1-14 Installation and Setup Guide For Network Analyzer Mode Using One Active Probe Figure 1-6. Network Analyzer Mode (One Active Probe) 1. 2. 3. 4. Connect the power splitter to the RF OUT port. Connect one output from the power splitter to the R input. Connect the other output of the power splitter to the DUT. Connect the active probe to the B input and plug the probe plug into the PROBE POWER connector. 5. If necessary, terminate the DUT with a load. Note The following power splitters are available for the analyzer: 11850C,D Three-way Power Splitter 11667A Power Splitter For more information about these power splitters, see chapter 9 of the Funtion Reference manual. Installation and Setup Guide 1-15 Using Two Active Probes Figure 1-7. Network Analyzer Mode (Two Active Probes) 1. 2. 3. 4. Connect one active probe to the R input. Connect the other active probe to the B input. Connect the RF OUT port to the DUT. If necessary, terminate the DUT with a load. 1-16 Installation and Setup Guide Using a Transmission/Reection Test Set Figure 1-8. Using a Transmission/Reection Test Set 1. Connect the 87512A/B T/R test set. 2. Connect the active probe to the B input. 3. If necessary, terminate the DUT with a load. Connecting a Keyboard An mini-DIN keyboard can be connected to the mini-DIN connector on the rear panel of the analyzer. The mini-DIN keyboard provides an easier way to enter characters for the le names, display titles, and Instrument BASIC programs. It can also access the analyzer softkey functions by using keyboard function keys. For more information on the mini-DIN keyboard, see Using HP Instrument BASIC with the 4396B. Installation and Setup Guide 1-17 Figure 1-9. Connecting a Keyboard Setting Up a 75 Measurement For Spectrum Analyzer Mode Note This operation requires the option 1D7 50 to 75 Input Impedance Conversion. For detail information about option 1D7, see chapter 9 of the Function Reference manual. 1. Attach the 11852B Option C04 50 N(m)/75 N(f) minimum loss pad to the S input. This minimum loss pad is furnished with the option 1D7. 2. Press 4Cal5. 3. Press INPUT Z . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 4. Press 4*5 to set the impedance of the source (75 ). Then press 4Entry O5. Note Perform this procedure each time the analyzer is preset because the analyzer does not retain this setting in memory. 1-18 Installation and Setup Guide 2 Spectrum Analyzer Tour In this chapter, you explore the spectrum analyzer mode of operation. Before starting this tour, verify the analyzer is correctly installed (see chapter 1, \Installation and Setup Guide," if you need additional information). Before You Leave On The Tour On this tour, you will learn how to make a basic spectrum analyzer measurement by measuring the CAL OUT signal of the analyzer. Overview The following is a short summary of the tour: 1. Preparing for a measurement Turning ON the analyzer Connecting the test signal source 2. Setting up the analyzer Setting the active channel Selecting the analyzer type Selecting the input Setting the frequency range 3. Making a Measurement Reading the peak level using the marker Setting the resolution bandwidth to see low level signals Searching for harmonics using the search function 4. Saving and recalling the analyzer settings Preparing the disk Saving analyzer settings Entering the le name Recalling the analyzer settings After you nish this tour, you will understand how to make a basic measurement in the spectrum analyzer mode of operation. If you want to learn how to perform more complex tasks, see the Task Reference manual. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-1 Required Equipment To perform all the steps in this tour, you must have the following equipment: 4396B Network/Spectrum Analyzer N to BNC Adapter (50 )* BNC cable* 3.5 inch 2HD (or 2DD) Blank Disk * Furnished with the analyzer. Figure 2-1. Required Equipment 2-2 Spectrum Analyzer T our Step 1: Preparing for a Measurement Turning ON the analyzer Verify the power line setting is correct before you turning ON the analyzer. If necessary, see chapter 1, \Installation and Setup Guide." Press the LINE switch The power on self-test takes about 10 seconds. If the analyzer is operating correctly, the following information is displayed on the LCD: Connecting the Test Signal Source In this tour, you use the front-panel CAL OUT signal as the test signal (20 MHz at -20 dBm). Connect the CAL OUT output to the S input using the N-to-BNC adapter and the BNC cable. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-3 Step 2: Setting Up the Analyzer In this step, you will set the following parameters: Active channel Channel 2 Analyzer type Spectrum analyzer mode Input S input Frequency Range 0 Hz to 80 MHz Setting the Active Channel The analyzer has two measurement channels. This allows you to have two dierent measurement setups. Other selections you make on the front panel aect only the active channel. To set the active channel to channel 2: In the ACTIVE CHANNEL block, press 4Chan 25. Verify the Chan 2 active channel indicator lights. Note All selected settings are stored separately for each channel. You must select an active channel (1 or 2) before you can change the measurement setup for that channel. 2-4 Spectrum Analyzer T our Setting the Analyzer Type To use the spectrum analyzer mode, you must set the analyzer type to the spectrum analyzer mode after selecting an active channel. In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5. Press ANALYZER TYPE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press SPECTRUM ANALYZER . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Note Changing the analyzer type presets the analyzer for the active channel. If you want to keep the current measurement settings when changing the analyzer type, rst set the other channel to active. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-5 Selecting the Input The analyzer has four inputs; S, R, A, and B. In most spectrum measurements, the S input is used. The R, A, and B inputs can also be used for a spectrum measurement, but the dynamic range of these inputs is 20 dB worse than the S input and the attenuator is not variable. Therefore, to get the most accurate results, you should use the S input for spectrum measurements. In the spectrum analyzer mode, the S input is selected by default. In the following steps, you verify the S input is selected. In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5. Verify the S in SPECTRUM: S is underlined. (This shows that the S input is selected for a spectrum analyzer measurement.) FFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Setting the Frequency Range The CAL OUT signal (20 MHz at 020 dBm) is connected as test signal source. To see this signal on display, you must set the appropriate frequency range (in this case, 0 to 80 MHz): In the SWEEP block, press 4Start5. Press 405. 2-6 Spectrum Analyzer T our Press 4215. Press 4Stop5. Press 485 405. Press 4M/5. Verify the 20 MHz signal is displayed as shown below: Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-7 Step 3: Making a Measurement Reading the Peak Level Using the Marker Let's try to read peak signal level by using the marker: Press 4Search5. Marker appears on trace. Press SEARCH:PEAK . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Marker moves to the top of the CAL OUT signal. Read the marker value shown at the upper right of grid. 2-8 Spectrum Analyzer T our Setting the Resolution Bandwidth to See Low Level Signals To see lower level signals that are approximately the same level as the noise oor level, use a narrow resolution bandwidth (rbw) setting. Before you set the RBW, set the maximum peak level as the reference level. This increases the visibility of the lower level signal. This technique is useful when you are measuring two signals and one is very close to the noise level. Press 4Scale Ref5. Press MKR!REFERENCE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF The trace moves upward to place the tip of the maximum peak at the top line of the grid. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-9 Press 4Bw/Avg5. Press 4+5 to narrow RBW setting to 3 kHz. Now, with the noise oor level lowered by narrowing the resolution bandwidth, the second and third harmonics can be seen as shown below: 2-10 Spectrum Analyzer T our Searching for Harmonics Using the Search Function You can easily readout a harmonics' frequency and level by using the peak search function: Press 4Search5. Press SEARCH:PEAK . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press NEXT PEAK . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF The marker moves to the third harmonic. To move the marker to the second harmonic, FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF press NEXT PEAK again. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-11 Step 4: Saving and Recalling Analyzer Settings You can store the settings or measurement data on a 3.5 inch disk using the analyzer's disk drive. In this tour, you save and recall the settings that you selected previously in this tour. Preparing the Disk To use a disk, you must rst initialize it by performing the following steps: Verify the disk is not write protected. Insert the disk into the disk drive Press 4Save5. Press FILE UTILITIES . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Toggle FORMAT [DOS] to [LIF] and FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFF STOR DEV [MEMORY] to [DISK] . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press INTIALIZE DISK . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 2-12 Spectrum Analyzer T our Press INITIALIZE DISK: YES . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF The message, \INITIALIZE DISK In Progress," is displayed. After the disk is initialized, this message is turned o. Note Saving Analyzer Settings The analyzer can use either a LIF (Logical Interchange Format) or a DOS (Disk Operating System) format disk. In the following example, use \SATOUR" as the le name of the analyzer settings you want to save. Press 4Save5. Press STATE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFF The analyzer requests the le name you want to use for the saved settings. Entering the File Name Note If a keyboard is connected, you can use it for le name entry. If not, use the front-panel controls as described in the following steps. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-13 Note The le name for a LIF format can be up to 10 characters long. However, with the analyzer, the last 2 characters are reserved for a sux. Therefore, you can enter a le name of up to 8 characters. Either upper or lower case is recognized in the LIF format. A le name for a DOS format consists of a le name and an extension. The le name can be up to 8 characters long and the extension contains up to 3 characters. A period separates the extension from the le name. The extension part reserved by the analyzer. Therefore, you can enter a le name of up to 8 characters. The le name is not case sensitive in the DOS format. Turn the rotary knob to move the arrow below the rst character, S. Press SELECT LETTER . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Keep entering characters until SATOUR is entered. If you enter a wrong character, press FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF BACK SPACE to erase the character. 2-14 Spectrum Analyzer T our To complete the le name entry, press DONE . Verify the disk access indicator lights (this shows that the analyzer is saving the settings to the disk). FFFFFFFFFFFF Recalling the Analyzer Settings You can recall the le containing the saved analyzer settings anytime you want. This is true, even if you change the current analyzer settings. In this example, you will preset the analyzer and then recall the settings in the SATOUR le. Presetting Press 4Preset5. The analyzer is set to the preset conditions. However, the analyzer settings from the previous examples are stored in the SATOUR le on the disk. Spectrum Analyzer T our 2-15 Recalling the SATOUR le. Press 4Recall5. The disk access lamp lights. The stored le is listed in the softkey label FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF area. Press SATOUR_S to recall the analyzer settings that you saved. Note Sux, \_S," means the analyzer settings are saved. If you save the analyzer settings in a DOS format, an extension, \.sta," is appended to the le name. After the disk access lamp goes out, all analyzer settings that you set are recalled. You can verify them on the display. If you want to know what settings are saved, see chapter 8 of the Function Reference manual. 2-16 Spectrum Analyzer T our 3 Network Analyzer Tour In this chapter, you explore the network analyzer mode of operation. Before starting this tour, verify the analyzer is correctly installed (see chapter 1, \Installation and Setup Guide," if you need additional information). Before You Leave On The Tour On this tour, you will learn how to make a basic network analyzer measurement by measuring the transmission characteristics of a bandpass lter. Overview The following is a short summary of the tour: 1. Preparing for a measurement Turning ON the analyzer Connecting the DUT 2. Setting up the analyzer Setting the active channel Selecting the analyzer type Setting the input port Setting the frequency range Performing the automatic scaling 3. Making a calibration 4. Reading a measurement result Reading a measured value by using marker 5. Printing out the measurement result Conguring and connecting a printer Making a hardcopy of the display After you nish this tour, you will understand how to make a basic measurement in the network analyzer of operation. If you want to learn how to perform more complex tasks, see the Task Reference manual. Network Analyzer T our 3-1 Required Equipment To perform all the steps in this tour, you must have the following equipment: 4396B Network/Spectrum Analyzer Measurement Device: This tour assumes the device under test (DUT) is a 70 MHz bandpass lter THRU (BNC female-to-female connector) Two BNC cables Test Set (use either of the following) Transmission/Reection (T/R) Test Set Two N-to-BNC adapters S-Parameter Test Set Two APC7-to-N adapters Two N-to-BNC adapters HP DeskJet Printer * Parallel Interface Cable * * If you do not have an DeskJet printer and cable, skip step 5, \Printing Out the Measurement Results". Figure 3-1. Required Equipment 3-2 Network Analyzer T our Step 1: Preparing for the Measurement You must set up the test set before you turn ON the analyzer. The setup procedure for the test set is described in \Connecting a Test Set for Network Analyzer Mode" in Chapter 1. Turning ON the Analyzer Press the LINE switch. The power on self-test takes about 10 seconds. Connecting the DUT Connect the DUT as shown in Figure 3-2 or Figure 3-3. Figure 3-2. Transmission/Reection Test Set Setup Network Analyzer T our 3-3 Figure 3-3. S-Parameter Test Set Setup 3-4 Network Analyzer T our Step 2: Setting up the Analyzer Before you start the measurement, you must set up the analyzer to t your measurement requirements. For example, you must set the frequency range of the measurement. In this step, you will set the following parameters: Active channel Channel 1 Analyzer type Network analyzer mode Inputs B/R or S21 (depending on the test set) Format Log magnitude (default) Frequency Range Center 70 MHz, Span 500 kHz Setting the Active Channel Because the analyzer has two measurement channels you can have two dierent measurement setups at the same time. To change the active channel to channel 1: In the ACTIVE CHANNEL block, press 4Chan 15. Verify the Chan 1 active channel indicator lights. Network Analyzer T our 3-5 Setting the Analyzer Type To use the analyzer in the network analyzer mode, you must set the analyzer type to the network analyzer mode after selecting the active channel. In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5. Press ANALYZER TYPE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press NETWORK ANALYZER . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 3-6 Network Analyzer T our Selecting the Input The analyzer uses three inputs for network measurements (R, A, and B). Usually, the R input accepts the RF OUT signal directly, the A input receives the reection signal from the DUT, and the B input receives the transmission signal through the DUT. This example assumes you are using the T/R test set. Therefore, because you are going to measure the transmission characteristics of the DUT, select B/R to measure the ratio of B and R inputs. When you use the S-parameter test set, you can measure the forward and reverse characteristics of a 2-port device without reconnecting the inputs. In that case, select S21 for a transmission measurement in the forward direction. In the MEASUREMENT block, press 4Meas5. Press B/R . FFFFFFFFF Press Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] to select B/R for the forward direction. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Network Analyzer T our 3-7 Setting the Frequency Range To display the transmission characteristics of the 70 MHz bandpass lter, you should specify the frequency range for the measurement. In this example, set the analyzer to a 70 MHz center frequency with a 500 kHz span. In the SWEEP block, press 4Center5. Press 475 405. Press 4M/5. In the SWEEP block, press 4Span5. Press 455 405 405. Press 4k/m5. 3-8 Network Analyzer T our Performing the Automatic Scaling Often, the trace obtained after specifying the frequency range is too large or too small vertically for the grid. However, by using the automatic scaling function, you can obtain the optimum vertical setting automatically. In the MEASUREMENT block, Press 4Scale Ref5. Press AUTO SCALE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF The transmission characteristics trace of the lter is displayed as shown below: All the settings are displayed on the LCD. 1. Active channel is set to channel 1. 2. Inputs are set to B/R. 3. Format is set to log magnitude mode. 4. Center frequency is set to 70 MHz. 5. Frequency span is set to 500 kHz. Network Analyzer T our 3-9 Step 3: Making a Calibration To ensure accurate measurement results, calibrate the analyzer before making a measurement. Calibration reduces error factor due to uncertainty. In this example, you perform the response calibration to cancel a frequency response error. A THRU (BNC female-to-female connector) is necessary to perform a response calibration for the transmission measurement. Performing a Response Calibration (for the Transmission Measurement) Press 4Cal5. Press CALIBRATE MENU . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press RESPONSE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Disconnect the DUT then, connect the THRU. Press THRU . FFFFFFFFFFFF WAIT - MEASURING CAL STANDARD is displayed. 3-10 Network Analyzer T our The THRU softkey label is underlined when the measurement is completed. FFFFFFFFFFFF Press DONE: RESPONSE . FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Disconnect the THRU and reconnect the DUT. \Cor" is displayed on the left side of the display to show that the frequency response error is corrected. The measured value is now corrected for the frequency response error. Note If the trace is changed, it requires an adjustment of the scale. Perform the automatic scaling again by pressing 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Network Analyzer T our 3-11 Step 4: Reading a Measurement Result You may want to readout the measured values on the displayed trace. You can use the marker function for this purpose. The marker shows the frequency and response value at the marker point. Reading a Measured Value by Using Marker In the MARKER block, press 4Marker5. Verify a marker appears on the trace. Turn the knob to the right to move the marker toward the right. Read the values at the right top of the display. The marker has a search function that makes it easier and faster to evaluate the trace results. For example, to search for the maximum value and its frequency on the trace: 3-12 Network Analyzer T our In the MARKER block, press 4Search5. Press MAX . FFFFFFFFF The marker immediately moves to the maximum point on the displayed trace. Read the frequency and response values displayed at the upper right of the display. Network Analyzer T our 3-13 Step 5: Printing Out the Measurement Result You may want a hardcopy of the measured results for a permanent record of the measurement. The analyzer can print out the data as a snapshot of the display or as a list of values without using any external controller. Conguring and Connecting a Printer Locate the parallel interface connector on the back of the analyzer. Note For more information about printer, see the chapter 9 of the Function Reference manual. Making a Hardcopy of the LCD Display Press 4Copy5. Press PRINT [STANDARD] to execute the printing. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 3-14 Network Analyzer T our 4 Spectrum Measurement Examples This chapter contains the following spectrum measurement examples: Harmonic distortion measurement Carrier/noise ratio (c/n) measurement Tracking a drifting signal Network measurement with spectrum monitor Amplitude modulation (am) signal measurement Frequency modulation (fm) signal measurement Burst signal measurement Basic Setup To measure the spectrum of a test signal, use the S input as shown in Figure 4-1. Figure 4-1. Basic Connection for Spectrum Measurement The spectrum of input signals can also be monitored at the A, B, and R inputs. The use of the spectrum monitor function is described later in this chapter. Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-1 Harmonic Distortion Measurement The analyzer can simultaneously display the dierence values between the fundamental and harmonics up to the seventh harmonic. The test signal used in this example is the output of an amplier with a 20 MHz sine wave input signal. Test Signal and Test Device The following test signal and device are used in this example. Input Test Signal Frequency: 100 MHz Test Device Amplier Measurement Setup Connection Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 4-2. Figure 4-2. Harmonics Measurement Setup 4-2 Spectrum Measurement Examples Analyzer Settings Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S input Start frequency 50 MHz Stop frequency 1.8 GHz 4Chan 15 Key Strokes (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Press 4Start5 50 4M/5 Press 4Stop5 1.8 4G/n5 Multiple Peak Search and Marker List For Harmonic Distortion Measurement Harmonic components can be read (to 5 digits resolution) by moving the marker to each harmonic. The marker and seven sub-markers can be moved to peaks automatically. Amplitude and frequency of all markers on the trace are read at the same time. The following procedure displays the value of the fundamental and the harmonics: 1. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU TRACKING 1MKR to turn the tracking 1marker on. The tracking 1marker always tracks the marker. 2. Press 4Search5 SEARCH TRK on OFF to ON off to turn the search tracking on. 3. Press 4Search5 MULTIPLE PEAKS SEARCH:PEAKS ALL to move the marker to the fundamental and turn on and move the sub-markers to individual harmonics. 4. Press 4Utility5 MKR LIST on OFF to ON off to turn marker list on. The 1marker and all sub-marker values are displayed as shown in Figure 4-3. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-3. Using Multiple Peak Search and Marker List to Measure Harmonic Distortion 5. Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS , when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-3 C/N Measurement C/N is the ratio of the carrier to the noise. The analyzer can measure noise level directly and read out the C/N using the marker functions. Do the \Harmonic Distortion Measurement" before doing this measurement. This example uses the same test signal used in the \Harmonic Distortion Measurement" example. Test Signal Measurement Setup Connection This example assumes that the connections and instrument settings made in the \Harmonic Distortion Measurement" example are still in eect. Analyzer Settings Change the following settings for this measurement: Press 4Center5 100 4M/5 and 4Span5 100 4k/m5 to zoom to the fundamental on the display. Fixed 1Marker and Noise Format for C/N Measurement 1. Press 4Search5 MAX to search for the carrier. NNNNNNNNNNN 2. Press 4Scale Ref5 MKR!REFERENCE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR 10 4k/m5 to put 1marker on the carrier and to move the marker to the 10 kHz oset point. 4. Press 4Bw/Avg5 VIDEO BW 10 4215. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5. Press 4Utility5 NOISE FORM on OFF to ON off . The analyzer displays the C/N ratio with the unit of \dB/Hz" the at upper right of the display as shown in Figure 4-4. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-4. Using Markers and Noise Format to Measure C/N Ratio 4-4 Spectrum Measurement Examples 6. Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Tracking a Drifting Signal When measuring a drifting signal, the analyzer can lose the signal. However, the analyzer can track a drifting signal by changing the sweep parameter values sweep by sweep. Test Signal Measurement Setup The following test signal is used in this example. Frequency: 900 MHz (not stable) Connection Connect the test signal to the S input. Analyzer Settings 1. Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S input Center frequency 900 MHz Span frequency 20 kHz 4Chan 15 Key Strokes (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Press 4Center5 900 4M/5 Press 4Span5 20 4k/m5 2. Set channel 2 the same as channel 1 as follows: Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 2 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S input Center frequency 900 MHz Span frequency 20 kHz 4Chan 25 Key Strokes Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Press 4Center5 900 4M/5 Press 4Span5 20 4k/m5 Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-5 Tracking an Unstable Signal In this example, the signal is drifting. 1. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. Press 4Chan 15. 3. Press 4Marker5 to turn the marker on. 4. Use the knob to bring the marker close to the signal you want to track. 5. Press 4Search5 SIGNAL TRK on OFF to turn the signal track on. As the signal drifts, the center frequency automatically changes to bring the signal and the marker to the center of the display. Figure 4-5 shows a display when signal track is ON at channel 1. Figure 4-6 shows a display after the analyzer sweeps a few times. At channel 1, the center frequency has been changed to maintain the drifting signal at the center of the display. Channel 2 shows that signal frequency has drifted to a higher frequency. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-5. Display When Starting Signal Track Figure 4-6. Display After Signal Has Drifted 4-6 Spectrum Measurement Examples Network Measurement with Spectrum Monitor During a network measurement, crosstalk or leakage (such as noise) from an adjacent circuit can change the measurement results. To detect the eect of these spurious inputs, the analyzer can monitor the spectrum of the input signal at the R, A, and B inputs. Figure 4-7. Inuence on Network Measurement by Leakage from an Adjacent Circuit Measurement Setup In this example, the network measurement circuit has leakage from an adjacent signal source. The frequency of the signal source is 240 MHz and the DUT is a 250 MHz bandpass lter. Connection Figure 4-8. Network Measurement With Spectrum Monitor Setup Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-7 Analyzer Settings Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S21 (or B/R) measurement Select LOG MAG format Center frequency 250 MHz Span frequency 200 MHz 4Chan 15 Key Strokes (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] 4Format5 LOG MAG FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Sweep Block Press 4Center5 250 4M/5 Press 4Span5 200 4M/5 Performing Calibration Perform a frequency response calibration for this measurement as follows: 1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATE MENU RESPONSE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. Connect a THRU calibration standard between the measurement cables in place of the DUT. 3. Press THRU to perform a frequency response calibration data measurement. 4. Press DONE:RESPONSE . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically set to CORRECTION ON off .) NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Network Measurement 1. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE to t scale to the trace. 2. Press 4Search5 PEAK to put the marker on an unknown peak of the trace. The transmission measurement result is displayed as shown in Figure 4-9. NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-9. Transmission Measurement Result (Inuenced by Leakage) 4-8 Spectrum Measurement Examples The measurement result shows an unknown peak at 240 MHz. Monitoring the Leakage Signal at the B Input Using the Spectrum Monitor During the spectrum measurement sweep, the network measurement is turned o. To monitor the input signal at the B input: 1. Press 4Chan 25. 2. Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER B . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNN 3. Press 4Center5 250 4M/5. 4. Press 4Span5 200 4M/5. Figure 4-10. Spectrum Monitoring Result at the B Input The spectrum measurement result shows the leakage signal at 240 MHz. 5. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to perform and display both the network and the spectrum measurements at the same time. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-11. Dual Display of Network and Spectrum Measurement Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-9 AM Signal Measurement In this example, the following parameters for AM signal measurement are derived: Carrier amplitude (Ec ) and frequency (fc ) Modulating frequency (fm ) and modulation index (m) Test Signal The following test signal is used in this example: AM Signal Frequency (fc ): 100 MHz Modulating signal frequency (fm ): 10 kHz Modulation index (m): 15% Measurement Setup Connection Connect the test signal source to the S input. Analyzer Settings Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S input Center frequency 100 MHz Span frequency 200 kHz 4Chan 15 Key Strokes (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Press 4Center5 100 4M/5 Press 4Span5 200 4k/m5 Carrier Amplitude and Frequency Measurement Using the Marker Press 4Scale Ref5 and enter the reference value if the trace needs to be rescaled. 1. Press 4Search5 to turn the marker on. 2. Press MAX to search for the carrier signal. The carrier amplitude and frequency are displayed in the upper right corner as shown in Figure 4-12. NNNNNNNNNNN 4-10 Spectrum Measurement Examples Figure 4-12. Carrier Amplitude and Frequency of AM Signal The marker shows that the carrier amplitude (Ec ) is 019.949 dBm and frequency (fc ) is 100 MHz. Modulating Frequency and Modulation Index Measurement Using 1Marker 3. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN 4. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK NEXT PEAK to search for a sideband. The oset value from the carrier is displayed as the marker sweep parameter value shown in Figure 4-13. This value is the modulation frequency. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-13. Modulating Frequency of AM Signal The 1marker shows that the sideband amplitude value relative to the carrier is 019.76 dB. The modulation index (m) can be derived from the following equation: 20 m = 2 2 100 1Mkr = 19:45% where 1Mkr is the 1marker sweep parameter value shown in Figure 4-13. Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-11 FM Signal Measurement This example describes how to derive the frequency deviation (1fpeak ) value. Test Signal The following test signals are used in this example: Wide band FM Signal Narrow band FM Signal Carrier frequency: 100 MHz. Modulating frequency: 1 kHz. Frequency deviation: 1 MHz. Carrier frequency: 100 MHz. Modulating frequency: 1 kHz. Frequency deviation: 5 kHz. Measurement Setup Connection Connect the test signal to the S input. Analyzer Settings Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S input RBW 1 kHz Center frequency 100 MHz Span frequency 5 MHz 4Chan 15 Key Strokes (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S 4Rw/Avg5 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) 1 4k/m5 Press 4Center5 100 4M/5 Press 4Span5 5 4M/5 Frequency Deviation of Wide Band FM Signal Press 4Scale Ref5 and enter reference value if the trace needs to be rescaled. Frequency Deviation 1. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK NEXT PEAK . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 4-12 Spectrum Measurement Examples Figure 4-14. Wide Band FM Signal Measurement The frequency deviation (1fpeak ) can be derived from the following equation: j1Mkrj 1fpeak = 2 where 1Mkr is the marker sweep parameter value shown in Figure 4-14. In this example, the frequency deviation is about 981 kHz. Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Carrier Level and Modulating Frequency The carrier level and modulating frequency can be derived using a method similar to the AM signal measurement. In this example, the zooming function is used to measure the carrier and the adjacent signal. 4. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5. Press 4Marker5 to put the maker on the carrier frequency. 6. Press 4Marker!5 MORE ZOOMING APERTURE 0.2 4215 . NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 7. Press CROSS CHAN on OFF to ON off . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 8. Press RETURN MKR ZOOM to zoom up to the carrier signal. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 9. Press 4Chan 25. 10. Press 4Scale Ref5 and enter reference vale if the trace needs to be rescaled. 11. Press 4Marker5 100 4M/5 to move the marker to the career frequency. The carrier amplitude can be read as the marker value. 12. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR to put the 1maker on the carrier. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN 13. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK LEFT PEAK (or RIGHT PEAK ) to move the marker to the sideband. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-13 Figure 4-15. Zooming Carrier Signal of FM Signal Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN ON off to on OFF and then 4Chan 15 when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement 1. Change the test signal source to the narrow band FM signal. 2. Press 4Chan 15 4Span5 100 4k/m5 4Bw/Avg5 10 4k/m5. The spectrum of the narrow band FM signal is displayed. 3. Press 4Scale Ref5 010 4215. Figure 4-16. Narrow Band FM Signal Measurement 4. Press 4Chan 25 4Span5 100 4k/m5 4Bw/Avg5 10 4k/m5 4Scale Ref5 010 4215 as same as channel 1. 5. Press 4Display5 DATA HOLD [OFF] MAX and then wait for a few sweeps until the trace is stable. The maximum envelope is displayed. 6. Press 4Display5 DATA!MEMORY DATA and MEMORY to store and display the maximum envelope. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 4-14 Spectrum Measurement Examples 7. Press DATA HOLD [MAX] MIN and then wait for a few sweeps until the trace is stable. The minimum envelope is displayed. 8. Press 4Marker5 MKR ON [DATA] to [MEMORY] . Then turn the knob to move the marker to the desired position to measure the frequency deviation. 9. Press 1MODE MENU FIXED 1MKR . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 10. Press RETURN MKR ON [MEMORY] to [DATA] . Then turn the knob to move the marker to the position that is the same value as the xed 1marker value. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-17. Maximum and Minimum Envelopes of Narrow Band FM Signal The frequency deviation (1fpeak ) can be derived from the same equation that is used for the wide band FM signal. In this example, 1fpeak can be derived to be 5 kHz. 11. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off . Both the spectrum and its envelope are displayed on the split display. 12. Press MORE SPLIT DISP ON off to on OFF . The analyzer superimposes the spectrum on the envelopes as shown in Figure 4-18. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-18. Superimposing Spectrum and Envelopes Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-15 Burst Signal Measurement This measurement requires that option 1D6 be installed in the analyzer. A summary of how to determine gate delay and gate length settings for dierent signals is contained at the end of this example. Test Signal The following test signal is used in this example: Pulse period (pri) = 100 s (pulse repetition frequency prf is 10 kHz ) Duty ratio is 80% ( pulse width is 80 s) RF frequency is 960 MHz Measurement Setup Connection Setup the analyzer as shown in Figure 4-19. Analyzer Settings Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select Spectrum Analyzer Select S input Set RBW to 100 kHz Center frequency 960 MHz Span frequency 10 MHz Figure 4-19. Burst Signal Measurement Setup Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Key Strokes 4Chan 15 (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER 4Meas5 SPECTRUM:S FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Press 4Bw/Avg5 100 4k/m5 Press 4Center5 960 4M/5 Press 4Span5 10 4M/5 4-16 Spectrum Measurement Examples Gated Sweep for Burst Signal Measurement Figure 4-20. Burst Signal Measurement Result Using Normal Sweep 1. Press 4Trigger5 TRIGGER:[FREE RUN] GATE [LEVEL] EDGE to select the trigger mode to the edge mode. 2. Press GATE DELAY 30 4M/5 for setup time of the RBW. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press GATE LENGTH 30 4M/5. The analyzer displays only the RF signal spectrum as shown in Figure 4-21. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-21. Burst Signal Measurement Using Gated Sweep Zero Span for Time Domain Measurement Using zero span, the analyzer can show the envelope of the burst signal. The repetitive sampling mode can sample a faster signal. 1. Press 4Trigger5 SWEEP:HOLD to keep the channel 1 trace. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press 4Chan 25. Spectrum Measurement Examples 4-17 4. Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE SPECTRUM ANALYZER . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5. Press 4SPAN5 ZERO SPAN . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 6. Press TRIGGER:[GATE] EXTERNAL . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 7. Press 4SWEEP5 SAMPLING NORM rept to norm REPT to change the sampling mode to the repetitive sampling mode. 8. Press NUMBER of POINTS 101 4215. Then press SWEEP TIME 550 4M/5. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 4-22. Burst Signal Spectrum and Test Signal Envelope How to Determine Gate Delay and Gate Length Gate Delay Because the RBW lter requires setup time for the lter to stabilize after triggering, the gate delay must meet the following limit: In this example, RBW = 100 kHz, 2 Td > RBW = 20 therefore, the delay time Td in this example must meet the following condition: Td > 20 Td > 2 1002103 Gate Length Because the summation of gate delay Td and the gate length Tg must be less than the pulse length ( ), the gate length must meet the following limit: Td + Tg < In this example, = 80, Tg < 80 0 Td If Td is set to 30 in this example, Tg must meet the following limit: Tg < 50 For more information on the gated sweep and the repetitive sampling mode, see the Function Reference manual. 4-18 Spectrum Measurement Examples 5 Network Measurement Examples This chapter contains the following network measurement examples: Transmission Measurement 3 dB bandwidth Ripple or atness Magnitude and phase characteristics Expanded phase characteristics Electrical length measurement Phase distortion measurement Deviation from linear phase Group delay Reection measurement Return loss Reection coecient Standing wave ration (swr) S-parameters measurement Impedance and admittance measurement List sweep Sweep time reduction Dynamic range enhancement Filter testing using limit line Gain compression measurement Basic Setup Example DUT All the examples described in this chapter use the 85046A/B S-parameter Test Set to connect to the device under test (dut). This approach simplies the measurement setup. The DUT used in the examples in this chapter is a dielectric bandpass lter with a 836 MHz center frequency. If you use your own DUT, modify the parameter values (measurement frequency range, signal level, etc.) as appropriate for your DUT. Network Measurement Examples 5-1 Measuring Transmission Characteristics of a Filter Insertion loss and gain are ratios of the output to input signals. The following procedure measures the insertion loss and gain of a 836 MHz dielectric bandpass lter. This measurement can be used to obtain the key lter parameters. Measurement Setup Connection Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 5-1. Analyzer Settings Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement block Select Network Analyzer Figure 5-1. Transmission Measurement Setup Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Key Strokes 4Chan 15(default) Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] 4Format5 LOG MAG (default) 4Bw/Avg5 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Select S21 (or B/R) measurement Select LOG MAG format IF BW 3 kHz 3 4k/m5 Sweep block Center frequency 836 MHz Span frequency 200 MHz Press 4Center5 836 4M/5 Press 4Span5 200 4M/5 Performing Calibration Perform a frequency response calibration for this measurement as follows: 1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATE MENU RESPONSE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5-2 Network Measurement Examples 2. Connect a THRU calibration standard between the measurement cables in place of the DUT. 3. Press THRU to perform a frequency response calibration data measurement. 4. Press DONE:RESPONSE . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically set to CORRECTION ON off .) NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Measurement Replace the THRU standard with the DUT. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled. Note that the display shows the complete response of the bandpass lter under test. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Read Out Insertion Loss Using the Marker 1. Press 4Search5 MAX to move the marker to the maximum value of trace. The marker reads out the insertion loss and displays it at the upper right of the display. 2. Press 4Marker5 1MARKER MENU 1MKR to turn on the 1Marker (at the position of the marker). 3. Enter 60 4M/5 to move the marker to the point oset from the 1marker. The 1marker value shows the out-of-band rejection. NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-2. Response of a Dielectric Filter Network Measurement Examples 5-3 3 dB Bandwidth The analyzer calculates the bandwidth of the DUT between two equal power levels. In this example, it calculates the 03 dB bandwidth relative to the lter center frequency. 1. Press 4Marker5. Then use the rotary knob to move the marker to the center of the lter passband. 2. Press 4Search5 WIDTH [OFF] WIDTH on OFF to ON off . The analyzer calculates the 03 dB bandwidth, center frequency, Q (Quality Factor), insertion loss, and dierences between the center frequency and the cuto frequencies of the DUT. It then lists the results at the upper right hand of the display. Sub-marker 1 on the trace shows the passband center frequency and sub-markers 2 and 3 show the location of the 03 dB cuto points. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-3. Using the Marker to Determine 3 dB Bandwidth To have the analyzer calculate the bandwidth between other power levels, select WIDTH VALUE and enter the number (for example, enter 06 4215 for 06 dB). NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Press 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5-4 Network Measurement Examples Ripple or Flatness Passband ripple (or atness) is the variation in insertion loss over a specied portion of the passband. 1. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to display channel 2 below channel 1. 2. Press 4Sweep5 COUPLED CH ON off to on OFF . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press 4Search5 MAX . NNNNNNNNNNN 4. Press 4Marker!5 CROSS CHAN on OFF to ON off . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5. Press MORE ZOOMING APERTURE 20 4215 RETURN MKR ZOOM . NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 6. Press 4Chan 25 4Search5 MAX . Then press 4Scale Ref5 MKR!REFERENCE SCALE/DEV 0.5 425 to magnify the trace to resolve the ripple. NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 7. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK . Then press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1MKR . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN 8. Press 4Search5 SEARCH:PEAK PEAK DEF MENU PEAK PLRTY POS neg to pos NEG RETURN . Then press SEARCH:PEAK . The passband ripple is automatically given as the peak-to-peak variation between the markers. The ripple value is displayed at the upper right of the display. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-4. Using Peak Search to Determine Ripple Press 4Chan 15 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS , and 4Chan 25 4Marker5 PRESET MKRS when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Network Measurement Examples 5-5 Measuring Phase Response A two input ratio measurement can also provide information about the phase shift of a network. The analyzer can translate this information into a related parameter, group delay. With the same connection, instrument settings, and calibration used in the previous example (see \Measurement Setup" in \Measuring Transmission Characteristics of a Filter"), make the following changes: 1. Press 4Chan 15 4Sweep5 COUPLED CH on OFF to ON off to couple sweep parameters of channel 2 to channel 1. 2. Press 4Chan 25 4Format5 PHASE to display the phase response on channel 2. If the trace needs to be rescaled, press 4Scale Ref5 and AUTO SCALE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-5 shows the phase response of the bandpass lter. Notice the linear phase shift through the passband and the rapid uctuations that occur outside this region. The random phase of the broadband noise oor causes the spurious out-of-band response. This format displays phase over the range of 0180 to +180 degrees. As phase increases beyond these values, a sharp 360 degree transition occurs in the display as the trace \wraps" between +180 and 0180 degrees. This wrap causes the characteristic \sawtooth" display usually seen on devices with linearly increasing (or decreasing) phase responses. Figure 5-5. Amplitude and Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter 5-6 Network Measurement Examples Using the Expanded Phase Mode The analyzer can display phase beyond 6180 degrees. Press 4Format5 MORE EXPANDED PHASE . Then press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE . The phase is displayed with \no wrap" (see Figure 5-6). NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-6. Expanded Phase Mode Press 4Format5 PHASE when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Network Measurement Examples 5-7 Measuring Electrical Length The analyzer electronically implements a function similar to the mechanical \line stretchers" of earlier analyzers. The analyzer's electrical length correction function simulates a variable length lossless transmission line. This simulated line can be added or removed from a receiver's input to compensate for interconnecting cables or other connections. In this example, this function is used to measure the electrical length of a test device. Measurement Setup With the same connection, instrument settings, and calibration used in the previous example (see \Measurement Setup" in \Measuring Transmission Characteristics of a Filter"), make the following changes: 1. Press 4Chan 15 4Format5 PHASE to display the phase trace on channel 1. 2. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN ON off to on OFF . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press 4Span5 50 4M/5 to zoom the passband trace on the display. Measurement If the trace needs to be rescaled, press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-7. Phase Response of a Dielectric Filter Over a 50 MHz Span Electrical Length Adjustment The linearly decreasing phase is due to the DUT's electrical length. This length is measured by electronically adding length to the R input to compensate for it. 1. Press 4Chan 25 to activate channel 2. 2. Press 4Marker5. Then move the marker to any of the points where the sloping trace crosses the center. Place the marker on the sloping portion of the trace, not on the vertical phase \wrap-around." 5-8 Network Measurement Examples 3. Press 4Scale Ref5 ELEC DELAY MENU MARKER!DELAY . The analyzer adds enough electrical length to match the group delay present at the marker frequency (group delay is discussed in the next measurement example). 4. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to display the results before and after the adjustment. The results are shown in Figure 5-8. 5. To display the amount of electrical length added, press 4Scale Ref5 ELEC DELAY MENU ELECTRICAL DELAY . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN You can also determine the electrical length by pressing 4Scale Ref5 ELEC DELAY MENU ELECTRICAL DELAY . Then turn the rotary knob until the displayed trace is at (see Figure 5-8). It may take many revolutions of the knob before the trace is at. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-8. Electrical Length Adjustment Network Measurement Examples 5-9 Measuring Phase Distortion For many networks, the amount of insertion phase is not nearly as important as the linearity of the phase shift over a range of frequencies. The analyzer can measure this linearity and express it in two dierent ways: Directly (as deviation from linear phase). As group delay (a derived value). Measurement Setup This example assumes the measurement settings made in \Measuring Electrical Length" (the previous example) are still in eect. Deviation from Linear Phase By adding electrical length required to atten the phase response, you have already removed the linear phase shift caused by the DUT. The remaining response is the deviation from linear phase. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN ON off to on OFF . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-9. Deviation From Linear Phase Press 4Scale Ref5 ELEC DELAY MENU ELECTRICAL DELAY 0 4215 when you are nished with this measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Group Delay Measurement The phase linearity of many devices is specied in terms of group delay or envelope delay. This is especially true of telecommunications components and systems. Group delay is the dierence in propagation time through a device as a function of frequency. It is measured as a ratio of phase change over a sample delta frequency as follows: 1 Group Delay = 0 3601F Where: 1 is phase change [deg] 5-10 Network Measurement Examples 1F (commonly called the \aperture") is the frequency dierence that gives 1 To display group delay, press 4Format5 DELAY . If the trace needs to be rescaled, press 4Scale Ref5 and AUTO SCALE . The default aperture is very narrow, so the group delay measurement displayed is very noisy. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Smoothing Group Delay Trace Figure 5-10. Group Delay By setting a wide aperture, rapid changes in phase are averaged and have less aect on the measurement. However, some loss in measurement detail occurs with wide apertures. Press 4Bw/Avg5 GROUP DELAY APERTURE . The value of the aperture is shown at the upper left of the display. Press 4*5 to increase the aperture (the display becomes less noisy). NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Where to Find More Information For more information on group delay principles, see the Task Reference manual. Network Measurement Examples 5-11 Reection Measurement When making a reection measurement, the analyzer monitors the signal going to the DUT and uses it as the reference. It compares the reected signal from the DUT to the reference signal. The ratio of the incident and reected signals is the reection coecient of the DUT or, when expressed in decibels, the return loss. Reection measurements require the connection of a directional device, such as a directional coupler, to separate the power reected from the DUT. This separation is necessary so that it can be measured independently of the incident power (see the following gure). Figure 5-11. Reection Measurement Multi-Port Test Devices When the device has more than one port, connect high-quality terminations (loads) to all unused DUT ports to terminate them into their characteristic impedance (usually 50 or 75 ). If this is not done, reections o the unused ports will cause measurement errors. The S-parameter test set automatically switches the termination at the unused port for each S-parameter measurement. When using a transmission/reection test set, terminate the unused input port of the analyzer with a high quality load. The signal reected from the DUT is measured as a ratio with the incident signal. It can be expressed as a reection coecient, a return loss, or as SWR. These measurements are mathematically dened as: 5-12 Network Measurement Examples return loss(dB) = 020 log() reected power reection coecient = incident power = (magnitude only) = 0 (magnitude and phase) = S11 or S22 (magnitude and phase) 1+ SWR = 10 Measurement Setup Connection Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 5-12. Analyzer Settings Desired Setting Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Select network analyzer Select S11 Select LOG MAG format Center frequency 836 MHz Span frequency 100 MHz Figure 5-12. Reection Measurement Setup Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Key Strokes Press 4Chan 15 (default) Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER Press 4Meas5 Refl:FWD S11 [A/R] (default) Press 4Format5 LOG MAG (default) Press 4Center5 836 4M/5 Press 4Span5 100 4M/5 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Sweep block Performing Calibration Perform an S11 , 1-port calibration for this measurement. The following procedure is for using 7 mm standards (see the Task Reference manual for using other standard devices). Network Measurement Examples 5-13 1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATE MENU S11 1-PORT . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. Connect the OPEN standard to port 1. Then press (S11):OPEN . (The softkey label OPEN is underlined when the measurement is completed.) 3. Connect the SHORT standard to port 1. Then press SHORT . (The NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN softkey label SHORT is underlined when the measurement is completed.) 4. Connect the LOAD standard to port 1. Then press LOAD . (The softkey label LOAD is underlined when the measurement is completed.) 5. Press DONE:1-PORT CAL . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN set to ON off .) NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Note The next example \S-Parameters Measurement" uses the calibration corrections you just completed. Do not change the calibration settings before doing the example. Measurement Connect the DUT to the test set. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Return Loss and Reection Coecient The return loss characteristics are displayed in the Log Mag format in Figure 5-13. The value inside the passband is greater than outside the passband. A large value for return loss corresponds to a small reected signal just as a large value for insertion loss corresponds to a small transmitted signal. Figure 5-13. Return Loss To display the same data in terms of reection coecient, press 4Format5 LIN MAG . This redisplays the existing measurement in a linear NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5-14 Network Measurement Examples magnitude format that varies from 0=1.00 at the top of the display (100% reection) to 0.00 at the bottom of the display (perfect match). Standing Wave Ratio To display the reection measurement data as standing wave ratio (swr), press 4Format5 SWR . The analyzer reformats the display in the unitless measure of SWR (with SWR = 1, a perfect match, at the bottom of the display). NNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-14. SWR Network Measurement Examples 5-15 S-Parameters Measurement S-parameters S11 and S22 are no dierent from the measurements made in the previous section. S11 is the complex reection coecient of the DUT's input. S22 is the complex reection coecient of the DUT's output. In both cases, all unused ports must be properly terminated. To display the trace on the polar chart, press 4Format5 POLAR . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN The results of a typical S11 measurement is shown in Figure 5-15. Each point on the polar trace corresponds to a particular value of both magnitude and phase. Polar Chart Shows Magnitude and Phase Magnitude The center of the circle represents a reection coecient 0 of 0, that is, a perfect match or no reected signal. The outermost circumference of the scale represents a 0 = 1.00, or 100 % reection. Phase The 3 o'clock position corresponds to zero phase angle, that is, the reected signal is at the same phase as the incident signal. Phase dierences of 90, 180, and 270 degrees correspond to the 12, 9, and 6 o'clock positions on the polar display, respectively. Data Readout Using the Marker Figure 5-15. S11 on Polar Chart Press 4Marker5 and use the knob to position the marker at any desired point on the trace. Then read the frequency, magnitude, and phase in the upper right hand corner of the display. Or, enter the frequency of interest from the data entry key pad to read the magnitude and phase at that point. To read the marker data in logarithmic, linear, real/imaginary, impedance (R+jX), admittance (G+jB), or SWR/phase formats, press 4Utility5 SMTH/POLAR MENU and select the desired format. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5-16 Network Measurement Examples Impedance Measurement The amount of power reection from a device is directly related to the impedance values of both the device and the measuring system. In fact, each value of the reection coecient (0) uniquely denes a device impedance. For example: 0=0 occurs when the device and test set impedance are the same. A short circuit has a reection coecient of 0=1 6 180 (=01). An open circuit has a reection coecient of 0=1 6 0 (=1). Every other value for 0 also corresponds uniquely to a complex device impedance, according to the equation 1+0 Zn = 100 Where Zn is the DUT impedance normalized to (that is, divided by) the measuring system's characteristic impedance (usually 50 or 75 ). The network analyzer has a default impedance of 50 . To set the impedance to 75 , press 4Cal5 MORE SET Z0 . The network analyzer uses the formula above to convert the reection coecient measurement data to impedance data. 1. Press 4Format5 SMITH . The display shows the complex impedance of the DUT over the frequency range selected. 2. Press 4Marker5 to turn on the marker. Then use the knob to read the resistive and reactive components of the complex impedance at any point along the trace. The maker displays a complex impedance readout. NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-16. Impedance Measurement Network Measurement Examples 5-17 Admittance Measurement 1. Press 4Format5 MORE ADMITTANCE CHART . The display shows the complex impedance of the DUT over the frequency range selected. 2. Use the knob to read the resistive and reactive components of the complex impedance at any point along the trace. The maker displays complex impedance readout. NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-17. Admittance Measurement 5-18 Network Measurement Examples List Sweep The analyzer has a list sweep function that can sweep frequency according to a predened sweep segment list. Each sweep segment is independent. For the network analyzer mode, each segment can have a dierent number of sweep points, power level, and IF bandwidth value. For the spectrum analyzer mode, each segment can have a dierent number of points and RBW. A segment looks like a normal sweep setting. The list sweep function can combine up to 31 segments settings into 1 sweep. The analyzer can have two dierent sweep lists. One list for the network analyzer and the other list for the spectrum analyzer. When both channels are set to the same analyzer mode, both channels use the same list. This example describes the following two applications: Sweep time reduction for lter testing in the network analyzer mode (including the setup procedure). Dynamic range enhancement in the network analyzer mode. Sweep Time Reduction The following example creates a list sweep to measure a lter that has a 836 MHz center frequency and a 50 MHz bandwidth. This example uses the list sweep to reduce the sweep time by setting coarse sweep points for the rejection band and the ne sweep points for the passband. Analyzer Settings Desired Setting Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Select Network Analyzer Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Key Strokes 4Chan 15 (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] 4Format5 FORMAT:LOG MAG FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Select S21 (or B/R) measurement Select LOG MAG format (default) Network Measurement Examples 5-19 Creating a Sweep List Perform the following procedure to create a list (see the graph below): 1. Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE MENU EDIT LIST . 2. To edit the list, press EDIT . 3. For segment 1: Press 4Start5 736 4M/5. Press 4Stop5 796 4M/5. Press NUMBER of POINTS 30 4215 SEGMENT DONE . 4. For segment 2: Press ADD . Press 4Stop5 876 4M/5. Press NUMBER of POINTS 120 4215 SEGMENT DONE . 5. For segment 3: Press ADD . Press 4Stop5 936 4M/5. Press NUMBER of POINTS 30 4215 SEGMENT DONE . 6. Press LIST DONE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN The segments do not have to be entered in any particular order. The analyzer automatically sorts them in increasing order of sweep parameter value. Performing List Sweep Figure 5-18. Sweep List Edit Display Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE MENU LIST FREQ to perform the list sweep measurement. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 5-20 Network Measurement Examples Dynamic Range Enhancement Figure 5-19 shows the sweep list modied from the list of the previous example to improve dynamic range. Segments 1 and 2 have a narrow IF bandwidth and a higher power level for the stopband of the lter. Segment 3 has a wide IF bandwidth and lower power level for passband. 1. Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE MENU EDIT LIST . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. To modify segment 1, press SEGMENT 1 4215 EDIT . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN 3. Press POWER 15 4215 IFBW 10 4215 SEGMENT DONE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 4. To modify segments 2 and 3, see Figure 5-19 for the values and modify them in a manner similar to steps 2 and 3. 5. Press LIST DONE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-19. Dynamic Range Enhancement The 4Save5 key can save sweep lists along with all other current instrument settings (see the Task Reference). Network Measurement Examples 5-21 Filter Testing Using Limit Lines The analyzer has limit line/testing functions for go/no-go testing. The limit lines dene upper and lower limits. The limit testing functions compare the measured data to the limit lines and indicate the result. The following example is a practical method for setting up limit lines to test a bandpass lter. Example of Limit Lines For Filter Testing This example creates limit lines to test a 70 MHz crystal bandpass lter. Analyzer Settings Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Desired Setting Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement Block Sweep Block Select S21 (or B/R) measurement Select LOG MAG format Center frequency 836 MHz Span frequency 100 MHz Number of points 401 4Chan 15 Key Strokes (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] 4Format5 LOG MAG FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF (default) Press 4Center5 836 4M/5 Press 4Span5 100 4M/5 Press 4MENU5 NUMBER of POINTS 401 4215 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Creating Limit Lines Perform the following procedure (see Figure 5-20): 5-22 Network Measurement Examples 1. Press 4System5 LIMIT MENU LIMIT LINE on OFF to ON off . 2. Press EDIT LIMIT LINE EDIT . 3. For segment 1: Press SWP PARAM VALUE 806 4M/5. Press UPPER LIMIT 055 4215. Press LOWER LIMIT 0120 4215 DONE . 4. For segment 2: Press ADD SWP PARAM 821 4M/5. Press UPPER LIMIT 01 4215. Press LOWER LIMIT 015 4215 DONE . 5. For segment 3: Press ADD SWP PARAM 851 4M/5 DONE . 6. For segment 4: Press ADD SWP PARAM 866 4M/5. Press UPPER LIMIT 055 4215. Press LOWER LIMIT 0120 4215 DONE . 7. Press DONE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN The limit line segments do not have to be entered in any particular order. The analyzer automatically sorts them and lists them on the display in the increasing order of sweep parameter value. Performing Limit Test Figure 5-20. Editing the Limit Lines NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Press LIMIT TEST on OFF to ON off to perform limit testing using the limit lines you just edited. When the limit lines and testing are turned on, an out-of-limit test result is normally indicated in six ways: With a FAIL message on the screen. With a beep (on/o selectable). With an asterisk in tabular listings of data (under 4Copy5). With a bit in GPIB event status register B. Network Measurement Examples 5-23 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN With a bit in the I/O port on the rear panel. With the GPIB commands OUTPLIMF?, OUTPLIMIL?, and OUTPLIMM?. Separated Limit Lines Figure 5-21 shows separated limit lines and an editing table example. This example can be used for lter testing that only requires insertion loss limits. Dummy limit values (+5000 for upper and 05000 for lower, for example) should be entered for the no limit areas. Figure 5-21. Separated Limit Lines Limits are only checked at each of the actual measured data points. It is possible for a device to be out of specication without a limit test failure indication if you do not select sucient sweep parameter points within a segment. By combining the limit test and the list sweep function, high throughput limit line/testing can be performed for go/no-go testing. For detailed information on the list sweep, see \List Sweep" in this chapter. Limit line information is lost if you press 4Preset5 or turn o the power. However, the 4Save5 keys can save the limit line information along with all other current instrument settings when the limit lines are on. See the Task Reference manual for details. 5-24 Network Measurement Examples Gain Compression Measurement An important measure of active circuits is how well they handle a signal frequency with a varying input amplitude. By using the power sweep function in the network analyzer mode, measurements such as gain compression or automatic gain control slope can be made. Measurement Setup Connection Set up the analyzer as shown in Figure 5-22. Analyzer Settings Desired Settings Active Channel Select channel 1 Block Measurement block Select Network Analyzer Figure 5-22. Gain Compression Measurement Setup Press 4Preset5. Then set the analyzer's controls as follows: Key Strokes 4Chan 15 (default) FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Press 4Meas5 ANALYZER TYPE NETWORK ANALYZER Press 4Meas5 Trans:FWD S21 [B/R] 4Format5 LOG MAG 4Bw/Avg5 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Select S21 (or B/R) measurement Select LOG MAG format IF BW 10 kHz (default) 10 4k/m5 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFF Sweep block Select power sweep Start power 020 dBm Stop power 0 dBm Press 4Sweep5 SWEEP TYPE POWER Press 4Start5 020 4215 Press 4Stop5 0 4215 Network Measurement Examples 5-25 Performance Calibration Perform a power response calibration for this measurement as follows: 1. Press 4Cal5 CALIBRATION MENU RESPONSE . NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 2. Connect a THRU calibration standard between the measurement cables in place of the DUT (see Figure 5-22). 3. Press THRU to perform a power response calibration data measurement. 4. Press DONE:RESPONSE . ( CORRECTION on OFF is automatically set to CORRECTION ON off .) NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Measurement 5. Replace the THRU standard with the DUT. 6. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 7. Press 4Search5 MAX to move the marker to the maximum point on the trace. 8. Press 4Marker5 1MODE MENU 1Mkr to set the 1marker to the maximum point. 9. Press 4Search5 TARGET 01 4215 to search for the point of the gain compression. (See Figure 5-23.) NNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-23. Gain Compression 5-26 Network Measurement Examples Absolute Output Level Measurement The analyzer can show the characteristics input level versus output level by using the absolute measurement capability in the network analyzer mode. 1. Press 4Sweep5 CHAN COUP on OFF to CHAN COUP ON off to couple the sweep parameters of both channels. 2. Press 4Marker5 MKR COUP on OFF to MKR COUP ON off to couple the marker between both channels. 3. Press 4Chan 25 4Meas5 B to select the absolute measurement at the B input. 4. Press 4Display5 DATA MATH [DATA] OFFSET . Then input the value of the attenuator that is connected between the DUT and the B input. In this example measurement, a 30 dB attenuator is used. Therefore, enter 30 4215. 5. Press 4Scale Ref5 AUTO SCALE if the trace needs to be rescaled. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 6. The analyzer displays the input versus output power levels. The marker shows the input and output power levels at the 01 dB gain compression point. 7. Press 4Display5 DUAL CHAN on OFF to ON off to display both channel (see Figure 5-24). Note that you must subtract 3 dB from the input value readout. This is necessary because the input signal is attenuated by the power splitter that is between the RF OUT and the DUT. NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Figure 5-24. Input vs. Output Power Level at the 01 dB Gain Compression Point Network Measurement Examples 5-27 A For More Information The User's Guide provides an overview of the analyzer and typical applications using the analyzer. You may need or want more information on the analyzer's features. The following table shows you where to nd that information: Calibration How to perform calibration for the network analyzer mode How to perform level calibration for the spectrum analyzer mode Softkey reference Principles of calibration Chapter 4 in the Task Reference. Chapter 2 in the Task Reference Chapter 5 in the Function Reference. Chapter 12 in the Function Reference. Chapter 6 in the Task Reference. Chapter 8 in the Function Reference. Appendix C in the Function Reference. Chapter 6 in the Task Reference. Chapter 8 in the Function Reference. Chapter 9 in the Function Reference. See GPIB Programming Guide See GPIB Command Reference. See GPIB Command Reference. See Using HP Instrument BASIC. See HP Instrument BASIC Users Handbook. Chapter 10 in the Function Reference. Appendix A in this guide. Chapter 9 in the Function Reference. Chapter 10 in the Function Reference. Appendix D in the Function Reference. Chapter 12 in the Function Reference. See Messages in the Function Reference. Chapter 10 in the Programming Guide. Chapter 12 in the Function Reference. See the \Documentation Map" in the front matter of each manual. Disk and Memory How to use disk and memory storage Softkey reference File system information Print How to print Softkey descriptions Printer available Controlling by GPIB How to control the analyzer by GPIB GPIB command reference SCPI command reference Instrument BASIC How to use HP Instrument BASIC HP Instrument BASIC command Specications Accessories Default Setting Measurement Basic Error Messages I/O port How to use Descriptions How to connect Optional accessories available Furnished accessories Manual Set Organization of manual set You can also use the Table of Contents and the Index of each manual to nd the specic information you need. For More Information A-1 Index 8 A 85046A/B S-parameter Test Set , 5-1 accessory, A-1 active channel setting , 2-4, 3-5 ADMITTANCE CHART , 5-18 admittance measurement , 5-18 AM signal measurement , 4-10 analyzer settings recalling , 2-15 saving , 2-13 analyzer type setting to network , 3-6 setting to spectrum , 2-5 ANALYZER TYPE , 4-3, 5-2 aperture , 5-11 automatic scaling performing , 3-9 AUTO SCALE , 5-3, 5-6 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN B C bandwidth , 5-4 beep , 5-23 burst signal measurement , 4-16 , 5-2 CALIBRATE MENU , 5-2 calibration, A-1 frequency response, A-1 frequency response , 5-2 full two port, A-1 one path two port, A-1 one port reection, A-1 procedure , 5-2 standards, A-1 thru, A-1 thru , 5-2 transmission measurement , 5-2 CAL OUT signal , 2-3 CHAN COUP on OFF , 5-27 cleaning , 1-6 C/N Measurement , 4-4 command GPIB, A-1 4Cal5 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Index-1 Instrument BASIC, A-1 Contents, 1-1 CORRECTION ON off , 5-2 COUPLED CH on OFF , 5-6 COUPLED CH ON off , 5-5 CROSS CHAN on OFF , 4-13, 5-5 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN D NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN DATA and MEMORY , 4-14 DATA HOLD [OFF] , 4-14 DATA MATH [DATA] , 5-27 DATA!MEMORY , 4-14 DELAY , 5-11 1marker, 4-4 1MODE MENU , 4-3 deviation from linear phase , 5-10 directivity, A-1 disk, A-1 preparing , 2-12 distortion measurement , 4-3 DOS , 2-13 DUAL CHAN on OFF , 4-6 DUT connecting , 3-3 dynamic range , 5-21 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN E edge mode , 4-17 EDIT LIMIT LINE , 5-22 EDIT LIST , 5-20 ELEC DELAY MENU , 5-8 electrical length , 5-8 envelope , 4-14 EXPANDED PHASE , 5-7 EXTERNAL , 4-18 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN F fail message , 5-23 le name entering , 2-13 lename , 2-14 lter measurement , 5-2, 5-19, 5-22 FIXED 1MKR , 4-15 atness , 5-5 FM signal measurement , 4-12 frequency deviation , 4-12 frequency range setting , 2-6, 3-8 frequency response, A-1 Fuse Selection, 1-3 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Index-2 G gain compression measurement , 5-25 gate delay , 4-18 GATE DELAY , 4-17 gated sweep , 4-17 gate length , 4-18 GATE LENGTH , 4-17 GATE [LEVEL] , 4-17 go/no-go testing , 5-22 GPIB, A-1 group delay , 5-10 GROUP DELAY APERTURE , 5-11 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN H hardcopy of LCD making , 3-14 harmonic distortion measurement , 4-2 harmonics searching , 2-11 impedance measurement , 5-17 incoming inspection , 1-1 input selecting for network mode , 3-7 selecting for spectrum mode , 2-6 insertion loss , 5-2 Instrument BASIC, A-1 keyboard , 2-13 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN I K L LEFT PEAK , 4-13 LIF , 2-13 limit line function check points , 5-24 insertion loss testing , 5-24 lower limit , 5-22 segment , 5-22 upper limit , 5-22 limit line function , 5-22 LIMIT LINE ON off , 5-22 LIMIT MENU , 5-22 limit test function , 5-22 LIMIT TEST ON off , 5-23 4LINE5 , 2-3 line stretchers , 5-8 LIST FREQ , 5-20 list sweep function segment , 5-19 sweep list , 5-19 list sweep function , 5-19 low level signal , 2-9 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Index-3 M marker reading value , 3-12 marker , 2-8, 4-3 marker list , 4-3 marker noise form , 4-4 MARKER!DELAY , 5-8 memory, A-1 MKR COUP on OFF , 5-27 MKR LIST on OFF , 4-3 MKR NOISE FORM on OFF , 4-4 MKR ON [DATA] , 4-15 MKR ON [MEMORY] , 4-15 MKR!REFERENCE , 4-4, 5-5 MKR ZOOM , 4-13 modulating frequency , 4-10, 4-13 modulation index , 4-10 MULTIPLE PEAKS , 4-3 multiple peak search , 4-3 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN N NETWORK ANALYZER , 5-2 network measurement, 5-1 NEXT PEAK , 4-12 number of points , 5-20 NUMBER of POINTS , 4-18 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN O P OFFSET , 5-27 Part Number, 1-1 pass message , 5-23 PEAK DEF MENU , 5-5 peak level read by marker , 2-8 PEAK PLRTY POS neg , 5-5 peak search , 5-5 phase distortion , 5-10 phase measurements , 5-6 POLAR , 5-16 polar chart , 5-16 Power Cable, 1-4 preset marker , 4-3 PRESET MKRS , 4-3 Presetting , 2-15 printer conguring and connecting , 3-14 programming, A-1 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Index-4 R RBW setting , 2-9 rbw setup time , 4-17 reection coecient , 5-12 reection measurement , 5-12 repetitive sampling mode , 4-17 RESPONSE , 5-2 response calibration performing , 3-10 response calibration , 4-8 return loss , 5-12 RIGTH PEAK , 4-13 ripple , 5-5 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN S sampling mode , 4-17 SAMPLING NORM rept , 4-18 4Save5 , 5-21, 5-24 SCALE/DEV , 5-5 search function using , 2-11 SEARCH:PEAK , 4-12 SEARCH:PEAKS ALL , 4-3 SEARCH TRK on OFF , 4-3 setup time , 4-17 SET Z0 , 5-17 SIGNAL TRK on OFF , 4-6 SMITH , 5-17 source match, A-1 S-parameter test set , 3-3 specications, A-1 SPECTRUM ANALYZER , 4-3 spectrum measurement , 4-1 spectrum monitor , 4-7 storage, A-1 sub-marker , 4-3 sux , 2-16 SWEEP:HOLD , 4-17 sweep time , 5-19 SWEEP TIME , 4-18 SWEEP TYPE MENU , 5-20 swr , 5-12 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Index-5 T NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN TARGET , 5-26 test signal source connecting , 2-3 THRU , 5-2 time domain measurement , 4-17 tracking 1marker, 4-3 TRACKING 1MKR , 4-3 tracking drifting signal , 4-5 transmission/reection test set , 3-3 TRIGGER:[FREE RUN] , 4-17 trigger mode , 4-17 turning ON , 2-3, 3-3 NNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN V W ventilation requirement, 1-6 video bandwidth , 4-4 VIDEO BW , 4-4 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN wide band fm signal , 4-12 WIDTH on OFF , 5-4 WIDTH VALUE , 5-4 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Z zero span , 4-17 ZOOMING APERTURE , 4-13 zooming function , 4-13 NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Index-6
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