SPAN606-32-Mex-EEUU
27 Pages

SPAN606-32-Mex-EEUU

Course Number: SPAN 606, Fall 2009

College/University: Tulane

Word Count: 1284

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A demographic portrait El legado hispnico Da 32 Bilingismo hispnico SPAN 606 Harry Howard Tulane University Administracin No hay nada nuevo. 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 2 P9 Las dems lenguas de Espaa Sullivan (2000) A demographic portrait. In Hispanics in the United States. An agenda for the twenty-first century. Cafferty and Engstrom, eds. Cuntos hispanos hay en los EEUU? The...

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demographic A portrait El legado hispnico Da 32 Bilingismo hispnico SPAN 606 Harry Howard Tulane University Administracin No hay nada nuevo. 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 2 P9 Las dems lenguas de Espaa Sullivan (2000) A demographic portrait. In Hispanics in the United States. An agenda for the twenty-first century. Cafferty and Engstrom, eds. Cuntos hispanos hay en los EEUU? The Hispanic population of the United States comprises more than 29 million people about 11 percent of the national population. during the 1980s it grew by 53 percent, and between 1990 and 1996, by another 27 percent. by 2020 Hispanics will number 52 million persons and 16.3 percent of the population, and by 2050 they will number 97 million persons and constitute 24.5 percent of the United States population. SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 5 It the fastest growing minority group in the United States. If Census Bureau projections are correct 29/04/09 Qu significa Hispanic? The term Hispanic is used by government agencies and others to describe persons who themselves or whose ancestors were born into a Spanish-speaking community. The statisticians' intention was to develop a nonpejorative term that could include persons born in the United States but descended from Spanish-speaking peoples, as well as immigrants from Spain, Mexico, countries in the Caribbean and Central America, and South America except for Brazil. SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 6 29/04/09 De qu raza son? Because the Hispanic term is rooted in the use of a language rather than in race, persons of Hispanic origin have varied skin color. Some Hispanics consider themselves White, and they may have blue eyes and blonde or red hair. Other Hispanics are descended from ancestors who were brought from Africa as slaves; they are darkskinned and may identify their race as Black. Still other Hispanics, descended from the original peoples of North and South America, may be brownskinned. SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 7 29/04/09 Qu idioma hablan? Moreover, although the Hispanic term is based on language use, persons from Spanishspeaking countries may speak other languages instead of or in addition to Spanish. Many immigrants from Central America, for example, speak an Indian language instead of Spanish, but they are still considered Hispanic. Thus, this single term describes a diverse group of individuals. 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 8 Qu otros trminos hay? Some Southwestern Hispanics, especially those whose families have lived there since Spanish colonial times, prefer the terms Spanish, Spanish-American, or Hispano. Many persons of Mexican origin prefer the term Mexican-American, and some younger Mexican-Americans prefer the terms Chicano, Xicano, or Mexicano. People who come from other Latin American countries may prefer terms that refer to their country of origin, such as Cuban-American, Cubano, or Dominican. The term Puertorrequeo is sometimes used to refer to persons from Puerto Rico. Finally, some commentators prefer the term Latino to refer generally to persons who are from or descended from peoples in Spanishspeaking countries of the Americas. SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 9 29/04/09 Tienen una identidad tnica? Use of the term Hispanic may create an emergent ethnic identity among persons who might otherwise have thought of themselves as Mexican or Puerto Rican or Cuban. This identity, which is constructed through statistics and official rhetoric, may nevertheless be adopted by persons who bear the label in the general society. A similar process occurred among Italian immigrants in the last century, and it might be happening among Asian-Americans today: persons who had identified themselves by smaller places of origin (nation, province, city) become identified by the larger society in terms of a larger place of origin and thereafter adopt that identity developed by others. SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 10 29/04/09 El legado hispnico Duignan & Gann 1 (BB) Etapas histricas Colonizacin Guerra de Independencia, 1810-21 Anexin de territorio mexicano Porfiriato, Revolucin 1876-1911 Mexicana, 1910-17 Primera Guerra Mundial, 1914-18 Reforma agraria, 1934-40 (Crdenas) Gran Depresin, 1929-? Segunda Guerra Mundial, 1939-45 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 12 29/04/09 Una pregunta En 1790, quin tena una futura ms prospera, los EEUU o las colonias espaolas? 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 13 1790 EEUU 4 millones burgus, formado por la clase media protestante Colonias espaolas 16 millones seoro [seigniory], de privilegio de casta y dependiente del peonaje (von Humboldt comparaba los indios con los siervos de Alemania) 14 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University Mxico Territorio: de Centroamrica a San Francisco Despus de la Independencia, en 30 aos, 45 cambios de gobierno La clase gobernante = 10% de la poblacin; la mayora era indios campesinos Las provincias fronterizas estaban aislados y se comunicaban con el DF, no la unas con las otras 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 15 Mxico (1824) 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 16 California Muy aislada de la capital no participaba en la guerra de independencia all es a donde mandaban preso polticos (como Siberia) dejaron de llamarse espaoles o mexicanos para llamarse californios territorio dividido en 46 ranchos no haba ciudades o clase media En 1836 tomaron control del gobierno provincial 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 17 El Camino Real (California Mission Trail) 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 18 Nuevo Mxico y Arizona Basado en la poblacin indgena (Pueblo) Concentrado en la valle del Ro Bravo (Albuquerque, Santa Cruz de la Caada, Santa F) para protegerse de tribus nmadas (apaches y comanches) Economa basada en la oveja churra, ms extraccin de metales (cobre, oro) 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 19 El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 20 Tejas Expuesto a ataque francs (e infiltracin norteamericana) Los tejanos se concentraban en el sur (San Antonio, Goliad, Nacogdoches), para protegerse de los apaches y comanches el interior era tierra despoblada Criaban ganado en ranchos 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 21 El Camino Real de los Tejas 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 22 Resumen Una aportacin importante granjas de ovejas, ranchos de ganado cultivos mediterrneos extraccin de minerales cultura distinta de secano: la casa e la iglesia de adobe, la caravana de mulas, la carroza de buey, el regado, el charro (rancho, lasso, bronco, corral, rodeo) Pero, los asentamientos mejicanos en la frontera eran islas tenues, con una poblacin de 60,000 esparcida entre 850,000 millas cuadradas SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 23 29/04/09 Relaciones entre Mxico y los EEUU Al principio, eran muy buenas Los mexicanos agradecan el apoyo moral a la independencia y basaron su constitucin en la norteamericana Los sureos admiraban los latifundistas criollas Mercaderes americanos se casaban con familias buenas californias Pero las dos sociedades no se conocan bien Pocos mexicanos hablaban ingls; pocos americanos hablaban espaol Se conocan de encuentros entre fronterizos en comunidades remotas SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 24 29/04/09 Relaciones en la frontera Ambos lados se beneficiaban del comercio Y haba cierta admiracin En Tejas (y California), empezaron a adoptar costumbres norteamericanas y pedir inmigracin norteamericana Pero tambin haba desconfianza El Romanticismo tachaba a los americanos de anglosajones como insulto por los males de la Revolucin Industrial Los americanos tenan actitudes racistas: los californios eran cobardes, ignorantes, perezosos y adictos al juego y al alcohol SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 25 29/04/09 La guerra Disputa los en Tejas entre recin llegados, que queran mantener sus derechos, y los autctonos, que queran que los inmigrantes se adaptaran a la ley mexicana. 29/04/09 SPAN 606 - Harry Howard - Tulane University 26 La prxima clase Lectura sobre la inmigracin mexicana Duignan & Gann 2-4 (BB)
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