CS351-Teams
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CS351-Teams

Course Number: CS 351, Fall 2008

College/University: Montana

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Teams Overview Team organization Democratic team approach Classical chief programmer team approach Beyond chief programmer and democratic teams Synchronize-and-stabilize teams Extreme programming teams CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 2 1 Programming team organization A product must be completed within 3 months, but 1 personyear of programming is still needed Solution If one programmer can code...

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Team Teams Overview organization Democratic team approach Classical chief programmer team approach Beyond chief programmer and democratic teams Synchronize-and-stabilize teams Extreme programming teams CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 2 1 Programming team organization A product must be completed within 3 months, but 1 personyear of programming is still needed Solution If one programmer can code the product in 1 year, four programmers can do it in 3 months Nonsense Four programmers will probably take nearly a year The quality of the product is usually lower CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 3 Task sharing If one farm hand can pick a strawberry field in 10 days, ten farm hands can pick same strawberry field in 1 day One woman can produce a baby in 9 months, but nine women cannot possibly produce that baby in 1 month Unlike baby production, it is possible to share coding tasks between members of team Unlike strawberry picking, team members must interact in meaningful and effective way CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 4 2 Programming team organization Example: Freda and Joe code two modules, mA and mB, say. What can go wrong? Both Freda and Joe may code mA, and ignore mB Freda may code mA, Joe may code mB. When mA calls mB it passes 4 parameters; but mB requires 5 parameters Or, the order of parameters in mA and mB may be different Or, the order may be same, but the data types may be slightly different This has nothing whatsoever to do with technical competency Team organization is a managerial issue CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 5 Communications problems Example There are three channels of communication between 3 programmers working on project. The deadline is rapidly approaching but the code is not nearly complete "Obvious" solution: Add a fourth programmer to the team CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 6 3 Communications problems But other three have to explain in detail What has been accomplished What is still incomplete Brooks's Law Adding additional programming personnel to a team when product is late has the effect of making the product even later CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 7 Team organization Teams are used throughout software production Especially during implementation Here, the discussion is presented within the context of programming teams Two extreme approaches to team organization Democratic teams (Weinberg, 1971) Chief programmer teams (Brooks, 1971; Baker, 1972) CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 8 4 Democratic team approach Basic underlying concept--egoless programming Programmers can be highly attached to their code They even name their modules after themselves They see their modules as extension of themselves CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 9 Democratic team approach If a programmer sees a module as an extension of his/her ego, he/she is not going to try to find all the errors in "his"/"her" code If there is an error, it is termed a bug ! The fault could have been prevented if code had been better guarded against the "bug" CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 10 5 Democratic team approach Proposed Solution Egoless programming Restructure the social environment Restructure programmers' values Encourage team members to find faults in code A fault must be considered a normal and accepted event The team as whole will develop an ethos, group identity Modules will "belong" to the team as whole A group of up to 10 egoless programmers constitutes a democratic team Management may have difficulty Difficult to introduce into an undemocratic environment CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 11 Strengths of democratic team approach Democratic teams are enormously productive They work best when the problem is difficult They function well in a research environment Problem: Democratic teams have to spring up spontaneously CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 12 6 Chief programmer teams Consider a 6-person team Fifteen 2-person communication channels The total number of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-person groups is 57 This team cannot do 6 person-months of work in 1 month CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 13 Chief programmer teams Six programmers, but now only 5 lines of communication CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 14 7 Classical chief programmer teams Basic idea behind the concept Analogy: chief surgeon directing operation, assisted by Other surgeons Anesthesiologists Nurses Other experts, such as cardiologists, nephrologists Two key aspects Specialization Hierarchy CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 15 Classical chief programmer teams Chief programmer Successful manager and highly skilled programmer Does the architectural design Allocates coding among the team members Writes the critical (or complex) sections of code Handles all the interfacing issues Reviews the work of the other team members Is personally responsible for every line of code CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 16 8 Classical chief programmer teams Back-up programmer Necessary only because the chief programmer is human The back-up programmer must be in every way as competent as the chief programmer Must know as much about the project as the chief programmer Does black-box test case planning and other tasks that are independent of the design process CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 17 Classical chief programmer teams Programming secretary A highly skilled, well paid, central member of the chief programmer team Responsible for maintaining the program production library (documentation of project), including: Source code listings JCL Test data Programmers hand their source code to the secretary who is responsible for Conversion to machine-readable form, Compilation, linking, loading, execution, and running test cases Programmers Do nothing but program All other aspects are handled by the programming secretary CS351 - Engineering Software (AY2004) 18 9 The New York Times project Chief programmer team concept first used in 1971 by IBM to automate the clippings data bank ("morgue") of The New York Times Chief programmer F. Terry Baker CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 19 The New York Times project 83,000 source lines of code (LOC) were written in 22 calendar months, representing 11 person-years After the first year, only the file maintenance system had been written (12,000 LOC) Most code was written in the last 6 months 21 faults were detected in the first 5 weeks of acceptance testing 25 further faults were detected in the first year of operation CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 20 10 The New York Times project Principal programmers averaged one detected fault and 10,000 LOC per person-year The file maintenance system, delivered 1 week after coding was completed, operated 20 months before a single failure occurred Almost half the subprograms (usually 200 to 400 lines of PL/I) were correct at first compilation But, after this fantastic success, no comparable claims for chief programmer team concept have been made CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 21 Why was the New York Times project such a success? Prestige project for IBM First real trial for PL/I (developed by IBM) IBM, with superb software experts, used its best people Very strong technical backup PL/I compiler writers helped the programmers JCL experts assisted with the job control language CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 22 11 Why was the New York Times project such a success? F. Terry Baker Superprogrammer Superb manager and leader His skills, enthusiasm, and personality "carried" the project Strengths of chief programmer team approach It works Numerous successful projects have used variants of chief programmer team CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 23 Impracticality of classical chief program team Chief programmer must be a highly skilled programmer and a successful manager Shortage of highly skilled programmers Shortage of successful managers Programmers and managers "are not made that way" Back-up programmer must be as good as the chief programmer But he/she must take a back seat (and a lower salary) waiting for something to happen to the chief programmer Top programmers, top managers will not do that Programming secretary does nothing but paperwork all day Software professionals hate paperwork Classical chief programmer team is impractical CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 24 12 We need ways to organize teams that Make use of the strengths of democratic teams and chief programmer teams, and Can handle teams of 20 (or 120) programmers Democratic teams Positive attitude to finding faults Use chief programmer teams in conjunction with code walkthroughs or inspections Potential Pitfall Chief programmer is personally responsible for every line of code. He/she must therefore be present at reviews Chief programmer is also the team manager He/she must therefore not be present at reviews! CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 25 Beyond chief programmer and democratic teams Beyond chief programmer and democratic teams Solution Reduce the managerial role of the chief programmer CS351 - Software Engineering (AY2004) 26 13 It is easier to find a team leader than a chief programmer Each employee is responsible to exactly one manager--lines of responsibility are clearly delineated Team leader is responsible for only technical management Budgetary and legal issues, and performance appraisal...
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