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3344 Soc Study Guide Test 1 Sp 09 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Which of the following is part of the environmental force that impacts policing? c. economic issues a. legal issues d. all of the above b. political issues 2. "Social contract" describes the relationship between which of the following? c. government and police a. citizens and police d. the Constitution and citizens b. government and citizens 3. Which of the following must be balanced under a democratic system of government? a. individual rights and needs of police officers b. rights of government and individual rights c. rights of individuals and the collective needs of members of society d. rights of state governments and collective needs of members of society 4. Which of the following is best defined as "collective practices by which a group attempts to ensure ____ ____ ____ ____ 5. ____ 6. ____ 7. ____ 8. ____ 9. ____ 10. ____ 11. that individuals conform to the norms and values of the group?" c. values a. social controls d. norms b. laws Which of the following is a "function" of the Constitution? a. defines and describes social arrangements between a government and its citizens b. distributes authority c. limits the use of power d. all of the above Which of the following protects suspects from illegal searches and seizures? c. Sixth Amendment a. Fourth Amendment d. Eighth Amendment b. Fifth Amendment How police officers obtain confessions and conduct lineups is addressed in which Constitutional Amendment? c. Sixth Amendment a. Fourth Amendment d. Eighth Amendment b. Fifth Amendment Suspects are guaranteed a right to legal counsel in the __________ to the U.S. Constitution. c. Sixth Amendment a. Fourth Amendment d. Eighth Amendment b. Fifth Amendment The police fall under which branch of government? c. legislative a. executive d. military b. judicial What is the form of political organization that distributes authority and power among levels of government? c. authoritarianism a. capitalism d. federalism b. socialism Which of the following best defines "federalism?" a. It outlines the separation of power among the three branches of government. b. It outlines the separation of power among the federal and state governments. c. It provides a system of social control. d. It distributes authority and power among the three levels of government. ____ 12. Which of the following is best defined as "a binding rule that regulates conduct and provides ____ 13. ____ 14. ____ 15. ____ 16. ____ 17. ____ 18. ____ 19. ____ 20. ____ 21. ____ 22. ____ 23. sanctions for violations of its provisions?" c. a bill a. a contract d. none of the above b. a law Which of the following is best defined as "criminal statutes that define which behaviors are acceptable and unacceptable in our society?" c. civil law a. substantive law d. case law b. procedural law Which of the following is best defined as "laws that prescribe how police officers apply substantive laws?" c. civil law a. substantive law d. case law b. procedural law Which of the following is best defined as that which "regulates social interactions arising from private, commercial, or contractual relations? c. civil law a. substantive law d. case law b. procedural law Which of the following is a characteristic of a system, as outlined by Strecher? c. synergistic a. goal seeking d. all of the above b. component parts Which of the following is a model of policing that places high priority on moving cases through the system? c. human rights model a. due process model d. civil liberties model b. crime control model Which of the following is a model of policing that places high priority on protecting citizens' rights? c. human rights model a. due process model d. civil liberties model b. crime control model Municipal law enforcement agencies have responsibility over all EXCEPT which of the following? c. convenience norms a. law enforcement d. legislative advisement b. order maintenance Which of the following is best defined as "a basic or standardized social position that carries with it certain expectations?" c. service a. function d. task b. role Which of the following is best defined as "tasks and activities associated with a role?" c. function a. tasks d. duty b. service Wilson's 1968 study of the New York City Police Department found that __________ of calls were related to law enforcement. c. 50 percent a. 10 percent d. 80 percent b. 30 percent The "watchman" style of policing emphasizes: c. order maintenance and crime control. a. the provision of services. d. all of the above b. limited use of discretion. ____ 24. The __________ style of policing implements the criminal justice process as frequently as possible ____ 25. ____ 26. ____ 27. ____ 28. ____ 29. ____ 30. ____ 31. ____ 32. ____ 33. and offenders, regardless of their circumstances or the severity of their offense, seldom escape sanction. c. service a. watchman d. community-oriented b. legalistic The "service" style of policing would most likely be found in which type of community? c. the suburbs a. an inner-city neighborhood d. none of the above b. a small rural community There are approximately __________ separate police agencies in the United States. c. 30,000 a. 18,000 d. 57,000 b. 25,000 Which of the following law enforcement agencies are in the U.S. Justice Department? a. ATF, DEA, IRS, Immigration & Naturalization b. FBI, DEA, ATF, Secret Service c. FBI, DEA, U.S. Marshals, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms d. ATF, IRS, Customs, Secret Service When was the Justice Department created? c. 1940 a. 1776 d. 1970 b. 1870 Which of the following is NOT one of the major responsibilities of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)? a. to develop an overall drug enforcement strategy b. to conduct research on the harmful effects of illegal drugs c. to investigate and assist in the prosecution of drug offenses d. to coordinate efforts of local and state law enforcement officials Which of the following is NOT one of the major objectives of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms? a. to control illegal trafficking and criminal use of firearms b. to investigate bombings and arsons c. to establish the amount of taxes to be paid on alcohol, tobacco, and firearms d. to ensure the collection of alcohol and tobacco tax revenues Which of the following law enforcement agencies are in the Department of Homeland Security? a. ATF, DEA, IRS, Immigration & Naturalization b. FBI, DEA, ATF, Secret Service c. FBI, DEA, U.S. Marshals, Immigration & Naturalization d. FEMA, Immigration and Customs, Border Patrol, Secret Service The largest municipal law enforcement agency in the United States is the __________ police department. c. Los Angeles a. Chicago d. Detroit b. New York City Which of the following is a responsibility of a sheriff? c. providing security for the mayor a. collecting certain taxes d. a and b only b. serving warrants ____ 34. Which of the following statements about policing is True? a. The police function was vested with the military during earlier times. b. Policing has been linked to the development of political organization and control of citizens and resources. c. Successful Egyptian dynasties established some form of police force to protect domestic tranquility. d. all of the above ____ 35. Which of the following best describes the first form of policing in England? c. formal police organizations a. constables d. state police agencies b. sheriffs ____ 36. Henry Fielding made which of the following contributions to policing? a. He organized the Bow Street Runners. b. He established a school for police officers. c. He enacted legislation creating the London police. d. He drafted a police bill of rights. ____ 37. Which of the following best describes Patrick Colquhoun's approach to solving the crime problem in ____ 38. ____ 39. ____ 40. ____ 41. ____ 42. London? a. He wanted to eliminate those who were biologically predisposed to criminal behavior. b. He wanted to eliminate social problems. c. He wanted to implement a government police force. d. He wanted to create more laws, police officers, and prisons. Which of the following was Patrick Colquhoun's contribution to policing? a. He organized the Bow Street Runners. b. He was the first commissioner. c. He created the New River police force. d. He introduced "The Metropolitan Police Act." Sir Robert Peel developed which of the following principles? a. Police must be organized along military lines. b. Police must be controlled by the government. c. Police headquarters would be centrally located. d. all of the above The London police force was not armed and was successful at reducing crime and making citizens feel safe. What was the reason for this success? a. The officers carried guns without the knowledge of their supervisors. b. The professional principles of policing were followed. c. Would-be criminals were afraid of the nightsticks officers carried. d. Policymaking was decentralized and officers were given great autonomy. Many southern police departments began as: a. slave patrols. b. night watches. c. day watches. d. organized, structured police departments. Which of the following was a duty of a constable in American colonies? c. serving warrants a. surveying land d. all of the above b. checking weights and measures ____ 43. Which of the following is T regarding early night watchmen in America? a. They were dedicated men who took their jobs seriously. b. They cared deeply about the citizens of the community they served. c. They frequently slept and drank while on duty. d. Most volunteered out of a deep sense of pride and patriotism. ____ 44. Which of the following was one of the earliest law enforcement officers in America? c. chiefs a. sheriffs d. detectives b. constables ____ 45. According to the text, where was the first night watch in the United States? c. Montgomery, Alabama a. New York, New York d. Boston, Massachusetts b. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ____ 46. Where was the first day watch? a. Boston, Massachusetts b. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania c. St. Louis, Missouri d. New York, New York ____ 47. What was the original reason for the development of the Pennsylvania State Police? a. to provide security for the governor b. to enforce traffic laws c. to assist mine owners in breaking coal strikes d. to police rural communities ____ 48. Which of the following was an early issue confronting police administrators in America? c. the jurisdiction of the police a. whether to arm the police d. the provision of social services b. the corruption of the night watches ____ 49. Modern policing has gone through a number of phases. Which of the following is NOT one of those ____ 50. ____ 51. ____ 52. ____ 53. ____ 54. phases? c. professionalization phase a. political entrenchment phase d. expansion phase b. reform phase Which era of modern policing is characterized by extensive corruption that overshadowed the social service efforts of police during this time period? c. professional phase a. political entrenchment phase d. expansion phase b. reform phase Which of the following is a characteristic of the "political entrenchment phase?" c. The police were corrupt. a. The Civil Service was formed. d. The police emphasized citizens' rights. b. The police became "crime fighters." Which of the following commissions investigated the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers? c. Kerner Commission a. Knapp Commission d. Mollen Commission b. Christopher Commission Which of the following was the first to investigate police corruption in New York City? c. Mollen Commission a. Lexow Committee d. Christopher Commission b. Knapp Commission The internal police administrative reform movement centered around which of the following issues? c. political issues a. personnel issues d. social issues b. operational issues ____ 55. Which of the following was provided by the Pendleton Act? a. It offered civil service coverage to public employees. b. It outlawed the possession, manufacture, and sale of alcohol. c. It protected minorities from discrimination by police departments. d. It established a fund for the families of slain police officers. ____ 56. Which of the following was enacted by the Volstead Act? c. civil service a. organizational changes d. police reform b. prohibition ____ 57. During the professionalization phase of American policing, the police role shifted to: c. crime prevention. a. provision of services. d. law enforcement. b. order maintenance. ____ 58. During the professionalization phase of American policing, emphasis was placed on which of the ____ 59. ____ 60. ____ 61. ____ 62. ____ 63. ____ 64. following factors? c. criminal apprehension a. organizational efficiency d. all of the above b. science and technology Which of the following factors contributed to the shift toward the community relations phase of policing? a. ratification of the Eighteenth c. Prohibition Amendment d. civil disturbances of the 1960s b. The Depression Which of the following best describes the role of political assassinations in America in the 1960s? a. It became a means to voice political discontent that cut across all political lines. b. It became a means to eliminate radical extremists with conservative political views. c. It became a means to raise public awareness about the level of violence in America. d. It became a means to allow police to focus less on constitutional rights and more on crime fighting. When did the Watts Riots occur in Los Angeles? c. 1965 a. d. 1843 1993 b. 1930 Which of the following were effects of the community relations focus in policing? a. Decentralized decision making and planning became a part of police culture. b. Precinct commanders were given more authority to develop programs to meet community needs. c. Order maintenance and service functions were legitimized. d. all of the above In the late 1980s and early 1990s many police departments adopted which model of policing? c. participative management model a. team policing model d. a strict law enforcement approach b. community-oriented policing model Which of the following is a result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks? a. Law enforcement is now placing greater emphasis on aggressive policing. b. Local law enforcement will be called upon to work with federal law enforcement agents. c. The era of community policing may come to an end. d. all of the above ____ 65. Which screening process is recommended for achieving the best pool of applicants? c. lateral screening a. screening out d. vertical screening b. screening in ____ 66. QUESTION BLANK a. race c. sex b. age d. religion ____ 67. Which of the following most accurately describes the court's likely reaction when it has determined ____ 68. ____ 69. ____ 70. ____ 71. ____ 72. ____ 73. that a police department has discriminated against groups or classes in hiring practices? a. It will likely demand a settlement to the plaintiff, but not require changes in hiring practices. b. It will likely strike down some of the department's promotion practices, but not hiring practices. c. It will likely strike down some or all of the department's hiring practices. d. It will likely call for the chief to be fired. Which of the following best describes "disparate rejection?" a. It applies to groups when the employer adopts a policy that excludes members of a minority. b. It applies to groups and is commonly referred to as the 80 percent rule. c. It applies to groups and consists of a practice where the courts compare the percentage of minority employees with the percentage of minorities in the community. d. It applies to individuals and consists of a policy by which a qualified minority applies for an advertised position and is rejected. Which of the following is True regarding Griggs v. Duke Power Co.? a. The Court found that it did not matter if discrimination was intentional or unintentional. b. The Court found that once it established the existence of discrimination, the burden of proof fell upon the plaintiff to prove that the selection process was discriminatory. c. There could be NO differences in hiring rates, even if the hiring practices were related to job performance. d. all of the above Which of the following court cases was the first to establish reverse discrimination? c. Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Antonio a. Griggs v. Duke Power Co. d. Thomas v. City of Evanston b. Bakke v. California When was the first African-American police officer hired in the United States? c. the 1950s a. the 1860s d. the 1960s b. the 1920s Approximately what percentage of police officers in America are African-Americans? c. 11 a. 4 d. 15 b. 8 Which of the following are the two broad categories of explanations for the lack of minority representation in law enforcement agencies? a. institutional barriers and educational standards b. institutional barriers and personal preference c. personal preference and educational standards d. personal preference and residency requirements ____ 74. Which of the following is a type of "institutional barrier" that dissuades minorities from seeking ____ 75. ____ 76. ____ 77. ____ 78. ____ 79. ____ 80. ____ 81. ____ 82. employment? a. complicated applications b. multistaged selection process c. the department's image regarding minorities d. all of the above Why has policing been such a male-dominated vocation? a. Women have always preferred to stay home and care for the children. b. Smaller size limits the duties women can perform. c. Males have been the power holders in society. d. Women were believed too emotional for police work. Which of the following is True regarding the first female police officer in the United States? a. She quickly rose up the ranks to become the chief of her department. b. She was responsible for investigating serious violent crimes. c. She was responsible for enforcing laws in skating rinks. d. She was hired in 1890. Poulos and Doerner studied Florida police departments to determine female representation. According to their study, what percentage of officers in Florida is female? c. 40 a. 8 d. 51 b. 25 Approximately what percentage of police officers in America are women? c. 15 a. 5 d. 20 b. 10 Which of the following best describes the primary difference between male and female police officers? a. Males subscribe to a "morality of care" while females subscribe to a "morality of justice." b. Males subscribe to a "morality of crime fighting" while females subscribe to a "morality of crime nurture." c. Males subscribe to a "morality of justice" while females subscribe to a "morality of care." d. There really are no differences between male and female officers. Which of the following best defines police "recruitment?" a. the development of a pool of sufficiently qualified applicants b. the development of a pool of minimally qualified applicants c. the development of a pool of exceedingly qualified applicants d. the process of transferring officers from other departments Which of the following is a result of limiting recruitment to a specific geographic area? a. It assures that the best people will be hired because they can better serve the community they know. b. It assures that the worst people will be hired. c. It limits the pool of applicants. d. It increases the number of qualified applicants. Davis v. Dallas (1985) dealt with which recruitment standard? c. residency a. education d. physical agility b. vision ____ 83. In Thomas v. City of Evanston (1985), the Supreme Court determined that in order for physical ____ 84. ____ 85. ____ 86. ____ 87. ____ 88. ____ 89. ____ 90. ____ 91. ____ 92. agility tests in law enforcement to be acceptable, the tests must: c. be equally challenging for both a. be based on job analysis. genders. d. both a and b b. represent the content of the job. When a department develops a drug usage policy regarding recruits, which of the following should be considered? c. types of drugs used a. recency of usage d. all of the above b. patterns or frequency of usage In Hild v. Bruner (1980), the Court made which of the following rulings? a. It found a police department negligent for not performing a psychological assessment of its applicants. b. It found a police department negligent for not performing a polygraph examination on its applicants. c. It found that police departments could not have height requirements because they discriminate against females and certain minorities. d. It found a police department negligent for failing to provide firearm training for its recruits. Which of the following tests are used in the selection of police officers? c. polygraph tests a. written examinations d. all of the above b. physical agility tests Which of the following best describes the "role-play" exercise simulated in an assessment center? a. It consists of candidates acting out scenarios, such as taking a report. b. It tests the candidates' ability to use facts and other information. c. It is an exercise in which candidates review paperwork and decide how it should be processed. d. It consists of candidates displaying their verbal skills in front of groups. Basic training serves to orient personnel with the police department. Which of the following is a function of orientation? c. increasing performance a. creating favorable impressions d. all of the above b. enhancing interpersonal acceptance Which of the following is a topic covered in basic training? c. patrol and investigation procedures a. criminal law d. all of the above b. human values Which of the following is a justification for field training officer (FTO) programs? a. Some police concepts are not amenable to classroo...