7 Pages

#### Friction

Course: PHYS 211, Fall 2008

School: Winthrop

Word Count: 932

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Partner(s):____________________________________________________ Kinetic Name:____________________________Date:__________Time:_________ Friction Purpose: To study the laws of friction and to determine the coefficient of kinetic friction (k) between two surfaces. Activity I: Wood block moving at constant velocity on lab-table top. Apparatus: pulley, supporting rod, pulley clamp, wood block, mass set, mass hanger,...

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Partner(s):____________________________________________________ Kinetic Name:____________________________Date:__________Time:_________ Friction Purpose: To study the laws of friction and to determine the coefficient of kinetic friction (k) between two surfaces. Activity I: Wood block moving at constant velocity on lab-table top. Apparatus: pulley, supporting rod, pulley clamp, wood block, mass set, mass hanger, string, and balance. Theory: In the above diagram, a wood block of total mass, m (m = mb + mt, where mb is the mass of the block and mt is the mass on top) is placed on the laboratory table. Show the forces acting on the wood block, in the diagram above and also in the diagram below. Now, a string is attached to the wood block and it is passed over a pulley and a hanging mass, M is hanged as shown above. Show the pulling force and the frictional force in the diagram above. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the pulling force?______________________ 2. What will happen if the frictional force is greater than the pulling force. _________________________________________________________________ 3. What will happen if the frictional force is less than the pulling force. _________________________________________________________________ 4. When do you think the frictional force will be equal to or almost equal to the pulling force. _________________________________________________________________ If Mg is the least weight to make the block to move at constant velocity or with almost zero acceleration, Ffr = Mg and FN = mg, where m = mb + mt. According to the law of kinetic friction, Ffr = k FN. Hence Mg = k mg M = k m Hence plotting M Vs m will give a slope of k. Procedure: 1) Attach the pulley clamp at the side-end of the lab table. 2) Thread in the pulley to the supporting rod and attach it to the pulley clamp. 3) Find the mass of the wooden block and place it on the lab table. Make sure that the surfaces of both the wood block and the lab-table are clean. Wipe them off with a paper wipe if necessary. Do not touch the surfaces with your hands. 4) Place a 50 gram mass on top of the wooden block and attach one end of the string to the wooden block. 5) Run the other end of the string over the pulley and attach it to the mass hanger. Make sure the string is parallel to the lab-table's surface. Q: Why is it necessary that the string is parallel to the surface of the lab-table? ________________________________________________________________ 6) Determine the least amount of mass, M, necessary to slide the block with a constant speed after it has been started with a very small push. Record the value of M in data table I. Q: Why is it necessary to find the least amount of mass, M that will make the block to move? ________________________________________________________________ 7) Repeat procedure-6 for other masses on top of the block and complete I. table 8) Plot a graph and determine the value of k. Attach a hard-copy of your graph to the report. 9) Disassemble the apparatus. DATA TABLE I mt (gram) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Mass of the wooden block, mb = --------m = mb + mt M - k from the graph (2 significant figures) = ______________________ Activity II: Wood block accelerating on wood plank. Apparatus: PC, interface, photogate, cord, pulley, supporting rod, pulley clamp, wood block, wood plank, mass set, mass hanger, string, and balance. Theory: Now we will hang the mass so that the pulling force is greater than the frictional force, and hence the block will accelerate. Show all the forces acting on the block, and the acceleration in the diagram above and derive an expression for k in terms of M- hanging mass, m- total block mass, aacceleration of the block-mass system, and g- acceleration due to gravity below. Procedure: 1) Place the wood plank on the corner of the lab table and clamp it with the pulley clamp. 2) Find the mass of the wood block and place it on the far end of the plank. Make sure that the surfaces of both the wood block and the plank are clean. Wipe them off with a paper wipe if necessary. Do not touch the surfaces with your hands. Mass of the wood block = m = ____________ 3) Place the photogate in the supporting rod and thread in the pulley. Attach the cord and then attach the rod to the pulley clamp. 4) Attach one end of the string to the wooden block and run the other end of the string over the pulley and attach it to the mass hanger. Adjust the height of the pulley until the string is parallel to the plank's surface. 5) Connect the Photogate/Pulley system to digital channel one on the Interface. 6) Open DataStudio. Clic...

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