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19 Pages

### L10

Course: LECT 10, Fall 2009
School: Pittsburgh
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Word Count: 806

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- IS12 Introduction to Programming Lecture 10: Simple Programs Peter Brusilovsky http://www2.sis.pitt.edu/~peterb/0012-041/ Exchange Kiosk: Assignment void main() { float dollars_for_mark; /* exchange rate */ int commission; /* commission in dollars */ float marks; /* marks given */ float dollars; /* dollars returned */ /* get data */ dollars_for_mark = 0.666; commission = 3; marks = 100; /* calculate USD */...

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- IS12 Introduction to Programming Lecture 10: Simple Programs Peter Brusilovsky http://www2.sis.pitt.edu/~peterb/0012-041/ Exchange Kiosk: Assignment void main() { float dollars_for_mark; /* exchange rate */ int commission; /* commission in dollars */ float marks; /* marks given */ float dollars; /* dollars returned */ /* get data */ dollars_for_mark = 0.666; commission = 3; marks = 100; /* calculate USD */ dollars = marks * dollars_for_mark commission; /* print result */ printf("For %6.2f marks you will get %6.2f dollars!\n" , marks, dollars); } Exchange Kiosk: Initialization void main() { float dollars_for_mark = 0.666; /* exchange rate */ int commission = 3; /* commission in dollars */ float marks = 100; /* marks given */ float dollars; /* dollars returned */ /* calculate USD */ dollars = marks * dollars_for_mark commission; /* print result */ printf("For %6.2f marks you will get %6.2f dollars!\n" , marks, dollars); } Exchange Kiosk: #define #define DOLLARS_FOR_MARK 0.666 #define COMMISSION 3 #define MARKS 100 void main() { float dollars; /* dollars returned */ /* calculate USD */ dollars = MARKS * DOLLARS_FOR_MARK COMMISSION ; /* print result */ printf("For %6.2f marks you will get %6.2f dollars!\n" , MARKS, dollars); } Defined constants s s #define is a preprocessor directive for defining constants Example: #define COMMISSION 3 COMMISSION is a defined constant Now every appearance of commission is literally replaced by 3 It is not a variable, it can't be assigned a value Why to use defined constants? s Remember example 2.1? /* Temperature Converter */ #include <stdio.h> void main() { printf("100 Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", (5.0/9.0)*(10032)); } s Need to replace 100 to 150 in two places (in real programs in dozens places!) Example: Temperature Converter /* Example: Temperature Converter Author: Peter Brusilovsky Objective: use of #define and printf */ #include <stdio.h> #define FAHR 100.0 /* the temperature to be converted */ void main() { printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", FAHR, (5.0 / 9.0) * (FAHR 32)); } More About Preprocessor s s s s Preprocessor is a separate part of C compiler, which differs from the rest of it Makes file insertions #include <stdio.h> system files #include "myfile.h" user files Resolves definitions #define NUM 100.0 Removes comments Example after preprocessing ...content of the file stdio.h... void main() { printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", 100.0, (5.0 / 9.0) * (100.0 32)); } Constants are not variables! #include <stdio.h> #define FAHR 100.0 /* the temperature to be converted */ void main() { printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", FAHR, (5.0 / 9.0) * (FAHR 32)); FAHR = 80; printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", FAHR, (5.0 / 9.0) * (FAHR 32)); } ... after preprocessing ...content of the file stdio.h... void main() { printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", 100.0, (5.0 / 9.0) * (100.0 32)); 100.0 = 80; printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", 100.0, (5.0 / 9.0) * (100.0 } Usage 32)); Rules s Defined constant: #define COMMISSION 3 This value stays the same in the program. s Initialized variable: int commission = 3; The value can be changed in the program, but the initial value is known before the start of the program s Assignment: commission = 3; Initial value is not known before the start of the program Example: Temperature Converter /* Example: Temperature Converter with input Author: Peter Brusilovsky */ #include <stdio.h> void main() { float fahr; /* the temperature to be converted */ /* Data input */ printf("Enter temperature in Fahrenheit: "); /* prompt */ scanf("%f",&fahr); /* input */ /* Calculation and printing */ printf("%6.2f Fahrenheit = %6.2f Celsius\n", FAHR, (5.0 / 9.0) * (FAHR 32)); } Getting Changeable Data Inside s s s s Defined constant Initialization of variables Assignment Input data scanf("%d",&marks); The computer will read the symbols from standard input, consider it as an integer (%d tells about it) and assign to the given variable marks. Treat & as a magic sign for now Example: Better Exchange Kiosk #include <stdio.h> #define DOLLARS_FOR_MARK 0.666 /* exchange rate */ #define COMMISSION 3 /* commission in dollars */ void main() { int marks; float dollars; /* get data */ printf("Marks to exchange?: "); /* prompt */ scanf("%d",&marks); /* input */ /* calculate USD */ dollars = marks * DOLLARS_FOR_MARK COMMISSION; /* print results */ printf("For %d marks you will get %6.2f dollars!\n" , marks, dollars); } Example: Capital growth #include <stdio.h> void main() { float interest_rate; /* interest rate in percents */ int capital; /* starting capital in dollars */ float annual_interest; /* annual interest in dollars */ printf("Capital (\$\$) and interest rate (%%xx.x): "); scanf("%d...

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