# Register now to access 7 million high quality study materials (What's Course Hero?) Course Hero is the premier provider of high quality online educational resources. With millions of study documents, online tutors, digital flashcards and free courseware, Course Hero is helping students learn more efficiently and effectively. Whether you're interested in exploring new subjects or mastering key topics for your next exam, Course Hero has the tools you need to achieve your goals.

6 Pages

### tutorial-8

Course: ECE 250, Fall 2009
School: W. Alabama
Rating:

Word Count: 845

#### Document Preview

to Solution Exercise 8.1- 4 Solution: Let S be a sequence of n elements divided into n/k subsequences each of length k where all of the elements in any subsequence are larger than all of the elements of a preceding subsequence and smaller than all of the elements of a succeeding subsequence. Claim Any comparison-based sorting algorithm to sort S must take (nlgk) time in the worst case. Proof First notice that, as...

Register Now

#### Unformatted Document Excerpt

Coursehero >> Alabama >> W. Alabama >> ECE 250

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.
to Solution Exercise 8.1- 4 Solution: Let S be a sequence of n elements divided into n/k subsequences each of length k where all of the elements in any subsequence are larger than all of the elements of a preceding subsequence and smaller than all of the elements of a succeeding subsequence. Claim Any comparison-based sorting algorithm to sort S must take (nlgk) time in the worst case. Proof First notice that, as point out in the hint, we cannot prove the lower bound by multiplying together the lower bounds for sorting each subsequence. That would only prove that there is no faster algorithm that sorts the subsequences independently. This was not what we are asked to prove; we cannot introduce any extra assumptions. Now, consider the decision tree of height h for any comparison sort for S. Since the elements of each subsequence can be in any order, any of the k! permutations correspond to the final sorted order of a subsequence. And, since there are n/k such subsequences, each of which can be in any order, there are (k!)n/k permutations of S that could corresponding to the sorting of some input order. SE240 Tutorial 11 1 Solution to Exercise 8.1- 4 (cont ...) Thus, any decision tree for sorting S must have at least (k!)n/k leaves. Since a binary tree of height h has no more than 2h leaves, we must have 2h (k!)n/k or h lg((k!)n/k). We therefore obtain h lg((k!)n/k = (n/k) lg(k!) (n/k) lg((k/2)k/2) = (n/2) lg(k/2). The third line comes from k! having k/2 largest terms being at least k/2 each. (We implicitly assume here that k is even, We could adjust with floors and ceilings if k were odd). Since there exists at least one path in any decision tree for sorting S that has length at least (n/2) lg(k/2), the worst-case running time of any comparisonbased sorting algorithm for S is (n lgk) SE240 Tutorial 11 2 Solution to Exercise 8.3-2 Insertion sort is stable. When inserting A[ j ] into the sorted sequence A[1..j 1], we do it the following way: compare A[ j ] to A[ i ], starting with i = j 1 and going down to i = 1. Continue as long as A[ j ] < A[ i ]. Merge sort as defined is stable, because when two elements compared are equal, the tie is broken by taking the elements from array L which keeps them in the original order. Heapsort and quicksort are not stable. One scheme that makes a sorting algorithm stable is to store the index of each element (the element's place in the original ordering) with the element. When comparing two elements, compare them by values their and break ties by their indices. Additional space requirements: For n elements, their indices are 1...n. Each can be written in lgn bits, so together they take O(n lgn) additional space. Additional time requirements: The worst case is when all elements are equal. The asymptotic time does not change because we add a constant amount of work to each comparison. SE240 Tutorial 11 3 Solution to Exercise 25.1-3 0 ... 0 ... (0) What does the matrix L I= 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 used in the shortest-paths algorithms correspond to in the regular matrix multiplication? Answer: The matrix L(0) corresponds to the identity matrix 1 0 0 ... 0 0 1 0 ... 0 I= 0 0 1 ... 0 ... ... ... ... ... 0 0 0 ... 1 of regular matrix multiplication. Substitute 0 (the identity for +) for (the identity for min), and 1 (the identity for .) for 0 (the identity for +). SE240 Tutorial 11 4 Solution to Exercise 25.1- 5 The all-pairs shortest-paths algorithm in Section 25.1 computes L(n1) = W n1 = L(0) . W n1 ( 1 lijn - ) =(i , j ) and L(0) is the identity matrix. That is, the entry in the ith where row and jth column of the matrix "product" is the shortest-path distance from vertex i to vertex j, and row i of the product is the solution to the single-source shortest-paths problem for vertex i. Notice that in a matrix "product" C = A . B, the ith row of C is the ith row of A "multiplied" by B. Since all we want is the ith row of C, we never need more than the ith row of A. Thus the solution to the single-source shortest-paths from vertex i is Li(0) . Wn1, where Li(0) is the ith row of L(0) a vector whose ith entry is 0 and whose other entries are . SE240 Tutorial 11 5 Solution to Exercise 25.1- 5 (cont ...) Doing the above "multiplications" starting from the left is essentially the same as the BELLMAN-FORD algorithm. The vector corresponds to the d values in BELLMAN-FORD the shortest-path estimates from the source to each vertex. The vector is initially 0 for the source and for all other vertices, the same as the values set up for d by INITIALIZE-SINGLE-SOURCE. Each "multiplication" of the current vector by W relaxes all edges just as BELLMAN-FORD does. That is, a distance estimate in the row, say the distance to v, is updated to the smaller estimate, if any, formed by adding some w(u, v) to the current estimate of the distance to u. The relaxation/multiplication is done n 1 times. SE240 Tutorial 11 6
Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

W. Alabama - ECE - 453
TCL Introduction (2)Tutorial 2ECE453 &amp; CS447Software Testing, Quality Assurance and MaintenanceTutorial Overview1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. List related commands and list of lists String related command TCL arrays Error handling in TCL Reference pas
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
What Is UNIX? UNIX is an operating system for computers-that is, it is a program that manages the computer's resource (the CPU, main memory, input and output channels, and so on) In the narrowest sense, it is a time-sharing operating system kernel:
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Expect BasicsTutorial 3ECE453 &amp; CS447Software Testing, Quality Assurance and MaintenanceTutorial Overview1. Central commands of Expect 2. Interact with other processes 3. Error and timeout handling 4. Glob Pattern Matching in Expect 5. Regula
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
Introduction to SDL and MSC Access Control (AC) System Introduction to SDL SDL blocks, processes, procedure. SDL specification of AC System Introduction to MSC MSC terminology MSC specification of AC System SDL Process for PBX Single Call P
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Introduction to Automated Testing Tools1. JUnit: testing java applications 2. JFCUnit: testing GUI written by java swing 3. Excpect: testing c, c+, java, tcl applications. 4. Expectk and Java Robot: testing GUI written in tcl/tk.ECE453 &amp; CS4471
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
Software ReliabilityECE-355 Tutorial Jie LianECE355 Fall 2004Software Reliability1Outline Part I: Software Reliability Model Musa's Basic Model Musa/Okumoto Logarithmic Model Part II: Control Flow GraphECE355 Fall 2004Software Relia
W. Alabama - ECE - 454
TCP(UDP)/IP Connection Process N in Host AApplication Transport Internet Network interfaceTCP H Data DataPort number: which process receives it? IP address: which host receives it? Physical address: to router in LANProcess M in Host BData TCP H
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
High Level Message Sequence ChartsPresentation Outlines Introduction MSC History and Versions Characteristics HMSC Graphic Presentation of HMSC Example Conclusion2IntroductionOriginally, MSC was used merely as an informal and illustrat
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Expect Basics (3)Tutorial 5ECE453 &amp; CS447Software Testing, Quality Assurance and MaintenanceTutorial Overview1. The Expect Program 2. Handling Multiple Processes 3. Handling Multiple Processes Simultaneously 4. Expect_before command 5. Expect
East Los Angeles College - PROJECTS - 200708
Application of Deconvolution Techniques to Estimate the Rate of Appearance of a Pharmaceutical in the Systemic Blood StreamThomas Grandjean Department of Engineering University of WarwickIntroductionAstraZeneca are developing a new pharmaceutical
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
PBX Call ProcessingE&amp;CE 355 Tutorial October 5, 2001PBX Hardware Emulator hepar starts the HW emulator heprog Emulates PBX Voice/Signaling hardware in software kiprog Allows you to control the emulated hardware diprog Displays the curren
W. Alabama - ECE - 454
E&amp;CE 454 Distributed and Network-Centric ComputingFinal Examination Spring 2000 Thursday, August 3, 2000 Instructor Kostas KontogiannisNotes: This is a closed book exam. Total exam time is 3 hours. No programmable electronic storage-capable devic
W. Alabama - ECE - 457
E&amp;CE 457 Applied Artificial IntelligenceMidterm ExaminationSpring 1999June 18, 1999Instructor Kostas KontogiannisNotes: Closed book exam No calculators allowed This exam contains 4 pages Questions worth 100 marksQuestion 1. [Pertaining to
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Process MeNtOR 3.o Uni-SEPProcess MeNtOR 3Version: Print Date: Release Date: Release State: Approval State: Approved by: Prepared by: Reviewed by: Path Name: File Name:1.0 10/4/2005 10:06:00 PM Initial/Core/Final Draft/Approveddad38400ebcb389
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Project Part 2 06/03/2006v.2.0ECE 453/CS 447/SE 465 Course Project Part2 Version 2 Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science University of Waterloo, Waterloo ON, Canada, N2L 3G11.0 IntroductionThis document contai
W. Alabama - ECE - 454
E&amp;CE 454 Distributed &amp; Network Centric ComputingMidterm Examination Spring 1999 June 14, 1999Instructor Kostas KontogiannisNotes: This exam is marked out of 100. Calculators are not allowed. This exam has 3 pages, six questions.Question 1. (P
W. Alabama - ECE - 750
Transforming a Simplified UML model to Simplifed RDBMS model-Description from QVT-mailing list:&quot;A class maps on to a single table. A class attribute of primitive type maps on to a column of the table. Attributes of a complex type are drilled d
W. Alabama - ECE - 250
CASE1:P1: 3x*3 + 2x*2 + x + 5;P2: 5x*4 + 3x*3 + 3;P1+P2CASE2:P1: 3x*4 -3x*6 + x*7 + 2x*5 + 5;P2: 3x*4 +x*7P1-P2CASE3:P1: 2y*2 + y + 5P2: 2y*2 + y + 5P1-P2CASE4:P1: P2:P1+P2CASE5:P1:P2: 5P1-P2CASE6:P1: 3x*3 + 3P2: 2x*2 + 2
W. Alabama - ECE - 250
Transcription of the Final Manuscript of Washington's Farewell AddressUnited States 19th September 1796Friends, &amp; Fellow-Citizens.The period for a new election of a Citizen, to Administer the Executive government of the United
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
Suggested SRS Document Structure &amp; Marking Scheme=Table of Contents[2]List of FiguresList of Tables1. Introduction[14] * Purpose * Scope * Definitions * References * Overview2. General Description[6] * Functionality * Ope
W. Alabama - ECE - 454
From kostas@swen.uwaterloo.ca Thu Jul 26 10:19:40 2001Received: from andros.uwaterloo.ca (andros.uwaterloo.ca [129.97.92.11])by swen.uwaterloo.ca (8.8.8/8.8.8) with ESMTP id KAA08842;Thu, 26 Jul 2001 10:19:40 -0400 (EDT)From: Kostas Kontogianni
W. Alabama - ECE - 250
This is a test file. Thisis your first test fileand you can use it for verifyingyour programs.
W. Alabama - ECE - 428
A. Ross-Kurose BookChapter 1 1.1 - 1.8, 1.10Chapter 2 2.1 - 2.7, 2.9Chapter 3 3.1 - 3.8 Chapter 4 4.1 - 4.5, 4.8 - 4.9 Chapter 5 5.1, 5.4 - 5.6, 5.8, 5.9, 5.11Chapter 7 7.1 - 7.7B. Supporting material1. Al
W. Alabama - ECE - 250
SOME THOUGHTS ON PLATO's WORKThe publication, in Mr. Bohn's &quot;Serial Library,&quot; of the excellent translations of Plato, which we esteem one of the chief benefits the cheap press has yielded, gives us an occasion to take hasti
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Functional Testing Part 1Boundary Value Testing Equivalence Class TestingWinter 2006Presented by Nikos Giannopoulos nikos@swen.uwaterloo.caECE 453, Prof. KontogiannisUniversity of Waterloo1AgendaBoundary Value TestingBoundary Value
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Data Flow Testing Slice-Based TestingWinter 2006Presented by Nikos Giannopoulos nikos@swen.uwaterloo.caECE 453, Prof. KontogiannisUniversity of Waterloo1Agenda Slice-Based Testing Definitions Slice-Based Testing ExamplesECE 453, Prof.
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
System testingMon/Wed March 14, 2006 M.K.Abida Mkabida@pami.uwaterloo.caSATM terminalScreens for the SATMTest threads The macro level states are: Card entry PIN entry Transaction request (and processing) Session management Note that thi
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Integration testingTutorial: Monday March 7, 2006 M.K.Abida mkabida@pami.uwaterloo.caSATM SATM: Simple Automatic Teller Machine. Will work with this example during the Integration and system testing part. Build around 15 screen.SATMSATMP
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Path Testing ExamplesWinter 2006Presented by Nikos Giannopoulos nikos@swen.uwaterloo.caECE 453, Prof. KontogiannisUniversity of Waterloo1AgendaCode Coverage Analysis MeasuresBasic Measures Examples Statement Coverage Decisi
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Examples Used In Testing DiscussionsWinter 2006Presented by Nikos Giannopoulos nikos@swen.uwaterloo.caECE 453, Prof. KontogiannisUniversity of Waterloo1AgendaThe Triangle Problem Problem Statement Discussion Traditional Implementat
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
Software Testingapsengfac@ncst.ernet.inContent Essence Terminology Classification Debugging IEEE Standards Unit, System . BlackBox, WhiteBoxDefinition Glen Myers Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of findin
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
The SATM systemTutorial: Monday February 27, 2006 M.K.Abida mkabida@pami.uwaterloo.caSATM SATM: Simple Automatic Teller Machine. Will work with this example during the Integration and system testing part. Build around 15 screen.Screens for t
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
ECE 453 Graph Theory TutorialWinter 2006Presented by Nikos Giannopoulos nikos@swen.uwaterloo.caECE 453, Prof. KontogiannisUniversity of Waterloo1AgendaUndirected Graphs Degree of a Node Incidence Matrices Adjacency Matrices Path
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
Examples on Functional TestingWinter 2006Presented by Nikos Giannopoulos nikos@swen.uwaterloo.caECE 453, Prof. KontogiannisUniversity of Waterloo1Agenda Telephone Billing Example Flowchart Decision Table ExampleECE 453, Prof. Kontogi
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355 Design Patterns Tutorial Part 3Presented by Igor IvkoviSomething Fun Creational Patterns Structural PatternsBehavioural Patternshttp:/home.earthlink.net/~huston2/dp/patterns.html2Agenda Design Patterns Factory Method o Adapter
Allan Hancock College - ETAOB - 2001303
_ EXCISE TARIFF AMENDMENT (CRUDE OIL) BILL 2001 1998-1999-2000-2001 THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES EXCISE TARI
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
ECE 453 CS 447 SE 465 Software Testing &amp; Quality AssuranceInstructor Kostas Kontogiannis1OverviewSoftware Reverse EngineeringReliability and Availability Software Reliability Models Calendar Time, Execution Time Operational Phase Concurrent
East Los Angeles College - BS - 914
Dave Whitworthd.e.whitworth@warwick.ac.ukMicrobial Systems: Wednesdays weeks 4 and 5Presentations: 2-5 minutes, NO LONGER THAN 30 MINUTES PREP. 1-2 Slides Maximum Emma Picot Marc Rossello Dominic Lawrance Andrew McCarthy Streptomyces coelicolor
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
ECE 453 CS 447 SE 465 Software Testing &amp; Quality AssuranceInstructor Kostas Kontogiannis1OverviewSoftware Reverse EngineeringBlack Box Metrics White Box Metrics Development Estimates Maintenance Estimates2Software Metrics Black Box Metr
East Los Angeles College - BS - 914
RASMOLMolecular Graphics Visualisation Tool visualises proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules accepts Protein Data Bank (PDB), Tripos Associates' Alchemy and Sybyl Mol2, Molecular Design Limited's (MDL) Mol, Minnesota Supercomputer Center's (
East Los Angeles College - BS - 918
MetabolomicsPeter J. EastmondPhone: +44 02476 575096 email: p.j.eastmond@warwick.ac.ukLecture Plan:What is the Metabolome and Metabolomics What is the history of the subject How does it relate to other `omics' What are its strengths and weaknes
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355: Software EngineeringCHAPTER 4Unit 3 (Part 2)Presentation material is based on notes from Bernd Bruegge &amp; Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and JavaScenarios &quot;A narrative description of what pe
East Los Angeles College - BS - 918
Global analysis of protein expression, localisation and interactions Can we measure expression of every single protein in an organism? Can we see/find out where each protein is localised?Global analysis of protein expression in yeastGhaemmagham
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355: Software EngineeringCHAPTER 11Part IIILecture Notes from Bernd Bruegge, Allen H. Dutoit &quot;Object-Oriented Software Engineering Using UML, Patterns and Java&quot;1Integration Testing Strategy The entire system is viewed as a collection of s
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355: Software EngineeringCHAPTER 2Unit 4 (Part 2)Presentation material based on past ECE 355 notes by Prof. K. Czarneszki.Course outline Unit 1: Software Engineering Basics Unit 2: Process Models and Software Life Cycles Unit 3: Softwar
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355: Software Engineering CHAPTER 4Unit 3 (Part 1)Presentation material is based on notes from Bernd Bruegge &amp; Allen H. Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns, and JavaCourse outline Unit 1: Software Engineering Ba
W. Alabama - ECE - 453
ECE 453 CS 447 SE 465 Software Testing &amp; Quality AssuranceInstructor Kostas Kontogiannis1 These slides are based on: Lecture slides by Ian Summerville, seehttp:/www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/resources/ser/ ECE355 Lecture slides by Sagar N
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355: Software EngineeringInstructor: Kostas Kontogiannis1Course outline Unit 1: Software Engineering Basics Unit 2: Process Models and Software Life Cycles Unit 3: Software Requirements Unit 4: Unified Modeling Language (UML) Unit 5: De
W. Alabama - ECE - 355
ECE 355: Software EngineeringCHAPTER 1Unit 1Outline for today Introduction Course description Software engineering basicsCHAOS Report by Standish Group for 1995 Standish Group studied 3682 projects in 365 companies in 1995 Huge investment
W. Alabama - AFM - 372
Chapter 17 Limits to the Use of DebtTopics: 17.1 Costs of Financial Distress 17.2 Agency costs of debt 17.4 Integration of Tax Effects and Financial Distress Costs 17.7, 17.10 How Firms Establish Capital Structure1Bankruptcy Risk vs. Bankrup
W. Alabama - PSCI - 332
e-GovernmentSituating CanadaMaturity of e-Government Deliverye-government maturity (Accenture) service maturity breadth of service what proportion of services offered onlinedepth of service publish passive/passive interactive active/pas
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 207
Perceiving Objects and Recognizing PatternsThe Illusion of ClarityOutline Bottom-Up Processes Top-Down Processes Other Views of Perception Unusual PerceptionBottom-Up Processing Also goes by &quot;data-driven&quot; or &quot;stimulus driven&quot; At the extre
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 207
Attention in the real worldAttention &amp; Driving Strayer &amp; Johnston (2001) Pursuit tracking task: keep cursor on moving target Target flashed either red (push a button) or green (ignore) Conditions Single task: tracking alone Dual task: trackin
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 457
Depressive Vulnerability and the Role of Information ProcessingScott B. McCabe, Ph.D., C.Psych.UWO November 24, 2000Depression Affective: Depressed mood (kidsirritability) or anhedonia for 2 weeks minimum Cognitive: worthlessness/guilt, hopele
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 398
RetrievalRecall vs. Recognition Recall context provided and participant has to retrieve target Recognition target provided and participant has to retrieve contextAvailability and Accessibility Mandler et al. (1969): Observers viewed 100 wo
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 207
Outline Bottom-Up Processes Top-Down Processes Other Views of Perception Unusual PerceptionOther Views of PerceptionGestalt Approaches to Perception Focuses on understanding how come to recognize objects as forms Form perception: segregatio
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 291
Psychology 291, Tuesday, September 26th Review IV or predictor: variable that is proposed to be the cause DV or outcome: variable proposed to be the effect This depends on the researcher's context E.g., a studying investigating women with cancer
W. Alabama - PSYCH - 291
Basics of Research Design Vocabulary-you should be able to define each of these terms and recognize each when you see it-starting now! Hypothesis: Researcher's tentative statement regarding the relationship between two variables. Variable: Entity tha
W. Alabama - ARTS - 800
Introduction to Nonrecursive (Nonhierarchical) Models A Feedback Loop A nonrecursive or nonhierarchical model is one with at least one feedback loop in it. The simplest such model is the following: e Y1 c Y2 d E2 f Note that variables Y1 and Y2 simul
W. Alabama - ARTS - 800
Psychology 800 - Psychometric Theory and Methods Winter, 2005 Instructor: Erik Woody e-mail: ewoody@watarts Phone extension: 3140 Office: PAS 3032 TA: Lena Quilty e-mail: lcquilty@watarts Phone extension: 2575 Office: PAS 3014Course Description The
W. Alabama - PSCI - 110
Individual Rights and Group Rights: &quot;Managing&quot; Diversity Human rights &quot;talk&quot; (rhetoric) usually emphasizes individual rights Certain basic rights that people have as human beings United Nations 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Empha