Art Exam 1 Review
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Art Exam 1 Review

Course Number: ART 1309, Spring 2008

College/University: Texas Tech

Word Count: 2359

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Art Exam 1 Review Aesthetic Pertaining to the appreciation of the beautiful, as opposed to the functional or utilitarian, and, by extension, to the appreciation of any form of art, whether overtly beautiful or not 4 traditional roles of the artist Record the world o The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak; Albert Bierstadt To give tangible form to feelings o The Central Mountain; Wu Chen To reveal hidden or universal...

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Exam Art 1 Review Aesthetic Pertaining to the appreciation of the beautiful, as opposed to the functional or utilitarian, and, by extension, to the appreciation of any form of art, whether overtly beautiful or not 4 traditional roles of the artist Record the world o The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak; Albert Bierstadt To give tangible form to feelings o The Central Mountain; Wu Chen To reveal hidden or universal truths o Bushfire and Corroboree Dreaming; Erna Motna To help us see the world in a new or innovative way o Spiral Jetty; Robert Smithson The creative process From seeing to imagining to making Physical and psychological process of seeing Physical o Can be divided into three steps Reception External stimuli enter the nervous system through our eyes Extraction The retina takes the information it needs and then sends it to the visual cortex which processes the stimuli 100 millions sensors in the retina but only 5 million to the visual cortex The visual cortex gathers special information about what you're seeing, including o Color o Motion o Orientation o Size Inference What you see is what your visual cortex extracts from the information that the retina sends it o Seeing is therefore a creative process It makes conclusions about the world It represents the world for you by selecting out information Psychological o Everything you see is filtered through a long history of fears, prejudices, desires, emotions, customs and beliefs, both your own and the artist's Jasper Johns' Three Flags Because the flag shrinks before you, it becomes less grand and physically smaller, it seems to diminish the very idea that America stands for What category of sculpture does the Spiral Jetty fit into? Earthwork sculpture Wu Chen's painting the central mountain is based in part on a traditional system of beliefs that references the relationships of the opposites. What two terms are attached to this belief system? What is the medium of Wu Chen's painting? Yin o Nurturing and passive, and is represented by the earth in the general and by cool moist valleys of the landscape in particular Yang o Generative and active, it is represented by the sun and the mountain Handscroll, ink on paper Faith Ringgold's God Bless America features references to an American flag. How has Ringgold used stripes on the flag? As prison or jail cell bars Object that are created purely to simulate a sense of beauty within the viewer could be described as _______ Aesthetic Albert Bierstadt's The Rocky Mountains doesn't really represent a specific location in the American West. What was Bierstadt's inspiration for the scene? The Alps What new painting medium was introduced to Aboriginal painters in 1971? Acrylic painting There are two basic processes to seeing. The first is _______ and the second is _______. Physical Psychological In Childe Hassam's Allies Day, May 1917, and Jasper Johns' Three Flags, what is the same: subject, form or content? Subject Know the degrees of distance between "real things" and the words and images we use when referring to them We tend to look at a painting of an object as though it really is that object. But it's not; it's only the representation of that object. The word is a set of abstract marks that represent in language both the thing and its image Language is further removed from the visual world than visual representation Within language there are different degrees of distance as well The object is not "the object" or "this object", it is simply the "object" The or this is a pronoun and therefore have no relation to the actual subject Know that not all cultures regard representation with the same reverence that we do in the West. For example, calligraphy is the chief form of art in the Muslim culture. We tend to confuse words and the objects they represent In other countries, the removal of a word from what it refers to is seen as a virtue Distinguish among representational, abstract and objective works of art Representational o The more the work resembles things in the actual world, the more of this it is said to be Abstract o The less a work resembles things in the real world, the more of this it is said to be Nonobjective o Doesn't refer to the natural or objective world at all If these three were a scale representational would be at the far left, moving to abstract in the middle and nonobjective at the right Understand form and content, the relationship between them, and observe how in successful works of art they are inseparable Form o Everything from the materials used to make it, to the way it employs the various formal elements to the ways in which those are organized into a composition o Overall structure of a work of art Content o What the work of art expresses or means These two are generally opposed It is the radically different content and form that sometimes makes a work of art have the power or movement that it does Understand how conventions, including iconographical traditions, contribute to the meaning of art Conventions o Habitual or generally accepted ways of seeing We cannot understand the meaning of a work of art unless the traditions behind it are explained While an outsider might see a work of art and think of all of the prejudices and depression associated with it, the carver might see it as a sign of extreme happiness, one that is used in many traditional and happy ceremonies Representational art Any work of art that seeks to resemble the world of natural appearance Nonobjective Art that makes no reference to the natural world and that explores the inherent expressive or aesthetic potential of the formal elements of art- line, shape and color- and the formal compositional principles of a given medium Abstract The rendering of images and objects in a stylized or simplified way, so that they remain recognizable, their formal or expressive aspects are emphasized Iconography The study or description of images and symbols Ethnocentric Pertaining to the imposition of the point of view of one culture upon the works and attitudes of another Convention A traditional, habitual, or widely accepted method of representation Composition The organization of the formal elements in a work of art Subject The literal, visible image in a work of art, as distinguished from its content, which includes connotative, symbolic, and suggestive aspects of the image Form The literal shape and mass of an object or fixture. More generally, the material used to make a work of art, he ways in which the materials are used in terms of the formal elements and the composition that results Content The meaning of the image, beyond its overt subject matter; as opposed to form Lorna Simpson's text, The Park, is used to make the viewer more active in her artwork. What does the viewer become? The person who has purchased the telescope Why are images of humans traditionally banned in Islamic art? In creating human likeness, the artist is thought to be competing with the Creator himself, and such excessive pride, is of course a sin. What type of art is said to the reduce world to its essential qualities? (The less a work of art resembles thins in the real world, the more ____ it is said to be.) Abstract A work of art that makes no reference to the real, or objective, world it said to be _____. Nonobjective When a person evaluates a work of art from another culture based solely on the conventions of her culture, she has made an _____ evaluation. Ethnocentric Which of the following works are fully representational? Pat, Pasadena Lifesavers Red Series #3, or Baby Girl Pat Genre In painting the representation of scenes from daily life Surrealism A style of art in the early 20th century that emphasized dream imagery, chance operations, and rapid, thoughtless forms of notation that expressed, it was felt, the unconscious mind Vanitas A kind of still-life painting designed to remind us of the vanity, or frivolous quality, of human existence Know the difference between subjective and objective art Objective art is what is actually there and how the world visualizes it o There is nothing indefinite about this form Subjective art is an interpretation of the artist; it is a state of mind Know that although most of us respond more readily to beautiful images, artists can make us see the beauty in an ugly image via its underlying message or their skillful means of representation How does Matthias Grunewald's painting of the crucifixion for the Isenheim Altarpiece represent the beautiful? The expressive drama of the scene itself How do the two versions of the Treaty Signing at Medicine Lodge Creek, 1867 differ? What can you say about the accuracy of each version? One is from the perspective of a tribal leader's son and the other is from a journalist hired by a newspaper One is very accurate in how the scene was and how the processes proceeded and focused on the event at hand The other, is very accurate concerning the distinctions between the different tribes at the signing and the genders and focused on the bare basics of the scene A work of art that reminds viewers of the temporal nature of youth, wealth and beauty is called a _____ piece. Vanitas What is the name for the style of art practiced by Salvador Dali? To what traditional theme of art does this belong? Surrealism Abstract Which of the traditional themes is represented by Albert Bierstadt's The Rocky Mountains? Representational What artist produced the performance piece "Two Undiscovered Amerindians" and what was the purpose of that piece? Guillermo Gomez-Pena and Coco Fusco To address relations between the US and Mexico Picasso's painting of Gertrude Stein turned out not to look very much like her at the time. What does the painting of Stein reflect? It reflects the change from representational to artists being more subjective To what theme do Monet's Grainstack and Durer's Large Turf belong? Largely representational, with a little abstract We tend to view everyday objects made in African, Oceanic, Native American or Asian cultures as works of art, but they may actually be what? Sacred tools that provide divine insight and inspiration What work of art is given as an example of Vanitas in this chapter? Still Life or Vanitas, Philippe Champaigne The vanitas tradition tradition of still life painting is specifically designed to induce what in the spectator? Higher order of thought Sculpture that is so representational that it almost looks real is called ______. Fully representational or super real Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating Party is considered a _______ painting. Genre What kind of art helped to inspire Picasso's Les Desmoiselles d' Avignon? African Sculpture Significance of the Armory Show This was most Americans' first exposure to modern art Activist vs. public art Activist o Puts information out not only to be understood but also to make things happen Public o Public's reception of the art abounds in instances of the public's misunderstanding of the art National Endowment for the Arts, Arts in Public Places, Per Cent for Art National Endowment for the Arts is what started the Arts in Public Places o Usually required 1% of the cost of new public buildings to be dedicated to purchasing art to enhance their public spaces Reception of each of the following works of art Manet's sur l'herbe o Wasn't well received Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase o Was very successful, but only because people saw it as a mystery Maya Lin's Viet Nam war memorial o Wasn't well received Carl Andre's Stone Field Sculpture o Wasn't well received Richard Sierra's Tilted Arc o Well received Michelangelo's David o Wasn't well received Who introduced a bill to congress prohibiting use of NEA funds for dissemination, promotion, or production of obscene or indecent materials or materials denigrating a particular religion? American Family Association How did the jury on the trial of Dennis Barrie and the Cincinnati Art Center eventually determine that Robert Mapplethorpe's photographs were not obscene? They determined that they were works of art What work of art was once described as an explosion in a shingle factory? Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase According Sayre, why has the public historically received new and innovative work with reservation? It has little context, historical or otherwise, in which to view it It is not easy to appreciate, let alone value, what's not understood What prior work was Manet's Luncheon on the Grass based on? A composition by Raphael, The Judgment of Paris What was the armory show? America's first exposure to modern art How was Carl Andre's Stone Field Sculpture eventually accepted by the public? (What was he able to demonstrate about the content?) The public understood the artist's intentions That he had emotional and physical considerations when designing this piece and that he wanted to juxtapose human time How was the controversy over Maya Lin's Vietnam Veteran's Memorial finally resolved? People understood that the memorial stood for the war itself What was the content of Richard Serra's Tilted Arc? What happened to the piece? The content was confrontational because it represents how the American people are divided from their government It was dismantled and later destroyed After congress funded the NEA in 1967, artists who previously had made art for a specific art loving audience, found themselves with a new audience. Who comprised this new audience? General public What specific component of the NEA made works of art available to the general public? 1% of the cost of new public buildings was to be dedicated to purchasing art to enhance their public spaces What happened to Michelangelo's David that demonstrated its controversial content? It's potentially offensive content was covered by a skirt of bronze leaves Stones were hurled at it by opposition What is an activist artist? Help us see the world in a new way and have an impact on the world Who created the vehicle for the homeless? Krzysztof Wodiczko What did Carl Andre say he hated most in public art? A piece of abstract art in a public space that nothing more than a disguised man on horseback

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