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Expansion Grade Westward Level: 4 Sub-topics: Moving Communities Contemporaries of the 1840's Expressive and Narrative Writing People of the West Hardships of Westward Expansion Routes Oregon Trail Accomplishments of Westward Expansion and their effects th grade Background information on unit and Perspectives from school, students, community, teachers, other non-academic sources Our westward expansion unit deals with moving across the country. In trying to connect this unit to students' lives, one of our essential questions deals with moving in general. In order to gain a better understanding of how the unit is taught, and what the students think of it, I asked a student in the classroom, and also two teachers. The student was not very fond of the unit. She remembers one activity that they did, which was tape the outline of a wagon, have the whole class attempt to fit inside the outline, and then see and discuss just how small the wagons really were. However, she thought the unit was boring. The teachers however thoroughly enjoyed the unit. One teacher said that she loves teaching the unit and it I one of the most memorable in her class. I asked her what she does to teach the unit. She said she uses a commercially printed unit, and embellishes it with life experiences and readings. She also has her students take on identities of actual people who traveled on the Oregon Trail. Many of these people were farmers in central Illinois, which is another connection that the students can make. She also uses a guest speaker who has biked along the trail and took many photos. He connects everything with his photo essay. She makes sure to have many activities throughout the unit that are focused on real life connections. The second teacher I interviewed said that she loves to use literature when teaching this unit. She doesn't like to use all nonfiction texts, she enjoys incorporating a lot of good historical fiction. Another activity she has the class do is have them become resident experts on a particular aspect of the unit, and then present it to the class. They usually did this in a play format, and are assessed in different ways, depending on the class. She also liked to incorporate activities of learning a craft of skill that the pioneers needed to do to survive during the movement, such as candle making, sewing, and paper making. If possible, she suggests having community people coming in to talk to the class, possibly someone from a historical center if there is one around. Here is another good way to connect. To end the unit, everyone needs to do a report on a particular famous person and their contributions during the expansion, and then this I presented in a "living history fair." Each student dresses up and gives a first person talk to whoever visits their station. Another idea that she uses is the Jeopardy game as a way to review for a test if this is the form of assessment being used. Talking to people who have recently learned the unit, and those who have taught the unit gave me some great ideas on what I can do to make the unit interesting. For our unit, we have lessons that thoroughly involve the students in getting to know the people, hardships, and accomplishments of the expansion. Here again, everyone has had struggles, and everyone has accomplished something, big or small. The students can make connections between the expansion and their lives using all of these ideas. Some communities have accomplishments that they are very proud about to, and these are all things that the students can research and inquire about to add into the discussions and projects that they will so throughout this unit. Background Information from Academic Readings Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1993. Takaki provides information on how Westward Expansion played a significant role in "Indian" History. He explains how various tribes were allotted land through treaties, but many of these treaties only favored the White Man. Indians were taught to farm the land they did maintain. Jackson would talk as if he was collaborating with the Indians, but in actuality he was working for Indian Removal As people, farmers, railroads, and Industry, began to occupy the land, Indians were put placed into reservations. The "New Deal"- Indian Reorganization Act pp. 84-105, 228-245 Caughfiel, Adrienne. True Women and Westward Expansion. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2005. Handy-Marcello. Women of the Northern Plains: Gender and Settlement on the Homestead Frontier1870-1930. Minneapolis: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2005. Both texts explain the women's role during Westward Expansion, giving us a female perspective. Text suggest that even though Manifest Destiny (Male dominate destiny) was the philosophy of that area at the time, women provided stability Adrienne Caughfield says, ``women offered hope for a more secure future.'' Northern Plains of the Dakotas was an area that caused division of labor: Males were to be working on the farms (outside) while women worked inside the house mainly with cleaning, cooking, and taking care of the children. Women also have to work outside by raising chickens and cows for butter and milk, for much needed extra income. Women of the Northern Plains suggest a type of "Female Destiny" John, G.E. Cultural Nationalism, Westward Expansion and the Production of Imperial Landscape: George Catlin's Native American West. ECUMENE, Apr 2001, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p175-203, 29p Catlin was a painter who through his art work attempted to paint a landscape of Indian Country. His work questioned the affects of Westward expansion and Indian Policy. These landscape paintings caused a lot of tension in the early 1900's, for his portrayal of the Indian Country. Those who painted Indians were "motivated by the belief they were depicting a vanishing race of noble men." (8) 2. Background Information on Instructional Strategies Top Ten Instructional Strategies 1. Interviews and Surveys is a great instructional strategy because students can use their interests and channel it into formal questions that they search for answers. For example, if students were learning about President Kennedy being shot, they can ask their parents questions that relate to the topic and strike their own interest at the same time. Interviews in particular also give a great "face to an event." Students can make personal connections through asking questions and listening to personal answers. Surveys also do this as well as provide students with general trends and feelings towards certain topics. A student can survey how many students think US involvement in a certain war was justifiable. By analyzing the reactions, several, more in depth research into how others of the time thought of the war can be explored. We have seen this strategy used in our own education in which we had to interview a grandparent on an historical event. 2. Learning Logs are present in our cooperating class. In this strategy, students are able to write their own thoughts about a certain topic or event. Students must provide personal reactions to events that they learned about. 3. Concept Maps are a great way for students to demonstration how they understand the interconnectedness of ideas, people, events, and facts. Concept maps are present in elementary school as well as at the university level. These graphic organizers can be manipulated in very specific ways, allowing students to answer specific questions or follow a specific procedure to draw a conclusion. We have seen concept maps used in 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. literacy, math, science, and social studies. Not only is it purposeful for a student to generate a concept map, but a teacher-displayed concept map can help explain an activity or expectations for an assignment or unit. Putting you in the Picture allows students to see a different, more personal perspective of an issue as well as present their knowledge of an event in a way that is different from the norm. We have read about the importance of a student answering "so what?" or "what does that have to do with you?" in a class, but this activity allows them to answer that question through drawing. It also helps teachers answer questions that students may pose, such as, "Why do we have to learn this?" By giving students a purpose to learning, they are more open-minded to exploration and more inclined to ask questions to further their inquiry. Learning Maps, although similar to a concept map, do a great job in mapping progress and reviewing information for students. Since the maps focus on sequential topics, students can begin a map and finish it later. The maps allow students to put a procedure into their own words and symbolic representations. This design results in children having different learning maps, but ultimately learning the same information. It is a cue to teachers as to how each of their students learns and understands concepts. We have read also that students can put their own input into a learning map. This is a great tool for teachers to see what their students enjoy learning, what activities were effective, and what type of instruction should be repeated in the classroom. Expert Groups are a quick way for students to learn main ideas of a concept without having to research each concept. When students are learning and presenting information to other students, it reiterates the belief that when people teach something to someone, their understanding of the thing being taught is ultimately stronger and more organized. Although students usually do not realize this fact, fourth graders are aware of their responsibility in presenting correct information as they are coined the "experts" on the certain topic. Three Level Guide is a strategy that is not usually seen as direct as we read. We read that in the three level guide, the teacher first asks students to write down literal statements about the text, then interpretive statements, then finally analytical statements. Having students understand this step takes a lot of modeling and guided practice. We have seen this strategy being used as a modified model or guided practice in that the teacher will first ask direct questions related to the text, such as, "Where did people move to during the westward movement?" Then the teacher will ask more interpretive questions, finally the teacher may ask analytical questions such as, "Do you think it was alright for the people moving to push others out of their space?" Both the direct and indirect method to teach this strategy is effective as long as the students understand the assignment. With practice, we think that a teacher can easily slide from guided questions to a direct three level guide during the year. Moral Dilemmas are a great way for students to create real-world experiences onto theories being presented. We have seen the idea of moral dilemmas in literacy groups in which the teacher may ask students, "Would you do what the character did? Why or why not?" This strategy is important so long as students are able to make personal connections to the text. This process might be difficult in some cases of text especially with westward movement. It is difficult for a student to answer a question about Native American displacement in the United States if they have nothing to connect to their own lives. Students making connections from what they are reading to their own life is a skill developed through practice and guided questioning on the part of the teacher. Then, it is easy for students to explain why they would do certain things if they were in a situation. 9. Consensus 1-3-6 is a strategy we have not seen very much in the classroom, but appears to be very effective. Here, students need to activate prior knowledge of the topic being discussed and the skill of summarizing information, combining facts, and working cooperatively in groups. Students first need to know a lot about the subject being discussed because they have to develop their own list of information as well as monitor information offered by other students. They also have to know how they can take two pieces of information and make it one. For example, one student might say, "People move away from a place to get away from persecution" while another student might say, "People move into a place because they can make economic gains." Students need to have the writing skill to say, "People move to get away from persecution, in search of economic gains." 10. Conversation Counters are simply a technique to make sure all students are participating. We have seen this represented in a number of ways in the classroom. Students may need to share an idea before getting in line to go to recess. We have also seen students have three different colored counters. Only once everyone in the class has handed in their blue counter, for example, (meaning that they all participated in the discussion) can they hand in their green counter. This means that everyone in the class or group needs to say one thing before someone can speak for a second time. This places control in the hands of the teacher without the students realizing it. The teacher is controlling who participates in discussion and when even though the students are choosing when in the discussion they would like to participate. After finding all the above instructional strategies in Integrating Socially by Julie Hamston and Kath Murdoch, we looked at several general teaching strategies that teachers can use during the unit as well as in other subject areas. One helpful general teaching strategy to keep in mind while working on this unit is allowing students to make their own choices in instruction. Many of our activities in this unit set a guideline for students yet allow them to study something of their own interest through using resources of their choice. Choice and interest is a powerful tool in engaging students in a lesson as well as receiving high-quality work in the end. When students make choices in their research, they become active learners and active teachers. They want to learn as much as they can about the topic and wish to share that information with their peers and teacher. When teachers provide a guideline for students yet allow choice in their topic, teachers are also telling the students that they trust the students in generating a proficient presentation of what they learned. Integrating Socially discusses how during the inquiry process, teachers should consider interests in choosing topics. These interests can be sparked by students' choices that they make in certain topic areas. The book states, "A degree of choice exists for the learner." (11) Of course, the teachers should guide students' choices, but with minimal intervention. One helpful literacy strategy that is present in our unit is the idea of having students write from different perspectives than their own. Although it is important for students to write in their own perspective and make connections to their own lives, when children write from other people's perspectives, they are realizing the various views and feelings that other's may have. This "put yourself in his shoes" approach to teaching allows for vast creativity on the part of the student. Different perspectives written on one topic also allows students to be able to compare and contrast thoughts and beliefs of people at the time. For example, a journal entry of Christopher Columbus after landing in America would be very different from a journal entry of a Native American who met Columbus after he landed. Although only interaction happened between the two people, the way that they viewed this interaction may be immensely different. When students are able to write from different perspectives, it signals to teachers that the students understand the concepts being taught and can go more in depth into reactions and effects of certain events. Doing History by Linda S. Levstik and Keith C. Barton talks about journals and how students write diary-type entries "from the perspective of people in history." (155) In this sense, students are writing in order to understand a situation or belief. Students can also listen to students present their journal entries or they can read primary sources that involve journals from people in history. Resources Used in the Unit America Rock: School House Rock! Videocassette. Disney Studios, 1997. This video offers 30 minutes of animated music videos dealing with the history of the United States. The video explains the founding of American, the Declaration of Independence, the start of the revolution, the Constitution, the pioneers opening the west, the ethnic diversity of America, Great American Inventors, Women's Right to Vote, how a bill becomes a law, and the three branches of government. A great tool to introduce these topics in a fun way! Author Unknown. Image and Imagination: Art of the American West [On-Line]. Available: http://www.umsl.edu/~woodcock/exhibits/image and imagination/index.html This website is great for finding pictures about the westward expansion era. By providing students with such pictures, they can gain a better understanding of the time period and how it looked. Cheek, Jerrie S. (August 5, 2005) Educational Technology [On-line] Available: http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/westward.html This website is great for finding out historical information on westward expansion. It has information ranging from the different trails taken west to the gold rush and Daniel Boone to the Pony Express. Cohen, Paul. Mapping the West: America's Westward Movement 1524-1890 This book is 208 pages and divided into events with a general theme (i.e., "military and commercial mapmaking"). The divisions provided in this book allow students to easily find information for comparison. However, there is a lot of information in the book that students do not need to know and do not really relate to westward movement, so students will need to be able to separate what information they should learn and what information they can exclude. We chose this book because it shows that movement did not start in the 19th century, but much earlier than that. When students see that westward movement began in 1524, they are able to compare that to movement trends in the 19th century. This is a springboard for students understanding trends in movement from the 19th century to the 21st century. Doherty, Edith and Louise C. Evans. Pioneer Skills. This is a teacher's resource to use while teaching a unit on the pioneers and westward movement. It provides an entire unit with lessons and other activities, as well as various other activities to do when teaching this unit. This is a great book to use, if a teacher wants to teach the entire unit. The lessons each have a newspaper article to read to begin the lesson, and the whole unit moves along like a board game. It seems like a fun way to teach the pioneer unit. The other activities included are writing and art activities, which also look like a great time. We chose to use this book because of the great ideas included in it for lessons on the westward movement. Although we are not using any of these lessons directly, a few of them had a great idea base for lessons to go along with our unit. Fischer, David Hackett and James C. Kelly. Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement This is a chapter book of 366 pages. The book focuses on the westward movement and how it helped shaped the United States' definition of democracy and freedom. This book is organized well and has several illustrations to guide students. The illustrations include photographs, diagrams, tools used, and maps. The text may seem overwhelming for the fourth grade level, but when working in a group on a specific topic, the contents may not be as demanding as originally believed. We chose to use this book because it is organized in a way that students can use the table of contents to quickly find information that may be necessary for their final investigation. The book also touches on the idea of how the westward movement has affected today. This connection is an ultimate goal of the lesson as well as the unit. The book also has a unique perspective, from Virginia, which allows students to interpret these perspectives from those outside Virginia at the time. Hauswald, Carol. Westward Movement: Expanding America's Boundaries, 18001900 This book is 91 pages long and offers instructional help to the teacher as well as westward movement information for students. It is broken into grades for easy reading. Although this book is helpful for students and teachers, it offers more of a direct way of teaching. There are quizzes about westward movement in the book and certain facts that students are expected to know. Although this is helpful, the idea of inquiry protects the idea that students, in one way or another, shape the curriculum to their own needs and interests. This book does not attend to those stages of inquiry. We chose this book because it is a little different than the other books being used. It is more of an informational booklet for teachers and students. It offers a different perspective in how to learn about westward movement. It also focuses on graphic organizers which may assist students in understanding certain concepts about westward expansion. Kerwood, Roxanna. "On the Trail Again." eMINTS cluster Instructional Specialist: 2003 http://www.webinstruct.net/webquest/trail2/index.html This is a great website to aid teachers in creating Webquests for their classrooms. It was created by a woman whose concentration is to help educators integrate technology into the classroom. It is especially relevant to the elementary classroom. Kopp, Kathleen. Technology Connections for Westward Movement This book is geared for ages 9-12 and is 48 pages long. The book offers a list of software and websites that are useful in understanding the idea of westward expansion. It also discusses different technology-based programs that can be used to present information, such as desktop publishing and word processing. Although this book talks a lot about software and multimedia programs that students can use, the book may be very limiting for students depending on the resources available in the classroom. A classroom may have internet-ready computers, but probably do not have all the software that the author suggests. We chose this book because it will be a point of departure for groups who wish to use the internet as a resource for their research topic. The book offers several websites that students can visit that relate to westward expansion. These websites are reviewed in the book and students can read about the website before visiting it. This book is great for students who may not have the ability to use a search engine properly or for teachers who may hesitate in allowing their students to use the internet as a resource for fear of non-professional websites, inappropriate material, and incorrect information. Knight, Amelia Stewart. The Way West: Journal of a Pioneer Woman Aladdin: NY, 1999. Scarry, Richard. What Do People Do All Day? Random House: New York, 1970. Stanley, Diane. The Time Traveling Twins: Roughing It on the Oregon Trail Joanna Cotler Books: NY, 2000. These books are useful in helping children understand what goes on in different communities. The books show illustrations of what people do and how different communities look. We think that these books are perfect for the lessons discussion of community and they are a great way to spark discussion. Furthermore, they give the students ideas to keep in mind for their own illustrations. PBS. (1995-2005). PBS Teacher Site. [On-line] Available: http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/thismonth/apr02/index1.shtm This website is great for teaching lessons. There are many useful ideas for teachers. The website also is helpful because it integrates multiple subjects into one lesson plan. Resources Considered, but Not Implemented in Unit Broida, Marian. Projects about Westward Expansion. New York : Benchmark Books, c2004. This resource offered many project ideas appropriate for elementary students, to incorporate into a Westward Expansion unit. Topics include "Oregon Trail" and "Homestead on the Prairie." This is a good resource to have for students to participate in hands-on projects. Some activities including making a covered wagon out of a shoe box, sod house out of brownies, and moccasins out of velvet. Though we decided not to use this resource for our unit, it could still be implemented for extension activities, or for project ideas for students to incorporate. EdScope, L.L.C. (1996-2005) LessonPlanPage.com [On-Line] Available: www.lessonplanspage.com This is a website with lessons to do in each subject area, for each grade level. This is a great website to use when looking for ideas for lessons in a particular subject. It has lessons for social studies, art, physical education, math, science, and more. Some lessons are longer and more detailed than others, but many of them serve as a great starting point. We chose to use this site as a resource because it is usually quite helpful with finding lessons. However, we didn't actually use this site for one of our lessons, or for any other part of the unit because none of the lessons we found fit the flow of our unit. Erdosh, George. Food and Recipes of the Westward Expansion. New York: PowerKids Press, 1997. This book combines the story of the pioneers with recipes and the history of food from the opening and development of the American West. It had great recipes and ideas. We did not use this book because we decided against food being a sub-topic for our unit. Even though we did not use this source, it could be used as an extension to the unit. Randolph, Ryan P. Frontier women who helped shape the American West. New York : PowerKids Press, 2003. This book looks at contributions made by women during Westward Expansion, which are often overlooked. This book is a part of the series "The Library of the Westward Expansion", which looks at the important role women played at this time in the history. When reading this book one would discover that women were often right alongside the men who ventured into the west in the mid 1800's to start new lives. Women also served along side missionaries, doctors, miners, and even opened boarding houses. Other topics presented are women in the suffrage movement and the hard work and harsh conditions that all women faced in the western wilderness. As noted in our Academic Resources women in the West was a topic we thought about exploring in our unit. Though we decided not to venture this direction, this is a very reliable resource that offers much important information. This would have definitely been a source we would have used if we decided to talk about women's roles. Silverman, Jerry. Singing Our Way West: Songs and Stories of America's Westward Expansion. Brookfield, Conn : Millbrook Press, c1998. This is a nonfiction source combining original songs and historical perspectives during the westward movement. The author gives a brief introduction about Manifest Destiny followed by 12 essays about specific events in the settling of the U.S. and what songs teach us about these events. Each essay includes a short list of related recordings, as well as music and lyrics to popular tunes of the time. Topics they covered included the Alamo, the railroad, and "Home on the Range". This book was very informative and really went into detail about the Songs of the time. This would have been a useful resource that could have been included in our unit. Though we decided not to use this in the unit, it would be a good source to possible have in the classroom for activity extensions or for students to explore on their free time. K-5 Social Unit Outline UNIT PLAN Unit Topic: Westward Expansion Grade Level: 4th grade Sub-topics: Moving Communities Contemporaries of the 1840's Expressive and Narrative Writing People of the West Hardships of Westward Expansion Routes Oregon Trail Accomplishments of Westward Expansion and their effects Group Member: Heather, Holly, Colleen, Stephanie, Vince, Lara Essential/Driving Question(s): Why do people move? How do past accomplishments affect us today? What issues/challenges does moving pose? Why do people form communities? Enduring Understandings: What motivated settlers to move west? What were the effects of Westward Expansion? What culture was formed form westward expansion? What are the benefits of forming a community? List of Unit Lessons: 1. "Moving" 2. "Introduction to Westward Expansion" 3. "Getting to Know You" 4. "Independence Exposition" 5. "Going West" 6. "Building a Community" 7. "Historical Trends and Issues" Illinois Learning Standards addressed/assessed: 16.D.2a Students will describe the various individual motives for settling in colonial America. 16.D.2b Students will describe the ways in which participation in the westward movement affected families and communities. 16.D.2a Students will describe the various individual motives for settling in colonial America. 16.D.3a Students will describe characteristics of different kinds of communities in various sections of America during the colonial/frontier periods and the 19th century. 16.E.2a Students will identify environmental factors that drew settlers to the state and region. 16.A.3b Students will make inferences about historical events and eras using historical maps and other historical sources. 16.A.2c Students will ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literary and non-literary sources. 16.D.2b Students will describe the ways in which participation in the westward movement affected families and communities. 18.A.3 Students will explain how language, literature, the arts, architecture and traditions contribute to the development and transmission of culture. 18.C.3b Students will explain how diverse groups have contributed to U.S. social systems over time. 26.B.2d Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge and skills to create works of visual art using problem solving, observing, designing, sketching, and constructing. 4.A.2b Students will be able to ask and respond to questions related to oral presentations and messages in small and large group settings. 4.B.2c Students will use speaking skills and procedures to participate in group discussions. 3.B.1a Use prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas (e.e., focus on one topic; organize writing to include a beginning, middle, and end; use descriptive words when writing about people, places, things, events). 4.B.2c Students will use speaking skills and procedures to participate in group discussions. 27.B.1 Students will be able to know how images convey stories about people, places, and times. 27.B.2 Students will be able to identify and describe how the arts communicate the similarities and differences among various people, places, and times. 1.B.2a Establish purposes for reading; survey materials; ask questions; make predictions; connect, clarify and extend ideas. 1.C.2a Use information to form and refine questions and predictions 3.B.2a Generate and organize ideas using a variety of planning strategies (e.g., mapping, outlining, drafting). 3.B.2b Establish central idea, organization, elaboration and unity in relation to purpose and audience. 3.C.2a Write for a variety of purposes and for specified audiences in a variety of forms including narrative (e.g., fiction, autobiography), expository (e.g., reports, essays) and persuasive writings (e.g., editorials, advertisements). 5.A.2b Organize and integrate information from a variety of sources (e.g., books, interviews, library reference materials, web- sites, CD/ROMs). 5.B.2a Determine the accuracy, currency and reliability of materials from various sources. 5.C.2a Create a variety of print and nonprint documents to communicate acquired information for specific audiences and purposes. 16.A.2b Compare different stories about a historical figure or event and analyze differences in the portrayals and perspectives they present. 16.B.2d (US) Identify major political events and leaders within the United States historical eras since the adoption of the Constitution, including the westward expansion, Louisiana Purchase, Civil War, and 20th century wars as well as the roles of Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Description of Culminating Unit Summative Assessment: For the overall assessment of this unit, students will compile a portfolio of the projects and activities that they have made throughout the unit. This portfolio will include: Students' journal entries Artwork students have completed Any other writing that students have done for the unit Any other activities that students would like to include After everything has been compiled in a three ring binder, each student will address the class and present one activity form his or her portfolio. The student will explain the work and what it means to westward expansion. Each student is allowed to choose their own presentation artifact in order for each student to show off his or her strengths, whether it be writing, art, composition, or anything else. Students will be graded on their portfolios as well as their presentations. The presentations will be graded by appropriateness of the artifact and the explanation of relevance to westward expansion. Moving People Lesson #1 Westward Expansion 4th Grade Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to identify classmates who have or know people who have moved and/or lived in various regions of the United States as well as the world. By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to identify some reasons as to why people move (economic reasons, search for a different community, environmental factors etc.) By the end of the lesson, the students will be introduced to the idea of people moving westward in America and relate that to why students in the class have moved. Lesson Overview: This lesson will introduce students into the idea of moving. They will be asked to find students who can relate to at least one of several questions related to moving. Some questions may include, "I have moved before" or "I know someone who lives in another country." When a student relates to a square on the handout, he or she signs his or her name. When all the sheets are completed, the students will return to their seats and the teacher will discuss with the students what they found. Here, the teacher can also ask "why" questions, for example, "Why did you have to move from Indiana to Illinois?" Suggested Time Frame: 30-35 minutes Stage of Inquiry #1: Tuning In Instructional Strategy: People Bingo Targeted Skills: In this activity, students will get to know their classmates in relation to where they have lived (or haven't lived) and people that they know. It will get students engaged in the idea of people moving, focusing on why people move. Targeted skills include understanding that people move from far away as well as close and that there are several reasons why people might move from one place to another. Illinois Learning Standards Addressed: 16.D.2a (US) Describe the various individual motives for settling in colonial America. 16.D.3a (US) Describe characteristics of different kinds of communities in various sections of America during the colonial/frontier periods and the 19th century. 16.D.2 (W) Describe the various roles of men, women and children in the family, at work, and in the community in various time periods and places (e.g., ancient Rome, Medieval Europe, ancient China, Sub-Saharan Africa). 16.E.2a (US) Identify environmental factors that drew settlers to the state and region. Resources/Materials: "Moving People" Handout (one for each student) Large butcher sheet with "Why do we move?" written at the top Marker (dark color to students can read writing) Map of the United States Procedure with adaptations: As students sit in their seats, explain that you will pass out a sheet with nine statements on it. 1. Explain that the students need to stand up and walk around to find someone who can answer "yes" to the statement. 2. If they can answer "yes," then they need to sign their name in the space provided in the box. 3. Model this by saying, "The first statement say, `I know someone who lives in another country.' So I would go up to a classmate and ask if they know someone who lives in another country. If they do not know anyone who lives in another country, I would go on to ask another person until someone says, `yes!' Once I found someone who says, "yes" to my question, I would give them my sheet and have the sign their name in the box. I would then take my sheet and start asking classmates another question." 4. Explain that they should have at least seven different names on the chart by the end. No one should sign a person's sheet more than twice. A student may sign their own sheet only once. 5. If a student cannot read the statements provided, the teacher will tell the student the first statement and have them walk around asking the question. Once they have a signature for the first statement, the teacher will read aloud the second statement and so on, allowing the student to find signatures on their own. If a student cannot sign their name due to physical disabilities, the teacher may give the student a sheet of stickers that they can stick in the box in replace of their signature. Hand out the sheet to students and tells them they have 5 minutes to get nine signatures. Students walk around completing the "Moving People" worksheet. After 5-7 minutes, the teacher asks students to return to their seats. Stand in front of a butcher sheet that states "Why People Move" on the top. Ask students who they found to answer certain questions o "Steve, who do you know who has moved more than two times? Why did that person move?" o "Elizabeth, who do you know who lives in another country? Why do they live there?" o "Jake, when did you live in another state? Why did you move here?" o "Sarah, what are some other reasons as to why people move?" As students are answering various questions posed by the teacher, the teacher is writing down the students answers in the form of why they moved The resulting list on the sheet should include various reasons why people move, including... o To get a job o To speak another language o To get away from something that they don't like in their neighborhood o To have a bigger/smaller house o To go to a specific school o To be closer to family (aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents, etc.) Once a concise list has been created, the teacher will explain that we will be learning about westward movement and how in the 19th century, many people moved west in the United States. o Refer to the US map as to which way is west and that people had to travel from one side of the country to another. The teacher will explain that as a result of people moving west, many things were created to allow the west turn into large cities, such as the railroad and the pony express. Tell the students to start thinking of other things that might have been necessary to keep good communication between the east and the west sides of the country. Students should also think about technology in their life that might be a result of the westward movement. Assessment Plan: Students will be assessed on the completion (or near completion) of the worksheet and that they have followed all the rules given by the worksheet get (i.e., several names, not just one or two signing several boxes. Students will also be assessed on their ability to participate in discussion after completing the sheet. The teacher should pay attention to students participating and encourage all students to either tell a personal story of why they may have moved or why people in general might move. Name:_____________________ Moving People Find someone who answers "yes" to the following questions. Have them write their name in the space provided. Try to find several different people to sign your paper instead of just three or four students signing several times. I know someone who lives in another country. I have moved from one house to another. I know someone who moved from another country to the United States. I know someone who has moved more than four times in their life. I have moved more than one time in my life. I have lived in another state. I have moved from one city to another, but stayed in the same state. I have lived in another country. I know someone who lived in the United States and moved to another country. What Do I Know About Westward Expansion? Lesson plan # 2 Westward Expansion 4th Grade Learning Objectives: Students will be able to visualize what the American West looked like and the different way of life during the westward expansion era through the photographs and photos presented. Students will be able to develop a brief overview of the history of westward expansion. Students will be able to brainstorm what they know about westward expansion and what they want to know. Students will be able to recognize different aspects of American West culture. Students will be able to participate in a group discussion and be good listeners. Lesson Overview: The purpose for this lesson is to familiarize and expose students to westward expansion. During the lesson, the students will be asked to fill out what they know and what they want to know about westward expansion. After the lesson, they will fill out what they learned about westward expansion. This lesson is used as a stepping stone that leads to more in-depth and critical thinking activities regarding westward movement as the unit progresses. Suggested time frame: 60 minutes Stage of Inquiry #2: Preparing to Find Out Instructional Strategy: K-W-L Chart Targeted Skills: Students will get opportunities to collaborate and interact with their classmates during group work and class discussions. Targeted skills will also include a general understanding of westward expansion and an overview of what it entailed. Illinois Learning Standards Addressed: Language Arts 3.B.1a: Use prewriting strategies to generate and organize ideas (e.e., focus on one topic; organize writing to include a beginning, middle, and end; use descriptive words when writing about people, places, things, events). Language Arts 4.B.2c: Students will use speaking skills and procedures to participate in group discussions. Visual Arts 27.B.1: Students will be able to know how images convey stories about people, places, and times. Fine Arts 27.B.2: Students will be able to identify and describe how the arts communicate the similarities and differences among various people, places, and times. History 16.D.2a: Students will describe the various individual motives for settling in colonial America. History 16.D.2b: Students will describe the ways in which participation in the westward movement affected families and communities. Resources/Materials: Artwork Large piece of white paper (may be several sheets taped together or one large sheet) Large-tipped permanent marker School House Rock! video "America Rock" Television with VCR player Computer with Power Point capabilities http://www.umsl.edu/~woodcock/exhibits/image and imagination/index.html o This website contains all the information and artwork for the art section of this lesson. America Rock: School House Rock! Videocassette. Disney Studios, 1997. http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/westward.html o This website is great for finding out historical information on westward expansion. It has information ranging from the different trails taken west to the gold rush and Daniel Boone to the Pony Express. Procedure with adaptations: Teacher will use a large piece of paper and separate it into three columns. Label the columns "K", "W", and "L". o The teacher will ask the students to tell him or her what they already know about westward expansion. As students give information, the teacher will write it in the "K" column. o After that, the teacher will ask the students what they want to learn about westward expansion. As students list things, the teacher will write them in the "W" column. o The teacher will explain that "K" is for what the students already KNOW. "W" is for what the students WANT to know, and "L" will be used at the end of the unit for students to list what they have LEARNED. o The teacher will explain that a KWL chart may be used in many different ways and for many different topics. o The teacher will then tell the students to be thinking about what they will put in the "L" column at the end of the unit. (At the end of the unit, the teacher will revisit the KWL chart and the students will tell the teacher what they have. The teacher will give a PowerPoint presentation on the history of Westward expansion. o This history should include information on the time period in which people moved west, why they moved west, how they traveled, where they traveled to, and any other information that the teacher finds relative. o The teacher should also present prominent figures and events from that time period. After working on the KWL chart, the teacher will present photographs and pictures of his/her choice that depict the westward expansion era. o The artworks should represent things, such as documentation of the westward expansion, unseen landscapes of the time period, and Native Americans. o Together the class will view the art pieces and discuss them. The teacher can explain that as America expanded westward, artists provided images that would make these unexplored regions and frontier cities visible to an eager audience in the East. o Also, the teacher can inform the students that newly discovered western landscapes inspired awe and wonder in the artists who depicted them and became symbols of Manifest Destiny for the American audience that viewed them. o Lastly, the teacher can mention the fact that artists have presented very different perspectives on Native American life and the images they are viewing in class do not represent all of the perspective, rather they are a small sample. Play the song "Elbow Room" from the "America Rock: School House Rock!" video. Discuss the song with the students. What happened in the song? Why did we move west? What do they think is going to happen in the future? Will people live on the moon? To address multiple learning styles in the classroom , the teacher can provide a copy of the power point presentation slides for each student or those that would like one. For those students who have trouble speaking up in class or need additional time to think of questions for the KWL chart, the teacher can provide them the option of submitting questions into a question box which would be left out throughout the day and/or the whole unit. As a closing, the class will fill out the rest of the chart; what they learned from the lesson (L-Section). Assessment Plan: Students will be informally assessed on their participation and cooperation during the lesson. Getting to Know You Lesson #3 Westward Expansion 4th Grade Learning Objectives: 1 By the end of the lesson, students will be able to collect, and write in their learning logs, information on a particular person who was an influence during the westward expansion by using various resources. 2. By the end of the lesson, students will be able to understand the westward expansion as being an important event in US history, and will then be able to understand the importance of the contemporaries of that time. 3. By the end of the lesson, students will be organize the information they have found while doing the research. 4. By the end of the lesson, students will be able to present the information they have gathered by writing in a narrative, expository, or persuasive manner. Lesson Overview: Students will receive the name of a contemporary or other person who influenced the west, and will then research that person, and present their findings in a creative way. Suggested Time Frame: 45 (for original lesson) Extra time will be needed for research and presentation Stage of Inquiry #3 Finding Out Instructional Strategy Used: Learning Logs Targeted Skills: In this activity, students will get to know more about the contemporaries that lived during the 1840's and time of the westward expansion. This will get students engaged in the idea of how every time period has important people who have an impact on that time. Although the focus is on the contemporaries of the 1840's, students will think about the important people impacting the times that they (the students) have lived in. Illinois Learning Standards Addressed: 16.A.2c Ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literary and non-literary sources. 16.B.2d (US) Identify major political events and leaders within the United States historical eras since the adoption of the Constitution, including the westward expansion, Louisiana Purchase, Civil War, and 20th century wars as well as the roles of Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. 3.B.2a Generate and organize ideas using a variety of planning strategies (e.g., mapping, outlining, drafting). 3.C.2a Write for a variety of purposes and for specified audiences in a variety of forms including narrative (e.g., fiction, autobiography), expository (e.g., reports, essays) and persuasive writings (e.g., editorials, advertisements). Resources/Materials Utilized: - Resource Books provided by teacher, and found by students - Art Materials - List of Contemporaries - List of people influencing the west - Box (or other container) for names - Learning logs - Pens and Pencils Procedure with adaptations: 1. The teacher will ask the students if they know the name of anyone who lived in the 1840's. The teacher mentions a few names of people that the students might be likely to know something about Davy Crockett, Kit Carson, Thomas Jefferson, Edgar Allen Poe, and Samuel F.B. Morse. The teacher will explain that the names of these people and many more have been placed in a box. 2. Each student will draw one name and collect 10 or more facts about that person, using the provided resource books. 3. Students will have sufficient time to research using the available books. Some students may go use other resources in the library if they can handle being out of the classroom. 4. Students should be writing down the information they find in their learning logs to use in the near future. 5. The teacher will direct the students to do one of the following activities for the name that they drew: a. Design a suitable memorial b. Write a biographical sketch c. Write a poem d. Write an essay e. Write an epitaph If there are students at lower learning levels, they may be placed in pairs with students that they may work with for this assignment. The students can work together to find the information (facts) and then create a presentation using one of the activities listed above, unless otherwise told by the teacher. 6. The students will then present their final product to the rest of the class, giving the class the opportunity to learn about the various contemporaries and people who influenced the west. Students should also make sure to have their notes and final product written in their learning logs. Assessment Plan: Students will be assessed on the quality of information they find on the person who's name they chose. Since they are required to have 10 facts, students should have at least 10 facts, but are allowed to have more. Students at a lower learning level will only be required to have 6-8 facts, depending on the level they are at. Students will also be assessed on how they keep their information in their learning logs, as well as making sure their final product has been copied neatly into their learning logs. Students with motor difficulties can have another student assist him or her in writing down his or her final product in the learning log. If this assistance is not possible, the teacher will assess the student based on the information that the student tells the teacher about his or her person. Each student will also be asked to present their final product to the class. The teacher will not formally assess the presentation. The presentation is just to inform the other students about the various famous people that were researched. Independence Expositor Lesson #4 Westward Expansion 4th Grade Learning Objectives: 1 By the end of the lesson, students should be able to ask and answer questions based on the newspaper articles they read and the information they find from the other various resources they look through. 2 By the end of the lesson, students should be able to organize their ideas in the form of a creative newspaper articles. 3 By the end of the lesson, students should be able to write a newspaper articles using information they have learned from the previous lesson, resources they have used, and the articles they have just read. Lesson Overview: Students will read newspaper articles that could have been written during the times of the westward expansion. Topics of the articles may vary. Students will then be required to do some research to find valid information that they could add in their newspaper articles they will write that could have been around in the times of westward expansion. Suggested Time Frame: 45 (for original lesson) Extra time may be needed for research and completion of writing the article. Stage of Inquiry #4 Sorting Out Instructional Strategy Used: Three Level Guide Targeted Skills: In this activity, students will read newspaper articles that have been written using information from the times of the westward expansion. They will be able to learn from the information the read in the articles, then see an example of a teacher and students written newspaper articles written based on the times of the expansion. Students will then have an opportunity to write their own newspaper article using information they gather from resources. Illinois Learning Standards Addressed: 16.A.2c Ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literary and non-literary sources. 3.B.2a Generate and organize ideas using a variety of planning strategies (e.g., mapping, outlining, drafting). 3.C.2a Write for a variety of purposes and for specified audiences in a variety of forms including narrative (e.g., fiction, autobiography), expository (e.g., reports, essays) and persuasive writings (e.g., editorials, advertisements). Resources/Materials Utilized: - Resource Books provided by teacher, and found by students - Paper (white and construction paper) - Newspaper articles (3 different articles -- written, teacher done, student done) (possibly enough copies for each group of tables to have 1) - List of people influencing the west - Pens and pencils - Markers - (possible, but not needed) Computer with Microsoft Publisher program - (possible, but not needed) transparencies and overhead Procedure with adaptations: 1. The teacher will ask the students if they have ever read a newspaper. She will ask what type of information they find in a newspaper. Then, she will go on to explain that during the times of the westward expansion, there were newspapers also. These newspapers contained some similar information as the newspapers we have today. 2. The teacher can then either hand out copies of three different newspaper articles, or put them up on transparencies. Whichever works best with the resources available in the classroom. 3. The teacher will then go over the various newspaper articles with the students. The class will discuss the statements they find in the articles directly related to the issues of the westward expansion. Then, the class will discuss information that they may have interpreted while reading the articles. Last, the students will discuss analytical statements, such as the broader issues in the articles. 4. After the class has discussed these three different things, then the students, in their smaller groups will discuss the same three things. 5. When all of the discussion has been completed, the teacher will explain that the students will now be writing their won newspaper articles, using the information they will gather from various resources. Students will be given a list of ideas they can write about in their articles, in addition to the ideas they have already gotten from the 3 different articles they have already read. Ideas include, but are not limited to: - Problems encountered on the trail - Problems encountered on the prairie - Hardships along the trip and settlement - Alternative routes west - Log cabins (how to build them, furniture for them, origin of them) - People moving in to town, people dying, babies being born 6. Students will then have sufficient time to research and figure out what they want to include in their articles. Students will be able to work in small groups, or individually. This decision is up to the teacher at the time of the lesson. If there is a variety of learning levels in the classroom, the teacher can place lower level thinkers with higher level thinkers, and have the entire class work in small groups. 7. Students should be writing down their information. They need to create an article using the format of the articles they have already read, but they can do so using white or colored paper, or if the technology is available, the Microsoft Publisher software. 8. The students will then present their final product to the rest of the class, explaining why the chose to include the information they did, and what they learned about writing their own newspaper article and how it related to today's newspapers. Assessment Plan: Students will be informally assessed on how well they participate in the class discussions on the newspaper articles they read as a class/ in their groups. However, students will be formally assessed on how well they complete the research for information to include in their newspaper articles. Students should include valid information that could, or did apply to the times of the westward expansion. Students will be assessed on how appropriate the information is for their newspaper articles. Going West Lesson #5 Westward Expansion 4th Grade Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to answer questions about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail, including the supplies used, types of transportation, and the hardships faced. By the end of the lesson, the students will be introduced to the basic history of the Oregon Trail. By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to map the Oregon Trail. By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to identify various types of transportation used to travel on the Oregon Trail. Lesson Overview: In this lesson, students will research what a journey on the Oregon Trail would have been like in the 1800's using the Internet. They will map the route, find out how long the route would be, what supplies were needed, any hardships that might be faced along the way, and the type of transportation used. The children will be given specific sites to visit to find the needed information. Once they have found all the information they need, they will create a presentation in a group and present it to the class. Suggested Time Frame: 5 class periods, 45 minutes each Stage of Inquiry #5 Going Further Instructional Strategy: Putting You in the Picture Targeted Skills: In this activity, the students will develop their Internet skills. They will also collaborate with classmates to create a way to present their information. It will deepen the students understanding of the Oregon Trail. Targeted skills include understanding the difficulties of relocating and why people chose to move to another area. Illinois Learning Standards: 16.A.2c Ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literacy and non-literacy sources. 16.D.2a Describe the various individual motives for settling in colonial America. 16.D.2b Describe the ways in which participation in the westward movement affected families and communities. Resources/Materials: Computers (Internet) Paper Pencils Map of the United States Calendar Colored Pencils Highlighter Poster board Procedure with adaptations: Introduction: Your family would like to take a trip out West on the Oregon Trail. They want to experience the same journey that the pioneers did in the late 1800's. Your family wants to recreate this journey as accurately as possible. Do you think it is possible to do this in today's world? As a team you will research what journey on the Oregon Trail would have been like in the 1800's. You will need to find out what route to take, how long the route would be, what supplies were needed, any hardships you might face along the way, and the type of transportation used. You will then present this information to your family and decide if the trip is feasible. If students cannot read the information on the screen, they will be provided with a program that will read the words on the screen. Step 1: Your team will consist of four people and will be assigned by the teacher. You will research the basic history of the Oregon Trail using the websites listed below. Take notes in your journal of information that you feel is important. Groups will be heterogeneously formed. Higher-level student will be placed with lower level students. Students with special needs will be intermixed. Computers will be available to students that cannot take notes with pencil and paper. http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/faq.html http://www.42explore2.com http://www.isu.edu/%7Etrinmich/Introduction.html Step 2: Your team will need to map out the exact route that your family will take. Be sure to keep it as close to the old route as possible. Use the following websites to help you map out the route. http://www.historyglobe.com/ot/otmap1.htm http://www.isu.edu/%7Etrinmich/Sites.html http://www.sd129.org http://www.octa-trails.org http://oregontrail.blm.gov http://www.beavton.k12.or.us Step 3: Your team will also need to decide when you want to take your trip and schedule it during the most suitable time of year. The websites below will help you with this task. http://www.almanac.com http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov http://www.isu.edu/%7Entrinmich/Camping.html http://www.octa-trails.org Step 4: Your team will now need to research the hardships that pioneers faced while traveling the Oregon Trail. Use the websites below to help you find out this information. Take notes in your journal. http://www.isu/edu/%7Entrinmich/Hardships.html http://www.sd129.org http://library.thinkquest.org http://www.d21.k12.il.us Step 5: You will now need to decide what type of transportation that would use when traveling out west. Use websites below to research the types of transportation that they pioneers used when traveling the Oregon Trail. Keep in mind the different hardships that were encountered. http://www.isu.edu/%7Entrinmich/Power.html http://www.d21.k12.il.us http://www.sover.net http://22.214.171.124 Step 6: Now you will research the supplies needed to take this trip. You need to compile a list of the supplies you choose. Keep in mind the length of your trip, the type of transportation you are using, and the hardships you might fa...