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a Developing Project Network
Chapter 6
Copyright 2007-2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and John Kevin Doyle All Rights Reserved.
Developing the Project Plan
The
Project Network
A flow chart that graphically depicts the sequence, interdependencies, and start and finish times of the project job plan of activities that is the critical path through the network
Provides Provides Provides
the basis for scheduling labor and equipment an estimate of the project's duration a basis for budgeting cash flow activities that are "critical" and should not be
Highlights
delayed
2
Help
managers get and stay on plan
From Work Package to Network
WBS/Work Packages to Network
3
From Work Package to Network
4
Constructing a Project Network
Terminology
Activity: an element of the project that requires time. Merge activity: an activity that has two or more preceding activities on which it depends. Parallel (concurrent) activities: Activities that can occur independently and, if desired, not at the same time.
A
B
D
C
5
Constructing a Project Network
Terminology
Path: a sequence of connected, dependent activities. Critical path: the longest path through the activity network that allows for the completion of all projectrelated activities; the shortest expected time in which the entire project can be completed. Delays on the critical path will delay completion of the entire project.
C D
6
A
B
Constructing a Project Network
Terminology
Event: a point in time when an activity is started or completed. It does not consume time. Burst activity: an activity that has more than one activity immediately following it (more than one dependency arrow flowing from it). B Activity-on-Node (AON)
Uses
Two Approaches
a node to depict an activity an arrow to depict an activity
A
C
Activity-on-Arrow (AOA)
Uses
7
D
Basic Rules to Follow in Developing Project Networks
8
Networks typically flow from left to right. An activity cannot begin until all of its activities are complete. Arrows indicate precedence and flow and can cross over each other. Identify each activity with a unique number; this number must be greater than its predecessors. Looping is not allowed. Conditional statements are not allowed. Use common start and stop nodes.
Activity-on-Node Fundamentals
9
Activity-on-Node Fundamentals
10
Activity-on-Node Fundamentals
11
Network Information
12
Koll Business Center Partial Network
13
Koll Business Center "Complete" Network
14
Network Computation Process
Forward
Pass Earliest Times
How soon can the activity start? (early start ES) How soon can the activity finish? (early finish EF) How soon can the project finish? (expected time ET)
Backward
Pass Latest Times
How late can the activity start? (late start LS) How late can the activity finish? (late finish LF) Which represent activities the critical path? How long can it be delayed? (slack or float SL)
15
Network Information
16
Activity-on-Node Network
17
Activity-on-Node Network Forward Pass
18
Forward Pass Computation
Add
activity times along each path in the network (ES + Duration = EF). the early finish (EF) to the next activity where it becomes its early start (ES) unless... next succeeding activity is a merge activity, in which case the largest EF of all preceding activities is selected.
Carry
The
19
Activity-on-Node Network Backward Pass
20
Backward Pass Computation
Subtract
activity times along each path in the network (LF - Duration = LS). the late start (LS) to the next activity where it becomes its late finish (LF) unless... next preceding activity is a burst activity, in which case the smallest LF of all preceding activities is selected.
Carry
The
21
Determining Slack (or Float)
Free
Slack (or Float)
The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying connected successor activities
Total
Slack
The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project
The
critical path is the network path(s) that has (have) the least slack in common.
22
Sensitivity of a Network
The
likelihood the original critical path(s) will change once the project is initiated.
Function of: The number of critical paths The amount of slack across near critical activities
23
Activity-on-Node Network with Slack
24
Practical Considerations
Network
logic errors Activity numbering Use of computers to develop networks Calendar dates Multiple starts and multiple projects
25
Illogical Loop
26
Air Control Project
27
Air Control Project
28
Extended Network Techniques to Come Close to Reality
Laddering
Activities are broken into segments so the following activity can begin sooner and not delay the work. The minimum amount of time a dependent activity must be delayed to begin or end Lengthy activities are broken down to reduce the delay in the start of successor activities. Lags can be used to constrain finish-to-start, startto-start, finish-to-finish, start-to-finish, or combination relationships.
Lags
29
Example of Laddering Using Finish-to-Start Relationship
30
Use of Lags
Finish-to-Start Relationship
31
Use of Lags
Start-to-Start Relationship
32
Use of Lags
Use of Lags to Reduce Detail
33
New Product Development Process
34
Use of Lags
Finish-to-Finish Relationship
Start-to-Finish Relationship
35
Network Using Lags
36
Hammock Activities
Hammock
Activity
An activity that spans over a segment of a project Duration of hammock activities is determined after the network plan is drawn. Hammock activities are used to aggregate sections of the project to facilitate getting the right amount of detail for specific sections of a project.
37
Hammock Activity Example
38

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