1094_76739
71 Pages

1094_76739

Course Number: CAM 0521645557, Fall 2009

College/University: East Los Angeles College

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On-line Answer key Unit 1 Ehjr 1 - Eghf;ytybt 1. (1) jy (2) jy (3) jyf (4) jyf (5) jy (6) jy (7) jy (8) jy (9) jyf (10) jy (11) jy (12) jy (13) jyf (14) jyj (15) jy (16) jyj (17) jyf (18) jyf (19) jyj (20) jyj (21) jy (22) jy (23) jy (24) jy (25) jy (26) jy (27) jyf (28) jyf (29) jyj (30) jyf Eghf;ytybt 2. Masculine: <jkmijq ntfnh (Bolshoi Theatre); bcnjhbxtcrbq afrekmntn (history faculty); Kbnthfnehysq...

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Answer On-line key Unit 1 Ehjr 1 - Eghf;ytybt 1. (1) jy (2) jy (3) jyf (4) jyf (5) jy (6) jy (7) jy (8) jy (9) jyf (10) jy (11) jy (12) jy (13) jyf (14) jyj (15) jy (16) jyj (17) jyf (18) jyf (19) jyj (20) jyj (21) jy (22) jy (23) jy (24) jy (25) jy (26) jy (27) jyf (28) jyf (29) jyj (30) jyf Eghf;ytybt 2. Masculine: <jkmijq ntfnh (Bolshoi Theatre); bcnjhbxtcrbq afrekmntn (history faculty); Kbnthfnehysq bycnbnen (Literary Institute); Vjcrj^crbq eyb^thcbntn (Moscow University); vepsrfkmysq bycnhevtyn (musical instrument); cneltyxtcrbq rked (student club) Feminine: rjvveybcnbxtcrfz gfhnbz (communist party); Rhfcyfz gkjoflm (Red square); vepsrfkmyfz ghjuhfvvf (musical programme); gedkbxyfz dbdkbjntrf (public library); Hjccbqcrfz Atlthfwbz (Russian Federation) Neuter: eyb^thcbntncrjt jdot;bnbt (university hostel) Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 5.1 (1) ufptnf (2) rjat (3) nfrcb (4) [bvbr (5) ubl (6) dfh (7) ljv (8) rked (9) irjkf (10) ufhf; 5.3 5.4 cneltynrf; ;ehyfkbcnrf; cgjhncvtyrf; aendjkbcnrf; gtycbjythrf ;ehyfkbcn; nehbcn / ubl; aendjkbcn; [bvbr; if[vfnbcn; irjkmybr V V V V V 5.5 Crossword. Down: 1. vfufpby 4. rjat 5. vtnhj 6. ljv 7. ajnjfggfhfn 9. f^njdec 10. dfh 14. dfyr 16. rfat Across: 2. ufhf; 3. gfhr 8. htcnjhfy 11. ntfnh 12. nfrcb 13. rbyj 15. dbdkbjntrf 16. rbjcr 17. irjkf Eghf;ytybt 1.1 Column 1: apbr; Column 2: ajnuhfa; Column 3: ahrns; Column 4: ufpnf 1.2 Column 1: [vbr; Column 2: ija/h; Column 3: cnelyn, cnelynrf; Column 4: ubl, lrnjh, ;ehyfkcn, by;tyh 1.3 Column 1: rfkmreknjh, rjvgmnth, vfuybnjay; Column 2: f^njvjdkm, f'hjghn, ufh;; Column 3: Fktrcq, Jku, Cthuq; Column 4: cnelyn, eyb^thcbnn 1.4 Column 1: irkmybr; Column 2: nehpv; Column 3: rbyjntnh; Column 4: [vbr 1 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. "nj Gtnz, f 'nj Vbif. Ghb^tn, Gtnz! Ghb^tn, Vbif ! 2. Gjpyfrjvmntcm: 'nj Cfif. A 'nj Yfnfif. Plhf^cn^eq, Cfif! Plhf^cn^eq, Yfnfif! 3. Gjpyfrjvmntcm, gj;fkeqcnf: 'nj Vfhbyf, f 'nj Ybyf. Jxtym ghbznyj. Jxtym ghbznyj. 4. Gjpyfrjvmntcm: 'nj Jktu. Jy cneltyn. F 'nj Rfnz. Jyf cneltynrf. Plhf^cn^eqnt, Rfnz. Plhf^cn^eqnt. Jxtym ghbznyj. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Xnj 'nj? 2. Xnj 'no? 3. "nj fgnrf ? Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Ult dfuf;? 2. Ult gjxnf ? 3. Ult nfrcb? "nj f^ndec. 4. "nj gxnf ? "nj ntktay-f^njvn. 5. "nj dfh? Lf, 'nj fgnrf. 6. "nj nfrc? Lf, 'nj gxnf. Ytn, 'nj rfa. Ytn, 'nj vfiyf. Djn jy. Djn jyf. Djn jyj. 4. Ult dbktns? 5. Ult pltcm rfat? 6. Ult pltcm ntktajyf^njvfn? Djn jyb. Djn jyj. Djn jy. Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. Crf;bnt, ult gjxnf ? 2. Crf;bnt, ult ntktajy-f^njvfn? 3. Crf;bnt, ult ujcnbybwf ? 4. Crf;bnt, ult pltcm htcnjhfy? 5. Crf;bnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ult pltcm dfh? 6. Crf;bnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ult nefktn? Gjxnf ? Djn jyf, ghzvj. Ntktajy ^jn pltcm, ghzvj. Ujcnbybwf ghzvj. Htcnjhfy yfghf^j. <fh yfkt^j. Nefktn? Gj;fkeqcnf, yfghf^j. Eghf;ytybt 6. 1. Crf;bnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ult pltcm vtnhj? Vtnhj? Nfr . . . Blbnt yfkt^j, gjnjv ghzvj, gjnjv jgznm yfkt^j b yfghf^j. Nfv cnfywbz vtnhj. F 'nj lfktrj? Ytn, yt jxtym. 2. Bp^bybnt, ^s yt pyftnt, ult rbyjntfnh `Jltjy\? Rbyjntfnh `Jltjy\? Nfr . . . Blbnt yfghf^j, yfkt^j, ghzvj b to/ hfp yfkt^j. Nfv deltn rbyjntfnh `Jltjy\. Crf;bnt, f 'nj lfktrj? Lf, lj^jkmyj lfktrj, vbyen ltcznm. 3. Bp^bybnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ^s yt crf;tnt, ult pltcm dbdkbjntrf ? <bdkbjntrf ? Cyfxfkf blbnt ghzvj, gjnjv gj^thybnt yfkt^j, gjnjv yfghf^j b ghzvj "nj lfktrj? Ytn, xnj ^s! "nj cj^ctv ytlfktrj. 4. Bp^bybnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ^s yt crf;tnt, rfr ghjqnb yf cnflbjy `Lbyfvj\? Cnflbjy? Nfr . . . Blbnt yfkt^j, gjnjv yfghf^j, gjnjv jgznm yfkt^j b gjnjv blbnt ghzvj gj ghjcgtrne Lbyfvj. Cnflbjy `Lbyfvj\ nfv. 2 On-line Answer key "nj jxtym lfktrj? Lf, lfktrj. Kexit t[fnm yf vtnhj. Unit 2 Ehjr 2 Eghf;ytybt C3. 1. Ult dsk Dj^f ? Jy dsk ^ jdot;bnbb. 2. Ult dskf Pjz? Jyf dskf yf rjywthnt. 3. Ult dskb K/yz b Gf^tk? Jyb dskb yf cnflbjyt. 4. Ult dskb Vfif b Yfnfif ? Jyb dskb ^ irjkt. 5. Ult dskb Cfif b Vbif ? Jyb dskb yf ktrwbb. 6. Ult dskb Gtnz b Fyz? Jyb dskb ^ jdot;bnbb. 7. Ult dskb Rfnz b Bhf ? Jyb dskb ^ vfufpbyt. - Eghf;ytybt 1. Fktrctq, Fyyf, <jhbc, B^fy, Dfcbkbq, Dbnfkbq, Dkflbvbh, Ufkbyf, Pbyfblf, Trfnthbyf, Ybrjkfq, Tkbpf^tnf, K.lvbkf, Vfhbz, Vb[fbk, Yfnfkmz, Fyfcnfcbz, Jkmuf, G/nh, Fktrcfylh, Cthutq, Nfnmzyf, A/ljh, Tktyf Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. Abkmv ^ wtynhfkmyjv rbyjntfnht. 2. <fktn ^ <jkmijv ntfnht. 3. E;by ^j ahfywepcrjv htcnjhfyt. 4. :ehyfk ^ gedkbxyjq dbdkbjntrt. 5. Ckj^fhm ^ ryb;yjv vfufpbyt. 6. Ntkt^bpjh ^ eyb^thcbntncrjv jdot;bnbb. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Ult Fynjy? Jy ^ heccrjv htcnjhfyt. 2. Ult vfvf b gfgf ? Jyb yf X/hyjv vjht. 3. Ult Rhtvkm? Jy yf Rhfcyjq gkjoflb. 4. Ult Yt^crbq ghjcgtrn? Jy ^ Cfyrn-Gtnthdehut. 5. Ult cneltynrb? Jyb yf bynthtcyjq ktrwbb. 6. Ult ;bhfa? Jy ^ vjcrj^crjv pjjgfhrt. 7. Ult cneltyns? Jyb ^ cneltyxtcrjv jdot;bnbb. 8. Ult Ljv rybub? Jy yf Yt^crjv ghjcgtrnt. Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. ^ Zgjybb; ^ Zgjybb, ^j Ahfywbb 2. yf gjxnt, ^ dfyrt 3. ^ vfufpbyt yf wtynhfkmyjq gkjoflb 4. ^ eyb^thcbntncrjq dbdkbjntrt 5. ^ cneltyxtcrjv jdot;bnbb 6. yf ktrwbb, yf ctvbyfht 7. ^ <thkbyt, ^ Gfhb;t 8. ^ f^njdect 9. ^ Kbnthfnehyjv bycnbnent Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. Ktrwbz dskf j Geirbyt. Ktrwbz dskf j heccrjq jgtht. Ktrwbz dskf j rkfccbxtcrjq vepsrt. Ktrwbz dskf j Ktybyt. 2. Ghjuhfvvf dskf j <jkmijv ntfnht. Ghjuhfvvf dskf j cgjhnt. Ghjuhfvvf dskf j ;bpyb ^ Hjccbb. 3. Vs hfpuj^fhb^fkb j rkfccbxtcrjv dfktnt. Vs hfpuj^fhb^fkb j ktrwbb. Vs hfpuj^fhb^fkb j heccrjq bcnjhbb. 4. Vs hfdjnfkb ^ vepsrfkmyjq irjkt. Vs hfdjnfkb ^ Jvcrt. Vs hfdjnfkb yf gjxnt. Vs hfdjnfkb yf pf^jlt. 5. Z e;byfkf ^ htcnjhfyt. Z e;byfkf ^ ujcnbybwt. Z e;byfkf ^ rfat. 6. Vs buhfkb ^ if[vfns ljvf. Vs buhfkb ^ if[vfns ^ eyb^thcbntncrjv jdot;bnbb. Vs buhfkb ^ if[vfns ^ cgjhnb^yjv rkedt. 7. Dxthf vs dskb ^ pjjgfhrt. Dxthf vs dskb ^ rjywthnyjv pfkt. Dxthf vs dskb yf wtynhfkmyjv cnflbjyt. 8. D ghjikjv ujle z exbkcz / z exbkfcm ^ vepsrfkmyjq irjkt. D ghjikjv ujle z exbkcz / z exbkfcm ^ Kbnthfnehyjv bycnbnent. D ghjikjv ujle z exbkcz / z exbkfcm ^ Vjcrj^crjv eyb^thcbntnt. 3 On-line Answer key V V Eghf;ytybt 6. (1) ^ (2) ^, yf (3) ^, j (4) yf (5) ^ (6) j (7) ^, j, ^ (8) j (9) ^, ^ (10) yf Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. exbkcz, ;bk 2. cbltkf, cvjnhtkf 3. xbnfk 4. nfywt^fkf 5. ^cnhtxfkbcm / hfdjnfkb / hfpuj^fhb^fkb / e;byfkb 6. buhfk 7. hfdjnfkf 8. e;byfkb 9. ckeifkb 10. hfpuj^fhb^fkb Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. Ckeifk hflbj. J ntfnht / j vepsrt / j cgjhnt. . . 2. Xnj ns ltkfkf ^xthf ^txthjv? J x/v dsk ;ehyfk? Ns dskf ^ Fyukbb? 3. Dxthf z dskf ^ rbyj. J x/v dsk abkmv? 4. Dxthf z e;byfk ljvf / ^ htcnjhfyt / ^ rfat / . . . Xnj ns tk? F xnj ns gbk? Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 11.1 o dfdeirf vfvf gfgf gtycbjyths hjlbntkb by;tyths ltnb cneltyns n ltleirf gfgf dhfn V V V 11.2 Crossword. Across: 5. chtlf 6. ytltkz 7. ^jcrhtctymt 8. gznybwf 10. ^njhybr Down: 1. gjytltkmybr 2. ^txth 3. xtn^thu 4. ltym 5. ceddjnf 9. enhj 11.3 (1) exbnmcz (2) e;byfnm (3) ;bnm (4) xbnfnm (5) ^cnhtxfnmcz 11.4 1. ^ rkedt / yf lbcrjntrt 2. ^ rjywthnyjv pfkt / yf rjywthnt 3. ^ vfufpbyt /^ rbjcrt 4. ^ rkedt / ^ jdot;bnbb 5. ljvf / ^ jdot;bnbb 6. ^ dfht / yf ktrwbb Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Column 1: cnhfyf; Column 2: .u; Column 3: e;by; Column 4: xbnfnm 1.2 Column 1: cbltnm, ckeifnm, nfywt^fnm; Column 2: cvjnhtnm; Column 3: buhfnm, e;byfnm, k.dbnm; Column 4: tcnm, dsnm, gbnm 1.3 Column 1: rfhnf, cnhfyf; Column 2: ghfrnbrf, ntnhflm, exbntkmybwf; Column 3: dfdeirf, ctcnhf; Column 4: vepsrf, cneltynrf, abpbrf 1.4 Column 1: if[vfnbcn; Column 2: ;bpym, jdot;bnbt; Column 3: exbntkm, exbntkmybwf; Column 4: njulf Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. Ult B^fy? Jy ^ rfat. F Lfif ? Jyf nj;t ^ rfat. 2. Ult Fynjy? Jy yf hfdjnt. F Pjz nj;t yf hfdjne? Lf. 3. Crf;bnt, Dj^f ljvf ? Ytn. F ult jy? Jy ^ ntfnht. 4 On-line Answer key 4. Ult Cfif ? 5. Gtnz b Fyz ^ jdot;bnbb? 6. Ult Bhf b Rfnz? Jy ^ irjkt. Lf, jyb pltcm, ^ jdot;bnbb. Jyb yf rjywthnt. F Vbif ? Jy nj;t ^ irjkt. 7. Ult Vfif ? 8. Ult Fk/if ? Jyf ^ vfufpbyt. Jy yf cnflbjyt. F Yfnfif ? F Gf^tk? Jyf nj;t ^ vfufpbyt. Jy nj;t nfv, yf cnflbjyt. Eghf;ytybt 3. D ghjikjv ujle cneltyns bp Ukfpuj exbkbcm ^ Hjccbb. Djn xnj jyb hfccrfpfkb: D zy^fht vs ;bkb ^ Cfyrn-Gtnthdehut, ult vs exbkbcm ^ eyb^thcbntnt. Enhjv vs [jlbkb yf ktrwbb b ctvbyfhs, f ly/v pfybvfkbcm ^ dbdkbjntrt. Vs ;bkb ^ jdot;bnbb, ult dsk deatn. Jdsxyj ^txthjv vs e;byfkb ^ deatnt, yj byjulf [jlbkb ^ vfufpby, gjregfkb nfv [ktd, vjkjrj, rjat b tkb ljvf. D jdot;bnbb dsk djkmijq ntkt^bpjh, b vs rf;lsq ^txth cvjnhtkb yj^jcnb. Byjulf ^txthjv vs buhfkb ^ if[vfns ^ rkedt. Hfp ^ ytltk. vs [jlbkb ^ rbyj bkb ^ ntfnh. Vs xfcnj ^cnhtxfkbcm ^ dfht yf Yt^crjv ghjcgtrnt. Nfv vs gbkb gb^j, ^byj bkb ifvgfycrjt, hfpuj^fhb^fkb j vepsrt, j rbyj, j kbnthfneht, j cgjhnt. Yf ekbwt dskj [jkjlyj, f ^ dfht dskj ntgkj b [jhjij. Jlby heccrbq cneltyn buhfk yf ubnfht, b vs gtkb heccrbt gtcyb. D dfht vs ^ctulf uj^jhbkb njkmrj gj-heccrb! Djghjcs: 1. Rjulf cneltyns dskb ^ Hjccbb? 2. Ult jyb exbkbcm? 3. Relf jyb [jlbkb enhjv? 4. Rjulf jyb pfybvfkbcm ^ dbdkbjntrt? 5. Ult jyb jdsxyj e;byfkb? 6. Xnj jyb gjregfkb ^ vfufpbyt? 7. Rfr xfcnj jyb cvjnhtkb yj^jcnb? 8. Relf cneltyns [jlbkb hfp ^ ytltk.? 9. Ult jyb xfcnj ^cnhtxfkbcm? 10. Xnj jyb nfv gbkb? 11. J x/v jyb hfpuj^fhb^fkb? 12. Rnj buhfk yf ubnfht? Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. jlby gk.c nhb = xtnsht 2. l^f gk.c xtnsht = itcnm 3. nhb gk.c gznm = ^jctvm 4. xtnsht gk.c itcnm = ltcznm 5. gznm gk.c xtnsht = lt^znm 6. itcnm vbyec l^f = xtnsht 7. ctvm vbyec nhb = xtnsht 8. ^jctvm vbyec jlby = ctvm 9. lt^znm vbyec nhb = itcnm 10. ltcznm vbyec gznm = gznm Eghf;ytybt 5. (1) 4 yfghf^j, 2 yfkt^j Ult ^s ? Z ^ deatnt; (2) 8 ghzvj, 2 yfghf^j, 3 yfkt^j Ult ^s ? Z ^ ntfnht; (3) 6 yfkt^j, 8 yfghf^j, 3 yfghf^j Ult ^s? Z ^ rfat; (4) 8 ghzvj, 2 yfghf^j, 3 yfghf^j Ult ^s? Z ^ pjjgfhrt; (5) 8 ghzvj, 5 yfkt^j, 3 yfghf^j Ult ^s ? Z ^ htcnjhfyt. Unit 3 Ehjr 3 Eghf;ytybz D1 b D4. 1. Rnj hfdjnfk rf;lsq ltym? 2. Rnj ybxtuj yt ltkfk? 3. Gjxtve jy ybxtuj yt ltkfk? 4. Xnj jy ltkfk ljvf wtksq ltym? 5. Xnj jy crfpfk, rjulf vfnm ghbikf ljvjq? 6. Xnj ghbujnj^bkf vfnm? 7. Xnj c]tk csy b xnj jy crfpfk? 8. Xnj crfpfkf vfnm yf cktle.obq ltym? 9. Xnj jyb tkb, rjulf ghbikb ljvjq ^txthjv? 10. Xnj crfpfk csy yf 'njn hfp? 5 On-line Answer key - - Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Yf ekbwt z ^bltk(f ) f^njdec. Yf ekbwt z ^bltk(f ) <tksq ljv. Yf ekbwt z ^bltk(f ) yj^e. vfibye. Yf ekbwt z ^bltk(f ) cnfywb. vtnhj. 2. Dtxthjv z xbnfk(f ) bynthtcye. rybue. Dtxthjv z xbnfk(f ) Kbnthfnehye. ufptne. Dtxthjv z xbnfk(f ) fvthbrfycrbq ;ehyfk. 3. D rkedt cneltyns ckeifkb ktrwb.. D rkedt cneltyns ckeifkb rjywthn. D rkedt cneltyns ckeifkb rkfccbxtcre. vepsre. 4. Enhjv z tk(f ) vzcj. Enhjv z tk(f ) ^recye. hsde. Enhjv z tk(f ) x/hysq [ktd. 5. Enhjv z gbk(f ) heccrbq xfq. Enhjv z gbk(f ) rjat. Enhjv z gbk(f ) vjkjrj. 6. Dxthf z ^bltkf ghjatccjhf. Dxthf z ^bltkf dfdeire. Dxthf z ^bltkf Rfn.. Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. bynthtcye. rybue, jd bynthtcyjq rybut, bynthtcyfz rybuf 2. B^fy, B^fyf, jd B^fyt 3. ctcnhe, ctcnhf, j ctcnht Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. cbltk, rybue (6) 2. yf ^scnf^re (10) 3. ljvf, gbcfk (1) 4. e;byfkb ^ htcnjhfyt (8) 5. buhfk (7) 6. gbkb (2) 7. cvjnhtkf, j ;bpyb (3) 8. ghjatccjh, ^ veptt (5) 9. ^ dbdkbjntrt (11) 10. buhfkb ^ if[vfns (13) 11. nfywt^fkb ^ htcnjhfyt (8) 12. yf lb^fyt, xbnfk (13) 13. [jlbk yf gjxne (9) 14. cvjnhtkb, yf cnflbjyt (4) 15. hfdjnfk ^ htcnjhfyt (12) Eghf;ytybt 6. (1) ^ (2) yf (3) yf (4) ^ (5) ^ (6) ^ (7) yf (8) ^ (9) yf (10) yf (11) yf (12) ^ (13) ^ (14) ^. Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. Xnj ns ltkfkf ^xthf ? Crjkmrj ^htvtyb ns xbnfkf hjvfy? J x/v dsk hjvfy? 2. Yt pyf.. Rjuj? Rjulf ns t/ ^bltk? Ult ns t/ ^bltk ? Xnj jyf nfv ltkfkf ? 3. Ult ns dsk ^ ghjikjv ujle? Ult ns ;bk? Ult ns pf^nhfrfk, jdtlfk, e;byfk? 4. Lf, [jlbk. Ts xfcnj [jlbk ^ <jkmijq ntfnh? Xnj ns djkmit k.dbim, jgthe bkb dfktn? 5. Ytn, tot yt ^bltkf. F ns? Lf (c elj^jkmcn^btv). Ns [jxtim gjqnb ^ chtle ^txthjv? {jhjij, ^ gjytltkmybr. Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 10.1 e c n e l t y n q a j e x x x n t r c n e b f g b k b u k f u j k p [ h n i v n t a o l t b n f t r b p m j ; b r r c ; k j z a u c . r w f t y m k ^ p f y z n b t v t p f x / n l v f z n b y r l e a q j a y b i y b f u h f v v f n b r f t c k j ^ j f p z / x h m c f r r n t n h f l m y V V 6 On-line Answer key V V V 10.2 (1) pf^nhfrfnm (2) e;byfnm (3) tcnm (4) ujnj^bnm (5) jdtlfnm (6) gbnm 10.3 (1) l^f (2) lt^znm, ltcznm (3) itcnm (4) xtnsht (5) jlby (6) ctvm (7) nhb (8) ^jctvm (9) gznm 10.4 1. pf^nhfr, gjregfnm, [jlbnm, rjat, pfybvfnmcz, xbnfnm 2. ^ ntyybc, ^ rfhns, ^ if[vfns, ^ aendjk, ^ [jrrtq, ^ dfcrtndjk 3. gb^j, ^ rfat / ^ dfht, xbnfnm, nfywt^fnm, buhfnm, gjg-vepsre, cvjnhtnm 4. cjxbytybt, rybue, ltntrnb^s, hjvfy, cnb[b, gbcmvj 5. rfcctne, ktrwb., gjg-vepsre, hflbj, gbfybcnf, exbntkmybwe Eghf;ytybt 2. Dtxthjv ltnb cbltkb ^ cfle b hfpuj^fhb^fkb. `Rfr pj^en n^jtuj gfge?\ cghjcbk Dbnz Yfcn.. `Ctv/y <jhbcj^bx.\ `F rnj jy?\ cghjcbkf Vfhbyf. `Jy by;tyth. F n^jq?\ ` Vjq gfgf ltncrbq ^hfx, crfpfkf Vfhbyf. Tuj pj^en Gf^tk B^fyj^bx.\ `F vjtuj gfge pj^en Fktrctq, crfpfk Dbnz. Jy ija/h nfrcb.\ `F vjq gfgf exbntkm, crfpfk K/yz. B pj^en tuj Cntgfy Gtnhj^bx.\ `F rnj n^jq gfgf b rfr tuj pj^en?\ cghjcbkb ltnb vfktymrjuj Gtn.. `Jy vbkbwbjyth, crfpfk Gtnz F pj^en tuj GFGF, b ^c/! \ `Nfr xnj ;t, ntdz pj^en G/nh Gfgj^bx?\ pfcvtzkbcm ltnb. `Yt-t-tn! crfpfk Gtnz. Vtyz pj^en G/nh B^fyj^bx. Djn rfr vtyz pj^en!\ Rfr pj^en tuj gfge? children's names Dbnz Gtnz Yfcnz Vfhbyf K/yz fathers' names Fktrctq Bkmbx B^fy Cthutt^bx Ctv/y <jhbcj^bx Gf^tk B^fyj^bx Cntgfy Gtnhj^bx fathers' jobs ija/h vbkbwbjyth by;tyth ltncrbq ^hfx exbntkm Eghf;ytybt 3. R;lsq ltym Cif b Cyz p^nhfrfkb hyj nhjv. Yj ctulyz jy ^cnkb gplyj, gjnjv xnj ^xth jyb [jlkb yf lbcrjnre. P^nhfrfkb jyb ytlkuj. Yf p^nhfr Cyz kf ahrns b gbk cjr, f Cif c]tk jly denthdhl b ^gbk xire rat. Rjul jy gjp^nhfrfkb, Cif gji/k ^ eyb^thcbnn yf krwb., f Cyz ^ dbdkbjnre. D dbdkbjnrt Cyz xbnkf ryue jd Fyukbb. Gckt krwbb Cif gjjdlfk ^ deant b gji/k ljvq. Lvf jy cblk yf lb^yt b xbnk ufpne, f Cyz ujn^bkf ;by. Rjul Cyz ghbujn^bkf ;by, jy gj;byfkb b gjik ^ gfhr. Jyb lkuj uekkb ^ ghrt. Djghjcs: 1. Rjulf jdsxyj pf^nhfrfkb Cfif b Cjyz? 2. Gjxtve ctujlyz jyb ^cnfkb gjplyj? 3. Xnj tkf Cjyz yf pf^nhfr? 4. F xnj jyf gbkf ? 5. Xnj c]tk b xnj ^sgbk Cfif yf pf^nhfr? 6. Relf gji/k Cfif, rjulf jyb gjpf^nhfrfkb? 7. F relf gjikf Cjyz? 8. Ult gjjdtlfk Cfif gjckt ktrwbb? 9. Xnj ltkfk Cfif, rjulf Cjyz ujnj^bkf e;by? 10. Ult uekzkb Cfif b Cjyz, rjulf jyb gje;byfkb? 7 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Relf Ds [jlbkb ^xthf ? Z [jlbk ^ rbyj yf yj^sq fvthbrfycrbq abkmv. F Ds? F z cvjnhtk aendjkmysq vfnx yf cnflbjyt. 2. Ult ns dskf ^xthf ^txthjv? Z dskf yf rjywthnt. F ns? F z ybrelf yt [jlbk cbltk ^tcm ^txth ljvf b cvjnhtk ntkt^bpjh. 3. Fkkj! Bp^bybnt gj;fkeqcnf, Dbrnjh ljvf ? Ytn. Jy ei/k ^ vfufpby. Crf;bnt, f rjulf jy ei/k? Vbyen ltcznm yfpfl. 4. Ds cvjnhtkb ^xthf bynthtcye. ghjuhfvve gj ntkt^bpjhe? Ytn. F j x/v dskf 'nf ghjuhfvvf ? J ;bpyb ^ Ijnkfylbb. 5. Plhf^cn^eq! Z lf^yj yt ^bltk ntdz. Ult ns dskf ? Z dskf ^ Fvthbrt. Rfr bynthtcyj! F ult ns nfv ;bkf ? Z exbkfcm ^ eyb^thcbntnt b ;bkf ^ jdot;bnbb. Eghf;ytybt 6. (1) jlby gk.c nhb = xtnsht (2) l^f gk.c xtnsht = itcnm (3) nhb gk.c gznm = ^jctvm (4) gznyflwfnm vbyec itcnm = lt^znm (5) ctvm gk.c gznm = jlbyyflwfnm (6) ltcznm vbyec nhb = ctvm (7) ctvyflwfnm vbyec nhb = xtnshyflwfnm (8) l^tyflwfnm vbyec jlby = jlbyyflwfnm (9) lt^znm gk.c xtnsht = nhbyflwfnm (10) l^flwfnm vbyec gznm = gznyflwfnm Unit 4 Ehjr 4 - Eghf;ytybt 2. ufhf;, ^hfx, nj^fhbo, ehjr, irjkmvyb, rfhfylfi, vfnx, fgntrf, 'gj[f Eghf;ytybt 3. uhfkkfnwxtcrjt, bjcrj^crfz, heccrfz, gj[jq, [jhjifz, djkmijq Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. D Ujkkfylbb ;b^en ujkkfylws. 2. D Gfrbcnfyt ;b^en gfrbcnfyws. 3. D Uhepbb ;b^en uhepbys. 4. Dj Ahfywbb ;b^en ahfyweps. 5. D "cnjybb ;b^en 'cnjyws. 6. D Bnfkbb ;b^en bnfkmzyws. 7. D Fvthbrt ;b^en fvthbrfyws. 8. D Dtyuhbb ;b^en ^tyuhs. 9. D Erhfbyt ;b^en erhfbyws. 10. D >;yjq Fahbrt ;b^en .;yj-fahbrfyws. 11. D Bcgfybb ;b^en bcgfyws. 12. D Gjkmit ;b^en gjkzrb. 13. D Ijnkfylbb ;b^en ijnkfylws. 14. D Bhkfylbb ;b^en bhkfylws. 15. D Gjhneufkbb ;b^en gjhneufkmws. 16. D <tkfhecb ;b^en dtkjhecs. 8 On-line Answer key - Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. D irjkt hfdjnfkb exbntkmybws. 2. D eyb^thcbntnt exbkbcm cneltyns. 3. D irjkt exbkbcm irjkmybrb. 4. D ltht^yt hfdjnfkb nhfrnjhbcns. 5. D htcnjhfyt hfdjnfkb jabwbfyns. 6. D kfdjhfnjhbb hfdjnfkb [bvbrb, dbjkjub, abpbrb. 7. D ntfnht hfdjnfkb frn/hs b frnhbcs. 8. D wbhrt hfdjnfkb frhjdfns b rkjeys. 9. D dbdkbjntrt hfdjnfkb dbdkbjntrfhb.10. D gjkbrkbybrt hfdjnfkb ^hfxb b vtlc/cnhs. Eghf;ytybt 8. (1) ^cnf^fkf (2) jgfpls^fkf (3) lfk (4) crfpfk (5) ghbybvfnm (6) ghbyzkf (7) ktukf (8) ghjcyekfcm (9) e^bltkf (10) ghbikf (11) ^cnhtnbkf (12) hfccrfpfkf (13) ghbyzkf (14) yt jgjplfkf (15) jn^tnbkf. Eghf;ytybt 9. (1) ghjxbnfk (2) jd]zcybkf (3) gjuj^jhbk (4) c]tk (5) gjcvjnhtk (6) gjpf^nhfrfk (7) ^sgbk (8) yfhbcj^fk (9) yfgbcfk Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 11.1 jn^tnbnmjn^tn; gbcfnmgbcfntkm; nfywt^fnmnfywj^obr; hfdjnfnmhfdjnf; cghjcbnm^jghjc; pf^nhfrfnmpf^nhfr; exbnmczexbntkm 11.2 n i w c n f y w j ^ o b r x j f e f x h [ b v b r v z y o i l r c x y b e n h l d d l ; r y j k x h s w l f h d f f [ t b r a j ' r j y j v b c n r k y y g b e l f r i ; ^ t u w n g t j j w y f n j d y n o f a / e h h k b r g x c j b d u b l h h g t b f g b [ v [ r b k ^ r s ^ q ; n y b c r j v g j p b n j h y b b n f f / y f c k l z z . f k c r g y n . f j t j t g h o x c c f s b t m ^ n a u n s j i j a / h e c k / n x b r q q r ' [ y h g n n m x u z q c e g a j n j u h f a V V V 9 On-line Answer key V 11.3 gjplyj ljkuj yfxfkmybr jn^tn e;by ;bpym ^jghjc gbcmvj hfdjnf imperfective innitive jgfpls^fnm ghjljk;fnm yfxbyfnm jn^txfnm e;byfnm ;bnm cghfib^fnm gbcfnm hfdjnfnm perfective innitive jgjplfnm ghjljk;bnm yfxfnm jn^tnbnm gje;byfnm ghj;bnm cghjcbnm yfgbcfnm gjhfdjnfnm V V V V V V 11.4.1 rjvgjpbnjh; frhjdfn; rkjey; abkjcja vtlctcnhf; gbcfntkm; ht;bcc/h; abkjkju dbdkbjntrfhm; gjkbnbr; frnhbcf; [elj;ybr vfntvfnbr; rjcvjyf^n; vfibybcnrf; k/nxbr 11.4.2 gjcnegbnm ^ eyb^thcbntn; pfybvfnmcz ^ dbdkbjntrt; jdtlfnm ^ deatnt; ltkfnm ehjrb; gbcfnm cjxbytybt; [jlbnm yf pfyznbz; ckeifnm ktrwbb; gtht^jlbnm yf fyukbqcrbq; jrjyxbnm eyb^thcbntn 11.5 1. ^cnf^fnm / ^cnfnm 2. uj^jhbnm / gjuj^jhbnm / crfpfnm 3. lf^fnm / lfnm 4. pfcsgfnm / pfcyenm 5. rjyxfnm(cz) / rjyxbnm(cz) 6. kj;bnmcz / ktxm 7. yfxbyfnm(cz) / yfxfnm(cz) 8. jgfpls^fnm / jgjplfnm 9. jn^txfnm / jn^tnbnm 10. gjlybvfnm / gjlyznm 11. ghbybvfnm / ghbyznm 12. ghjcsgfnmcz / ghjcyenmcz 13. cybvfnm / cyznm 14. cghfib^fnm / cghjcbnm 11.6 Crossword 1 1. ytltkz 2. vtczw 3. enhj 4. ltym 5. ^htvz 6. vbyenf 7. yjxm 8. xfc 9. gjnjv 10. jlyf;ls 11. ^txth 12. ctujlyz 13. ujl 14. ^xthf 15. ctqxfc 16. ntgthm 11.7 Crossword 2 5. jn^tnbnm 1. crfpfnm 2. jn^txfnm 3. cghfib^fnm, cghjcbnm 4. uj^jhbnm 11.8 Crossword 3 1. abkmv 2. cnb[b 3. ;ehyfk 4. gmtcf 5. ckj^fhm 6. hjvfy, hfccrfp 7. gj^tcnm 8. crfprf Eghf;ytybt 1.1 (a) l^flwfnm; (d) vjht; (^) hjlbyf; (u) ltht^yz; (l) ckeifnm; (t) vfibybcnrf; (/) jryj; (;) ukfcyjcnm 1.2 (a) ctvmz; (d) ghjatccbz; (^) cgjhn; (u) jdtl; (l) vtdtkm; (t) ltym; (/) cnhfyf; (;) nhfycgjhn Eghf;ytybt 2. Kfhbcf jxtym k.dbkf xbnfnm. Rf;lsq ^txth jyf ljkuj yt kj;bkfcm cgfnm b rf;ljt enhj ^cnf^fkf gjplyj. Gj'njve jyf ^ctulf jgfpls^fkf ^ eyb^thcbntn yf ktrwbb. Jlyf;ls ^txthjv Kfhbcf ghbujnj^bkf e;by b gje;byfkf. Gjnjv jyf ghbyzka lei. D 11 xfcj^ jyf ktukf yf lb^fy b yfxfkf xbnfnm bynthtcysq hjvfy j k.d^b. Rjulf jya ghjxbnfkf hjvfy, dskj e;t l^f xfcf yjxb. Jyf ktukf cgfnm, yj ljkuj yt 10 On-line Answer key vjukf pfcyenm. Pfcyekf Kfhbcf njkmrj ^ 4 xfcf enhf. Enhjv jyf ^cnfkf gjplyj, ^ 9 xfcj^. B rjytxyj, jgznm jgjplfkf yf ktrwbb. `Yt[jhjij jgfpls^fnm!\ crfpfk ghjatccjh. T/ nj^fhbob crfpfkb: `Djn ktrfhcn^j. Ns ljk;yf ghbybvfnm tuj ^txthjv.\ Dtxthjv Kfhbcf gje;byfkf b ytvyjuj gjxbnfkf. D 12 xfcj^ yjxb jyf ghbyzkf ktrfhcn^j b dscnhj pfcyekf. Yf lheujq ltym Kfhbcf ^cnfkf jxtym hfyj, ^ itcnm xfcj^ enhf. D ^jctvm xfcj^ jyf gjpf^nhfrfkf, b hj^yj ^ lt^znm xfcj^ jyf dskf ^ eyb^thcbntnt. Rjulf ghbikb t/ nj^fhbob, Kfhbcf crfpfkf: `Ctujlyz z ghbikf hfyj!\ `Vjkjltw!\ crfpfkb nj^fhbob `Yj ult ;t ns dskf ^xthf ?\ Eghf;ytybt 4. (1) 18 + 11 = 29; (2) 21 + 6 = 27; (3) 34 + 5 = 39; (4) 12 + 23 = 35; (5) 8 + 19 = 27; (6) 20 + 16 = 36; (7) 3 + 21 = 24 Eghf;ytybt 5. (1) 19 xfcj^ 12 vbyen (2) 23 xfcf 35 vbyen (3) 8 xfcj^ 5 vbyen (4) 16 xfcj^ 14 vbyen (5) 21 xfc 10 vbyen (6) 9 xfcj^ 25 vbyen (7) 3 xfcf 11 vbyen Eghf;ytybt 6. D 18 xfcj^ Yj^jcnb ^ 18 xfcj^ 10 vbyen rjywthn: Dfkmcs Xfqrj^crjuj. Buhftn fyukbqcrbq gbfybcn L;jy Uekml ^ 18 xfcj^ 45 vbyen Vjcr^f b vjcr^bxb ^ 19 xfcj^ htrkfvf ^ 19 xfcj^ 15 vbyen aendjk: buhf.n cdjhyst rjvfyls Rfyfls b Erhfbys ^ 19 xfcj^ 45 vbyen htrkfvf ^ 21 xfc byajhvfwbjyyfz ghjuhfvvf yj^jcntq `Ctujlyz\ ^ 21 xfc 35 vbyen ghjuyjp gjujls yf pf^nhf ^ 21 xfc 45 vbyen cthbfk gj hjvfye Lbrrtycf `Ljvdb b csy\, xfcnm gznfz. Buhf.n fhnbcns <jkmijuj lhfvfnbxtcrjuj ntfnhf ^ 22 xfcf Hfccrfps j ;b^jnys[ ^ 22 xfcf 30 vbyen Heccrbt cnfhbyyst gtcyb b hjvfycs ^ 23 xfcf cgjhnkjnj. Gj jrjyxfybb cgjhnkjnj htrkfvf. Unit 5 Ehjr 5 - Eghf;ytybt 3. (f ) Vjz ctcnhf hfdjnfkf (dskf, cnfkf ) ltncrbv ^hfxjv. (d) Vjq nj^fhbo dsk (cnfk) cneltynjv. (^) Tuj ctcnhf cnfkf (dskf ) gbcfntkmybwtq. (u) Jyf dskf (hfdjnfkf, cnfkf ) utjkjujv. (l) Vjz gjlheuf dskf (cnfkf ) cneltynrjq. (t) Vfhbyf Gtnhj^yf hfdjnfkf (cnfkf, dskf ) exbntkmybwtq. (;) Yfnfif hfdjnfkf (dskf, cnfkf ) ;ehyfkbcnrjq. (p) Yfif dfdeirf dskf fhnbcnrjq. Eghf;ytybt 4. (f ) irjkmybwtq, cneltynrjq; (d) cneltynjv, by;tythjv; (^) vtlctcnhjq, ^hfxjv; (u) exbntktv, lbhtrnjhjv Eghf;ytybt 5. <hfn bynthtcetncz hjr-vepsrjq. Z bynthtce.cm dbjkjubtq. Jntw bynthtcetncz abpbrjq. Ghjatccjh bynthtcetncz ntjhbtq. Cneltynrf bynthtcetncz 11 On-line Answer key vtlbwbyjq. Yfi lheu bynthtcetncz heccrbv zpsrjv. Vjz gjlheuf bynthtcetncz kbnthfnehjq. <fdeirf bynthtcetncz bcnjhbtq. - Eghf;ytybt 6. (f ) vs c dhfnjv; (d) vs c ctcnhjq; (^) vs c lheujv; (u) vs c gjlheujq; (l) vs c jnwjv; (t) vs c nj^fhbotv Eghf;ytybt 7. (f ) c dhfnjv; (d) c <jhbcjv; (^) c nj^fhbotv; (u) c exbntktv; (l) c vfvjq; (t) c Rfntq; (;) c Bhbyjq; (p) c ghjatccjhjv; (b) c csyjv Eghf;ytybt 8. (9) c, ^ (10) cj (1) c, ^ (2) c (3) pf, jd (4) yf, c (5) ^, c (6) j, c (7) pf, j (8) c Eghf;ytybt 10. 1. Dxthf ^txthjv rjulf ? 2. D ghjikjv ujle rjulf ? 3. Cneltyn rnj? b conj. 4. B^fy b Ybrjkfq rnj? 5. Cnjkbwf Hjccbb xnj? 6. Ghjatccjh rnj? vs c ctcnhjq rnj? jyb rnj? ^tcm ltym rfr ljkuj? pfybvfkcz V xfcnj &fr xfcnj? yfps^ftncz V ^cnhtxfkcz V cvjnhtkb V tplbkb V cbltk V heccrbv zpsrjv. xtv? buhfkb V Vjcr^f. rfr? c B^fyjv b Rfntq c rtv? ntkt^bpjh ljvf. xnj? ult? ^j Ahfywb. yf gjtplt. relf ? yf x/v? ^ dbdkbjntrt ult? ^ ntyybc. ^j xnj? ^ felbnjhbb. ult? V V V V V 12 Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 13.3 ^kfltktw ^kfltnm -tw; pyfnjr pyfnm -jr; bpjdhtnfntkm bpjdhtnfnm -ntkm; k/nxbr ktntnm -xbr; vsckbntkm vsckbnm -ntkm; gtht^jlxbr gtht^jlbnm -xbr; gbcfntkm gbcfnm -ntkm; ghtgjlf^fntkm ghtgjlf^fnm -ntkm; gentitcn^tyybr gentitcn^j^fnm -ybr; hfdjnybr hfdjnfnm -ybr 13.4 irjkf irjkmybr; rfccf rfccbhif; dbdkbjntrf dbdkbjntrfhm; deatn deatnxbwf. Places of work/study and occupations associated with them 13.5 bcnjhbz bcnjhbr; vepsrf vepsrfyn; aendjk aendjkbcn; abkjcjabz abkjcja; kbnthfnehf kbnthfnehj^tl; bcreccn^j bcreccn^j^tl; [bvbz [bvbr; vfntvfnbrf vfntvfnbr; abpbrf abpbr; if[vfns if[vfnbcn. Subject areas and people associated with them 13.6 1. lheujq 2. yj^sq 3. nheljk.db^sq 4. (yt) eljdysq 5. abkjkjubxtcrbq 6. extdysq 7. abpbxtcrbq 8. [bvbxtcrbq 9. t^hjgtqcrbq 10. ghjiksq 11. djkmijq 12. vfktymrbq 13. chtlybq 14. vtlbwbycrbq 15. gfhecysq 16. ^recysq 17. cj^htvtyysq. On-line Answer key V V 13.7 1. ^cnf^fnm c rhj^fnb 2. ^s[jlbnm bp ljva 3. tplbnm ^ Hjccb. 4. kj;bnmcz yf rhj^fnm 5. cflbnmcz yf cnek 6. gjqnb ljvjq 7. kt;fnm yf rhj^fnb 8. cbltnm yf cnekt 9. pfybvfnmcz ^ dbdkbjntrt 10. gjcnegbnm ^ eyb^thcbntn 11. ^cnhtxfnmcz ^ rfat. 13.8 1. rehcs 'rcrehcj^jlj^ 2. [bvbxtcrbq bycnbnen 3. dbdkbjntxysq nt[ybrev 4. bycnbnen rbytvfnjuhfabb 5. ctvbyfhbz 6. rehcs ija/hj^ 7. dfktnyfz irjkf 8. ^ep 9. gfhbrvf[thcrjt exbkbot 10. rjycth^fnjhbz 11. ^tnthbyfhyfz frfltvbz 12. vtlbwbycrbq bycnbnen 13. gtlfujubxtcrbq eyb^thcbntn 14. [elj;tcn^tyyfz frfltvbz 15. gjkbnt[ybxtcrbq eyb^thcbntn 16. k/nyjt exbkbot Eghf;ytybt 1. D gjytltkmybr cneltyns ^cnhtnbkbcm ^ eyb^thcbntncrjv rfat. Jyb hfpuj^fhb^fkb j njv, xnj jyb ltkfkb ^ ^jcrhtctymt. Yfnfif crfpfkf, xnj [jlbkf c Nfytq ^ veptq yf ^scnf^re heccrjq uhfabrb. G/nh crfpfk, xnj cbltk ^tcm ltym ^ ujhjlcrjq dbdkbjntrt b xbnfk ufptns b ;ehyfks. Nfv jy ^bltk Jkmue. Jyf xbnfkf rybub jd bcnjhbb Hjccbb. Fyyf crfpfkf, xnj [jlbkf c Bhbyjq ^ ntfnh. Jyb cvjnhtkb cgtrnfrkm `Nhb ctcnhs\. Cfif crfpfk, xnj tplbk pf ujhjl c B^fyjv. Jyb [jlbkb ^ ujhs, b ecnhjbkb nfv gbrybr. Djkjlz c Ybyjq [jlbkb yf lbcrjntre b nfywt^fkb nfv lj enhf. Vfhbyf crfpfkf, xnj ybrelf yt [jlbkf. Cbltkf ljvf b cvjnhtkf ntkt^bpjh. Dtxthjv ghbi/k <jhbc, b jyb ^tcm ^txth ^vtcnt cvjnhtkb ntkt^bpjh. Eghf;ytybt 2. Crf;bnt, Ybyf Gtnhj^yf, ^s ^ctulf [jntkb dsnm irjkmyjq exbntkmybwtq? Y. G. Ytn, ^ ltncn^t z [jlbkf ^ dfktnye. irjke b vtxnfkf cnfnm dfkthbyjq. Yj rjulf z ^shjckf, z gjyzkf, xnj jxtym k.dk. ltntq. Jrjyxbkf gtlfujubxtcrbq bycnbnen b c nt[ gjh hfdjnf. ^ irjkt. F rtv ^s [jntkb cnfnm ^ ltncn^t, Cthutq Fktrctt^bx? C. F. Z, rfr, yf^thyjt, ^ct vfkmxbrb, [jntk cnfnm rjcvjyf^njv. Exbkcz ^ k/nyjq irjkt b cnfk ghjcnj k/nxbrjv. Hfdjnf. ntgthm yf vt;leyfhjlys[ htqcf[ f^bfrjvgfybb `Nhfycf'hj\. F ^s, Fyyf B^fyj^yf ? F. B. Rjulf z dskf vfktymrfz, z [jntkf cnfnm vtlctcnhjq. Yj rjulf vyt dskj 12 ktn, z gjgfkf ^ djkmybwe, e^bltkf, rfr nhelyj hfdjnfnm vtlctcnhjq, b gthtlevfkf. Jrjyxbkf afrekmntn 'rjyjvbrb VUE. Ctqxfc z cnfkf ltkj^jq ;tyobyjq. L^f ujlf yfpfl vs c vfvjq jnrhskb rfat ^ wtynht ujhjlf. Gjrf ltkf blen ytgkj[j. F rtv ^s [jntkb cnfnm ^ ltncn^t, <jhbc Ybrjkft^bx? <. Y. Z c ltncn^f k.dbk ;b^jnys[ b [jntk hfdjnfnm ^ pjjgfhrt. Exbkcz ^ ^tnthbyfhyjv bycnbnent b hfdjnf. ctqxfc ukf^ysv ^hfxjv ^ wtynhfkmyjq ^tnthbyfhyjq rkbybrt. Z jxtym k.dk. c^j. hfdjne. F ^s, L;bv, crf;bnt, rtv ^s [jntkb cnfnm, rjulf dskb vfktymrbv? L;bv Vjq jntw k.dbk [jlbnm yf ^jrpfk b cvjnhtnm yf yj^st b cnfhst gjtplf b ^fujys. D ltncn^t nj;t z [jlbk c gfgjq cvjnhtnm gjtplf. Z jxtym [jntk cnfnm vfibybcnjv, ^jlbnm gjtplf. Yj gjnjv z gjcnegbk ^ eyb^thcbntn yf afrekmntn byjcnhfyys[ zpsrj^. Ntgthm hfdjnf. ghtgjlf^fntktv heccrjuj zpsrf ^ rjkktl;t yf ct^tht Fyukbb. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf by;tythysq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe 13 On-line Answer key cnfnm by;tythjv. 2. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf [bvbxtcrbq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm [bvbrjv. 3. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf dbjkjubxtcrbq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm dbjkjujv. 4. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf dbdkbjntxysq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm dbdkbjntrfhtv. 5. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf vtlbwbycrbq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm ^hfxjv. 6. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf gtlfujubxtcrbq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm exbntktv. 7. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf afrekmntn ;ehyfkbcnbrb, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm ;ehyfkbcnjv. 8. Z gjcnegbk(f ) yf abkjkjubxtcrbq afrekmntn, gjnjve xnj z [jxe cnfnm abkjkjujv / gtht^jlxbrjv (gtht^jlxbwtq). Unit 6 Ehjr 6 - Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. E vtyz ytn dhfnf. 2. E ytuj ytn ;tys. 3. D ujhjlt ytn ntfnhf. 4. E ntdz ytn csyf. 5. Dxthf yt dskj ktrwbb. 6. D ltncn^t e ytuj yt dskj lheuf. 7. D ^jrhtctymt yt dskj 'rcrehcbb. 8. E yfc ^ ujhjlt yt dskj wbhrf. Eghf;ytybt 6. 1. cnekf, cnjkf, kfvgs 2. dhfnf, ctcnhs 3. dbktnf 4. hfpf 5. hedkz 6. lyz 7. gbcmvf 8. cneltynrb, cneltynf Eghf;ytybt 7. 10. ktn 1. ktn 2. ujlf 3. ktn 4. ujlf 5. ujl 6. ujlf 7. ktn 8. ujl 9. ujlf Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. E ^fc tcnm dhfnmz b c/cnhs? 2. Rfr pj^en ^fituj dhfnf ? 3. Ult jy hfdjnfk? 4. Rjulf jy jrjyxbk bycnbnen? 5. Crjkmrj ktn jy hfdjnfk yf ^fitv pf^jlt? 6. Rfr pj^en ^fie ctcnhe? 7. Jyf pfve;tv? 8. Rjulf jyf ^sikf pfve;? 9. E yt/ tcnm ltnb? 10. Rfr b[ pj^en? 11. Rnj jyb? 12. Ult ^s ;bkb ^ ltncn^t? Eghf;ytybt 9. 2. Vtyz pj^en; jnxtcn^j; afvbkbz; gjcnegbkf; 3. dfdeirf; ltleirf; gtycbb; yf; 4. jntw; tuj pj^en; yf; 5. vfnm; pj^en; ^ gjkbrkbybrt (djkmybwt); exbkfcm; 6. ve;; csy; b[; ctcnhf; ve;; csy; yfpfl Eghf;ytybt 10. Gfhb; cnjkbwf Ahfywbb. Vjcr^f cnjkbwf Hjccbb. Ghfuf cnjkbwf Xt[bb. Ltkb cnjkbwf Bylbb. Dtyf cnjkbwf F^cnhbb. Hbv cnjkbwf Bnfkbb. <tqhen cnjkbwf Kb^fyf. Njrbj cnjkbwf Zgjybb. Dfhif^f cnjkbwf Gjkmib. Kjyljy cnjkbwf Fyukbb. Jckj cnjkbwf Yjh^tubb. Eghf;ytybt 11. 1. D ;ehyfkt gjhnhtn fvthbrfycrjuj rjcvjyf^nf. 2. Z pfgbcfk flhtc yj^juj lheuf. 3. Vs cbltkb ^ rjvyfnt cnfhituj dhfnf. 4. Z ^cnhtnbk ctcnhe Bujhz. 5. Lt^eirf jn^tnbkf yf ^jghjc exbntkz. 6. Ult pltcm jcnfyj^rf nhfv^fz? 7. Lt^eirf ghjxbnfkf gbcmvj Bhbys. 8. Ve; Yfnfib by;tyth.9. E ytuj tcnm gjhnhtn Vfhbb. 10. "nj rybuf vjtq vkflitq ctcnhs. 11. D Rbt^t ;bk dhfn tuj n/nb. Eghf;ytybt 12. (1) bp (2) e (3) cj (4) bp (5) gjckt (6) gjckt (7) e (8) ^j ^htvz (9) c (10) e 14 On-line Answer key V V Eghf;ytybt 13. 8. dhjcbnm 1. i/k 2. e^bltk 3. egfk 4. ghsuyek 5. cgfc 6. lfk 7. ^bltkb Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 14.1 ^ y e r l t l e i r f d e h n v e ; e w c s y j r j r g k t v z y y b r ^ l z l z y v f v d f c y b v j l f . d h f n t e n t x n g h f l d c c x t h m / t c l b e t n r k v f n m w t n i v h f b g f z g f n t r m f g k t v z y y b w f z V V V V 14.2 1. ve;, vfnm 2. ;tyf 3. dfdeirf 4. ljxm, lzlz 5. n/nz 6. ltleirf 7. ctvmz, ctcnhf 8. ltnb 9. jntw 10. dhfn 11. hjlbntkb 14.3 ^rec ^recysq; ltncn^j ltncrbq; T^hjgf t^hjgtqcrbq; ;tyobyf ;tycrbq; bynthtc bynthtcysq; vjkjljcnm vjkjljq; yj^jcnb yj^sq; c^jdjlf c^jdjlysq; chtlf chtlybq; cnfhjcnm cnfhsq; ahfywep ahfywepcrbq 14.4 1. nhfrnjhbcn ^ ltht^yt 2. exbntkm ^ irjkt 3. rfccbhif ^ ufcnhjyjvt 4. gbfybcnrf ^ rjycth^fnjhbb 5. abpbr ^ kfdjhfnjhbb 6. hfdjxbq yf pf^jlt 7. dbdkbjntrfhm ^ dbdkbjntrt 8. ^hfx ^ djkmybwt 14.5 transport f^njdec vjnjwbrk nhfv^fq vfibyf dwellings ujcnbybwf ljv ljvbr r^fhnbhf jdot;bnbt animals cjdfrf ^jkr hsdf rjirf historical events dkjrflf '^frefwbz writing equipment hexrf rfhfylfi technology ^bltjvfuybnjajy ntkt^bpjh rjvgm.nth V V 14.6 1. vkflibq cnfhibq 2. vjkjljq cnfhsq 3. vjkj;t cnfhit 4. vjkjljcnm cnfhjcnm 5. djkmijq vfktymrbq 6. yj^sq cnfhsq 7. gkj[jq [jhjibq 8. dtlysq djufnsq 14.7 1. vkflifz ctcnhf 2. ltntrnb^ysq hjvfy 3. c^jdjlyjt ^htvz 4. Wtynhfkmyfz Fvthbrf 5. itcnyflwfnsq ^tr 6. rjvveyfkmyfz r^fhnbhf 7. rjhtyyjq vjcr^bx 8. hjlyjq zpsr 9. rjvgm.nthyst rehcs 10. gtlfujubxtcrbq bycnbnen 11. Rfhbdcrjt 15 On-line Answer key V V vjht 12. bp^tcnysq if[vfnbcn 13. jnwj^crfz kbybz 14. yfxfkmyfz irjkf 15. afrekmnfnb^yst ghtlvtns 16. gfhecysq cgjhn 14.8 1. ltym c^flmds 2. rfatlhf heccrjuj zpsrf 3. cneltyn ^njhjuj rehcf 4. extybr ^njhjuj rkfccf 5. ghtgjlf^fntkm abpbrb 6. rfhnf vbhf 7. denskrf ^jlrb 8. yfp^fybt cnhfys 9. Frfltvbz [elj;tcn^ 10. ghjuhfvvf rjywthnf 11. jcnfyj^rf nhfv^fz 12. bcnjhbz Hjccbb 14.10. 1. vfntvfnbrf 2. kbnthfnehf 3. bcnjhbz 4. hbcj^fybt 5. [bvbz 6. vepsrf 7. utjuhfabz 8. dbjkjubz 9. abprekmnehf 10. xthxtybt 11. abpbrf 12. fcnhjyjvbz 13. nhel Eghf;ytybt 2. :bkf-dskf lt^jxrf. T/ p^fkb Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf. Jyf ;bkf c vfvjq ^ ujhjlt, f t/ dfdeirf ;bkf ^ ktce. Rf;le. ytltk. Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf [jlbkf ^ ujcnb r dfdeirt. D ktce ;bk djkmijq ^jkr. Jy ^ctulf jxtym [jntk tcnm. Jlyf;ls, rjulf Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf ikf r dfdeirt, jyf ^cnhtnbkf ^ ktce ^jkrf. Djkr [jntk c]tcnm Rhfcye. Ifgjxre, yj cyfxfkf cghjcbk t/: Relf ns bl/im, Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf ? Z ble ^ ujcnb r dfdeirt, crfpfkf Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf. Njulf ^jkr gjlevfk: `Fuf!!! Kexit c]tcnm b dfdeire, b Rhfcye. Ifgjxre!\ B ^jkr gjdt;fk r dfdeirt b c]tk t/. Rjulf Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf ghbikf r dfdeirt, ^jkr kt;fk ^ dfdeirbyjq rhj^fnb, rehbk cbufhtne b gbk ^jlre. Plhf^cn^eq, dfdeirf ! crfpfkf Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf. Plhf^cn^eq, vbkfz ^yexrf ! crfpfk ^jkr. Gjxtve e ntdz nfrbt djkmibt ukfpf ? cghjcbkf Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf. Xnjds kexit ^bltnm ntdz, jn^tnbk ^jkr. F gjxtve e ntdz nfrbt djkmibt eib? Xnjds kexit cksifnm ntdz. F gjxtve e ntdz nfrbt djkmibt peds? Xnjds c]tcnm ntdz!!!. . . B ^jkr c]tk Rhfcye. Ifgjxre. D 'nj ^htvz ^ ljvbr ^ji/k ktcybr. Jy edbk ^jkrf. Bp ^jkrf ^sikb dfdeirf b Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf. Ghjikj vyjuj ktn. Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf ^sikf pfve; pa ktcybrf, b jyb ;bkb ljkuj b cxfcnkb^j! Ktrcbrf 1. Little Red Riding-Hood: Rhfcyfz Ifgjxrf; eyes: ukfpf; wolf: ^jkr; ears: eib; why: gjxtve; teeth: peds 2. vfnm vfvs = dfdeirf; ljxm ljxthb = ^yexrf; vfktymrfz ifgrf = ifgjxrf; gjqnb dscnhj = gjdt;fnm; xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq hfdjnftn ^ ktce = ktcybr 16 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 3. Vfif b Jkz gjlheub. Jyb ;b^en ^ jlyjv ljvt: r^fhnbhf Vfib yf gth^jv 'nf;t, f Jkz ;b^/n yf ^njhjv. Vfif b Jkz jxtym k.dzn ;b^jnys[ b vepsre. E Vfib tcnm rjirf b cjdfrf. Rjire pj^en Vehrf, f cjdfre Ifhbr. Rf;lsq ltym Vfif [jlbn c Ifhbrjv uekznm ^ gfhr. E Vfib ljvf tcnm gbfybyj. Jyf pfybvftncz vepsrjq hfp ^ ytltk. c exbntktv. Jyf e;t ytgkj[j buhftn. Jkz [jxtn cnfnm vepsrfynjv. Jyf exbncz ^ vepsrfkmyjq irjkt, jnkbxyj buhftn yf aktqnt. E yt/ tcnm aktqnf, yj ytn gbfybyj. Gj'njve jyf xfcnj pfybvftncz vepsrjq e Vfib. Jkz buhftn yf aktqnt, f Vfif frrjvgfybhetn yf gbfybyj. E Jkb ^ rjvyfnt tcnm hsdrb ^ fr^fhbevt b gjgeufq. Tuj pj^en Gjgrf. Jkz byjulf hfpuj^fhb^ftn c ybv gj-fyukbqcrb. Gjgeufq pyftn l^f ckj^f: `Hello\ b `goodbye\. Answers: 1. ytghf^bkmyj; 2. ghf^bkmyj; 3. ytghf^bkmyj; 4. ytghf^bkmyj; 5. ghf^bkmyj; 6. ghf^bkmyj; 7. ghf^bkmyj; 8. ytghf^bkmyj; 9. ghf^bkmyj; 10. ytghf^bkmyj; 11. ghf^bkmyj; 12. ytghf^bkmyj; 13. ytghf^bkmyj Eghf;ytybt 4. Rfr ^fc pj^en? Rfr pj^en ^fie vfve? Rfr pj^en gfge? Ult ^s hjlbkbcm b ult ;bkb ^ ltncn^t? Ult ;b^en ^fib hjlbntkb? Rtv jyb hfdjnf.n? E ^fc tcnm dfdeirf b ltleirf ? Ult jyb ;b^en? Rtv jyb hfdjnfkb? Rfr pj^en dfdeire? Rfr pj^en ltleire? E ^fc tcnm dhfn bkb ctcnhf ? Rfr pj^en dhfnf ? Rfr pj^en ctcnhe? <hfn cnfhit bkb vjkj;t ^fc? F ctcnhf ? Ult jy / jyf exbncz? Rtv jy / jyf hfdjnftn? Ult ^s ctqxfc ;b^tnt? Ult ^s exbntcm? Unit 7 Ehjr 7 - Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. B^fye 26 ktn. 2. Rfnt 42 ujlf. 3. Ybrjkf. 58 ktn. 4. <fdeirt 92 ujlf. 5. Ltleirt 87 ktn. 6. Vfvt 53 ujlf. 7. Jnwe 62 ujlf. 8. Cth/;t 25 ktn. 9. Nfyt 14 ktn. 10. <jhbce Ybrjkft^bxe 39 ktn. 11. K.lvbkt <jhbcj^yt 45 ktn. Eghf;ytybt 5. Z ble . . . ^ <tksq ljv, ^ lheue. rjvyfne, yf ehjr, ^ kbyufajyye. kfdjhfnjhb., r cnfhjve lheue, r dfdeirt, r vkflitq ctcnht, r Fylht., r Cth/;t, yf ^scnf^re, ^ cneltyxtcrjt jdot;bnbt, ^ <jkmijq ntfnh, ^ Heccrbq veptq, yf afdhbre, ^ gedkbxye. dbdkbjntre, ^ ujhjlcre. djkmybwe, yf hfdjne, r ;tyt, r n/nt Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. vyt, cnfhitve dhfne; 2. ^fv, djkmyjve; 3. tq, 'njve extybre; 4. yj^jve cneltyne, yj^jq cneltynrt; 5. ghjatccbjyfkmyjve cgjhncvtye; 6. ntdt, yfv. Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. Z xfcnj gbie gbcmvf jnwe / ctcnht. 2. Dxthf z yfgbcfk(f ) gbcmvj dhfne / gjlheut. 3. Z hfccrfpfk(f ) j ^txtht lheue / Rfnt. 4. Z regbk(f ) ufptne nj^fhboe / n/nt. 5. Yf 'rpfvtyt cneltyns jn^txf.n ghjatccjhe / ghtgjlf^fntk.. 17 On-line Answer key - Eghf;ytybt 10. (Example) rnj? dfdeirf cneltyns ghtgjlf^fntkm vs z ns jy Vfhbz xbnftn gbien jd]zcyztn lfhbv gjcskf. lf/im gjregftn ghtgjlf/n xnj? crfpre gbcmvf ehjr gjlfhrb gjcskre rybue vjkjrj abpbre rjve? ^yere lheue cneltyne jnwe ltleirt Vfitymrt cjctle ytvwe - Eghf;ytybt 11. 1. k.dbk 2. lfhbk 3. yhf^bkcz 4. epyfk 5. htibk 6. gjlfhbnm 7. gjregfk 8. gjlevfk 9. lfk 10. gji/k 11. ghbi/k 12. crfpfk 13. ^pzkf 14. gjcvjnhtkf 15. gjyzk Eghf;ytybt 12. (a) Dtcyf ghjljk;ftncz nhb vtczwf. Ktnj ghjljk;ftncz nhb vtczwf. Jctym ghjljk;ftncz nhb vtczwf. Pbvf ghjljk;ftncz nhb vtczwf. Ehjr ghjljk;ftncz jlby xfc. Ktrwbz ghjljk;ftncz jlby xfc. (b) D cthtlbyt vfhnf; ^ cthtlbyt vfz; ^ cthtlbyt b.yz; ^ cthtlbyt b.kz; ^ yfxfkt ctynzdhz; ^ rjywt ltrfdhz. (c) Vyjubt k.dzn dhfnm jngecr ktnjv. Vyjubt k.dzn dhfnm jngecr jctym.. Vyjubt k.dzn dhfnm jngecr pbvjq. Vyjubt k.dzn ghj^jlbnm jngecr yf lfxt. Vyjubt k.dzn uekznm ^ ktce. Vyjubt k.dzn rfnfnmcz yf ks;f[. Vyjubt k.dzn cjdbhfnm uhbds b zujls. (d) Cfvst ghbznyst ktnybt vtczws; cfvst rhfcb^st vtczws; cfvst [jkjlyst vtczws; cfvst n/gkst vtczws; cfvst ;fhrbt lyb. (e) Gjujlf cnjbn [jkjlyfz. Gjujlf cnjbn [jhjifz. Gjujlf cnjbn n/gkfz. Gjujlf cnjbn ;fhrfz. Gjujlf cnjbn cshfz. (f ) Heccrbt jxtym k.dzn pbve. Heccrbt jxtym k.dzn ktnj. Heccrbt jxtym k.dzn ^tcye. Heccrbt jxtym k.dzn jctym. (g) Rfr rhfcb^ dtksq cytu pbvjq! Rfr rhfcb^f ptk/yfz nhf^f! Rfr rhfcb^s ^tctyybt w^tns! Rfr rhfcb^s pjkjnst kbcnmz jctym.! Rhjcc^jhl. Gj ujhbpjynfkb: 1. cjkywt 2. ^tnth 3. n/gksq 4. nhf^f 5. lj;lm. Gj ^thnbrfkb: 1. cytu 6. kbcnmz 7. w^tns 8. jnls[fnm 9. vfhn 10. vjhjp 18 Eghf;ytybt 13. 1. ^ irjkt 2. ^ eyb^thcbntnt 3. e vtyz 4. c rtv 5. e yfc 6. ^ ujhjlt 7. r ctdt 8. ^ ujcnb 9. r ^fv 10. ^ ctynzdht 11. c hjlbntkzvb 12. e yfc 13. ^ wtynht 14. yf Djkut 15. e yfc 16. ^ rbyj 17. yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt 18. e vtyz 19. r yfv 20. ^ Cfhfnj^ 21. e vtyz 22. ^ htrt 23. c ghb^tnjv On-line Answer key V V V V V Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 15.3 1. irjkmyfz cnjkj^fz 2. vfktymrfz ljxrf 3. vkflibt rkfccs 4. djkmifz gthtvtyf 5. ^tnhtyfz gjujlf 6. extdysq ujl 7. rf;le. ytltk. 8. irjkmysq ltym 9. ktnybt rfybreks 10. heccrbq zpsr 15.4 frnb^yj gfccb^yj; lj gjckt; rjytw yfxfkj; rjyxfnmcz yfxbyfnmcz; yflj ytkmpz; gjktpyj ^htlyj; ghf^bkmyj ytghf^bkmyj; hfdjnf jnls[; [jkjlyj ntgkj 15.5 1. gjg-vepsrf, l;fp, hjvfyc, jgthf vepsrf 2. hjvfy, hfccrfp, crfprf, cnb[b kbnthfnehf 3. [jrrtq, aendjk, ntyybc, gbyu-gjyu cgjhn 4. ctynzdhm, zy^fhm, vfhn, ltrfdhm vtczws 5. ^njhybr, chtlf, xtn^thu, ceddjnf lyb ytltkb 6. ubnfhf, hjzkm, nhjvdjy, aktqnf vepsrfkmyst bycnhevtyns 15.6 1. ;b^/im 2. exbimcz 3. bl/im, bynthtcetimcz 4. kt;bim 5. gbitim 6. uj^jhbim 7. ecnf/im 8. cvt/imcz 9. cblbim 10. [jxtim 11. tplbim 12. k.dbim 13. ^cnf/im Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Hfpuj^jh L^f xtkj^trf hfpuj^fhb^f.n. Jlby cghfib^ftn, f lheujq jn^txftn. `Gm/im ^byj?\ `Ytn!\ `Rehbim?\ `Ytn!\ `Buhftim ^ rfhns?\ `Ytn!\ `Xnj ;t, e ntdz ytn yb jlyjuj ytljcnfnrf ?\ `Tcnm, njkmrj jlby.\ `Rfrjq?\ `Z xfcnj uj^jh. ytghf^le. . .\ 2. Yfi ghtgjlf^fntkm Yfi ghtgjlf^fntkm abpbrb hfpuj^fhb^ftn cfv c cjdjq. F ^fi? Yfi nj;t. Yj jy 'njuj yt gjybvftn. Jy levftn, xnj vs tuj ckeiftv! 3. Vfvf b ljxrf Vfktymrfz ljxrf cblbn yf lb^fyt b xbnftn rybue. Vfvf t/ cghfib^ftn: J x/v ns xbnftim? Yt pyf.. Vfvf uj^jhbn: 19 On-line Answer key Rfr ;t ns yt pyftim? Ns xbnftim jxtym uhjvrj.\ Ljxm jn^txftn: Lf, z xbnf. uhjvrj, yj z yt ckeif.. Yf lheujq ltym vfnm ^blbn, xnj ljxrf cblbn pf cnjkjv b gbitn. Xnj ns ltkftim, ljxtymrf ? cghfib^ftn vfnm. Z gbie gbcmvj Jkt. Yj ns ;t to/ yt evttim gbcfnm. Ye b xnj ;t! Vjz gjlheuf Jkz yt evttn xbnfnm. Eghf;ytybt 2. Nfyz Cvbhyj^f vjkjlfz cbvgfnbxyfz lt^eirf. Hjlbntkb Nfyb ;b^en ^ Rbt^t, f cfvf jyf ;b^/n ^ Djhjyt;t b exbncz nfv ^ eyb^thcbntnt yf gth^jv rehct. Jyf pfybvftncz abpbrjq b 'ktrnhjybrjq, jcjdtyyj tq yhf^zncz rjvgm.nths. D c^jdjlyjt ^htvz Nfyz k.dbn xbnfnm hjvfys b cnb[b, jyf nfr;t jxtym [jhjij gj/n. Hfp ^ ytltk. jyf gj/n ^ cneltyxtcrjv [jht. Ctujlyz e Nfyb ytn pfyznbq. Jyf cblbn yf crfvtqrt ^ gfhrt b gbitn gbcmvj ljvjq. Jyf jn^txftn yf gbcmvj ctcnhs. Dlheu jyf ^blbn, xnj rfrjq-nj ytpyfrjvsq ve;xbyf cnjbn hzljv c ytq b xbnftn t/ gbcmvj. Nfyz gbitn ^ gbcmvt: `Rfrjq-nj ve;xbyf cnjbn jrjkj vtyz b xbnftn vj/ gbcmvj!..\ Ytghf^lf! uj^jhbn ve;xbyf, z yt xbnf.! Eghf;ytybt 3.1 Nfyz, ^s e;t vtczw ;b^/nt ^ "lbydehut. Crf;bnt, ^fv yhf^bncz "lbydehu? Lf, "lbydehu vyt jxtym yhf^bncz. F xnj ^fv jcjdtyyj gjyhf^bkjcm ^ "lbydehut? Vyt ^c/ gjyhf^bkjcm fh[bntrnehf, veptb, Cnfhsq ujhjl, Yj^sq ujhjl. . . F L^jhtw Ujkbhel ^fv yhf^bncz? Ytn, jy vyt yt jxtym yhf^bncz. Nfyz, crf;bnt gj;fkeqcnf, f xnj ^s k.dbnt ltkfnm ^ c^jdjlyjt ^htvz? Ye, xnj z k.dk.. . .? Z k.dk. xbnfnm, cvjnhtnm ntkt^bpjh, [jlbnm ^ rbyj, ^ ntfnhs, yf rjywthns. . . F to/ z jxtym k.dk. ijnkfylcrbt nfyws. Nfyz, f ^s dskb ^ Kjyljyt? Dfv Kjyljy gjyhf^bkcz? Ytn, Kjyljy vyt cj^ctv yt gjyhf^bkcz. Nfv jxtym ievyj b vyjuj yfhjle. F xnj ^fv djkmit yhf^bncz Vjcr^f bkb Cfyrn-Gtnthdehu? Rjytxyj Cfyrn-Gtnthdehu, gjnjve xnj z cfvf bp Cfyrn-Gtnthdehuf! Eghf;ytybt 4. Rfrbt ghtlvtns ^fv yhf^bkbcm ^ irjkt? F rfrbt ghtlvtns ^fv yt yhf^bkbcm? Ult ^s exbntcm ctqxfc yf rfrjv rehct? / yf rfrjv afrekmntnt? Xnj ^fv yhf^bncz ^ eyb^thcbntnt? Xnj ^fv yt yhf^bncz ^ eyb^thcbntnt? Rfrbt ghtlvtns ^fv jcjdtyyj yhf^zncz? Rfrbt zpsrb ^s bpexftnt? Dfv yhf^bncz pfybvfnmcz heccrbv zpsrjv? Ult ^s ;b^/nt ^ jdot;bnbb bkb cybvftnt r^fhnbhe? Xnj ^fv yhf^bncz ^ jdot;bnbb / ^ r^fhnbht? A xnj ^fv yt yhf^bncz ^ jdot;bnbb / ^ r^fhnbht? 20 On-line Answer key Unit 8 Ehjr 8 - - Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Yf hjlbyt; c hjlbys; yf hjlbye; hjlbye. 2. Yfitve ghbzntk.; yfi ghbzntkm; c yfibv ghbzntktv; j yfitv ghbzntkt. 3. Heccrjq bcnjhbtq; heccre. bcnjhb.; j heccrjq bcnjhbb; gj heccrjq bcnjhbb. 4. Ltncrbv ^hfxjv; e ltncrjuj ^hfxf; r ltncrjve ^hfxe; ltncrjve ^hfxe; ltncrjuj ^hfxf; ltncrbq ^hfx; jn ltncrjuj ^hfxf. 5. Kexitq gjlheut; j kexitq gjlheut; c kexitq gjlheujq; r kexitq gjlheut; kexie. gjlheue; kexifz gjlheuf Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. heccrjq kbnthfnehjq / gfhecysv cgjhnjv 2. gjgekzhyjq vepsrjq / ujkkfylcrjq ;b^jgbcm. / ntfnhfkmysv bcreccn^jv 3. 'rjyjvbrjq / dbpytcjv 4. rkfccbxtcrbv dfktnjv / cj^htvtyyjq jgthjq Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. c n^jbv lheujv; c ctvm/q; c kfdjhfynrjq; c ghtgjlf^fntktv; c nehbcnjv bp Vbycrf; c ljxrjq 2. gjckt rjywthnf; gjckt cgtrnfrkz; gjckt jdtlf; gjckt ^jqys; gjckt rf;ljq xtn^thnb; gjckt rf;ljuj ehjrf 3. e Ybrjkfz; e Rfnb; e vtyz; e yfc; e yb[; e ytuj; e yt/; e jnwf; e ctcnhs; e cneltynj^-jnkbxybrj^ 4. ^ htcnjhfyt yf gkjoflb Geirbyf; yf lb^fyt; yf afdhbrt ^ ujhjlt Zhjckf^kt; ^ Rfpfycrjv eyb^thcbntnt yf ^jcnjxyjv afrekmntnt 5. yf rjywthn bkb ^ ntfnh; ^ ntktajyye. delre; ^ f'hjrked; yf gjk; yf rjhfdkm; yf ahjyn 6. ^ l^f xfcf; ^ c^jdjlyjt ^htvz; ^ ltrfdht; yf lheujq ltym 7. yf cfrcjajyt/aktqnt 8. jd jnls[t; j pljhj^mt b dkfujgjkexbb cneltynj^ 9. gj rehcj^jq cbcntvt; gj bcnjhbb 10. pf uhfybwe; pf uhfybwtq; pf fvthbrfywf Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. gjckfnm 2. gjp^jybnm 3. cltkfnm/ghbujnj^bnm 4. gjcvjnhtnm 5. crfpfnm 6.jn^tnbnm 7. ^sexbnm 8. ^pznm Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. Hfp ^ ytltk. rjulf ? ^ + accusative 2. Rf;lsq vtczw rfr xfcnj? accusative ult z rnj? nominative vjb hjlbntkb rnj? nominative buhfkf xnj ltkfkf ? verb ^s rnj? nominative ^s rnj? nominative Rfnz rnj? nominative [jlbkf xnj ltkfkf ? verb e;byfkb xnj ltkfkb? verb vepsrf. xnj? nominative ^bltkb xnj ltkfkb? verb xbnfkb? xnj ltkfkb? verb ghbikf xnj cltkfkf ? verb ^ rbyj. relf ? ^ + accusative ^ htcnjhfyt, ult? ^ + prepositional - 3. Rjuj interrogative pronoun accusative 4. J x/v interrogative pronoun j + prepositional 5. Rjulf interrogative adverb yf rjywthnt? ult? yf + prepositional ljvjq, relf ? adverb 21 On-line Answer key jyf rnj? nominative gje;byfkf xnj cltkfkf ? verb b conjunction ktukf cgfnm. xnj cltkfkf ? verb - Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. Rjulf ^s jrjyxbkb eyb^thcbntn? 2. Ds xfcnj [jlbnt ^ ntfnh? 3. Ds pfve;tv? 4. Xnj ^s ltkfkb ^xthf ^txthjv? 5. Xnj ^s ltkfkb ^ ceddjne? 6. Rjve ^s regbkb 'ne rybue? 7. Xnj ^s gjkexbkb ^xthf ? 8. Jnrelf ^s? Eghf;ytybt 10. 1. e vtyz 2. Djcnjrt 3. gj;tybkbcm 4. lj ^jqys 5. ei/k 6. gjckt ^jqys 7. ^ Erhfbye 8. ctrhtnfh/v 9. vtczwf 10. ktn 11. hjlbkcz 12. ^jqys 13. ;b^/n 14. r cj;fktyb. 15. gj ntktajye 16. evth 17. bycnbnenf 18. yf pf^jlt 19. ;ehyfkbcnbrb Eghf;ytybt 11. 1. ghbujnj^bkf 2. rjyxbkbcm 3. jcnfyj^bkcz 4. jcnfyf^kb^fkbcm 5. jnrhsk 5. e^bltk 6. ghjlf^fkf 7. uekzk 8. cghjcbk 9. jn^tnbk 10. lfk 11. crfpfk 12. e^bltkb 13. i/k 14. tk 15. ^thyek 16. crfpfk 17. c]tk Eghf;ytybt 12. Jktu: 1. ujl 2. exbntktv 3. ghtgjlf. 4. ajnjuhfabtq 5. ajnjuhfabhe. 6. k.dk. 7. bcreccn^e 8. exbntkmybwtq 9. bp Ahfywbb Ufkbyf: 1. vtyz 2. vyt 3. ktn 4. rjyxbkf 5. vepsre 6. gj'pb. 7. hbce. 8. k.d^b 9. rjkktrwbjybhe. 10. pyf. 11. vfkmxbrjv 12. bp Gjkmib Gf^tk: 1. pj^en 2. vyt 3. ujlf 4. execm 5. afrekmntnt 6. gtht^jlxbrjv 7. pfybvf.cm 8. gj'pbtq 9. bynthtce.cm 10. c lt^eirjq 11. e vtyz Ybyf b Jkmuf: 1. c ctcnhjq 2. botv 3. uj^jhbn 4. ^ djkmybwt 5. ghtgjlf/n 6. [jlbv 7. k.dbv 8. [jnbv 9. ^ Bcgfyb. Eghf;ytybt 13. 1. Z gthtt[fkf ^ Njhjynj. Z gthtt[fk(f ) ^ Rfyfle. Z gthtt[fk(f ) ^ Fyukb.. Z gthtt[fk(f ) ^j Ahfywb.. Z gthtt[fk(f ) ^ Ledkby. Z gthtt[fk(f ) ^ Bphfbkm. Z gthtt[fk(f ) ^ Uthvfyb.. 2. Z gjkexbkf gbcmvj jn gjlheub. Z gjkexbk(f ) gbcmvj jn B^fyf. Jyf gjkexbkf gbcmvj jn exbntkz. Jyb gjkexbkb gbcmvj jn Rfnb. Jy gjkexbk gbcmvj jn ^fc (ntdz). Z gjkexbk(f ) gbcmvj jn yb[. Ns gjkexbk(f ) / ^s gjkexbkb gbcmvj jn yfc? 3. Jyf hfdjnftn by;tythjv. Jy hfdjnftn ^hfxjv. Vjq jntw hfdjnftn exbntktv. Vjz ctcnhf hfdjnftn ctrhtnfhitq. Jyf hfdjnfkf rfccbhitq. Vjz vfvf hfdjnfkf gtht^jlxbwtq. 4. Jyf gsnfkfcm yfqnb hfdjne. Jy gsnfkcz yfqnb rybue. Z gsnfkcz (gsnfkfcm) yfqnb ljv. Vs gsnfkbcm yfqnb r^fhnbhe. Jyf gsnfkfcm yfqnb [jhjibq htcnjhfy. 5. T/ lbgkjv yt ghbpyf^fkb. Yfi lbvgkjv yt ghbpyf.n pltcm. 6. Chjr jdextybz ^ ^ept vbybvev gznm ktn. Chjr jdextybz vbybvev nhb ujlf. Chjr jdextybz vbybvev nhb c gjkj^byjq vtczwf. Chjr jdextybz ^ ^ept vbybvev itcnm ktn. 7. D eyb^thcbntnf[ pltcm exfncz ^ctuj xtnsht ujlf. D eyb^thcbntnf[ pltcm exfncz ^ctuj l^f ujlf. D eyb^thcbntnf[ pltcm exfncz ^ctuj l^f c gjkj^byjq ujlf. D eyb^thcbntnf[ pltcm exfncz ^ctuj nhb ujlf. E yfc ^ eyb^thcbntnf[ exfncz gznm ktn. 8. D nt[ybxtcrb[ rjkktl;f[ exfncz b njuj vtymit. D nt[ybxtcrb[ rjkktl;f[ exfncz b njuj djkmit. 9. Gjctotybt ^ct[ pfyznbq dskj jdzpfntkmysv. Gjctotybt ^ct[ ehjrj^ ^ irjkt dskj jdzpfntkmysv. Gjctotybt ^ct[ ehjrj^ ^ irjkt jdzpfntkmyj. 10. ujnj^bnmcz r - 22 On-line Answer key pfyznbzv, ujnj^bnmcz r pfyznb., ujnj^bnmcz r pfx/nfv, ujnj^bnmcz r pfx/ne, ujnj^bnmcz r 'rpfvtyfv, ujnj^bnmcz r 'rpfvtye 11. jlby ltym ^ ytltk.; l^f lyz ^ ytltk.; nhb lyz ^ ytltk.; xtnsht lyz ^ ytltk.; gznm lytq ^ ytltk.; jlby xfc ^ ltym; l^f xfcf ^ ltym; nhb xfcf ^ ltym; xtnsht xfcf ^ ltym; gznm xfcj^ ^ ltym; itcnm xfcj^ ^ ltym 12. gj ^txthfv; gj enhfv; gj yjxfv 13. rf;lsq ltym; rf;lsq ujl; rf;le. ytltk. V V Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 14.1 (a) 1. ghjbc[jlbnm ghjbc[j;ltybt 2. gjctofnm gjctotybt 3. e^ktrfnmcz e^ktxtybt 4. htibnm htitybt 5. pfrk.xbnm pfrk.xtybt 6. jd]zcybnm jd]zcytybt 7. jrjyxbnm jrjyxfybt 8. ghtlkj;bnm ghtlkj;tybt; function of sufx(es) -fybt / tybt: the formation of abstract noun from verb (d) 1. bplfnm bplfntkm 2. jcyj^fnm jcyj^fntkm 3. cjplfnm cjplfntkm 4. exfcn^j^fnm exfcnybr 5. ghtgjlf^fnm ghtgjlf^fntkm 6. cnhjbnm cnhjbntkm; function of sufxes -ntkm and -ybr: the formation of noun (person) from verb (^) 1. yferf yfexysq 2. c^jdjlf c^jdjlysq 3. gfhnbz gfhnbqysq 4. ^jqyf ^jtyysq 5. bynthtc bynthtcysq; function of sufx -ysq: the formation of adjective from noun 14.2 dtlysq djufnsq; vfktymrbq djkmijq; vkflibq cnfhibq; gkfnysq dtcgkfnysq; gkj[jq [jhjibq; c^jdjlty pfyzn; cnfhsq vjkjljq 14.4 cnjk, cnek, rhj^fnm: vtdtkm; csh, [ktd, vjkjrj: ghjlerns; vepsrf, rbyj, xntybt: e^ktxtybt; xfirf, denskrf, cnfrfy: gjcelf; xfq, rjat, kbvjyfl: yfgbnjr; ktrwbz, ctvbyfh, ehjr: pfyznbt ^ extdyjv pf^tltybb 14.5 1. ^jtyyjgktyysq ^ kfutht 2. rhtcnmzyby ^ rjk[jpt 3. rfylblfn yfer ^ ^ept 4. vtlbr ^ djkmybwt 5. ghjvsiktyybr yf pf^jlt 6. vjyf[byz ^ vjyfcnsht 7. ^jtyysq yf ahjynt 14.6 1. kfuthm lkz ^jtyyjgktyys[ 2. 'rpfvty gj kbnthfneht 3. xfq c kbvjyjv 4. jnvtnrf pf jn^tn 5. ^jghjc gj ntjhbb 6. ghjbp^tltybt ^ ghjpt 7. ghtgjlf^fntkm abpbrb 8. pfyznbt cgjhnjv 14.7 1. pfrjyxbnm afrekmntn ghf^f 2. ujnj^bnmcz r 'rpfvtye 3. buhfnm yf vepsrfkmyjv bycnhevtynt 4. lkbnmcz l^f xfcf 5. gjkexfnm jwtyre 6. cnfnm ghtlghbybvfntktv 7. exfcn^j^fnm ^ cjht^yj^fybz[ 8. dhfnm dbktn 9. gjgfcnm ^ gkty 10. ltkbnmcz yf l^f ctvtcnhf 11. gjctofnm pfyznbz 12. bvtnm ghf^j 13. clf^fnm pfx/n 14. ^scnegfnm yf cwtyt 14.8 1. extdyfz ghjuhfvvf 2. ujcelfhcn^tyyst 'rpfvtys 3. yfcnjkmyfz buhf 4. ltcznbvbyenyst gthths^s 5. extdyjt pf^tltybt 6. lbgkjvyfz hfdjnf 7. hfdjxbq ltym 8. kbnthfnehyjt ghjbp^tltybt 9. vepsrfkmysq bycnhevtyn 10. ^txthytt jnltktybt 11. cgjhnb^ysq pfk 12. cneltyxtcrbq rked 14.9 Crossword. Gj ujhbpjynfkb: 1. vfkzh 5. fhnbcn 8. ^jqyf 9. jgthf 10. rbjcr 12. jdot;bnbt 13. yfgbnjr 15. xtn^thnm 16. rjvgjpbnjh Gj ^thnbrfkb: 2. hfccrfp 3. cnek 4. cnhjqrf 6. cfgj;ybr 7. gthtvtyf 8. ^bjkjyxtkbcn 11. zobr 12. jcnfyj^rf 13. Yt^f 14. rfybreks 23 V V V V V V V On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 1. Part 1 Ctulyz gjcklytt ^jcrhtcymt ltrfdh, b vs c n/ntq b c ddeirjq htikb gj[fnm ^ vfufpy `Lncrbq vbh\ ^ wynht Vjcr^, xnds regnm lnzv gjlhrb r Y^jve ule. Dxthjv, rjul vs ^jp^hfokbcm bp vfufpyf ljvq, ^ nhfv^t dkj vyuj yfhlf, b ^ct vtcn dkb pyzns. Rfr ^ctul, vyubt ;yobys cnjn, f ve;xys cbln. Jly cvnhzn ^ jry, lheut xbn.n ufpne bkb ghcnj lkf.n ^bl, xnj cgzn. Part 2 Vs nj;t cnjbv. N/nz cvjnhbn yf gfccf;bhj^ b nb[j vyt uj^jhbn: ` Bynthtcyj, rjulf ;t rnj-ybdelm ecnegbn yfitq dfdeirt vtcnj?\ Ghzvj gthtl yfvb cbltk vfkmxbr ktn gznyflwfnb c pfrhsnsvb ukfpfvb. <fdeirf cnjzkf hzljv c ybv c nz;/kjq cevrjq ^ hert. Njulf n/nz tuj cghfib^ftn: ` Ds yt cgbnt, vjkjljq xtkj^tr? Ds yt ghjt[fkb c^j. jcnfyj^re ? \ ` Ytn, jn^txftn jy, z yt cgk. !\ ` F gjxtve ;t e ^fc pfrhsns ukfpf ?\ ` Gjnjve xnj vyt djkmyj cvjnhtnm, rjulf hzljv cj vyjq ^ nhfv^ft cnjbn gj;bkfz ;tyobyf!\ Eghf;ytybt 2. Tujh Jabwbfynrf K.lf Jabwbfynrf Tujh Jabwbfynrf K.lf Jabwbfynrf Tujh Jabwbfynrf K.lf Jabwbfynrf K.lf Jabwbfynrf K.lf Jabwbfynrf K.lf Tujh Jabwbfynrf Tujh Jabwbfynrf Lt^eirf! Xnj ^fv ? Vj;yj vty.? Vty. ? Gj;fkeqcnf. Nfr. . . Vyt, gj;fqkecnf uhbdyjq ceg b hsde. Hsds ctujlyz ytn. F xnj tcnm yf ^njhjt? Tcnm rjnktns gj-rbt^crb b dbaintrc. {jhjij, njulf vyt uhbdyjq ceg b dbaintrc. Rbt^crbt rjnktns jxtym ^recyst, htrjvtyle. . . . Nfr . . . {jhjij, vyt, gj;fkeqcnf, dekmjy b rbt^crbt rjnktns. F xnj yf ltcthn? Ltcthn nj;t ctqxfc yflj pfrfps^fnm? Rjytxyj, ^c/ yflj chfpe. Nfr, vyt, gj;fkeqcnf, 'rkth b rjat. Rfrjq ^fv rjat x/hysq bkb c vjkjrjv? Vyt x/hysq yfnehfkmysq rjat, gj;fkeqcnf. F vyt vjhj;tyjt b rjat c vjkjrjv. Nfr. . . Pyfxbn dekmjy, ob, rjnktns, dbaintrc . . . Ytn, ytn, yt ob, f ceg! {jhjij, ceg uhbdyjq. F yf ltcthn jlby 'rkth, jlyj vjhj;tyjt b l^f rjat. Vbyenjxre. . . 24 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Crf;b, Yfnfif, ns bl/im r Jktue yf ltym hj;ltybz? Lf, f ns ? Z nj;t. Xnj ns cjdbhftimcz tve gjlfhbnm? Yt pyf.. Z [jntkf regbnm ajnjfggfhfn. Jy ^tlm k.dbn [jlbnm ^ ujhs b ^jjdot vyjuj gentitcn^etn. Yj [jhjibq ajnjfggfhfn cnjbn jxtym ljhjuj . . . Ajnjfggfhfn 'nj utybfkmyfz vsckm! Lf^fq regbv tve jlby gjlfhjr yf l^jb[ jn ntdz b jn vtyz. 2. Jq, Gtnz, ns yt pfdsk, xnj e jnwf gjcktpf^nhf ltym hj;ltybz? F vs to/ ybxtuj tve yt regbkb. Xnj ;t tve gjlfhbnm? Gj-vjtve, yflj gjlfhbnm tve yj^st if[vfns. Lf, ns ghf^f, ^tlm jy e yfc pfzlksq if[vfnbcn. 3. E yfitq exbntkmybws ^ ^jcrhtctymt ltym hj;ltybz. Vs [jnbv cltkfnm tq gjlfhjr jn ^ctuj rkfccf, yj yt pyftv, xnj tq gjlfhbnm. Ns ;t pyftim, xnj tq yhf^bncz ^c/ heccrjt. Vj;yj gjlfhbnm tq heccre. ifkm. B to/ cnb[b Geirbyf: jyf ^tlm e^ktrftncz gj'pbtq. Ghf^bkmyj! 4. Ckeifq, Vbif, ukf^yjt yt pfdsnm ltym hj;ltybz dfdeirb hj^yj xthtp ytltk.. Lf, z gjvy.. Z cjdbhf.cm gjlfhbnm tq w^tns. W^tns ;tyobyt ^ctulf ghbznyj. Yj 'njuj vfkj. Vj;tn dsnm, ahfywepcrbt le[b? Ytn, xnj ns! "nj ;t cnhfiyj ljhjuj! Lf^fq regbv tq nfgjxrb l/it^j b ghfrnbxyj. B rjhjdre rjyatn, ^tlm dfdeirf nfr k.dbn ckflrjt . . . Pyfxbn, htibkb: w^tns, rjyatns b nfgjxrb. 5. Crf;bnt, Vfhbyf, f rjulf e Dfc ltym hj;ltybz? Crjhj. D vfhnt, f xnj? Z [jxe ^fv gjlfhbnm fdcnhfrnye. rfhnbye. Z yfhbcj^fk t/ cgtwbfkmyj lkz ^fc. Jq, xnj ^s Bujhm <jhbcj^bx! Cgfcbdj djkmijt. Vyt jxtym ghbznyj. Unit 9 Ehjr 9 ' Eghf;ytybt T2 1. Gth^fz vbhj^fz ^jqyf yfxfkfcm ^ 1914 ujle. 2. Uhf;lfycrfz ^jqyf ghjljk;fkfcm 3 ujlf. 3. D 1917-jv ujle dskj l^t ht^jk.wbb. 4. CCCH dsk jdhfpj^fy ^ 1922 ujle. 5. Ktyby evth ^ 1924 ujle. 6. Cnfkby evth ^ 1953 ujle. 7. Dnjhe. vbhj^e. ^jqye ^ Hjccbb yfps^f.n `Dtkbrfz Jntxtcn^tyyfz ^jqyf\. 8. Dj ^htvz Dnjhjq vbhj^jq ^jqys Utythfkmysv ctrhtnfh/v dsk Cnfkby. 9. Dj ^htvz gjk/nf Ufufhbyf ^ rjcvjc Utythfkmysv ctrhtnfh/v dsk {heo/^. 10. Gthbjl `pfcnjz\ dsk ghb <ht;yt^t. 11. Cj^tncrbq Cj.p ceotcn^j^fk 73 ujlf. 12. Gjcktlybv ghtpbltynjv CCCH dsk Ujhdfx/^. 13. Gjckt hfcgflf CCCH ghtpbltynjv Hjccbb cnfk Tkmwby. 25 On-line Answer key - Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. l^flwfnm itcnjuj vfz nsczxf ctvmcjn lt^zyjcnj lt^znjuj ujlf 2. l^flwfnm lt^znjuj zy^fhz nsczxf ^jctvmcjn nhblwfnm ctlmvjuj ujlf 3. ^ nsczxf ^jctvmcjn ctvbltcznjv ujle 4. ^ nsczxf lt^znmcjn l^flwfnm xtn^/hnjv ujle 5. c nsczxf lt^znmcjn l^flwfnm xtn^thnjuj ujlf gj nsczxf lt^znmcjn gznmltczn nhtnbq ujl 6. gznjuj vfhnf nsczxf lt^znmcjn gznmltczn nhtnmtuj ujlf Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. Rfr pj^en ^fituj jnwf ? 2. Rjulf b ult jy hjlbkcz? 3. Rjulf jyb c vfvjq gjpyfrjvbkbcm? 4. Rjulf (^ rfrjv ujle) jyb gj;tybkbcm? 5. Crjkmrj ktn jyb ;tyfns? 6. Rjulf ltym b[ c^flmds? Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Lht^ytheccrjt ujcelfhcn^j jdhfpj^fkjcm ^ lt^znjv ^trt. Jyj yfps^fkjcm Rbt^crfz Hecm. 2. Hjccbz ghbyzkf [hbcnbfycn^j ^ ltcznjv ^trt. 3. Ryzpm Dkflbvbh Vjyjvf[ ghf^bk ^ l^tyflwfnjv ^trt. 4. Nfnfhcrjt buj yfxfkjcm ^ nhbyflwfnjv ^trt, f pfrjyxbkjcm ^ gznyflwfnjv ^trt. 5. Xbyubp[fy evth ^ nhbyflwfnjv ^trt. 6. Vjcr^f dskf jcyj^fyf ^ l^tyflwfnjv ^trt. 7. Vjcr^f cnfkf gjkbnbxtcrbv wtynhjv Hjccbb ^ xtnshyflwfnjv ^trt. 8. Wfhm B^fy Uhjpysq ghf^bk ^ itcnyflwfnjv ^trt. 9. Lbyfcnbz Hjvfyj^s[ yfxfkfcm ^ ctvyflwfnjv ^trt. 10. G/nh Gth^sq cnfk wfh/v ^ ctvyflwfnjv ^trt. 11. Cfyrn-Gtnthdehu dsk jcyj^fy ^ ^jctvyflwfnjv ^trt. 12. Bvgthfnhbwf Trfnthbyf Dnjhfz ghf^bkf ^ ^jctvyflwfnjv ^trt. 13. Jntxtcn^tyyfz ^jqyf c Yfgjktjyjv dskf ^ lt^znyflwfnjv ^trt. 14. Djccnfybt ltrfdhbcnj^ dskj yf Ctyfncrjq gkjoflb ^ Cfyrn-Gtnthdehut. 15. Wfhz Fktrcfylhf Dnjhjuj edbkb nthhjhbcns. 16. Lbyfcnbz Hjvfyj^s[ ghf^bkf nhb ^trf. 17. D Hjccbb dskj nhb ht^jk.wbb ^ l^flwfnjv ^trt. Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. hjlbkcz 2. ^ ctynzdht 3. 1906-juj 4. ujlf 5. dskj 6. gjcnegbk 7. rjycth^fnjhb. 8. pfybvfkcz 9. ghfrnbrjq 10. rjvgjpbnjhf 11. yfgbcfk 12. ^jctvyflwfnm 13. ^ 1934-jv 14. ujle 15. jgthe 16. gbcfnm 17. ^jqys 18. pfrjyxbk 19. ^j ^htvz 20. ^ 1971-jv 21. ujle 22. cbvajyb. 23. gbfybcn Eghf;ytybt 6. 1. "njuj xtkj^trf p^fkb Ktjy <k.v. 2. Jy hjlbkcz ^ nsczxf ^jctvmcjn ctvmltczn ^njhjv ujle. 3. Jy evth ^ nsczxf lt^znmcjn gznbltcznjv ujle. 4. D nsczxf lt^znmcjn nhblwfnm itcnjv ujle jy dsk ukf^jq ghf^bntkmcn^f Yfhjlyjuj ahjynf. 5. Yfhjlysq ahoyn hfcgfkcz ^ nsczxf lt^znmcjn nhblwfnm ^jcmvjv ujle. 6. Ktjy <k.v dsk fhtcnj^fy ^ ctynzdht nsczxf lt^znmcjn cjhjrj^juj ujlf. 7. D nsczxf lt^znmcjn cjhjr nhtnmtv ujle jy dsk jnghf^kty ^ <e[ty^fkml. 8. Jy dsk jc^jdj;l/y ^ nsczxf lt^znmcjn cjhjr gznjv ujle. 9. D nsczxf lt^znmcjn cjhjr itcnjv ujle jy ^jpukf^bk ghf^bntkmcn^j Ahfywbb. Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. vfhnf 2. at^hfkz 3. c^znjuj Dfktynbyf 4. ghfplye.n 5. lfhzn 6. Zgjybb 7. dthen 8. pfybvf.ncz 9. ^ ghjikjv ujle 10. jghjcf Eghf;ytybt 8. (1) bp (2) c (3) jn (4) yf (5) c (6) lkz (7) pf (8) e (9) gj (10) j (11) c (12) ^ (13) ^ (14) c (15) ^ (16) ^ (17) ^ - 26 On-line Answer key V V V V V Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 10.1 ^cnhtxf ^cnhtxfnm; pyfybt pyfnm; buhf buhfnm; bpextybt bpexfnm; yfp^fybt yfp^fnm; jrjyxfybt jrjyxbnm; gthtlfxf gthtlfnm; gjlfhjr gjlfhbnm; gjplhf^ktybt gjplhf^kznm; gjk/n gjktntnm; gjvjom gjvjxm; hj;ltybt hjlbnmcz; cvthnm evthtnm; cjdtctlj^fybt dtctlj^fnm; erhfitybt erhfifnm; wtyf wtybnm 10.2 ujcelfhcn^tyysq ujcelfhcn^j; ptvtkmysq ptvkz; pbvybq pbvf; byjcnhfyysq cnhfyf; vfnthbycrbq vfnm; yfhjlysq yfhjl; jnkbxysq jnkbxbt; gfc[fkmysq Gfc[f; ghfplybxysq ghfplybr; ht^jk.wbjyysq ht^jk.wbz; hsdfwrbq hsdfr; ntyybcysq ntyybc; extdysq ex/df; irjkmysq irjkf 10.3 kbnthfnehf, vfntvfnbrf, utjuhfabz: irjkmyse ghtlvtns; Ahfywbz, F^cnhfkbz, Vtrcbrf: cnhfys; Hj;ltcn^j, Gfc[f, Yj^sq ujl: ghfplybrb; Vjcr^f, Hbv, Gfhb;: cnjkbws; Njkcnjq, Nehutyt^, <kjr: (heccrbt) gbcfntkb; Xfqrj^crbq, Ijcnfrj^bx, Hf[vfybyj^: (heccrbt) rjvgjpbnjhs 10.4 Vb[fbk Kjvjyjcj^: rst name + surname; ghjatccjh / htrnjh: positions in a university; hjvfyc / cnb[b: verse texts; ve; / ;tyf: spouse; uhfacn^o / odkfcnm: geographic / administrative regions; gbcmvo / onrhsnra: types of correspondence; Fyya A[vfnj^a: rst name + surname; kbnthfnehf / fcnhjyjvbz: subject areas; ntkt^bpjh / hflbj: media; xfcno / odsxyo: adverbs of time; ujhjl / ltht^yz: antonyms: urban / rural; eyb^thcbntn / nt[ybrev: educational establishments; dfktn / ntfnh: culture, entertainment 10.5 1. pyfrjvsq bp Djhjyt;f 2. ltleirf gj vfnthbycrjq kbybb 3. gjk/n ^ rjcvjc 4. bynthtc r ntfnhe 5. buhf yf ajhntgmzyj 6. gthths^ ^ rfhmtht 10.6 1. gj^njhyst 'rpfvtys 2. uhf;lfycrfz ^jqyf 3. ghfplybxysq ltym 4. hsdfwrfz ltht^yz 5. byjcnhfyysq zpsr 6. Jrnzdhmcrfz ht^jk.wbz 7. yfhjlyst gtcyb 8. nt[ybxtcrbq nhel 9. Yj^sq ujl 10. c^znjq Dfktynby 11. ghf^jckf^yfz wthrj^m 12. cthtdhzyfz vtlfkm 13. hfyytt ltncn^j Eghf;ytybt 2. Heccrbt k.lb jxtym k.dzn ghfplybrb. Gth^sq b cfvsq gjgekzhysq ghfplybr ujlf Yj^sq ujl. Rfr b ^ lheub[ cnhfyf[, e yfc tuj ghfplye.n ^ yjxm c 31-ouo ltrfdhz yf 1-oe zy^fhz. Yj^sq ujl ^cnhtxf.n ^ rheue ctvmb bkb e lheptq. Heccrjt Hj;ltcn^j jnvtxf.n 7-juj zy^fhz. Myoubt k.dzn nfr;t ^cnhtxfnm `cnfhsq\ Yj^sq ujl gj cnfhjve rfktylfh., ^ yjxm c 13-juj yf 14-jt zy^fhz . Gth^sq ^tctyybq ghfplybr Vt;leyfhjlysq :tycrbq Ltym 8-jt vfhnf. :tyobys gjkexf.n ^ 'njn ltym gjplhf^bntkmyst jnrhsnrb, w^tns b gjlfhrb. Ve;xbys gj cj^tncrjq nhflbwbb jnvtxf.n `ve;crjq ltym\ 23-tuj at^hfkz, ^ Ltym Fhvbb b Akjnf. Gfc[f ukf^ysq ghfplybr heccrjq ghf^jckf^yjq wthr^b ds^ftn jdsxyj ^tcyjq, ^ vfhnt bkb ^ fghtkt. D gfc[fkmyjt ^jcrhtctymt k.lb [jlzn ^ wthrj^m, f 27 V V On-line Answer key gjnjv pf^nhfrf.n ljvf ^ rheue ctvmb. Gjckt pf^nhfrf k.lb [jlzn ^ ujcnb b gjplhf^kz.n lheu lheuf c ghfplybrjv. 12-juj fghtkz jabwbfkmyj jnvtxftncz Ltym rjcvjyf^nbrb. D 'njn ltym ^ 1961-jv ujle gth^sq ^ vbht rjcvjyf^n >hbq Ufufhby gjktntk ^ rjcvjc. D yfxfkt vfz chfpe l^f ghfplybrf: 1-jt vfz b 9-jt vfz, Ltym Gjdtls. 1-jt ctynzdhz `Ltym pyfybq\. D 'njn ltym e ^ct[ irjkmybrj^ b cneltynj^ cnhfys yfxbyftncz extdysq ujl. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Fkkj, dfdeirf? Plhf^cn^eq! "nj z. Gjplhf^kz. ntdz c ly/v Fyutkf! :tkf. ntdt pljhj^mz b cxfcnmz. 2. Gtnz, ghb^tn! "nj z. Gjplhf^kz. ntdz c ly/v hj;ltybz. :tkf. cxfcnmz b ecgt[j^ ^ ex/dt. 3. Fkkj, Jkz, 'nj ns? Jnkbxyj. Gjplhf^kz. ntdz c Vt;leyfhjlysv ;tycrbv ly/v. :tkf. ntdt cxfcnmz, hfljcntq b ecgt[j^ ^j ^c/v. 4. Vfvjxrf! C Yj^sv ujljv! C yj^sv cxfcnmtv! :tkf. ntdt ^ctuj yfbkexituj, bcgjkytybz ^ct[ n^jb[ ;tkfybq b ukf^yjt pljhj^mz. 5. "nj B^fy Gtnhj^bx? Plhf^cn^eqnt. Jn bvtyb ^ct[ rjkktu [jxe gjplhf^bnm Dfc c Ly/v Gjdtls! :tkftv Dfv cxfcnmz, pljhj^mz b ecgt[j^ ^ hfdjnt. Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. D rfrjv vtczwt ^s hjlbkbcm? 2. D rfrjv vtczwt ^s yfxfkb bpexfnm heccrbq zpsr? 3. D rfrjv vtczwt yfxbyf.ncz ktnybt rfybreks ^ eyb^thcbntnt? 4. D rfrjv ujle ^s hjlbkbcm? 5. D rfrjv ujle ^s jrjyxbkb irjke? 6. Rfrjt ctujlyz xbckj? 7. Rfrjuj xbckf e ^fc ltym hj;ltybz? 8. Rjulf ghfplye.n Hj;ltcn^j yf Pfgflt? 9. Rjulf ghfplye.n heccrjt Hj;ltcn^j? 10. Rjulf jnvtxf.n Ltym c^znjuj Dfktynbyf ? Eghf;ytybt 5. Heccrbq gbcfntkm B^fy Cthutt^bx Nehutyt^ hjlbkcz 9-juj yjzdhz 1818 ujlf ^ ujhjle Jh/k. Ltncn^j Nehutyt^ ghj^/k ^ bvtybb vfnthb ytlfktrj jn Jhkf. Pltcm hjlbkfcm tuj k.dj^m r heccrjq ghbhjlt. D 1827 ujle ctvmz Nehutyt^s[ gthtt[fkf ^ Vjcr^e, ult B^fy Cthutt^bx exbkcz ^ gfycbjyt, f c 1833 ujlf yfxfk exbnmcz ^ Vjcrj^crjv eyb^thcbntnt. Dcrjht ^cz ctvmz gthtt[fkf ^ Gtnthdehu, b Nehutyt^ cnfk cneltynjv Gtnthdehucrjuj eyb^thcbntnf. D cneltyxtcrbt ujls Nehutyt^ yfxfk gbcfnm cnb[b. D 1838 ujle, rjulf Nehutyt^ jrjyxbk Gtnthdehucrbq eyb^thcbntn, jy et[fk ^ Uthvfyb., ult gjcnegbk ^ eyb^thcbntn ^ <thkbyt. D 1841 ujle Nehutyt^ ^thyekcz ^ Gtnthdehu b gjcnegbk yf cke;de. Jlyj^htvtyyj jy yfxfk cthm/pyj pfybvfnmcz kbnthfnehjq. D 1847 ujle ^sitk gth^sq yjvth ;ehyfkf `Cj^htvtyybr\, ult dsk ^gth^st yfgtxfnfy hfccrfp Nehutyt^f. D 40-st b 50-st ujls Nehutyt^ gbitn cnb[b, gj^tcnb b gmtcs. C cthtlbys cjhjrj^s[ ujlj^ Nehutyt^ xfcnj tplbn pf uhfybwe. Jy ;bk ^ Uthvfybb, ^ Fyukbb b ^j Ahfywbb, ult jy ^cnhtxfkcz c gt^bwtq Gjkbyjq Dbfhlj. B^fy Cthutt^bx gjpyfrjvbkcz c ytq ^ Gtnthdehut ^ yjzdht 1843 ujlf. C 1856 ujlf lj rjywf c^jtq ;bpyb Nehutyt^ gjxnb gjcnjzyyj ;bk pf uhfybwtq. Gjcktlybt ujls ;bpyb jy ghj^/k ^j Ahfywbb. 3-tuj ctynzdhz 1883 ujlf jy evth ^ <e;b^fkt, ytlfktrj jn Gfhb;f. 28 On-line Answer key Djghjcs r ntrne: 1. Rjulf b ult hjlbkcz Nehutyt^? 2. Ult jy ghj^/k ltncn^j? 3. Rjulf jy yfxfk gbcfnm cnb[b ? 4. Rjulf b ult dsk yfgtxfnfy gth^sq hfccrfp Nehutyt^f ? 5. Ult b rjulf Nehutyt^ gjpyfrjvbkcz c ahfywepcrjq gt^bwtq Gjkbyjq Dbfhlj? 6. Ult jy ghj^/k gjcktlybt ujls c^jtq ;bpyb? 7. Rjulf b ult jy evth? Unit 10 Ehjr 10 - Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. dtp xtn^thnb / dtp gznyflwfnb itcnm 2. dtp l^flwfnb gznb lt^znm 3. dtp l^flwfnb xtnsht 4. dtp ltcznb l^f 5. ltcznm vbyen ctlmvjuj 6. dtp gznb vbyen l^tyflwfnm / gjkyjxm 7. l^flwfnm vbyen itcnjuj 8. gznm vbyen ^njhjuj 9. ltcznm vbyen ltcznjuj 10. ltcznm vbyen gth^juj 11. gjkj^byf nhtnmtuj (gjknhtnmtuj) 12. dtp l^flwfnb gznm 13. dtp gznyflwfnb / dtp xtn^thnb ltcznm Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. ^ xtn^thnm ltcznjuj 2. ^ l^flwfnm vbyen jlbyyflwfnjuj 3. jlbyyflwfnb xfcj^ 4. xfca lyz 5. dtp l^flwfnb gznb l^f 6. xtn^thnb xtn^/hnjuj 7. gjkj^bys ctlmvjuj 8. ^ gjkj^byt lt^znjuj 9. ^ ltcznm vbyen ^jcmvjuj 10. dtp l^flwfnb ^jctvm 11. l^flwfnm gznm vbyen lt^znjuj 12. lt^znb enhf 13. dtp xtn^thnb xfc 14. c jlbyyflwfnb xfcj^ 15. lj gjkj^bys l^tyflwfnjuj 16. dtp l^flwfnb l^f 17. c gjkj^bys nhtnmtuj 18. lj xtnsh/[ xfcj^ 19. gjkexfcf 20. gjkj^byt ctlmvjuj 21. ^ xtn^thnm ^jcmvjuj 22. dtp xtn^thnb lt^znm 23. ^ gjkj^byt ltcznjuj 24. ^ gjkj^byt l^tyflwfnjuj 25. xfcf yjxb Eghf;ytybt 3. (1) gjckt (2) gthtl; c; lj (3) c (4) xthtp; gjckt (5) gthtl (6) pf; lj (7) xthtp; gjckt (8) lj (9) lj (10) pf (11) xthtp; gjckt (12) gj; lj (13) ^ (14) yf; xthtp (15) ^j ^htvz (16) lj (17) c; lj (18) yf (19) xthtp; gjckt (20) ^ (21) gthtl (22) c (23) pf; lj (24) xthtp (25) ^j ^htvz Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Xthtp ujl jyf cnfytn / deltn exbntkmybwtq. 2. Vs ghbikb pf gznm vbyen lj yfxfkf rjywthnf. 3. Dct cneltyns cjdhfkbcm ^ rjhbljht xthtp ltcznm vbyen gjckt ktrwbb. 4. Jyb gjghjcbkb ghjatccjhf pfrjyxbnm ktrwb. pf ltcznm vbyen lj p^jyrf. 5. Xthtp nhb vtczwf jy gjkexbk jn yt/ gbcmvj. 6. Pf vtczw lj jrjyxfybz eyb^thcbntnf e yt/ hjlbkcz csy. 7. R cj;fktyb., z yt cvjue r ^fv ghbqnb yf 'njq ytltkt; yj z c^jdjlty ^ cktle.oe. ceddjne. 8. Dxthf e yfc dskf ^txthbyrf. Ujcnb eikb gjckt gjkeyjxb. 9. Yf cktle.ott enhj cjctlb gj;fkj^fkbcm ^ vbkbwb.. 10. Gthtl 'rpfvtyjv jyf pfybvfkfcm c enhf lj yjxb. Eghf;ytybt 6. 1. hjlbkcz 2. evthkf 3. gjnthzk 4. ^jcgbns^fnm 5. gthtt[fkf 6. gjcnegbk 7. exbkcz 8. ^thyekcz 9. pfybvfnmcz 10. et[fk 11. yfgbcfk 12. gjckfk Eghf;ytybt 7.1 Djghjc gth^sq: Rfr xfcnj ns cvjnhbim ND? Djghjc ^njhjq: Rfrbt gthtlfxb ns ghtlgjxbnftim? Djghjc nhtnbq: Xtuj / Rfrb[ gthtlfx, gj-n^jtve, yt [^fnftn gj ND? Djghjc xtn^/hnsq: Rfrbt yj^st gthtlfxb ye;ys, gj-n^jtve? 7.2 Celz gj gbcmvfv hjlbntktq, ltnb ^c/ djkmit b djkmit ^htvtyb ghj^jlzn e ntkt^bpjhf. B yt njkmrj gj ceddjnfv b ^jcrhtctymzv, yj gjxnb rf;lsq ltym, lj 29 - - On-line Answer key gjplytuj ^txthf, yt uj^jhz e;t j rfybrekf[. . . Xnj ;t ghb^ktrftn vjkjl/;m r `ujkedjve 'rhfye\? :tkfz epyfnm vytybt cfvs[ vjkjls[ ntktphbntktq, rjhhtcgjyltyns `Kbnthfnehyjq ufptns\ ghj^tkb jghjc-fyrtne chtlb irjkmybrj^ Vjcr^s. {jnz 'nf fyrtnf ghj^jlbkfcm e;t djktt gznyflwfnb ktn yfpfl, cj^htvtyyjve xbnfntk., ^thjznyj, deltn bynthtcyj epyfnm j k.dbvs[ gthtlfxf[ cj^tncrb[ irjkmybrj^ b b[ gj;tkfybz[. Djn, yfghbvth, xnj jn^tnbkf yf ^jghjcs fyrtns l^tyflwfnbktnyzz Jkz Afltt^f, extybwf jlyjq bp vjcrj^crb[ irjk. Djghjc gth^sq: Ntkt^bpjh cvjnh. xfcnj, jcjdtyyj ^ rfybreks. Yj ^sdbhf. njkmrj nj, xnj vyt bynthtcyj bkb gjktpyj pyfnm. B ^ jnkbxbt jn hjlbntktq b dhfnf, evt. ^j^htvz eqnb: yt k.dk. phz nhfnbnm ^htvz yf gecnst b crexyst gthtlfxb. F jyb cblzn b cvjnhzn ^c/ gjlhzl gkj[jt b [jhjitt, c enhf lj ^txthf, lj b gjckt gjkeyjxb . . . Ythtlrj ds^ftn, xnj cvjnhtnm ^jjdot ytxtuj, jcjdtyyj gj gjytltkmybrfv. Yj pfnj ^ ceddjne bkb ^jcrhtctymt xfcnj ds^f.n jnkbxyst cnfhst rbyjrjvtlbb. Djghjc ^njhjq: Rhjvt [elj;tcn^tyys[ abkmvj^ cvjnh. byajhvfwbjyyst ghjuhfvvs yj^jcntq (`Dhtvz\, `Ctujlyz ^ vbht\, `Vt;leyfhjlyfz gfyjhfvf\ b n.l.). Ghtlgjxbnf. .vjhbcnbxtcrbt gthtlfxb (`Djrheu cvt[f\), k.dk. rjyrehcs b buhs-^brnjhbys (`Xnj? Ult? Rjulf ?\, `Gjkt xeltc\). Dctulf bynthtcys gthtlfxb, hfccrfps^f.obt j ;bpyb ^ lheub[ cnhfyf[ (`Vbh b vjkjl/;m\, `Rked gentitcn^bq\, `Gj cnhfyfv b rjynbytynfv\). Hfymit, ^ ltncn^t z k.dbkf gthtlfxe `D ujcnz[ e crfprb\, yj ntgthm ghtlgjxbnf. `Jn itcnyflwfnb b cnfhit\, ult byjulf ds^f.n bynthtcyst lbcreccbb. Ybrjulf yt ghjgecrf. gthtlfxe `D vbht ;b^jnys[\, e yfc ^ ctvmt ^ct k.dzn ;b^jnys[. Djghjc nhtnbq: R cj;fktyb., jxtym vfkj gjrfps^f.n e yfc byjcnhfyys[ abkmvj^, [jnz b tcnm hedhbrf `Pfhedt;ysq rbyj'rhfy\ gj 2-jq ghjuhfvvt; yj ^jgth^s[, jyf ^s[jlbn ythtuekzhyj, f ^j-^njhs[, ^c/ ^htvz blen jlyb b nt ;t cnfhst abkmvs (`L'^bl Rjggthabkml\, `L;tqy "qh\), f yj^juj gjxnb ybxtuj ytn. Djghjc xtn^/hnsq: Gj-vjtve, ye;yf yj^fz htuekzhyfz vepsrfkmyfz ghjuhfvvf lkz vjkjl/;b. {jhjij ds, xnjds rf;le. ytltk. ^ 'njq gthtlfxt hfccrfps^fkjcm jd jlyjq bp gjgekzhys[ vepsrfkmys[ uhegg. Vj;yj cjcnf^bnm t;tytltkmysq `jghjc gjgekzhyjcnb\ chtlb ntktphbntktq b gjrfps^fnm ne uhegge, rjnjhfz yfdhfkf djkmit ^ct[ ujkjcj^. Yflj nfr;t gjdjkmit hfccrfps^fnm j gjgekzhys[ pfgflys[ hjr-uheggf[, b ^jjdot gjdjkmit j ;bpyb vjkjl/;b pf hedt;jv. D yfcnjzott ^htvz ^sdjh gthtlfx, rjnjhst nhfyckbhe.ncz gj vyjujxbcktyysv NDrfyfkfv pyfxbntkmyj djufxt b bynthtcytt xtv dsk ytcrjkmrj ktn yfpfl. Vjkjl/;m e;t yt ;fketncz yf jncencn^bt cj^htvtyys[ pfhedt;ys[ abkmvj^ b vepsrfkmys[ ghjuhfvv. Yfjdjhjn, ctqxfc yf 'rhfyf[ ntkt^bpjhj^ yfdk.lftncz pfcbkbt fvthbrfycrb[ djt^brj^ b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrb[ vskmys[ jgth. B k.dbntkb vepsrb dtp ghjdktv cvjuen jnscrfnm lkz ctdz gthtlfxe yf k.djq ^rec. 7.3 1. Dsdbhf. njkmrj nj, xnj bynthtcyj; ^sdbhf. njkmrj nj, xnj [jhjij; cvjnh. njkmrj nj, xnj bynthtcyj; cvjnh. njkmrj nj, xnj yj^jt; gjregf. njkmrj nj, xnj ljhjuj 2. Cvjnhtnm ytxtuj; ltkfnm ytxtuj; ckeifnm ytxtuj; xbnfnm ytxtuj; gjregfnm ytxtuj 3. jcjdtyyj gj gjytltkmybrfv; jcjdtyyj gj ^njhybrfv; jcjdtyyj gj chtlfv; jcjdtyyj gj xtn^thufv; jcjdtyyj gj gznybwfv 4. ^ctulf bynthtcys gthtlfxb, hfccrfps^f.obt j ;bpyb ^ lheub[ cnhfyf[; ^ctulf bynthtcys gthtlfxb, hfccrfps^f.obt j vepsrt; ^ctulf bynthtcys gthtlfxb, hfccrfps^f.obt j rbyj; 30 On-line Answer key ^ctulf bynthtcys gthtlfxb, hfccrfps^f.obt j ntfnht 5. ^ jnkbxbt jn hjlbntktq; ^ jnkbxbt jn dhfnf; ^ jnkbxbt jn ctcnhs; ^ jnkbxbt jn gjlheub; ^ jnkbxbt jn ^fituj ghtgjlf^fntkz; ^ jnkbxbt jn tuj ltleirb; ^ jnkbxbt jn b[ ltntq. 6. t;tytltkmysq `jghjc gjgekzhyjcnb\; t;tlyt^ysq `jghjc gjgekzhyjcnb\; t;tvtczxysq `jghjc gjgekzhyjcnb\; t;tujlysq `jghjc gjgekzhyjcnb\ V V V V V V V Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 8.3 ^jqyf ^jtyysq; ^sdbhfnm cjdbhfnm; ltncn^j ltncrbq; pfybvfnmcz pfyznbt; bvtybt bveotcn^j; jxt^bltw ^bltnm; gjkyjxm yjxyjq; gjcnegktybt ^scnegktybt; ghb^ktrfnm e^ktxtybt; htitybt htibntkmysq; hjlj^jq hjlbyf; c^jdjlf jc^jdjlbnm; crjyxfnmcz rjytw; cnjkbxysq cnjkbwf; ntktphbntkm vbhj^jpphtybt; exfcnybr exfcnbt 8.4 pfrhsnm jnrhsnm; kj;bnmcz ^cnf^fnm; gjktpysq ^htlysq; hfyybq gjplybq; cfvjcnjzntkmysq pf^bcbvsq; crexysq bynthtcysq; nb[j uhjvrj; xfcnj htlrj 8.5 uhfybwf hedt;; pfntv gjnjv; byjcnhfyysq pfhedt;ysq; rjhhtcgjyltyn ;ehyfkbcn; vjkjljq xtkj^tr .yjif; jnkbxysq [jhjibq; jnhjxtcn^j .yjcnm; ghbybvfnm exfcnbt exfcn^j^fnm; ghjuhfvvf gthtlfxf; cke;df hfdjnf; ecflmdf bvtybt 8.6 ltcznbvbyenysq; lht^ytheccrbq; ;tktpyjljhj;ysq; rbyjabkmv; vt;leyfhjlysq; vbhj^jpphtybt; yj^jujlybq; gjkejcnhj^; ntktphbntkm 8.7 1. edhfnm gjcntkm 2. bcgjkybnm ljku 3. ghjgecrfnm pfyznbz 4. gjcnegbnm yf cke;de 5. nhfnbnm ^htvz 6. gjvjxm vfvt 7. ghbybvfnm exfcnbt 8. ^slth;fnm 'rpfvty 9. cltkfnm ghtlkj;tybt 10. gbcfnm cnfnmb 11. gjxbcnbnm peds 12. jnrfpfnmcz jn bveotcn^f 8.8 1. enhtyyzz pfhzlrf 2. yfcnjkmyst buhs 3. gjplybq ^txth 4. [elj;tcn^tyysq abkmv 5. l^jhzycrfz ctvmz 6. byajhvfwbjyyfz ghjuhfvvf 7. cgjhnb^yje pfyznbt 8. hjlj^jt bvtybt 9. gjcktjdtltyysq cjy 10. ltncrbt ujls 11. pfve;yzz lfvf Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Crf;nt, gj;keqcnf, rjnohsq xfc? Ctqxc h^yj 12 xfc^ lyz. Cgfcdj. F ^ib xfc bln gh^bkmyj? Lf, z b[ ghj^thk ctulyz nhjv gj hlbj. 2. Bp^bynt gj;keqcnf, ^s yt pytnt, crkmrj ctqxc ^hvtyb? Ctqxc gjkj^yf ^jcmvuj. F gj vjv xfcv nkmrj xn^thnm ^jcmvuj. Pyxbn, ^ib xfc jncnfn yf 15 vbyn . Jq, bp^bynt, vyt ylj dt;nm z jgpls^f. ^ ntnh! 3. Ye, lxrf, xnj-nj ns gplyj ljvq ghb[lbim ^tlm e;t xn^thnm gh^juj yxb! Ult ns dsk? Z dsk e gjlhub. E yt/ ctulyz ltym hj;lybz. Yj ntd ;t p^nhf ylj hyj nhjv ^ eyb^thcbnn yf pfynbz. 31 On-line Answer key Ytn, p^nhf chtl, e yfc gh^fz krwbz ^ xn^thnm jlyyflwfnjuj. 4. Jkz, e; dtp xn^thnb l^znm , f ns to/ yt ujn^f. Ns ;t jgjpltim yf gtpl! Lf ytn! E ntd xfc cgtin: ctqxc nkmrj 8.10, f jn yfc lj ^jrpkf [fnm ^ctu 5 vbyn. Yt ^jkyqcz, z ^c/ ecg.. 5. Ds yt pytnt, rjul yfxbytncz gjcklybq ctyc ^ rby? D 20 vbyn 12-uj F rjyxtncz? Gjcklybq ctyc rjyxtncz dtp l^flwfn gzn l^f. Eghf;ytybt 2. E yfc ^ ctvmt gth^sv ^cnf/n ltleirf. Oy ^cnf/n ^ 6 xfcj^ enhf, pf^fhb^ftn xfq. Jy delbn dfdeire, b jyb ^vtcnt gm.n xfq. Gjnjv dfdeirf ^cnf/n, bl/n yf re[y. b ujnj^bn pf^nhfr lkz ^ctq ctvmb. D gjkj^byt ^jcmvjuj vs ^ct ^vtcnt cflbvcz pf cnjk pf^nhfrfnm. Gjckt pf^nhfrf vs c ctcnhjq bl/v ^ irjke. Vs ^s[jlbv bp ljvf ^ xtn^thnm lt^znjuj. Pfyznbz e yfc ^ irjkt rjyxf.ncz dtp xtn^thnb nhb. Jdsxyj dfdeirf c ltleirjq ghb[jlzn pf yfvb ^ irjke, b vs uekztv ^ gfhrt. <tp xtn^thnb xtnsht vs ghb[jlbv ljvjq b gm/v xfq c denthdhjlfvb, f c gjkj^bys gznjuj lj gjkj^bys ^jcmvjuj vs ltkftv ehjrb. Gfgf hfdjnftn ^ wtynht ujhjlf. Tve yflj t[fnm yf hfdjne yf f^njdect, jy ^s[jlbn bp ljvf ^ 10 vbyen lt^znjuj b ^jp^hfoftncz ljvjq ghbvthyj dtp xtn^thnb ^jctvm. Gjckt hfdjns gfgf jdsxyj jnls[ftn yf lb^fyt. Vfvf hfdjnftn ^ abhvt ytlfktrj jn ljvf. Jyf yfxbyftn hfdjne ^ gjkj^byt ltcznjuj b hfdjnftn lj gjkj^bys itcnjuj. Gj ljhjut ljvjq jyf pf[jlbn ^ vfufpby b gjregftn ghjlerns. Jdsxyj vfvf ghb[jlbn ljvjq ^ gjkj^byt ctlmvjuj b chfpe yfxbyftn ujnj^bnm e;by. <fdeirf gjvjuftn tq yf re[yt, f vs c ctcnhjq yfrhs^ftv yf cnjk. <tp xtn^thnb ^jctvm ^cz ctvmz cflbncz e;byfnm. Gjckt e;byf dfdeirf vjtn gjcele, vs c ctcnhjq ^snbhftv, f ltleirf cnf^bn ^c/ yf vtcnj. Yf 'nj e[jlbn ghbvthyj gjkxfcf. Gjckt e;byf vs c ctcnhjq cvjnhbv ntkt^bpjh, xbnftv bkb buhftv ghbvthyj lj dtp xtn^thnb 10. Gjnjv vs evs^ftvcz, xbcnbv peds b kj;bvcz cgfnm ^ xtn^thnm 11-juj. <fdeirf c ltleirjq kj;fncz cgfnm hfyj lj 11-nb, f vfvf c gfgjq kj;fncz gjplyj ^ gjko^byt gth^juj yjxb. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. D rjnjhjv xfce ^s jdsxyj ^cnf/nt? 2. D rjnjhjv xfce e ^fc yfxbyf.ncz pfyznbz gj gjytltkmybrfv? 3. D rjnjhjv xfce e ^fc `jryj\ ^j ^njhybr? 4. D rjnjhjv xfce e ^fc rjyxf.ncz pfyznbz gj chtlfv? 5. Gj rfrbv lyzv b ^ rjnjhjv xfce e ^fc ktrwbb gj bcnjhbb Hjccbb? 6. D rjnjhjv xfce ^s ghb[jlbnt ljvjq ^ gznybwe? 7. Rjulf (^ rfrjt ^htvz lyz) ^s cvjnhbnt ntkt^bpjh? 8. D rjnjhjv xfce ^s jdsxyj kj;bntcm cgfnm ^ ceddjne? 9. D rjnjhjv xfce ^s ^cnf/nt gj ^jcrhtctymzv? 10. Crjkmrj ctqxfc ^htvtyb? (Rjnjhsq xfc?) Eghf;ytybt 4. `Rfr ^s ghj^tkb ^xthfiybq ltym?\ c nfrbv ^jghjcjv cjwbjkjub bp Bycnbnenf 32 On-line Answer key jdotcn^tyys[ yfer jdhfnbkbcm r l^ev nsczxfv ;bntktq Hjccbb. Djn xnj uj^jhzn lfyyst jghjcf: D chtlytv gj cnhfyt hfyj ^cnfkb ^xthf ytvyjubt vtymit 30%. Hfymit ^ct[, lj itcnb xfcj^ enhf, ^cnf.n pf^jlcrbt hfdjxbt 43 ghjwtynf. Lj 6 enhf ghjcsgf.ncz b rhtcnmzyt 36%; f nfr;t gj;bkst k.lb b gtycbjyths 35%. Chtlb ;bntktq cnjkbws lj gjkj^bys ctlmvjuj gjlybvf.ncz yt djkmit 19% vjcr^bxtq. Bp vjkjl/;b b cneltynj^ lj 7 enhf ^cnf.n njkmrj 15% b ^ctuj 3 ghjwtynf irjkmybrj^. Xbcnbkb peds fdcjk.nyjt djkmibycn^j yfctktybz ^ chtlytv 80% ^j ^ct[ cjwbfkmys[, ghjatccbjyfkmys[ b jdhfpj^fntkmys[ uheggf[. 33 ghjwtynf yfctktybz bkb rf;lsq nhtnbq hjccbzyby ghbybvftn gj enhfv lei. 55% hjccbzy [jlbkb ^xthf ^ vfufpbys; ghb 'njv ;tyobys [jlbkb ^ vfufpbys djkmit, xtv ve;xbys. (Cjjn^tncn^tyyj 60% ;tyoby b njkmrj 47% ve;xby.) D ntxtybt njuj ;t lyz e hjccbzy dskj vyjuj b ^czrb[ lheub[ pfyznbq: . . . . . . . . . . 82% hjccbzy ^ 'njn ltym cvjnhtkb ntkt^bpjh yt vtymit 3-[ xfcj^ 50% ckeifkb hflbj dskb yf hfdjnt 39% 24% crfpfkb, xnj cgfkb ly/v 41 ghjwtyn jghjityys[ xbnfkb ufptns 22 ghjwtynf xbnfkb ;ehyfks, 11% xbnfkb rybub pfybvfkbcm k.dj^m. 10%, gjkmpj^fkbcm rjvgm.nthjv 4 ghjwtynf [jlbkb ^ wthrj^m 2 ghjwtynf Rjulf yfcnegbkf yjxm, jrfpfkjcm, xnj ^ chtlytv gj Hjccbb r 12 yjxb yt kj;bkbcm cgfnm njkmrj 20% yfctktybz. Rjytxyj, gjp;t ^ct[ kj;fncz cneltyns b exfobtcz 34% bp yb[ ^ njn ltym yt cgfkb gjckt gjkeyjxb. Bynthtcyj, xnj yt cgfkb ^ gjkyjxm b 7% hfdjxb[ . . . rjnjhst ^cnf.n hfymit ^ct[! Djn nfr ghjikb ^xthf 24 xfcf bp ;bpyb hjccbzy. Unit 11 Ehjr 11 - Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. pyfvtybnst [bhehub 2. pfrhsk djkmyst ukfpf 3. gjcktlybt 'rpfvtys 4. bp^tcnyst ghjatccjhf 5. ctvbktnybt ltnb 6. irjkmyst exbntkz 7. byjcnhfyyst nehbcns 8. vfktymrbt rjnznf 9. gkj[bt jwtyrb Eghf;ytybt 2. {bhehu ^hfx, rjnjhsq ltkftn jgthfwbb. F^bfrjycnhernjh xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq cnhjbn cfvjktns. Ghjatccjh xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq xbnftn ktrwbb ^ eyb^thcbntnt. Cneltyn xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq exbncz ^ ^ept. Jgthyfz gt^bwf ;tyobyf, rjnjhfz gj/n ^ jgthyjv ntfnht. Fh[bntrnjh xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq ghjtrnbhetn plfybz. Cnhjbntkm xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq cnhjbn ljvf. Gbcfntkm xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq gbitn rybub. Exbntkm xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq exbn ltntq ^ irjkt. 33 On-line Answer key Ctrhtnfhm-vfibybcnrf ;tyobyf, rjnjhfz gtxfnftn ljrevtyns yf gbieotq vfibyrt. "rcrehcj^jl xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq ^jlbn 'rcrehcbb. - Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. rjnjhst 2. rjnjhsq 3. rjnjhfz 4. rjnjhfz 5. rjnjhjt 6. rjnjhsq 7. rjnjhsq 8. rjnjhst 9. rjnjhfz 10. rjnjhsq 11. rjnjhfz Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Lt^eirf, rjnjhfz cnjbn yf f^njdecyjq jcnfyj^rt, exbncz ^ yfitq uheggt. 2. Ytlf^yj z gjpyfrjvbkcz c by;tythjv, rjnjhsq hfdjnftn ^ Vjcr^t. 3. Z xfcnj gbie gjlheufv, rjnjhst ;b^en ^ F^cnhbb. 4. D ufptnt gbcfkb j xtkj^trt, rjnjhsq uj^jhbn yf ^jctvyflwfnb zpsrf[. 5. Z pyfrjv c lt^eirfvb, rjnjhst hfdjnf.n ^ dfht. 6. Z gjvjuf. extybre, rjnjhsq bpexftn heccrbq zpsr. 7. Cneltynfv, rjnjhst cblzn yf ktrwbb, jxtym crexyj. Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. rjnjhsq 2. rjnjhfz 3. rjnjhjt 4. rjnjhsq 5. rjnjhst 6. rjnjhst - Eghf;ytybt 6. (1) 'nb (2) 'nb (3) 'njn (4) 'nj (5) 'nf (6) 'nb (7) 'nj (8) 'njn (9) 'nb (10) 'nj (11) 'nb (12) 'njn; 'nf; 'nb. Lbfkjub: (1) 'nj; 'nj; 'njn (2) 'nj; 'nj; 'nf (3) 'nj; 'nj; 'nj; 'nb Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. r hfpysv ghjatccbzv 2. ^ 20-st ujls 3. jn^tnbnm yf ^jghjc 4. ^ nt ujls 5. ^ 20-st ujls 6. j ghjatccbb 7. e ytuj 8. ^ ntgkt. 1. Rfrbt ghjatccbb jcjdtyyj gjgekzhys? Rfrbt rybub ctqxfc jcjdtyyj gjgekzhys? Rfrbt afrekmntns jcjdtyyj gjgekzhys ^ eyb^thcbntnt? Rfrbt gmtcs dskb jcjdtyyj gjgekzhys yf ghjikjujlytv atcnb^fkt? 2. ^ l^flwfnst ujls; ^ nhblwfnst ujls; ^ cjhjrj^st ujls; ^ gznbltcznst ujls; ^ itcnbltcznst ujls; ^ ctvbltcznst ujls; ^ ^jcmvbltcznst ujls. 3. Rtv jyb [jnzn cnfnm? Rtv ns [jxtim (^s [jnbnt) cnfnm? Rtv jy [jxtn cnfnm? Rtv [jntkf cnfnm Vfif ? 4. djkmibycn^j vfkmxbrj^; djkmibycn^j irjkmybrj^; djkmibycn^j cneltynj^. 5. Vyjubt ltnb jd]zcybkb 'nj nfr. Vyjubt irjkmybrb jd]zcybkb 'nj nfr. Vyjubt exbntkz jd]zcyz.n 'nj nfr. Dhfxb jd]zcyz.n 'nj nfr. Vjb lhepmz jd]zcybkb vyt 'nj nfr. 6. xnjds rf;lsq ltym tcnm; xnjds vyjuj pfhfdfns^fnm; xnjds hfdjnfnm ^ ntgkt; xnjds cgfcfnm k.lzv ;bpym; xnjds gjvjufnm k.lzv. Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. ujle 2. ktn 3. fhvbb 4. ahjynf 5. tve 6. r ltht^zyyjve ljve 7. ljvt 8. ntdz 9. ybxtuj 10. njgjhf 11. cnfhe[b 12. ^jljq 13. rfcnh.k. 14. bynthtcjv 15. kj;re 16. vzcf 17. ntdz 18. tuj 19. cnfhe[t 20. rfgecns 21. ntdz 22. tve 23. tve 24. cjklfnjv 25. fggtnbnjv 26. ytuj 27. elb^ktybtv 28. njdjq 29. ^txthjv 30. cnfhe[t Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. Gjxtve Ds cnfkb ^hfxjv / f^bfrjycnhernjhjv / abpbrjv / jgthyjq gt^bwtq? 2. vtlbwbycrbq bycnbnen; abpbrj-vfntvfnbxtcrbq afrekmntn eyb^thcbntnf; fh[bntrnehysq bycnbnen; rjycth^fnjhbz Eghf;ytybt 11. 1. yjzdhz 2. ujlf 3. bvtybb 4. ghbhjlt 5. ujle 6. gthtt[fkf 7. Vjcr^e 8. gfycbjyt 9. ujlf 10. eyb^thcbntnt 11. cneltynjv 12. eyb^thcbntnf 13. ujls 14. Uthvfyb. 15. <thkbyt 16. ujle 17. kbnthfnehjq 18. ;ehyfkf 34 On-line Answer key 19. Nehutyt^f 20. ujls 21. cthtlbys 22. uhfybwe 23. Uthvfybb 24. Fyukbb 25. Ahfywbb 26. gt^bwtq 27. ytq (yt.) 28. yjzdht 29. ujlf 30. ujlf 31. rjywf 32. uhfybwtq 33. nhtnmtuj 34. ctynzdhz 35. ujlf 36. Gfhb;f V V V Eghf;ytybt 12. 1. hfccrfps^fkf 2. hfccrfpfkf 3. cjdhfk 4. gjlevfk 5. htibk 6. yfcnegbkf 7. ^pzk 8. gji/k 9. levfk 10. gjlji/k 11. gjcnf^bk 12. ghbi/k 13. e^bltk 14. ^pzk 15. e^bltk 16. gjyzkb 17. crfpfkb Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 13.4 djkmijq vfktymrbq; pfve;tv jlbyjrfz; pljhj^ djkty; vtlktyyj dscnhj; jnrhs^fnm pfrhs^fnm; jnrhsnsq pfrhsnsq; gkj[j [jhjij; htlrj xfcnj; cnfhsq vjkjljq/yj^sq; ntvyj c^tnkj; nb[j uhjvrj; [jkjl ntgkj; [jhjibq gkj[jq; htibntkmysq ythtibntkmysq; gfccb^ysq frnb^ysq; ckfdsq cbkmysq; jgnbvbpv gtccbvbpv; uhecnysq ^tc/ksq 13.5 frn/h fuhjyjv yfxfkmybr hfdjxbq nfrcbcn Other profession: f^bfrjycnhernjh ^hfx repytw cnjkzh exbntkm jabwbfynrf by;tyth jabwbfyn ntktjgthfnjh rfccbhif ht;bcc/h V V 13.7 1. k.dzobq 2. bvt.obq 3. bynthtce.obqcz 4. ytgm.obq 5. uj^jhzobq 6. cnjzobq 7. ;b^eobq 8. bpexf.obq 9. cblzobq 13.8 k;b^sq xtcnysq ckfdsq ktyb^sq ythtibntkmysq gfccb^ysq ^thysq rfghbpysq cthm/pysq cjkblysq cgjrjqysq nb[bq frnb^ysq uhecnysq htibntkmysq cfvjcnjzntkmysq cbkmysq 'ythubxysq ljdhsq pfdjnkb^sq k.dzobq hfcx/nkb^sq cbvgfnbxysq nthgtkb^sq ve;tcn^tyysq yth^jpysq geukb^sq ckfdsq 'ujbcnbxysq nheckb^sq Eghf;ytybt 1. D jnkbxbt jn T^hjgs, rbnfqcrbt fcnhjkjub jghtltkz.n [fhfrnth xtkj^trf yt gj Cjkywe b Pjlbfre, f gj Keyt b keyyjve wbrke. "njn wbrk ghjljk;ftncz 12 ktn, b rf;lsq ujl yjcbn yfp^fybt ;b^jnyjuj. Djn xnj hfccrfps^ftn jd bcnjhbb rbnfqcrjuj ujhjcrjgf ^jcnjxyfz ktutylf. Jlyf;ls ^tkbrbq <ellf ghbukfcbk r ctdt ^ ujcnb yf Yj^sq ujl ^ct[ ;b^jnys[. Yj ghbikb njkmrj 12 ujcntq. Dtkbrbq <ellf gjdkfujlfhbk b[ pf ^thye. cke;de b gjlfhbk rf;ljve p^th. jlby keyysq ujl ^ njv gjhzlrt, ^ rfrjv p^thb ghbikb r ytve yf ghfplybr. Gth^jq ghbikf Rhscf, pf ytq <sr, gjnjv ghbi/k Nbuh, pf Nbuhjv Rjirf, gjnjv ghbikb Lhfrjy b Pvtz, pf ybvb Kjiflm, Rjp/k, Jdtpmzyf b Gtne[. Gjcktlybvb ghbikb Cjdfrf b C^bymz. C nt[ gjh ^ ^jcnjxyjv rfktylfht rf;lsq ujl yjcbn yfp^fybt njuj ;b^jnyjuj, rjnjhjve ^tkbrbq <ellf gjlfhbk 'njn ujl. 35 On-line Answer key Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz Ujl 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 :b^jnyjt Nbuh Roirf Lhfrjy Pvtz Kjiflm Rop/k Ujl 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 :b^jnyjt Jdtpmzyf Gtne[ Cjdfrf C^bymz Rhscf <sr Eghf;ytybt 2. Rjhhtcgjyltyn ufptns `Vjcrj^crbt yj^jcnb\ Fylhtq Rfhgj^ gjds^fk ytlf^yj ^ lj^jkmyj ytjdsxyjq irjkt ^ cfvjv wtynht Vjcr^s. "nj Vjcrj^crfz fyukj fvthbrfycrfz irjkf, rjnjhfz hfdjnftn e;t vyjuj ktn ghb gjcjkmcn^t CIF. Pltcm exfncz, buhf.n, pfybvf.ncz cgjhnjv ghbvthyj 260 vfkmxbrj^ b lt^jxtr ^ ^jphfcnt jn 5-nb lj 10-nb ktn bp Fyukbb, Fvthbrb, Rfyfls b bp 12-nb lheub[ cnhfy gjrf b[ vfvs b gfgs hfdjnf.n ^ gjcjkmcn^t. Nj tcnm ^ct jyb ltnb gjcjkmcrb[ hfdjnybrj^. Jltns ltnb rnj ^j xnj. Irjkmyjq ajhvs ^ 'njq irjkt ytn. B ^jjdot, jdcnfyj^rf ytghbye;l/yyfz, b yfcnhjtybt e ltntq ;bpythfljcnyjt. D rkfcct ievyj. Cblzn ltnb yf ehjrf[ yt pf gfhnfvb, f pf djkmibv cnjkjv, byjulf lf;t yf gjke. Jnyjitybz c exbntkzvb lhe;tcrbt. Pfyznbz ^ irjkt ds^f.n njkmrj 5 lytq ^ ytltk., c gjytltkmybrf gj gznybwe, c 9-nb lj xfcf. Gjnjv jdtl, gjckt jdtlf cgjhnb^yst buhs. Ghtgjlf^fybt ^tl/ncz yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt. Rhjvt jcyj^ys[ ghtlvtnj^, jdzpfntkmys[ gj ghjuhfvvt k.djq fvthbrfycrjq irjks, ltnb nfr;t bpexf.n heccrbq zpsr b kbnthfnehe, exfn cnb[b Geirbyf b Kthvjynj^f, cnf^zn cgtrnfrkb yf heccrjv zpsrt. Jdextybt ^ fyukj-fvthbrfycrjq irjkt cnjbn lj^jkmyj ljhjuj ghbvthyj 6 nsczx ljkkfhj^ ^ ujl. Pf jdextybt ltntq jdsxyj gkfnzn gjcjkmcn^f. (gj vfnthbfkfv ufptns `Vjcrj^crbt yj^jcnb\, vfhn 1988 u.) Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq cnhjbn ljvf = cnhjbntkm 2. Xtkj^tr, rjnohsq exbn irjkmybrj^ = exbntkm 3. Xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq hbcetn rfhnbys = [elj;ybr 4. Xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq ^jlbn vfibye, f^njdec bkb nfrcb = ija/h 5. K.lb, rjnjhst exfncz ^ eyb^thcbntnt = cneltyns 5. :tyobyf, rjnjhfz ^slf/n rybub ^ dbdkbjntrt = dbdkbjntrfhm 6. :tyobyf rjnjhfz nfywetn ^ dfktnt = dfkthbyf 7. Xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq ktxbn djkmys[ = ^hfx 8. K.lb, rjnjhst buhf.n hjkb ^ rbyj bkb ^ ntfnht = frn/hs 9. Xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq lbhb;bhetn jhrtcnhjv = lbhb;/h 10. Lt^eirf, rjnjhfz gtxfnftn gbcmvf b ljrevtyns = ctrhtnfhmvfibybcnrf 11. Xtkj^tr, rjnjhsq hfdjnftn ^ ktce = ktcybr 12. :tyobyf, rjnjhfz gj/n ^ jgthyjv ntfnht = gt^bwf Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. :. Crf;bnt, Cthutq <jhbcj^bx, rtv ^s [jntkb cnfnm ^ ltncn^t? 36 On-line Answer key V. D ltncn^t z vtxnfk cnfnm ghjlf^wjv vjhj;tyjuj. Z levfk, xnj njulf z cvjue tcnm vjhj;tyjt rf;lsq ltym crjkmrj [jxe! :. Yj ^vtcnj 'njuj ^s cnfkb abpbrjv, bp^tcnysv gj ^ctq T^hjgt . . . V. Lf ye, xnj ^s. E yfc ^ irjkt dsk pfvtxfntkmysq exbntkm abpbrb. C nt[ gjh z gjk.dbk abpbre. Hfdjnf. c elj^jkmcn^btv: hfdjnf ^ yfitv bycnbnent jxtym bynthtcyfz. 2. V. F ^s, Jkmuf Dfcbkmt^yf, rtv ^s vtxnfkb cnfnm ^ ltncn^t? :. Z ^ctulf vtxnfkf cnfnm dfkthbyjq, rfr Fyyf Gf^kj^f, nfywt^fnm ^ <jkmijv ntfnht . . . Z [jlbkf ^ dfktnye. irjke, jxtym cnfhfkfcm. V. Yj ctqxfc ^s hfdjnftnt ltncrbv ^hfxjv. Gjxtve ;t yt ^sikj c dfktnjv? :. Rjulf vyt dskj 7 ktn, z nz;tkj pfdjktkf, b yt vjukf djkmit nfywt^fnm. D djkmybwt dskb jxtym [jhjibt ^hfxb. B vjz vfvf nj;t ^hfx. Jyf gjvjukf vyt htibnm, rtv cnfnm. B ^jn ntgthm z ktxe ltntq 'nj ghtrhfcyfz ghjatccbz. Unit 12 Ehjr 12 - Eghf;ytybt 1. j kbnthfneht; j vfnthb; yf pf^jlt; j k.d^b; ^ veptt; jd fyukbxfybyt; ^ Fyukbb; ^ jdot;bnbb; j ;bpyb; yf cnfywbb; ^ Cbdbhb; j ^htvtyb Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. yf Rhfcyjq gkjoflb 2. ^ djkmijv ljvt 3. j heccrjq gj'pbb 4. ^ vft ^ ctynzdht 5. ^ .yjcnb 6. ^ ghjikjv ujle ^ b.kt 7. yf ghjikjq ytltkt ^ nb[jv ujhjlt 8. ^ hfyytv ltncn^t ^ ukedjrjq cnfhjcnb 9. ^ x/hyjv gkfnmt ^ cbytv rjcn.vt 10. yf deleotq ytltkt 11. yf heccrjq 12. ljvt 13. ghb Gtnht Dtkbrjv Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. yf 2. ^ 3. ^ 4. j 5. ^ 6. ^ 7. yf 8. ghb 9. ghb 11. j 12. yf 13. ^ Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. ^ rkfccf[ 2. yf afdhbrf[ b pf^jlf[ 3. ^ vfufpbyf[ b ^ rbjcrf[ 4. ^ ntfnhf[ 5. j vjtq ;bpyb 6. ^ ufptnf[ 7. ^ jdot;bnbz[ 8. yf 'rcrehcbz[ ^ veptz[ Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. ^ rjnjhjv 2. ^ rjnjhjv 3. ^ rjnjhjq 4. ^ rjnjhjq 5. ^ rjnjhjq 6. ^ rjnjhjv 7. ^ rjnjhjv 8. j rjnjhs[ 9. ^ rjnjhjv 10. j rjnjhs[ Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. pfdjktk 2. gjp^fk 3. crfpfk 4. htibkf 5. lfkf 6. crfpfkf 7. uekzk 8. ghbi/k 9. lfk 10. ^pzk 11. dhjcbk 12. pfhfdjnfk 13. crfpfk 14. pfcvtzkcz 15. gjdt;fk 16. gjyzkf 17. crfpfkf 18. hfdjnfk 19. ghbi/k 20. lfk 21. dhjcbk 22. e^bltk 23. pfrhbxfk 24. cltkfk 25. hfdjnfk 26. dhjcbk 27. ljcnfk 28. pfhfdjnfk Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. t/ 2. ^ ltncn^t 3. vjukf 4. hjlbkfcm 5. ;bkf 6. ^ Rbt^t 7. lj ^jqys 8. ^hfxjv 9. ljvj[jpzqrjq 10. dfkthbyjq 11. [jlbkf 12. rfhmtht 13. e yt/ 14. vjlysv (bkb vjlyj) 15. nefktnyjv cnjkbrt 16. c pthrfkjv 17. ;b^jgbcm. 18. jrjyxfybz gjckt 19. crekmgnehysq afrekmntn 20. ^ bycnbnent 21. jlyjrehcybrf 22. gt^wf 23. Dfy. 24. gj'pbb 25. lj gjkeyjxb 26. lj enhf 27. ^jlre 28. rhe;rt 29. c vjkjlsv gj'njv 30. lyz 31. tq 32. ktn 33. tve 34. ujl 35. yf rbyjafdhbrt 36. ^ 37 On-line Answer key vfktymrjq rjvyfnrt 37. yf gznjv 'nf;t 38. gjckt ccjhs 39. c jnwjv 40. ^ nhblwfnm itcnjv ujle 41. Dflbvf V V V V V V V Eghf;ytybt 9. (1) ^ (2) ^ (3) jn (4) ^ (5) c (6) lj (7) yf (8) c (9) lj (10) yf (11) lj (12) yf (13) ^ (14) pf (15) ^ (16) e (17) jn (18) ^ (19) ^ (20) c (21) lj (22) c (23) yf (24) c (25) lj (26) yf (27) ^ (28) dtp (29) yf (30) ^ (31) yf (32) ^ Eghf;ytybt 10. 1. ^ rjnjhjv 2. ^ rjnjhjv 3. ^ ronopjq 4. ^ rjnjhjq 5. ^ rjnjhjv 6. yf rjnjhjv 7. ^ rjnjhjv 8. ^ rjnjhjv 9. yf rjnjhjv 10. ^ rjnjhjv Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 11.1 11.2 EGFK; CGFK; CNFK; CNJK; CNJG rhjitxysq; elb^bnmcz; gjp^jybnm; vfktymrbq; jcvjnhtnm; xtn^/hnsq 11.3 1. cyznm rehnre 2. hedbnm lhj^f 3. dbnm njgjhjv 4. p^jybnm ^hfxe 5. jd]tcnmcz rjyatnfvb 6. buhfnm ^ buheirb 7. ktxbnm djkmys[ 8. jlt^fnm iede 9. gjp^fnm ljrnjhf 11.4 1. ljkuj^fz n.hmvf 2. irjkmyst ujls 3. rehjhnysq ujhjl 4. jlyjfrnyfz gmtcf 5. ltyt;yst gtht^jls 6. .vjhbcnbxtcrbt hfccrfps 7. n/gkfz jlt;lf 8. t;tytltkmysq ;ehyfk 9. dtlysq ve;br 10. h^fyst cfgjub 11.6 pljhj^sq djkmyjq; yfltnm cyznm; jlt^fnmcz hfplt^fnmcz; ntgktnm [jkjlfnm; n/gksq [jkjlysq 11.7 Crosswords 1. ntkj 2. ueds, ujkj^f 3. cthlwt 4. ukfp 5. e[j, ecs 6. ujhkj 7. ped 8. ^jkjcs 9. herf, hjn 10. kjd 11. gfktw 1. cbybq 2. x/hysq 3. ptk/ysq 4. rjhbxyt^sq, rhfcysq 5. dtksq 6. cthsq 7. ;/knsq Eghf;ytybt 1. Rfr uj^jhzn ve;xbys? Rfr uj^jhzn ;tyobys? Gj-hfpyjve. Ve;xbys ghtlgjxbnf.n vjyjkju, uj^jhzn vjyjnjyyj, ythtlrj c uhfvvfnbxtcrbvb jibdrfvb, k.dzn egjnhtdkznm yj^st vjlyst ckj^f bkb `cktyu\. :tyobys uj^jhzn djktt ghf^bkmyj, ghtlgjxbnf.n lbfkjub, f yt vjyjkjub, k.dzn jd]zcyznm c^jb bltb. Rfrbt ;t ntvs ghtlgjxbnf.n ^ hfpuj^jhf[ ve;xbys b ;tyobys? C ltncn^f vfktymrbt lt^jxrb k.dzn uj^jhbnm j ;bpyb b j k.lz[. B[ bynthtcetn, rnj rfr jltn, b e rjuj rfrbt `ctrhtns\. Lt^jxrb ^ ^jphfcnt jn ^jcmvb lj l^tyflwfnb ktn jdsxyj uj^jhzn j irjkmys[ gjlheuf[, j c^jb[ ;tkfybz[, gkfyf[ yf deleott b, rjytxyj, j vfkmxbrf[. E vfkmxbrj^ ^ 'njv ^jphfcnt ntvs hfpuj^jhj^ lheubt: j cjdsnbz[ ^ irjkt b yf ekbwt, j cgjhnt, j vfibyf[ b ^jjdot j nt[ybrt. "nj yt pyfxbn, xnj b[ yt bynthtce.n lt^jxrb. Ghjcnj jyb gjrf ghtlgjxbnf.n j yb[ yt uj^jhbnm. Gjplytt, ktn ^ 16 b cnfhit .yjib ghtlgjxbnf.n uj^jhbnm j lhe;dt bkb j ctrct, f j k.d^b djkmit vtxnf.n b hfpuj^fhb^f.n lt^eirb. Ghbvthyj nfrbt ;t ntvs hfpuj^jhj^ b e ^phjcks[: ;tycrbt ntvs j ctvtqys[ ghjdktvf[, j ve;xbyf[, j ltymuf[, jd jlt;lt b vjlt, j abueht b lbtnt. Rjytxyj 38 On-line Answer key ;t, vyjubt ;tyobys bynthtce.ncz b bcreccn^jv, b cgjhnjv, b gjkbnbrjq. Yj ukf^yjt lkz yb[ 'nj k.lb, b[ ltkf, b[ ;bpym. Ve;crbt hfpuj^jhs j gjkbnbrt, j aendjkt, j vfibyf[`byjvfhrf[\, j tlt b ^sgb^rt, j ;tyobyf[ b ctrct. Rjytxyj, ve;xbys nj;t levf.n b j ctvmt, b j ltymuf[, yj cnfhf.ncz jd 'njv uj^jhbnm vtymit. {fhfrnthyj, xnj hfpuj^jhs j gjujlt rfr ;tyobys, nfr b ve;xbys cxbnf.n crexysvb b ytbynthtcysvb. Eghf;ytybt 2. E Rfnb l^f ukfpf, l^f e[f, l^t herb, l^t yjub, f yjc jlby b zpsr nj;t jlby. Crf;b, dfdeirf, cghfib^ftn Rfnz, gjxtve 'nj e vtyz ^ctuj gj l^f, f zpsr njkmrj jlby, b yjc nj;t jlby? F gjnjve, vbkfz ^yexrf, jn^txftn dfdeirf, xnjds ns djkmit ^bltkf, djkmit ckeifkf, djkmit ltkfkf herfvb, djkmit [jlbkf yjufvb, yj xnjds ns vtymit hfpuj^fhb^fkf b yjcbr c^jq relf yt yflj yt cj^fkf. Djn, jrfps^ftncz, gjxtve zpsrj^ b yjcj^ e ltntq ds^ftn njkmrj gj jlyjve. Eghf;ytybt 3. Lbfkju 1. Vfkmxbr, ns yj^tymrbq? Rfr ntdz pj^en? Vtyz pj^en Atlz. F rfr n^jz afvbkbz? Cvbhyj^, A/ljh Cvbhyj^. Ye, [jhjij, cflbcm. Lbfkju 2. <elmnt ljdhs, ult z vjue yfqnb ghtgjlf^fntkz Rhskj^e? "nj z. Ckeif. ^fc. Ghjcnbnt, z yt pyf. ^fituj bvtyb-jnxtcn^f. Vtyz pj^en K.lvbkf Gf^kj^yf. K.lvbkf Gf^kj^yf, vjz afvbkbz Gtnhj^, cneltyn 1uj rehcf. Z djktk b ghjgecnbk ^fie ktrwb.. Ytkmpz kb gjkexbnm e ^fc rjycekmnfwb.? Gj;fkeqcnf, ^ 6 xfcj^ gjckt pfyznbq. Lbfkju 3. Bp^bybnt, vj;yj ghbukfcbnm ^fc nfywt^fnm? Vs c ^fvb yt pyfrjvs. Hfphtibnt ghtlcnf^bnmcz: Ybrjkfq Gjrhsirby. Ghjcnbnt, yt cksie, pltcm jxtym ievyj. Xnj ^s crfpfkb? Z Rjkz Gjrhsirby, ;ehyfkbcn. Vj;tn, gjnfywetv? Ye xnj ;, lf^fqnt. Rfr bynthtcyj! Ye, f xnj b ult ^s gbitnt? Lf nfr, cnfnmb ^ vtcnyjq ghtcct, cjxbyz. htrkfve, byjulf lf;t ^ cnb[f[. F rnj ^s? F z Vfhbyf K.dbvj^f, ukf^ysq htlfrnjh t;tytltkmybrf `Xfcnyfz ;bpym\. Yfv, rcnfnb, ctqxfc jxtym ye;ty cgtwbfkbcn gj htrkfvt. 39 On-line Answer key Ghf^lf ? F pyftnt, Vfhbyf, gj-vjtve, ^s jxtym [jhjij nfywetnt! Lbfkju 4. Crf;bnt, ^s nj;t deltnt exbnmcz yf gth^jv rehct? Lf, z njkmrj xnj gjcnegbk yf fyukbqcrjt jnltktybt. B z nj;t! <eltv pyfrjvs: Jkmuf Djkrj^f. Jxtym ghbznyj: Cthutq <jdhj^. Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Ghjuyjp gth^sq: Ctujlyz 31 ltrfdhz ^ Vjcr^t b Vjcrj^crjq jdkfcnb ly/v j;blftncz ytdjkmijq cytujgfl, ntvgthfnehf 36 uhflecj^ vjhjpf, ^tnth .uj-^jcnjxysq, 57 vtnhj^ ^ ctreyle. D yjxm c 31 ltrfdhz yf 1 zy^fhz j;blftncz gj[jkjlfybt lj 810 uhflecj^ vjhjpf, ^tnth ct^thysq, cbkmysq, lj 20 vtnhj^ ^ ctreyle. Enhjv j;blftncz cbkmysq cytu, vtntkm. Ghjuyjp ^njhjq: Ctujlyz 12 vfhnf ^ Vjcr^t b Gjlvjcrj^mt enhjv j;blftncz nevfy, ckfdsq ujkjk/l, ly/v ytdjkmijq lj;lm b ^tnth.Ntvgthfnehf yjxm. jrjkj yekz, ly/v jn jlyjuj lj xtnsh/[ uhflecj^ ntgkf. D dkb;fqibt cenrb ntvgthfnehf htprj gjybpbncz: yjxm. lj 911, ly/v lj 57 uhflecj^ vjhjpf, ghjql/n ytdjkmijq cytu. Ghjuyjp nhtnbq: Dxthf 20 b.kz ^ 15 xfcj^ ^ Vjcr^t dskj 18 uhflecj^ ntgkf, lf^ktybt 730 vv, ^tnth n/gksq .uj-pfgflysq, 35 v. / ctr, ^kf;yjcnm ^jple[f 90%. Ntvgthfnehf ^jls ^ Vjcr^t-htrt dskf 22 uhflecf. Ctujlyz 21 b.kz ly/v lf^ktybt deltn hfcnb, ^kf;yjcnm evtymibncz. J;blftncz ghj[kflyfz gjujlf, ^htvtyfvb lj;lb; ^tnth cbkmysq ct^thj-pfgflysq 1518 v. / ctr, ghb lj;lt lj 22-[25-nb v. / ctr. Ntvgthfnehf ^jple[f jn 16 lj 20 uhflecj^ ntgkf, yf cjkywt lj 24 uhflecj^. Ghjuyjp xtn^/hnsq: Ctujlyz 19 ctynzdhz ^ gjkltym ^ cnjkbwt j;blftncz gthtvtyyfz jdkfxyjcnm, dtp jcflrj^. Dtnth .;ysq 37 v. / ctr, ^kf;yjcnm 57%, ntvgthfnehf ^jple[f jrjkj 10 uhflecj^ ntgkf, ^ Gjlvjcrj^mt 912 uhflecj^. Pf^nhf j;blftncz gjcntgtyyjt gj[jkjlfybt, vtcnfvb lj;lb, ^tnth ct^thysq ckfdsq lj evthtyyjuj, ntvgthfnehf gjybpbncz lj 36 uhflecj^ ntgkf. Ghjuyjp gznsq: Ctujlyz 22 at^hfkz ^ Vjcr^t b Vjcrj^crjq jdkfcnb j;blftncz cbkmyfz jdkfxyjcnm, vjrhsq cytu. Dtnth ckfdsq, .uj-pfgflysq, 58 v. / ctr. Ntvgthfnehf ^jple[f 913 uhflecj^ vjhjpf. R ^txthe ^tnth gjlybvtncz lj cbkmyjuj, c gjhs^fvb lj 18 v. / ctr. J;blftncz cbkmysq cytu, vtntkm. D gjcktle.obt l^f lyz ^tnth cyj^f jckfdytn, ntvgthfnehf gj^scbncz lj 35 uhflecj^ vjhjpf, yj deltn jdkfxyj, ^jpvj;ty ytdjkmijq cytujgfl. Eghf;ytybt 5. Hfccrf;bnt, xnj k.lb yjczn b xnj jyb ltkf.n ^ hfpyst ^htvtyf ujlf ktnjv, rjulf ;fhrj b c^tnbn cjkywt? jctym., rjulf letn cbkmysq ^tnth b bl/n lj;lm? pbvjq, rjulf yf ekbwt [jkjlyj b bl/n cytu? ^tcyjq, rjulf gjz^kz.ncz gth^st w^tns b kbcnmz yf ltht^mz[? 40 On-line Answer key Unit 13 Ehjr 13 - Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. c vfktymrjq ljxthm. 2. c heccrbv cneltynjv 3. cj cnfhsv pyfrjvsv 4. cj c^jbvb ghbzntkzvb 5. c bp^tcnysv gbcfntktv 6. c cthm/pysvb jibdrfvb Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. c byjcnhfyysv bvtytv 2. c dkbprbv lheujv 3. gjcktlytq yj^jcnm. 4. c vkflitq ljxthm. 5. ktnytq yjxm. 6. cj cnfhibv dhfnjv 7. c vfktymrbv htd/yrjv 1. c byjcnhfyysvb bvtyfvb 2. c dkbprbvb lhepmzvb 3. gjcktlybvb yj^jcnzvb 4. c vkflibvb ljxthmvb 5. ktnybvb yjxfvb 6. cj cnfhibvb dhfnmzvb 7. c vfktymrbvb ltnmvb Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. c gbcfntkzvb 2. cj cneltynfvb 3. c c/cnhfvb 4. c gjlheufvb 5. c ;ehyfkbcnfvb 6. c lhepmzvb Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. yj;jv 2. c ve;tv 3. c gthtcflrjq 4. uhjvrbv ujkjcjv 5. c uhjvrbv ujkjcjv 6. c nheljv gjybvfkf 7. c gjvjom. exbntkz 8. c djkmijq crjhjcnm. 9. kj;rjq, yj;jv b ^bkrjq Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. pf xftv 2. pf gjregrfvb 3. yfl [jpzbyjv 4. pf ly/v 5. pf ltnmvb 6. pf fyukbxfybyjv Eghf;ytybt 6. Eghf;ytybt 7. (1) c (2) c (3) pf (4) gjl (5) gthtl (6) pf (7) pf 1. rjnjhjq 2. rjnjhsvb 3. rjnjhsv 4. rjnjhsv - Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. bcgjkyztncz, bcgjkyzk, bcgjkybk 2. rjyxbk, rjyxftncz, rjyxbkcz 3. ^cnhtnbkbcm, ^cnhtnbk, ^cnhtxfnm 4. ^thyekb, ^thyekbcm, ^jp^hfoftncz 5. jnrhs^ftncz, jnrhsk, jnrhsnm, jnrhskfcm 6. jcnfyf^kb^ftncz, jcnfyj^bkcz, jcnfyj^bk 7. jnghf^kz.ncz, jnghf^bk 8. ghjljk;fkcz, ghjljk;bkb 9. elb^bkfcm, elb^bk Eghf;ytybt 9. 7. ghbtp;ftn 1. gj/n 2. rhbnbre.n 3. bl/n 4. fgkjlbhe.n 5. ghjlf.n 6. dthe - Eghf;ytybt 10. 1. c ctvbktnybv csyjv 2. gj dthtue 3. vjhz 4. cevre 5. c rhfcrfvb 6. ^ ^jlt 7. cj lyf 8. ^ ^jlt 9. rhfcb^svb 10. yf kfljyb 11. e ytuj 12. yf ufptne 13. jnwe 14. rfrbt rfvyb 15. ntdz 16. yf ufptnt 17. r ufptnt 18. yf ufptne 19. cthsvb 20. ytrhfcb^svb 21. ^scjrbt ujhs 22. yf vtkrbt recjxrb 23. yf lyt 24. c ybvb 25. dtp vjhz 26. dtp c^jtq hjlbys 27. cthsvb, ytbynthtcysvb 28. r ^jlt 29. rhfcb^st rfvyb 30. c^jb rhfcrb 31. ^ c^jtq rfhnbyt 32. rhfcjne Eghf;ytybt 11. 1. rjhtyysv vjcr^bxjv 2. ktn 3. ^ cnfhjv l^e['nf;yjv ljvt 4. ^j ^ctq Vjcr^t 5. bp yb[ 6. pf uhfybwtq 7. ^ xtnshyflwfnjv ujle 8. [jlbkf 9. lj l^tyflwfnb 10. yf hjlbye 11. c byjcnhfyysv frwtynjv 12. tq 13. gfhytv 14. c 41 On-line Answer key V V (a) cthsvb ukfpfvb 15. gjyhf^bkcz 16. c hfljcnm. 17. tve 18. p^jybk 19. jn ^htvtyb 20. gkfnbkf 21. r ytq 22. cjdbhfkfcm 23. >ht 24. jnwf 25. ^ wthr^b 26. c ctvm/q 27. gjcnegbnm 28. fl^jrfnjv 29. pfhfdfns^fnm. Eghf;ytybt 12. (1) j (2) lj (3) bp (4) ^ (5) ^ (6) ^ (7) r (8) r (9) ^ (10) ^ (11) ^ (12) ^ (13) pf (14) gjckt (15) ^ (16) ^ (17) c (18) ^ (19) ^ (20) yf (21) pf (22) yf (23) jn Eghf;ytybt 13. (1) cj (2) ^ (3) cj (4) bp (5) pf (6) yf (7) yf (8) yf (9) c (10) yf (11) ^ (12) r (13) dtp (14) j (15) e (16) ^ (17) gj (18) gj (19) e (20) gj (21) ^ (22) gj (23) ^ (24) yf (25) lj (26) yf (27) yf (28) gj (29) yf (30) ^ (31) hzljv c (32) pf (33) gj (34) pf (35) lj (36) yf (37) rhjvt (38) cj (39) lkz (40) lkz (41) gj (42) ^ (43) yfl (44) j (45) j (46) ^ (47) c (48) c (49) yf (50) c Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 14.1 cksifnm ckeifnm 1. Dxeha vs ckeifkb ogehe `B^fy Cecfyby\. 2. Ds cksifkb yo^ocnm? E Ybys hjlbkfcm ljxrf! 3. Rf;loe enho z ckeif. hflbo. 4. Yflo ^ybvfnekmyo ckeifnm ghoaeccoha. 5. Yflo uo^ohbnm uhovxt oy gkoxo cksibn. 6. Z ybxeuo ye cksifk od 'nov b ybxeuo ye pyf.. (b) Dbltnm e^bltnm; cvjnhtnm gjcvjnhtnm 1. Ds e;t ^bltkb yo^ouo ghegolf^fnekz? 2. Z ecksifk iev b gjcvjnhtk ^ oryo, yo ya ekbwe ybrouo ye dsko. 3. Oy yocbn oxrb, nfr rfr c lencn^a gkoxo ^blbn. 4. Dxeha vs cvjnhtkb bynthtcye. gthtlfxe gj ntkt^bpjhe. 5. D ceddjne vs bl/v cvjnhtnm yo^sq abkmv Delb Fkkfyf. 6. F ns e;e cvjnhtk 'non abkmv? 14.2 (f ) ghtlcnf^ktybt; jgthf; vtkjlhfvf; rjvtlbz; rjywthn; nhfutlbz; wbhr; dfktn; gmtcf; (b) phbntkmysq pfk; ajqt; ufhlthjd; deatn; rhtckj 14.3 1. vt;leyfhjlysq atcnb^fkm; 2. ^th[yzz jlt;lf; 3. t;tytltkmyst bplfybz; 4. phbntkmysq pfk; 5. <jkmijq ntfnh; 6. cnfhbyyfz wthrj^m; 7. ntfnhfkmyst fabib; 8. ntfnhfkmyfz rfccf; 9. xfcnyfz irjkf 14.4 1. fynhfrn, gthths^, gthtvtyf; fhnbcn, ht;bcc/h, rhbnbr theatre; 2. ufptnf, t;tytltkmybr, ;ehyfk periodicals; 3. lfxf, ljv housing; 4. ljcrf, fabif, nfdkbxrf notices; 5. plfybt, ntfnh; phbntkm, ckeifntkm, xbnfntkm; phbntkmysq pfk, felbnjhbz, rjywthnysq pfk leisure, entertainment; 6. vfufpby, ufcnhjyjv, kf^rf shops; 7. vjntkm, ujcnbybwf, gfycbjyfn accommodation; 8. ntktcrjg, jxrb, dbyjrkm eye pieces 14.5 1. jhrtcnh, rjywthnysq pfk, dfnjy: lbhb;/h 2. gbieofz vfibyrf, ntktajy, jabc: ctrhtnfhif 3. nhedrf, ktrfhcn^j, djkmybwf: ^hfx 4. ljvfiyzz hfdjnf, irjkf, ljcrf: exbntkm 14.6 1. lhfvfnehu 2. fhnbcn 3. frn/h 4. rjvgjpbnjh 5. fhnbcnrf 6. frnhbcf 7. ufhlthjdobwf 8. ht;bcc/h 9. deatnxbwf 10. lbhb;/h 11. gt^bwf 12. gt^tw 13. dbktn/h 14. phbntkm V V V V V 42 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 1. Yf Rhsvcrjv gjkejcnhj^t ^jpybrkf ghtrhfcyfz bltz ght^hfnbnm xthyjvjhcrbt rehjhns ^ wtynhs bcreccn^f, vepsrb, rekmnehs. Dc/ ktnj ^ rehjhnys[ ujhjlf[ ghj[jlzn ntfnhfkmyst ufcnhjkb, rjywthns, vepsrfkmyst rjyrehcs. Rhsvcrfz Fccjwbfwbz cjltqcn^bz rekmneht ujnj^bncz r xtn^/hnjve rjyrehce rfvthyjq vepsrb ^ <f[xbcfhft. Xt[j^crfz Fccjwbfwbz htuekzhyj ghj^jlbn ntfnhfkmysq atcnb^fkm ^ Zknt. R rjywe nehbcncrjuj ctpjyf to/ jlby c.hghbp atcnb^fkm rkfccbxtcrjuj vepsrfkmyjuj b ntfnhfkmyjuj bcreccn^f gjl yfp^fybtv `<fh[fnysq ctpjy\. D ghjikjv ujle ^ Zknt, Fkegrt, Ctvabhjgjkt b Ct^fcnjgjkt ^njhjq gj cx/ne atcnb^fkm ghj[jlbk c 26 f^uecnf gj 5 ctynzdhz. Yf atcnb^fkm ghbtp;fkb fhnbcns jgths b dfktnf, bp^tcnyst lbhb;/hs b vepsrfyns cj ^ct[ rjywj^ ds^ituj Cj.pf, bp Djcnjxyjq T^hjgs. D ntxtybt l^e[ ytltkm fhnbcnbxtcrbt rjkktrnb^s ufcnhjkbhj^fkb gj ^ctv xtnsh/v rehjhnfv. Bynthtc r atcnb^fk. hfcn/n c rf;lsv ujljv. Gj ckj^fv tuj jhufybpfnjhj^, vyjubt t^hjgtqcrbt lbhb;/hs b cbvajybxtcrbt jhrtcnhs e;t ^scrfpfkb ;tkfybt ^scnegbnm yf nhtnmtv `<fh[fnyjv ctpjyt\, bp^tcnyst ntfnhfkmyst ht;bcc/hs gkfybhe.n ghb^tpnb c^jb gjcnfyj^rb ^ deleotv ujle. Eghf;ytybt 2. Cjukfcyj lfyysv jghjcf, ghj^tl/yyjuj ^ vft, 41% vjcr^bxtq bvt.n lfxe bkb cflj^sq exfcnjr gjl Vjcr^jq. Ghbvthyj jlyf nhtnm jghjityys[ crfpfkb, xnj ^ 'njv ujle cjdbhf.ncz ghj^tcnb ktnybq jngecr yf lfxt. D jcyj^yjv 'nj ctvmb c vfktymrbvb ltnmvb, k.lb cj chtlybv jdhfpj^fybtv b cj chtlybv lj[jljv. Ghbvthyj 13% gkfybhe.n ghj^tcnb ktnj e hjlcn^tyybrj^ bkb pyfrjvs[ ^ Hjccbb b CYU. "nj ght;lt ^ctuj k.lb chtlytuj ^jphfcnf, r^fkbabwbhj^fyyst hfdjxbt b cke;fobt. To/ 26% htcgjyltynj^ yfvthtys ghj^tcnb jnls[ ljvf, ybrelf yt etp;fz. "nj ^ jcyj^yjv gj;bkst k.lb, gtycbjyths. Chtlb lheub[ ajhv ghj^tltybz jngecrf 12% ghtlgjxbnf.n xthyjvjhcrbt rehjhns, cfyfnjhbb b ljvf jnls[f 'nj djkmitq xfcnm. byntkkbutywbz, ^hfxb, .hbcns, ghtgjlf^fntkb ^epj^. Jrjkj 6% ^ jcyj^yjv vjkjl/;m b cneltyns cjdbhf.ncz ^ nehbcnbxtcrbt gjtplrb gj Hjccbb. Djjdot vjkjl/;m xfot, xtv k.lb cnfhituj ^jphfcnf, ktnjv yt jnls[ftn, f cnfhftncz gjlpfhfdjnfnm: 16% cneltynj^ b vjkjls[ k.ltq ^ ^jphfcnt lj 24 ktn jn^tnbkb ghb jghjct, xnj delen hfdjnfnm ^j ^htvz rfybrek. Pf hedt;jv gkfybhe.n ghj^tcnb jngecr 3% vjcr^bxtq. "nj ^ jcyj^yjv `yj^st heccrbt\ dbpytcvtys, k.lb, pfyznst ^ rjvvthxtcrb[ cnhernehf[. Bynthtcyj, jlyfrj, xnj lf;t dbpytcvtys cnfhf.ncz ^j ^htvz jngecrf gjdsnm c ctvm/q b ltnmvb: 19% bp dbpytcvtyj^ gkfybhe.n jnls[fnm yt yf hjcrjiys[ pfhedt;ys[ rehjhnf[, f ^vtcnt c ctvm/q e hjlbntktq bkb e dkbprb[ hjlcn^tyybrj^ ^ Hjccbb b CYU. 7% jghjityys[ ^jjdot pfnhelybkbcm jn^tnbnm yf ^jghjc jd jngecrt. <jkmibycn^j bp yb[ dskb dtphfdjnysvb. (gj vfnthbfkfv ;ehyfkf `Jujy/r\, @ 24, 1995) 43 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 3. Sample answers 1. Crf;bnt, gj;fkeqcnf, rjulf / ^ rfrjt ^htvz ujlf ghj[jlbn atcnb^fm `<tkst yjxb\? 2. Crf;bnt, crjkmrj byjcnhfyys[ vepsrfynj^ t;tujlyj ghbtp;f.n yf atcnb^fkm? 3. A crjkmrj byjcnhfyys[ nehbcnj^ gjctof.n C-Gtnthdehu ^j ^htvz atcnb^fkz? 4. Crjkmrj (ghbvthyj) cnjzn dbktns yf kexibt rjywthns yf atcnb^fkt? 5. F rfrfz jdsxyj (cnjbn) gjujlf ^ b.yt ^ Gtnthdehut? 6. (Ye, )djkmijt cgfcbdj pf dtctle. :tkf. Dfv ecgt[f! Unit 14 Ehjr 14 - Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. ^cnhtxe; ^cnhtnbv; ^cnhtnzn; ^cnhtnbim; ^cnhtnbnt 2. jn^txe; jn^tnbn; jn^tnbim; jn^tnzn 3. ghbukfcbv; ghbukfcbim; ghbukfie 4. cghjcbn; cghjie; cghjcbim; cghjcbv 5. regk.; regbnt; regbv 6. gjvjue; gjvj;tim; gjvj;tn; gjvjuen 7. kz;tv; kz;tnt; kzue; kzuen 8. ^jpmv/im; ^jpmve; ^jpmv/n; ^jpmv/nt; ^jpmv/v; ^jpmven; ^jpmven 9. gjqv/im; gjqve; gjqv/nt; gjqv/n; gjqv/v 10. crf;en; crf;e; crf;tim 11. hfccrf;e; hfccrf;en 12. gjrf;e; gjrf;tim; gjrf;en 13. jnrhj.; jnrhjtn; jnrhjtim; jnrhj.n 14. pfrhj.; pfrhjtnt; pfrhjtim; pfrhjtv; pfrhj.n 15. ^cnfye; ^cnfytv; ^cnfyen; ^cnfytim; ^cnfytnt 16. ecnfye; ecnfytnt; ecnfytv. 17. yfxye; yfxy/v Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. gjcvjnh. 2. gjtltv 3. deltn pfybvfnmcz 4. gjql/v 5. clfcn - Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. dele 2. cnfye 3. dele cnhjbnm 4. dele [jlbnm 5. dele ghb[jlbnm 6. dele xbnfnm 7. dele hfpuj^fhb^fnm 8. deltn 9. gjcnhj. 10. crf;tn 11. jn^txe 12. gjcnf^bn 13. delen lhe;bnm Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Dj^f R.: yf cn.fhltcct; vfibye; byjcnhfyye.; c lhepmzvb 2. Ybyf C.: ly/v; pf[jxe; vyt; c^jtq; ;bpym.; ltkf.; yf c^tnt; dele ;bnm; dele ltkfnm; vyt; deltn; dele k.dbnm b e^f;fnm 3. Dbnz N.: lt^eirfvb; execm; gthtcnfye; cnfye; dbpytcvtyjv; dele gjregfnm; dele lhe;bnm; c ibrfhysvb lt^eirfvb 4. Vfhbyf <.: ;b^/n; vjtq vfnthb; dele vyjuj hfdjnfnm; cvjue; cjdbhf.cm; dhjie; gjqle 5. Jkmuf G.: byjcnhfywf; dthtue; z[njq; dfcctqyjv; c ybv; deltv rfnfnmcz; yf ibrfhyjv f^njvjdbkt; deltn jxtym k.dbnm; deltn gjregfnm; deltn ghbyjcbnm; yt dele hfdjnfnm; deltv tplbnm; r vjtq vfnthb; ltht^y.; vyt; hjlbntkzvb; vtyz 6. A/ljh C.: dele hfdjnfnm; ghjatccbb; athvthjv; vyt; athvthf; gjqle; ;b^jnysvb; 'nbv; bynthtce.ncz; vjbvb ltymufvb 7. Kfhbcf H.: ;b^/v; vyt; ^sqle; ve;tv; yt deltn; yfxy/v; pfhfdjnftv; ^s;b^en Eghf;ytybt 5. (1) pf (2) lkz (3) yf (4) e (5) dtp (6) dtp (7) dtp (8) ^ (9) yf (10) ^ (11) jn (12) yf (13) yf (14) gjl (15) yf (16) ^ (17) yf (18) yf (19) yf (20) yf (21) lj (22) ^ (23) e (24) rj (25) ^ (26) yf (27) ^ (28) yf 44 On-line Answer key V V V V V Eghf;ytybt 6. 1. jnlfv 2. ^sktxbn 3. levfnm 4. ghbrfpfk 5. tplbkb 6. bcrfkb 7. ;fke.ncz 8. cksibn 9. kzue 10. jdhflj^fkcz 11. cyznm 12. ^pznm. Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 8.5 Z: dele, crf;e, lfv, kzue, gjctoe, gjtle, gtht^tle, ^jpmve, ghbukfie, jn^txe, cvjue, czle; Ns: gjdt;bim, e^blbim, gjlybvtim, regbim, gjrf;tim, gjql/im, ^cnhtnbim, pfrhjtim, cnfytim, cybvtim, czltim 8.6 1. gcb[jkjubxtcrbq dfhmth 2. vt;leyfhjlysq ntktajy 3. rehjhnysq ujhjl 4. jnrhsnjt ytdj 5. rekmnehyfz ghjuhfvvf 6. vbhj^jt bvz 7. xfcnyfz irjkf 8. ghtcnb;yfz yfuhflf 9. extdyjt pf^tltybt 10. dtkst yjxb 11. jgsnysq gtlfuju 8.7 ufkthtz ^scnf^jxysq pfk; ljhjuf genm; pfx/n 'rpfvty; kfljym herf; ybobq dtlysq; ghbrk.xtybt gj[j;ltybz; cjxbybnm yfgbcfnm; cgtibnm dt;fnm; cnfhsq lht^ybq; nj^fhbob lhepmz 8.8 byjcnhfyysq; rbyjatcnb^fkm; vt;leujhjlybq; vyjuj'nf;ysq / vyjujktnybq; nh/[ktnybq / nh/['nf;ysq Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Fkkj, Vfif ? Ghb^tn, 'nj Jktu. Vs nen c Gtnhjv regbkb 4 dbktnf yf aendjkmysq vfnx. {jxtim gjqnb? D ghbywbgt z yt ghjnb^, yj e vtyz vyjuj ehjrj^ yf pf^nhf. Lf ytn, vfnx deltn ^ ceddjne. F ns yt pyftim, rnj to/ bp lt^jxtr bynthtcetncz aendjkjv? F, ^ ceddjne! Ye 'nj lheujt ltkj. Z c elj^jkmcn^btv gjqle b gjp^jy. Vfhbyt, vs c ytq ^vtcnt ghbl/v. 2. Fkkj, delmnt ljdhs Fyye Ybrjkft^ye. Fyyf Ybrjkft^yf ? C ^fvb uj^jhbn Dfcbkbq Gjgj^, ^fi ds^ibq cneltyn. Plhf^cn^eqnt, Dfcbkbq. Lf, z ^fc [jhjij gjvy.. Ds rjulf-nj e^ktrfkbcm ntfnhjv, ytgkj[j buhfkb ^ bycnbnencrb[ cgtrnfrkz[. Ntgthm z ghjatccbjyfkmysq frn/h. {jxe ghbukfcbnm Dfc c ve;tv yf ghtvmthe ^ Lhfvfnbxtcrbq ntfnh. Ds ^ cktle.obq xtn^thu c^jdjlys? Ye cgfcbdj ^fv, rjytxyj cfvf z c elj^jkmcn^btv ghble. Z ^ xtn^thu c^jdjlyf, f ^jn ve;f yflj deltn cghjcbnm. Jnkbxyj! Z ^fv to/ hfp gjp^jy. xthtp ltyml^f. <bktns lkz ^fc delen ^ rfcct ghb ^[jlt ^ ntfnh. <jkmijt cgfcbdj. 3. Fkkj, 'nj Kfhbcf ? Plhf^cn^eq, uj^jhbn Gf^tk. Yfv c Fk/itq nen ghtlkj;bkb 3 dbktnf yf rjywthn "knjyf L;jyf. Vs chfpe cjukfcbkbcm. {jxtim gjqnb c yfvb? "knjy L;jy? Z tuj yt jxtym-nj k.dk.. Djn tckb ds Vfqrk L;trcjy . . . F rjulf rjywthn? D cktle.ott ^jcrhtctymt ^ 3 xfcf lyz. Ytn, r cj;fktyb. ^ cktle.ott ^jcrhtctymt vs tltv ^ctq ctvm/q r dfdeirt ^ ltht^y.. Jyf cthm/pyj pfdjktkf, b hjlbntkb uj^jhzn, xnj vs ^ct ljk;ys t/ yf^tcnbnm b gjvjxm. Vj;tn dsnm, lf;t ghbl/ncz jn^tpnb t/ ^ djkmybwe 45 On-line Answer key F ;fkm. Z-nj levfk, xnj ntdt "knjy L;jy yhf^bncz. Ye, xnj ;, gthtlf^fq ghb^tn dfdeirt. Gecnm gjghf^kztncz! 4. Fkkj, gjghjcbnt gj;fkeqcnf Gtn. r ntktajye. Gtnz? "nj B^fy, b Cfif nj;t nen hzljv cnjbn. Ctujlyz ^jcrhtctymt, ltkfnm ytxtuj. Crexyj. Vs [jnbv cjdhfnm rjvfyle gjbuhfnm ^ [jrrtq. Ghbl/im? Z ds c elj^jkmcn^btv, yj e vtyz ujhkj djkbn, b vfvf uj^jhbn, xnj e vtyz ntvgthfnehf. Jyf vtyz yf ekbwe yt gecrftn. Xnj ;t ltkfnm? E yfc gjrf njkmrj 2 xtkj^trf ^ rjvfylt . . . F ^s gjp^jybnt Djkjlt, jy ^tlm jxtym k.dbn [jrrtq. Vj;yj to/ gjghjdj^fnm gjp^jybnm lt^jxrfv Yfnfit, Ufkt . . . Lf xnj ns! Cj^ctv djkmyjq? Lt^xjyrb ;t ybxtuj yt gjybvf.n ^ [jrrtt! Ytn, vs e; kexit gjlj;l/v, gjrf ns gjghf^bimcz. Ye, lj crjhjuj! Gjrf. 5. Fkkj, rnj 'nj? Bujhm Gtnhj^bx? Plhf^cn^eqnt, 'nj Ybyf Fktrctt^yf, ^fi ctrhtnfhm. P^jybk lbhtrnjh abhvs `Ghfrcbc\ b ghbukfifk Dfc c ;tyjq yf jnrhsnbt ^scnf^rb ^ Ktqgwbut. Ghbukfifk? F f^bfdbktns yt ghtlkfufk? Abhvf `Ghfrcbc\ gjkyjcnm. jgkfxb^ftn ^fv ljhjue b yjvth ^ ujcnbybwt yf l^jb[ c 26-uj lj 30-uj vfz. Ye xnj ;, njulf vs c elj^jkmcn^btv gjctnbv b[ ^scnf^re. F ytkmpz kb to/ yfituj csyf nelf ghbukfcbnm? Tve ^tlm njkmrj 9 ktn, b tuj jcnf^bnm yt c rtv. {jhjij, Bujhm Gtnhj^bx, z bv gthtp^jy. b cghjie. Ye, lf^fqnt. :tkf. ecgt[f! B cjjdobnt vyt rfr vj;yj crjhtt. Jdzpfntkmyj. Eghf;ytybt 2. Vfnm regbkf ckb^s b htibkf lfnm b[ ltnzv gjckt jdtlf. Ckb^s kt;fkb yf cnjkt ^ cnjkj^jq. Dfyz ybrjulf ^ ;bpyb yt tk ckb^ b jxtym [jntk b[ gjghjdj^fnm. Rjulf ^ rjvyfnt ybrjuj yt dskj, jy ^pzk jlye ckb^e b c]tk t/. Gthtl jdtljv vfnm e^bltkf, xnj yf nfhtkrt yt [^fnftn jlyjq ckb^s. Jyf crfpfkf jd 'njv jnwe. Pf jdtljv jntw uj^jhbn: `Ltnb, yt c]tk kb rnj-ybdelm bp ^fc jlye ckb^e?\ Dct jn^tnbkb: `Ytn\. Dfyz gjrhfcytk, yj nj;t crfpfk: `Ytn, z yt tk\. Njulf jntw crfpfk: `Tckb rnjybdelm bp ^fc ^pzk ckb^e c nfhtkrb, 'nj, rjytxyj, yt[jhjij. Yj z dj.cm, xnj ^s yt evttnt tcnm ckb^s. D ckb^f[ tcnm rjcnjxrb. Tckb rnj-ybdelm c]tcn rjcnjxre, nj yf lheujq ltym evh/n\. Dfyz gjdktlytk b crfpfk: `Ytn, z rjcnjxre dhjcbk pf jryj!\. Njulf ^ct pfcvtzkbcm, f Dfyz pfgkfrfk. Djghjcs: 1. Xnj regbkf vfvf ? 2. Rjulf jyf [jntkf lfnm ckb^s ltnzv? 3. Gjxtve Dfyz jxtym [jntk gjghjdj^fnm ckb^s? 4. Xnj Dfyz ^pzk cj cnjkf b c]tk? 5. Xnj e^bltkf vfvf, rjulf ghbikf ^ cnjkj^e.? 6. J x/v jyf hfccrfpfkf jnwe? 7. Xnj cghjcbk jntw ^j ^htvz jdtlf ? 8. Xnj jn^tnbkb ltnb? 9. Xnj crfpfk Dfyz? 10. Gjxtve jy gjrhfcytk? 11. Xnj jntw hfccrfpfk j xtkj^trt, rjnjhsq c]tcn rjcnjxre? 12. Gjxtve bcgeufkcz Dfyz? 13. Xnj jy crfpfk? 14. Gjxtve ^ct pfcvtzkbcm, f Dfyz pfgkfrfk? 46 On-line Answer key Eghf;ytybt 3. Dct yf c^tnt pyf.n, xnj [elj;ybrb k.lb ytdjufnst. B lkz njuj, xnjds gjdjkmit pfhfdjnfnm, vyjubt bp yb[ ly/v ^s[jlzn yf ekbws b hbce.n gjhnhtns ghj[j;b[. D Vjcr^t ekbxys[ [elj;ybrj^ vj;yj ^bltnm ^ cflf[ b gfhrf[, yf ekbwf[ b gkjoflz[, ^ gjlptvys[ gtht[jlf[ b e ^s[jlj^ bp vtnhj. Jcjdtyyj vyjuj b[ yf Fhdfnt. Cblzn jyb wtksvb lyzvb c rhfcrfvb b vjkmdthnfvb b ^ lj;lm, b ^ ^tnth, b ^ cjkytxye. gjujle, cblzn yf cnekmxbrf[ b crfvtqrf[, uheggfvb bkb gj jlbyjxrt, hbce.n gjhnhtns vjcr^bxtq b ujcntq cnjkbws hbce.n ^ct[, rnj ujnj^ bv pfgkfnbnm. B k.lb gkfnzn b gjpbhe.n . . . Bynthtcyj chf^ybnm, crjkmrj ;t deltn cnjbnm ekbxysq gjhnhtn ^ hfpkbxys[ cnhfyf[ b ujhjlf[ T^hjgs? D Gfhb;t yf Vjyvfhnht 'nj elj^jkmcn^bt ^fv deltn cnjbnm jrjkj cnf gznbltcznb ahfyrj^. Yf 'nb ltymub vj;yj gje;byfnm ^ ytgkj[jv gfhb;crjv htcnjhfyt, bkb ghj;bnm jlby ltym ^ lti/^jq ujcnbybwt, bkb ;t regbnm vfktymre. denskjxre yfcnjzob[ ahfywepcrb[ le[j^, bkb regbnm gfhe 'ktufynys[ djnbyjr. D Uthvfybb yf wtynhfkmyjq gkjoflb ujhjlf R/kmyf, ghzvj gthtl pyfvtybnsv R/kmycrbv cjdjhjv, ^fi gjhnhtn deltn cnjbnm ghbvthyj cjhjr gznm vfhjr. Yf 'nb ltymub vj;yj ^sgbnm l^t denskrb ^jlrb bkb 20 denskjr jnkbxyjuj ytvtwrjuj gb^f, bkb ;t regbnm ktny.. dkepre b ijhns. D Kjyljyt yf Nhfafkmufhcrjq gkjoflb e rjkjyys Ytkmcjyf, tckb ^s pf[jnbnt gjpbhj^fnm ekbxyjve [elj;ybre, jy gjghjcbn c ^fc jrjkj ^jcmvb aeynj^. Yf 'nb ltymub ytkmpz c[jlbnm ^ veptq Vflfv N.ccj. Yj pfnj ^vtcnj 'njuj vj;yj regbnm ctdt denthdhjlj^ yf wtksq ltym b jcvjnhtnm ytcrjkmrj dtcgkfnys[ veptt^ b ufkkthtq. Yf 'nb ltymub vj;yj c[jlbnm ^ rbyj bkb ghjcbltnm ^tcm ^txth ^ gb^yjv dfht. D Vjcr^t yf Fhdfnt ^fi ekbxysq gjhnhtn jdjql/ncz ^fv ghbvthyj ^ gznyflwfnm hedktq. Yf 'nb ltymub ytkmpz regbnm djnbyrb. B[ [^fnbn, vj;tn dsnm, njkmrj yf iyehrb lkz djnbyjr! Ytkmpz yf 'nb ltymub ghbukfcbnm lt^eire lf;t ^ cfvsq lti/^sq htcnjhfy. Ds cvj;tnt, gj;fkeq, regbnm ^fitq lt^eirt vjhj;tyyjt bkb . . . gjlfhbnm tq jlby w^tnjr! Unit 15 Ehjr 15 ! Eghf;ytybt F4. D lht^ytv epdtrcrjv ujhjlt <e[fht cnjbn ^scjrbq vbyfhtn. Jy jxtym cnfhsq. Tve gjxnb 1000 ktn. Yf^th[e vbyfhtnf yf[jlbncz djkmijt uytplj fbcnf. Rf;le. jctym jy ektnftn ^ ;fhrbt cnhfys b rf;le. ^tcye cyj^f ^jp^hfoftncz ^ c^j/ uytplj. Jlyf;ls vbyfhtn crfpfk fbcne: Gjckeifq, fbcn, ns nfr lf^yj ;b^/im e vtyz. Rf;le. jctym ns ektnftim ^ ;fhrbt cnhfys, b rf;le. ^tcye ns ghbktnftim cyj^f rj vyt. Gjxtve ns ybrjulf yt ghbytc/im vyt gjlfhrf ? F rfrjq ;t gjlfhjr ns [jxtim? cghjcbk fbcn. 47 On-line Answer key Ghbytcb vyt cfgjub. {jhjij, crfpfk fbcn, z ghbytce ntdt cfgjub. Jctym. fbcn, rfr ^ctulf, ektntk, f ^tcyjq ghbktntk jdhfnyj ^ <e[fhe. Ghjikj ytcrjkmrj lytq. Fbcn ybxtuj yt uj^jhbk j gjlfhrt. Vbyfhtn ;t cyfxfkf nj;t vjkxfk, yj gjnjv yt ^snthgtk b cghjcbk: Gjckeifq, fbcn, ult ;t n^jq gjlfhjr? Gjlfhjr? Z ghby/c ntdt cfgjub b gjcnf^bk b[ ^jn pltcm yf ptvkt. Yj ntdz yt dskj, ns e[jlbk, b b[ rnj-nj ^pzk. Rfrbt ukegjcnb ns uj^jhbim! ^crhbxfk vbyfhtn. Ns ghtrhfcyj pyftim, xnj z ^jn e;t nsczxe ktn cnj. yf vtcnt b ybrelf yt [j;e. F tckb ns ybrelf yt [jlbim, pfxtv ;t ntdt cfgjub? ! Eghf;ytybt B1. Rjulf-nj cjdfrf jlyf ^ ktce ;bkf. B cnfkj tq crexyj jlyjq ;bnm. Gjikf jyf gj ktce bcrfnm ctdt nj^fhbof. Ikf, ikf, b ^jn yf^cnhtxe tq dt;bn pfqxbr. Cjdfrf tve uj^jhbn: Pfqxbr, pfqxbr, lf^fq-rf ^vtcnt ;bnm! Xnj ;t, uj^jhbn pfqxbr, lf^fq. Yfikb jyb ctdt vtcntxrj ^ ktce b, rfr cnfkj ntvytnm, ktukb cgfnm. Pfqxbr pfcyek, f cjdfrt yt cgbncz, ecksifkf ijhj[ b yfxfkf kfznm. E pfqxbrf chfpe b cjy ghjgfk. Dcrjxbk jy b uj^jhbn cjdfrt: Xtuj ns kftim? Vj;tn dsnm exezkf ^jkrf ? Jy c]tcn yfc. Pfvjkxfkf cjdfrf, f cfvf levftn: `Gkj[juj z ctdt nj^fhbof yfikf. Hjdrjt e pfqxbrf cthlwt. Djn ^jkr nfr njn e;, yf^thyjt, ybrjuj yt djbncz.\ B eikf cjdfrf jn pfqwf, gjikf ^jkrf bcrfnm. Ikf, ikf gj ktce, b ^jn yf^cnhtxe tq ^jkr dt;bn. Uj^jhbn cjdfrf ^jkre: Ckeifq, ^jkr, lf^fq-rf deltv ^vtcnt ;bnm! Djkr uj^jhbn: Xnj ;t, ^l^j/v ^tctktt. Djn pf^txthtkj, cjdhfkbcm jyb cgfnm. Pfcyek ^jkr, b cjdfrf ktukf. F ^ cfve. gjkyjxm ghjcyekfcm cjdfrf, ecksifkf ijhj[ b pfkfzkf. Bcgeufkcz ^jkr, leif ^ gznrb eikf, cnfk jy cjdfre dhfybnm: Ns xtuj kftim? Vtl^tlm ecksibn, ghbltn, yfv njulf [elj deltn! `Ye, levftn cjdfrf, ^blyj, b ^jkr yt jxtym-nj cbk/y, hfp vtl^tlz djbncz. Pfnj e; vtl^tlm, ^thyj, ^ct[ cbkmytt\. <hjcbkf cjdfrf ^jkrf, gjikf vtl^tlz bcrfnm. Djn bl/n jyf gj ktce, f yf^cnhtxe tq vtl^tlm. Gjljikf r ytve cjdfrf b uj^jhbn: "q, vtl^tlm, lf^fq-rf ^vtcnt ;bnm! Cjukfcbkcz vtl^tlm. Ltym ghj;bkb, yjxm yfcnfkf. Pfcyek vtl^tlm. F cjdfrf jgznm ^ cfve. gjkyjxm pfkfzkf. Ghjcyekcz vtl^tlm, cnhecbk. Ghbyzkcz jy cjdfre heufnm: Vjkxb ns, uj^jhbn, xtuj kftim? Ecksibn xtkj^tr, ghbl/n, edm/n yfc. `Ye, levftn cjdfrf, b 'njn nhec. Gjqle xtkj^trf bcrfnm\. B edt;fkf cjdfrf jn vtl^tlz. <tufkf jyf, dtufkf, ^tcm ktc jdt;fkf, ^c/ ytn xtkj^trf. Dsikf jyf yfrjytw yf jgeire ktcf b ctkf jnlj[yenm. F xtkj^tr rfr hfp 48 On-line Answer key ^ ktc pf lhj^fvb cjdhfkcz. Nen yf jgeirt b ^cnhtnbkf tuj cjdfrf. Gjldt;fkf jyf r xtkj^tre b uj^jhbn: Xtkj^tr, xtkj^tr, lf^fq-rf ^vtcnt ;bnm cnfytv! Xtkj^tr crfpfk: Xnj ;t, bltv cj vyjq. B e^tk xtkj^tr cjdfre r ctdt ^ ljv. Djn yfcnegbk ^txth. Xtkj^tr pfcyek. D gjkyjxm gjrfpfkbcm cjdfrt ntyb b ijhj[b, b pfkfzkf jyf. F xtkj^tr yt ^cnf/n. Uhjvxt pfkfzkf cjdfrf. Ghjcyekcz xtkj^tr b pfrhbxfk: "q, cjdfxrf vjz! Tckb ns ujkjlyf, nfr gjtim, f vyt cgfnm yt vtifq. Nen cjdfrf pfvjkxfkf, gjtkf lf cgfnm ktukf. C nt[ gjh jyf e xtkj^trf b jcnfkfcm. B ntgthm ;b^/n. - Eghf;ytybt 1. (1) ^ (2) bp (3) r (4) yf (5) r (6) lj (7) xthtp (^jpvj;yf nfr;t rjycnherwbz dtp ghtlkjuf ) (8) vbvj (^ljkm) (9) bp (10) jn Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. ghjikb / gthtikb; bl/v / gtht[jlbv; gjql/v / gthtql/v 2. ghbi/k; ghb[jlbn; ghbl/n 3. gjikf; bl/n; gjql/n 4. ei/k; e[jlbim; eql/im 5. ghjikb; ghj[jlbv (bl/v); ghjql/v 6. ljikf; lj[jlbn; ljql/n 7. ghbi/k; ghb[jlbn; ghbl/n 8. gthtikb; gtht[jlzn; gthtqlen Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. gjqnb 2. ^sitk 3. pfi/k 4. gjikb (^jikb, pfikb) 5. ghj[jlbkb 6. gjqnb 7. gjikb 8. gjlji/k 9. ei/k 10. ljikb 11. gthtikb 12. hfpjikbcm 13. ghbi/k Eghf;ytybt 4. 8. ^tp/v 1. ghb^/p. 2. ghby/c. 3. ytc/v. 4. ^tp/n. 5. ytc/n. 6. ^tl/n. 7. ghb^/k. Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. htrt 2. enhjv 3. ghtrhfcyfz 4. [jkjlyfz 5. dthtue 6. ^jle 7. rybue 8. bynthtcyfz 9. dskj 10. jn^tnf 11. cgfcfntkmyjq 12. lheuf 13. xtkj^trf 14. Dbrnjhe 15. dthtuf 16. htre 17. lheujq Eghf;ytybt 6. 7. ^sdt;fk 1. ^ktntk 2. pf[jlbk 3. gjdtufk 4. gjljikf 5. [jlbnm 6. gjdtue Eghf;ytybt 7. (1) gj (2) yf (3) yf 4. yf (5) r (6) ^ (7) e (8) ^ (9) e (10) pf (11) c (12) j (13) ^ (14) gj (15) ^ (16) gj (17) bp (18) bp (19) ^ (20) ^ (21) c Eghf;ytybt 8.1 1. dhfnf 2. ghbikb 3. ktukb 4. ghjcyekbcm 5. gjqnb 6. ktce 7. vtl^tlbwe 8. e vtl^tlbws 9. ^ ujhe 10. yf ujht 11. ljvt 12. rfvyt 13. gjyzkb 14. htre (^jpvj;yj htrb) 15. ljvjq 16. jnls[f 17. ljvt 18. ljvjq 19. ^ji/k 20. htre 21. cgfkf 22. ujhs 23. ^sitk 24. ktn 25. ^ ltht^yt 26. ;bpyb 27. wfh/v 28. yf ujhe 29. j x/v 8.2 wfhm; wfhcn^j; wfhcn^j^fnm; cxfcnmt; ytcxfcnmt; ghf^; ghf^lf; ytghf^bkmyj; ghf^bkmyj 49 On-line Answer key 8.3 Jlyf;ls; l^f;ls, nhb;ls. Rnj-ybdelm; xnj-ybdelm; rjulf-ybdelm; ultybdelm; rfr-ybdelm. Ybrnj; ybrjulf; ybult. Gthtgksnm; gthtqnb - Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. htibkf 2. regbnm 3. ^scnegfnm 4. buhfnm 5. ghbl/n 6. k.dbn (^jpvj;yj gjk.dbkf ) 7. ghtgjlf^fk 8. k.dbn 9. uj^jhbk 10. ghbyjcbk 11. cjdhfkfcm 12. ;bkb 13. ^sikf 14. gjikf 15. jcnfyf^kb^fkcz 16. ikf 17. gthtdt;fk 18. gthtql/n 19. gjlji/k 20. gkfnbkb 21. dhfkb 22. ^pznm 23. pfdskf 24. gjtle 25. pfgkfxe 26. ecksifkf 27. crfpfkf 28. gkfnbnt 29. cvjnhtkb (^jpvj;yj gjcvjnhtkb) 30. e^bltkf Eghf;ytybt 10. (1) ^ (2) yf (3) ^ (4) ghb (5) ^ (6) cj (7) ^ (8) ^ (9) ^ (10) gj (11) ^ (12) jn (13) ^ (14) jnj (15) lkz (16) jn (17) lj (18) c (19) lj (20) ^ (21) gj (22) c (23) c (24) lj Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 12.1 ctvmz ^ ljvt / ^ r^fhnbht; wfhm ^j l^jhwt; pfrk.x/yysq ^ n.hmvt; jnls[f.obq yf nehdfpt / ^ cfyfnjhbb / ^ ljvt jnls[f / ^ ujcnbybwt; vjyf[byz ^ vjyfcnsht; gnbwf ^ uytplt; gjcjk ^ gjcjkmcn^t; cneltyn ^ jdot;bnbb 12.2 1. ^stpl pf uhfybwe 2. jwtyrb pf 'rpfvtyfwbjyye. ctccb. 3. heccrbq zpsr lkz dbpytcvtyj^ 4. ljrevtyns yf ^stpl 5. ghbukfitybt jn hjlcn^tyybrj^ 6. ghf^j yf cnbgtylb. 7. cghf^rf j pljhj^mt 8. vtcnj ^ rjvyfnt 9. ghb^b^rf jn [jkths Eghf;ytybt 1. Gbcfntkm: Dsqlbnt bp ^jrpfkf, ghjql/nt lj eukf, gj^thy/nt yfghf^j b gjql/nt gj ekbwt Kthvjynj^f. E gthtrh/cnrf gthtql/nt ekbwe b gjql/nt ^ljkm gj ekbwt Ktybyf. Ckt^f deltn d.hj 'rcrehcbq, cghf^f gfhr. Ljql/nt lj ekbws Geirbyf b gj^thy/nt yfghf^j. Gjql/nt ghzvj, gjrf yt ljql/nt lj irjks. Jdjql/nt irjke b c^thy/nt yfkt^j. Nfv ^s e^blbnt htcnjhfy. Ghjql/nt vbvj htcnjhfyf, vbvj dfcctqyf b wthr^b, pfntv vbvj ujcnbybws b yfrjytw cktle.obq pf ujcnbybwtq ljv deltn vjq. {elj;ybr: Rjulf ^s ^sql/nt bp dfcctqyf, blbnt ghzvj ^ljkm ekbws Ujhdfx/^f, gjnjv c^thybnt yfghf^j b blbnt gj ekbwt Ktybyf. Gj ghf^e. cnjhjye ^s e^blbnt hsyjr. Ghjqlbnt vbvj hsyrf, pfntv gthtqlbnt ekbwe b blbnt lj eukf. Yfghjnb^ wthr^b gj^thybnt yfkt^j. Z ;b^e ^j ^njhjv ljvt jn eukf. Exbntkm: Tckb ^s yf[jlbntcm e dfyrf, yflj gjqnb yfghf^j, ghjqnb vbvj rjywthnyjuj pfkf, pfntv gj^thyenm htprj yfkt^j b blnb gj ekbwt lj gjxns. Nfr ^s ^sql/nt yf ekbwe Ujhmrjuj. Yflj gthtqnb xthtp ekbwe b ghjljk;fnm blnb ghzvj-ghzvj, gjrf yt ljql/nt lj ekbws Ujhdfx/^f. Yflj gj^thyenm yfghf^j b blnb gj ekbwt Ujhdfx/^f lj eukf ekbws Ujhdfx/^f b ekbws Ktybyf. Z ;b^e ^ ljvt yf euke. Eghf;ytybt 2. D djkmib[ ujhjlf[, ult vyjuj nhfycgjhnf b ult ghjtp;fz xfcnm ekbws jxtym ibhjrfz, gtit[jls ljk;ys [jhjij pyfnm ghf^bkf ekbxyjuj l^b;tybz b ghf^bkf gtht[jlf. Ght;lt ^ctuj, cktletn gjvybnm, xnj e yfc ghf^jcnjhjyytt l^b;tybt. V V V 50 On-line Answer key Gtht[jlbnm ekbwe hfphtiftncz njkmrj yf gthtrh/cnrf[ c gtit[jlyjq ljhj;rjq, e c^tnjajhf, ult tcnm c^tnj^jt nfdkj lkz gtit[jlj^, bkb ^ cgtwbfkmyj jn^tl/yys[ vtcnf[, jdjpyfxtyys[ pyfrjv `Gtht[jl\. Ght;lt, xtv gtht[jlbnm yf lheue. cnjhjye ekbws, cyfxfkf yflj gjcvjnhtnm yfkt^j. Tckb ^s ^blbnt, xnj nhfycgjhnf gjdkbpjcnb ytn, vj;yj cgjrjqyj gtht[jlbnm lj cthtlbys ekbws. Rjulf ^s ljql/nt lj cthtlbys ekbws, ye;yj jcnfyj^bnmcz b gjcvjnhtnm yfghf^j, b njkmrj gjnjv ghjljk;fnm gtht[jl. Tckb yf c^tnjajht tcnm c^tnj^jt nfdkj lkz gtit[jlj^, nj gtht[jlbnm vj;yj njkmrj njulf, rjulf pfujhftncz ptk/yfz yflgbcm `BLBNT!\. Tckb ;t ujhbn rhfcyjt nfdkj `CNJQNT!\, ye;yj ;lfnm yf nhjnefht, gjrf ghjql/n nhfycgjhn. D Vjcr^t b Gtnthdehut yf ukf^ys[ ekbwf[ tcnm gjlptvyst gtht[jls. Pltcm gtit[jls vjuen dtpjgfcyj gtht[jlbnm ljhjue. Eghf;ytybt 3. :bkb-dskb ;ehf^km b wfgkz. :bkb jyb gj hfpysv rhfzv djkmijuj djkjnf. :ehf^k. cnfkj crexyj ;bnm jlyjve, b yflevfk jy ;tybnmcz. `Gjqle-rf z r wfgkt, htibk ;ehf^km, cltkf. tq ghtlkj;tybt\. B gji/k jy gj djkjne [k.g! [k.g! yf lkbyys[ yjuf[. Gjlji/k ;ehf^km r ljve wfgkb, gjcnexfkcz ^ l^thm. Dsikf wfgkz yf gjhju, e^bltkf ;ehf^kz b cghfib^ftn: `Xtuj ntdt yflj, lkbyyjyjubq?\ `{jxe ;tybnmcz, uj^jhbn ;ehf^km, Ds[jlb pf vtyz pfve;\. Pfcvtzkfcm wfgkz: `Pf ntdz-nj? {f-[f-[f! Lf ns yf ctdz gjcvjnhb! E ntdz yjub lkbyyst, itz lkbyyfz, b cfv ns lkbyysq b njobq. Jlt;lf yf ntdt dtlyfz, b ^bl e ntdz ujkjlysq. Ytxtv ntdt ;tye ghjrjhvbnm. Yt gjqle pf ntdz pfve;. Blb jnc.lf !\ Jdbltkcz ;ehf^km b ei/k ljvjq yb c xtv. F wfgkz ctkf e jryf b pflevfkfcm: `Xtv jlyjq ;bnm, e; kexit ^sqnb pfve; pf ;ehf^kz\. B gjikf wfgkz xthtp ^c/ djkjnj r ;ehf^k.. Ghbikf b uj^jhbn: `Djpmvb vtyz pfve;, ;ehf^km\. F ;ehf^km tq jn^txftn: `F z gthtlevfk. Yt [jxe ;tybnmcz, jlyjve kexit ;bnm, ybrnj yt vtiftn. Lf b ns vyt yt gjl[jlbim e; djkmyj yjc e ntdz lkbyysq. Yt ^jpmve ntdz pfve;!\ Wfgkz pfgkfrfkf jn cnslf b gjikf gj djkjne jdhfnyj ljvjq. :ehf^km cvjnhtk tq ^cktl b levfk: `Phz z yt ^pzk pf ctdz wfgk.. Jlyjve-nj ;bnm crexyj. Gjqle jgznm r ytq, gjghjie t/ pf vtyz ^sqnb.\ Ghb[jlbn jy r wfgkt b uj^jhbn: `Ye kflyj, dthe ntdz. Blb pf vtyz pfve;\. `Ytn, uj^jhbn wfgkz. ntgthm e; z gthtlevfkf. Yt [jxe pf ntdz pfve;. :b^b ctdt jlby rfr [jxtim.\ :ehf^km hfccthlbkcz b uj^jhbn: `Ye b jcnf^fqcz ^c. ;bpym ^ cnfhs[ lt^f[!\ B gji/k ;ehf^km yf lkbyys[ yjuf[ gj djkjne jdhfnyj ljvjq. Wfgkz jgznm pflevfkfcm: `F ^lheu b ^ghf^le ybrnj vtyz pfve; yt ^jpmv/n?\ Gjdt;fkf jyf ^cktl pf ;ehf^k/v: `:ehf^eirf! Kflyj e;, ble pf ntdz pfve;\. F ;ehf^km tq: `Ns bl/im, lf z yt dthe!\ Nfr b [jlzn wfgkz b ;ehf^km lheu r lheue gj djkjne lj cb[ gjh!.. 51 On-line Answer key Unit 16 Ehjr 16 ! Eghf;ytybt F1. ^ ghjikjv ujle yf Rf^rfpcrjv gjdtht;mt jnlj[yekb . . . ^ Cjxb jnlj[yekb 2,5 vbkkbjyf hjccbzy 3 nsczxb hfymit 4 vbkkbjyf 1,5 vbkkbjyf vjkjl/;m cneltyns ghtlghbybvfntkb k.lb chtlytuj b lj 24 ktn (%) (%) cnfhituj ^jphfcnf (%) (%) jnls[f.n gjlfkmit jn Vjcr^s yt jnls[f.n, a hfdjnf.n jnls[f.n pf uhfybwtq jnls[f.n ^ Rhsve jnls[f.n e hjlys[ b pyfrjvs[ 15 19 33+ 12 16 33 33+ 52 Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Csy ^sit jnwf. 2. Jy vjkj;t vtyz. 3. Vjq jntw yf ujl cnfhit vfnthb. 4. Rfnz pyftn heccrbq zpsr kexit ntdz. 5. Jctym. yjxm lkbyytt lyz. Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. Ve; yf gjknjhf ujlf vjkj;t ;eys. 2. Fyyf uj^jhbn gj-heccrb kexit L;jyf. 3. Hfccrfp bynthtcytt abkmvf. 4. <hfn kj;bncz cgfnm hfymit vtyz. 5. Dfi ckj^fhm ljhj;t vjtuj. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Jyb ;b^en ^ cfvjv djkmijv ljvt. 2. Z [jxe ^cnhtnbnm ^fie vkflie. ctcnhe. 3. Vs gjljikb r cfvjq kexitq rfhnbyt ^ veptt. 4. Ija/h gjl]t[fk r cfvjve ^scjrjve plfyb.. 5. Vfhr ntgthm buhftn ^ cfvjq cbkmyjq vjkjl/;yjq aendjkmyjq rjvfylt cnhfys. 6. Ktrnjh hfccrfpfk cneltynfv^txthybrfv j cfvjq vfktymrjq ltht^yt ^ Fahbrt. Eghf;ytybt 4. Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. [e;t 2. ^sit 3. ltit^kt 4. uked;t 5. gjp;t 6. djufxt 7. lfkmit 1. ntvytt 2. lkbyytt, rjhjxt 3. uked;t 4. nhelytt 5. bynthtcytt On-line Answer key - Eghf;ytybt 6. 1.ljhj;t 2. djkmit, djkmit 3. vtymit, hfymit 4. lfkmit 5. ^sit 6. ljkmit 7. vjkj;t, cnfhit 8. kexit 9. [e;t Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. exbntk. 2. uthj. 3. Gtnt 4. ctcnht, yzyt 5. Fktrct. 6. Rfnt 7. Fylht. 8. vfnthb b ltleirt 9. ^txthe 10. htrt 11. yjxb 12. exbntk. 13. vfntvfnbrt 14. djktpyb 15. k.d^b 16. bvtyb 17. ntktajye 18. vfnthb, ltke Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. cneltynfv 2. c/cnhfv 3. hjlcn^tyybrfv 4. extybrfv 5. lhepmzv 6. gjlheufv 7. nehbcnfv 8. veptzv 9. hfdjxbv 10. ltnzv Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. vjtq cnfhitq ctcnht 2. jlyjve yj^jve cneltyne 3. vjtve lheue Gf^ke 4. vjbv ghbzntkzv 5. vjbv dkbprbv lhepmzv Eghf;ytybt 10. 6. rjnjhjq. Eghf;ytybt 11. l^thb Eghf;ytybt 12. 1. rjnjhsv 2. rjnjhjq 3. rjnjhjve 4. rjnjhjq 5. rjnjhjve 1. c^jtq cnfhjq 2. c^jtve cnfhjve 3. vjbv hjlbntkzv 4. vjtq (1) gj (2) gj (3) r (4) gj, r (5) r Eghf;ytybt 13. (1) ^ (2) ^ (3) r (4) ^ (5) ^ (6) bp (7) c (8) yf (9) yf (10) yf (11) yf (12) jrjkj (13) yf (14) gthtl (15) ^ (16) yf (17) c (18) ^ (19) yf (20) ^j (21) e (22) c (23) gj (24) r (25) c (26) dtp (27) lj (28) c (29) yf (30) lkz (31) e (32) ghb Eghf;ytybt 14. Ntgkj[jlyst 'rcrehcbb: 1. gj htrfv b rfyfkfv; yf Yt^crjv ghjcgtrnt 2. yf Yt^t; jnghf^kz.ncz; ghbxfkf; c gbnfybtv 3. yf Dfcbkmt^crjv jcnhj^t; ^ctuj lyz; ^ rfccf[; yf L^jhwj^jq gkjoflb; yf Vjcrj^crjv ^jrpfkt Gtit[jlyst 'rcrehcbb: 1. c 'rcrehcj^jljv; Dcflybrf 2. gj Ktnytve cfle; l^jhwe; Rhskj^e; yf gtit[jlye. 'rcrehcb. 3. gj kbnthfnehysv gfvznybrfv; e ^[jlf F^njdecyst b gtit[jlyst 'rcrehcbb: gj kbnthfnehysv vtcnfv; ^j ^ct[ rbjcrf[ Eghf;ytybt 15. 1. uekzk 2. ghbt[fk 3. htibk 4. jcnfyj^bk 5. cvt/ncz 6. eksdftncz 7. gjghjcbk 8. cjukfcbkcz 9. cbltkb 10. pfvtnbk 11. hfccrfps^fk 12. cvtzkcz 13. eksdyekcz 14. gthti/k 15. jcnf^fkjcm 16. ei/k 17. jujhxbkcz 18. eksdyekcz 19. pyf. 20. cksibn Eghf;ytybt 16. C^tnkfyf, ds^ifz ghtgjlf^fntkmybwf dbdkbjntxyjuj nt[ybrevf, ;b^/n ^ Kjyljyt e;t gjxnb gznyflwfnm ktn. Hfdjnf e yt/ ctpjyyfz: jyf jlby bp ytvyjub[ heccrjzpsxys[ ublj^, rjnjhs[ ^j ^ctq Dtkbrjdhbnfybb xtkj^tr nhblwfnm, yt djkmit. E C^tnkfys ytn `Ujkedjuj pyfxrf\ (`Blue badge\), rjnjhsq gjkexf.n fyukbqcrbt ubls ^scitq r^fkbabrfwbb gjckt l^e[ujlbxys[ rehcj^ b vyj;tcn^f jxtym nhelys[ 'rpfvtyj^. `Pyfxjr\ yt njkmrj ufhfynbhetn ^scjre. gkfne (4050 53 - On-line Answer key aeynj^ ^ xfc), yj b lf/n ghf^j ^jlbnm 'rcrehcfynj^ gj cfvsv ghtcnb;ysv ljcnjghbvtxfntkmyjcnzv Kjyljyf, nfrbv rfr Dtcnvbycnthcrjt fddfncn^j, plfybt Gfhkfvtynf, rjhjkt^crbt htpbltywbb b n.l. C^tnkfyf `dtp pyfxrf\ gjkexftn 1520 aeynj^ ^ xfc, [jnz hfdjnftn 'rcrehcj^jljv e;t xtn^/hnsq ujl; ^ ktnybq ctpjy t/ ghbukfif.n futyncn^f, cgtwbfkbpbhe.obtcz yf yfib[ nehbcnf[. Ctujlyz e C^tnkfys ghbtp;ftn uheggf bp Yj^ujhjlf ctvyflwfnm xtkj^tr. B[ yflj ^cnhtnbnm ^ gjkj^byt ^jcmvjuj ^ f'hjgjhne Ufn^br, ljcnf^bnm ^ jntkm yf Gbrflbkkb, gjrjhvbnm pf^nhfrjv, ghj^tcnb 'rcrehcb. gj wtynhe Kjyljyf yf l^e['nf;yjv f^njdect c jnrhsnsv ^th[jv, f gjnjv jn^tpnb b[ jdhfnyj ^ jntkm yf jdtl r xfce lyz. Gjckt 'njuj C^tnkfyf ljk;yf cjghj^j;lfnm gj kjyljycrbv vfufpbyfv ;tye jlyjuj `yj^juj heccrjuj\, yt pyf.oe. yb ckj^f gj-fyukbqcrb. R rjywe ktnytuj ctpjyf heccrb[ nehbcnj^ cnfkj vtymit, b C^tnkfyf to/ jctym. lfkf jd]z^ktybt ^ kjyljycrjq heccrjzpsxyjq ufptnt: `Bylb^blefkmysq nehbpv: gtht^jlxbr, 'rcrehcbb gj Kjyljye, ijggbyu. Nfhba 20 aeynj^ ^ xfc\. Yf `ijggbyu\ jrfpfkcz djkmijq cghjc, ^ jcyj^yjv chtlb `yj^s[\ heccrb[ dbpytcvtyj^, e rjnjhs[ ytn yb ^htvtyb, yb ;tkfybz [jlbnm c ;tyjq pf gjregrfvb. Hj^yj ^ l^f C^tnkfyf pftp;ftn ^ jntkm `{bknjy\ pf `yj^jq heccrjq\ lfvjq. Tq yf ^bl ktn cjhjr, yt^scjrfz, gjkyfz, rheukjkbwfz, pj^en t/ Jkmuf. Jltnf Jkmuf ghjcnj 'ktufynyfz, lkbyyfz vt[j^fz iedf ijrjkflyjuj w^tnf, f gjl iedjq cfgj;rb lj rjkty, vbyb.drf b gbl;fxjr jn Lbjhf. :b^en jyb ^ Cbdbhb, e ve;f c^jq dbpytc `"rcgjhn-bvgjhn\, e yb[ l^jt ltntq lt^jxrf b vfkmxbr. Jkmuf hfymit hfdjnfkf ^jcgbnfntkmybwtq ^ ltncrjv cfle. Ntgthm jyf yt hfdjnftn. Yf x/hyjv kjyljycrjv nfrcb C^tnkfyf c Jkmujq gjl]tp;ftn r jlyjve bp cfvs[ atitytdtkmys[ b ljhjub[ vfufpbyj^ `{fhhjlc\. Gjregfntktq vyjuj: bl/n pbvyzz hfcghjlf;f. Jkmut yflj regbnm gfhe rkfccbxtcrb[ fyukbqcrb[ rjcn.vj^, ytcrjkmrj ^txthyb[ gkfnmt^, `xnj-ybdelm 'aatrnyjt\ lkz gkz;f ( jyb c ve;tv cjdbhf.ncz ktnjv yf Vfqjhre `gjregfnm ^bkke\), ye b rjytxyj, ltncre. jlt;le: ijnkfylcre. .dre lkz ljxrb b vjlye. rehnre lkz csyf. F ve;e xnj? F ybxtuj, gecnm cfv ctdt gjregftn! R gznb xfcfv, gjnhfnb^ jrjkj nh/[ nsczx aeynj^, ecnfkst b e^tifyyst cevrfvb c gjregrfvb, jyb cj C^tnkfyjq cflzncz ^ nfrcb b ^jp^hfof.ncz ^ ibrfhysq Jkmuby yjvth ^ `{bknjyt\. V V V Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 17.2 1. ghbukfifnm yf hfdjne 2. c]tplbnm yf 'rcrehcb. 3. ghbybvfnm jnls[f.ob[ 4. gtxfnfnm yf vfibyrt 5. bvtnm lfxe 6. ghj^tcnb ktnybq jngecr 7. ^kfltnm fyukbqcrbv zpsrjv 8. jcnf^fnmcz ljvf 9. e^tkbxb^fnmcz ^ . . . hfp 10. gjkexbnm ^bpe 11. dhfnm jngecr 12. etp;fnm yf lfxe 13. eltkznm ^ybvfybt 17.3 1. jdotcn^tyyjt vytybt 2. ltkj^fz ;tyobyf 3. gj;bkst k.lb 4. rfgbnfkbcnbxtcrfz cnhfyf 5. ntyybcyst rjhns 6. uhf;lfycrfz ^jqyf 7. ujhzxfz njxrf 8. ktnybq jngecr 9. ^ytiybq ^bl 10. jhufyyfz vepsrf 11. nehbcnbxtcrfz gjtplrf 12. itcnbltcznbnh/[nsczxyjt yfctktybt 13. jlyjlyt^yjt gentitcn^bt 14. x/hysq kbvepby 15. xfhnthysq htqc 16. ^scjrjt rfxtcn^j 17. jdcke;b^f.obq gthcjyfk 54 On-line Answer key V V V 17.4 pjynbrb; vjhcrbt rfnthf; gb^j; kjlrf; cyfhz;tybt lkz gjl^jlyjq j[jns; ^jlyst ks;b; itpkjyub 17.5 djkmybwf gjkbrkbybrf; ljv jnls[f cfyfnjhbq; lht^ybq cnfhsq; rfybreks jngecr; vjkjljq cj^htvtyysq; jnls[f.obq nehbcn; gfvznybr cnfnez; gjctotybt jcvjnh; ghbujhjl jrhfbyf; ghjuekrf 'rcrehcbz; htcnjhfy cnjkj^fz; cjdjh wthrj^m 17.6 Crossword. 1. ltit^kt 2. djufxt 3. zhxt 4. ;t 5. ljhj;t 6. dkb;t 7. ntvytt 8. ljkmit 9. ht;t 10. vjkj;t, vtymit 11. kexit 12. djkmit 13. rjhjxt 14. ibht 15. hfymit 16. ^sit 17. lfkmit. Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Crjkmrj ntdt ktn, Yfnfif ? Vyt 19, f ntdt, Bujhm? F vyt e;t 22. 2. Jq, rfrjq e ntdz nz;/ksq h.rpfr! Crjkmrj jy ^tcbn? Ctqxfc ^p^tcbv . . . 29 rbkjuhfvv. Ntdz ;t ^ cfvjk/n c ybv yt gecnzn! F vjq xtvjlfy hj^yj 20 ru, rfr gjkfuftncz. 3. Crf;bnt, crjkmrj cnjbn ^byj? Rfrjt? Djn 'nj? "nj ahfywepcrjt ^byj 63 hedkz. Jq, rfr ljhjuj! F ^jlrf ? Gjkkbnhf ^jlrb cnjbn 25 hedktq. {jhjij, vyt denskre ^jlrb, gj;fkeqcnf. 4. Vyt ghbikj gbcmvj bp Zgjybb Bynthtcyj, crjkmrj ^htvtyb jyj ikj? Ns pyftim, z pfvtnbk, xnj bp Vjcr^s ^ Njrbj gbcmvf blen ytltkb l^t, f jdhfnyj bp Njrbj r yfv ghbvthyj xtnsht ytltkb. 5. Ns pyftim, crjkmrj rbkjvtnhj^ jn Vjcr^s lj Gtnthdehuf ? Ghbvthyj 650 rv. F jn Vjcr^s lj Zhjckf^kz? Jrjkj 250 rv. 6. Dfi csy nfr pljhj^j ^shjc pf 'njn ujl! Lf, jy e;t gthtuyfk jnwf. Csy ntgthm hjcnjv 1v 80cv, f jntw 1v 67cv. Lf b ljxrf yfif nj;t gjxnb c jnwf hjcnjv. E yfc ^ ctvmt ^ct ^scjrbt. Eghf;ytybt 3. Htrkfvf 1: <.hj gentitcn^bq `B^fy lf Vfhmz\ ghtlkfuftn 'rcrk.pb^yst bylb^blefkmyst gjtplrb ^ Fyukb., ^j Ahfywb., ^ Bcgfyb., ^ Bnfkb., ^ Uhtwb.. Rheuksq ujl, ^ eljdyjt lkz ^fc ^htvz, yf jlyjuj bkb yf l^jb[ . . . . Cgtwbfkmyst yj^jujlybt nehs gj cyb;tyysv wtyfv ^ Fyukb. b Ahfywb. c 24 ltrfdhz gj 2 zy^fhz. Thflbwbjyyjt fyukbqcrjt Hj;ltcn^j ^ Kjyljyt, ^cnhtxf Yj^juj ujlf ^ Gfhb;t! Cgtibnt! Ghb/v ljrevtynj^ lj 20 yjzdhz. Ghtlkfuftv nfr;t: . 'kbnfhysq jnls[ yf ^bkkt ^j Akjhblt (CIF); . pbvybq rhebp gj Chtlbptvyjve vjh. c jnls[jv yf Rbght, c gjctotybtv Bphfbkz b Tubgnf . xfhnthyst cfvjk/nyst htqcs ^ Nfbkfyl b Cbyufgeh :l/v ^fc ^ d.hj gentitcn^bq `B^fy lf Vfhmz\ gj flhtce: Vjcr^f, Repytwcrbq vjcn 5. Ntktajy (095) 235-36-11, afrc (095) 233-16-80 55 On-line Answer key Htrkfvf 2: Lfvs b ujcgjlf! Nehbcncrjt futyncn^j `APEX WORLD TRAVEL\ ghbukfiftn Dfc yf ^cnhtxe Hj;ltcn^f b Yj^juj ujlf ^ rhfcb^tqibt t^hjgtqcrbt ujhjlf: Fvcnthlfv, Dtye, Pfkmwdehu, Ghfue. Nehs jn 3-[ lj 7 lytq c ghj;b^fybtv ^ rjvajhnfdtkmys[ nh/[- b xtnsh/[p^/pljxys[ jntkz[. Ghtlkfuftv nfr;t gjtplrb yf ujhyj-ks;yst rehjhns <jkufhbb, Xt[bb b Ckj^frbb b yf 'rpjnbxtcrbt rehjhns >uj-Djcnjxyjq Fpbb yf gjdtht;mt Bylbqcrjuj jrtfyf. Yfi Flhtc: Vjcr^f, ek. Uthwtyf l. 60 Abkbfks APEX WORLD TRAVEL bvt.ncz ^ Cfyrn-Gtnthdehut, ^ Yj^ujhjlt b ^ Bhrencrt. Htrkfvf 3: Ktnfqnt `F'hjakjnjv\! Bp f'hjgjhnf Ityyjy jy ljcnf^bn Dfc ^ Cfyrn-Gtnthdehu pf 3 xfcf 20 vbyen, f ^ Vjcr^e pf 4 xfcf 50 vbyen. Pf jlby gjk/n ^s cvj;tnt gjds^fnm ^ l^e[ rhegytqib[ ujhjlf[ Hjccbb ^ t/ pkfnjukf^jq cnjkbwt b ^ ghtrhfcyjv ujhjlt Gtnhf yf Yt^t. Wtys yf dbktns ltit^kt lheub[ f^bfrjvgfybq. Dgth^st lkz gfccf;bhj^ A'hjakjnf 'rcrk.pb^yst eckeub: . Gfcgjhnf b ^bps lkz nt[ gentitcn^tybrj^, e rjnjhs[ ytn nehf c ujcnbybwtq b gbnfybtv, lkz nt[, rnj cjdbhftncz ^ xfcnye. bkb ltkj^e. gjtplre r lhepmzv, rjkktufv, gfhny/hfv; . Rjycfknbyuj^sq cth^bc gj jajhvktyb. dbpytc^bp b ghbukfitybq byjcnhfyysv dbpytcvtyfv lkz ^]tplf ^ Hjccb.; . Jajhvktybt gjkyjuj rjvgktrnf ljrevtynj^ lkz ^stplf hjccbqcrb[ uhf;lfy pf hedt;. Gjlhjdye. byajhvfwb. vj;yj gjkexbnm ^ futyncn^f[ F'hjakjnf ^ Hjccbb b pf hedt;jv. D Vjcr^t pfrfps yf dbktns ghbybvf.ncz gj ntktajye 753-80-30; Ntktajy uheggs rjynfrnf c gfccf;bhfvb: 150-38-63 `Ntktajy lj^thbz\ F'hjakjnf: 752-90-73 Eghf;ytybt 4. Htpekmnfns jghjcf vjcr^bxtq, ghj^tl/yyjuj cjwbjkjufvb ^ jdsxye. chtle. Dj-gth^s[, ^szcybkjcm, xnj djkmibycn^j vjcr^bxtq 68% ^cnf.n lj^jkmyj hfyj ^ gjkj^byt ^jcmvjuj. "nj ^ jcyj^yjv k.lb jn 20 lj 50 ktn, hfdjxbt, cke;fobt b exfobtcz. Gjxnb gznfz xfcnm bp yb[ uj^jhzn, xnj hfyj ^cnf^fnm yt k.dzn, b xnj yfcnhjtybt e yb[ gj enhfv jxtym gkj[jt. Enhjv 30% vjcr^bxtq gm.n xfq, 19% rjat. Njkmrj 4% rfr ghf^bkj ;tyobys tlzn qjuehn. 6% ltntq gbkb ^ 'ne chtle ahernj^sq cjr. 40% ve;xby ghtlgjxbnf.n yf pf^nhfr rfie bkb vzcj, f djkmibycn^j ;tyoby denthdhjls. Bynthtcyj, xnj lfktrj yt ^ct jghjityyst cjdbhfkbcm ^ 'ne chtle hfdjnfnm bkb exbnmcz. 18% htibkb c[jlbnm ^ vfufpby pf ghjlernfvb; 16% gkfybhj^fkb pfyznmcz `ljvfiybvb ltkfvb\, 5% cjdhfkbcm c enhf ujnj^bnm; l^f c gjkj^byjq ghjwtynf cnbhfnm. "nj, hfpevttncz, ^ jcyj^yjv ;tyobys. Jlby ghjwtyn ve;xby cjdbhfkbcm ^ 'njn ltym htvjynbhj^fnm r^fhnbhe. D ne ;t chtle ly/v 6% jghjityys[ cjdbhfkbcm ^cnhtnbnmcz c lhepmzvb, nhb ghjwtynf htibkb gjc^znbnm ltym 56 On-line Answer key `rekmnehyjve ljceue\: xntyb., gjctotyb. dbdkbjntrb, veptz, ^scnf^rb. "nj ukf^ysv jdhfpjv gtycbjyths b cneltyns. Njkmrj 62% jghjityys[ crfpfkb, xnj dskb ly/v yf hfdjnt. Hfdjxbq ltym e ve;xby ghjljk;fkcz ^ chtlytv jrjkj 11 xfcj^, e ;tyoby jrjkj 8. Yf ^jghjc `Ult ^s jdtlfkb ^ 'njn ltym?\ 34% pfz^bkb, xnj cj^ctv yt jdtlfkb. Ytrjnjhst tkb denthdhjls yf hfdjnt. E;byfkb ;t djkmibycn^j jghjityys[ ljvf. Yf e;by 49% tkb ceg, e 19% yf ^njhjt dskj vzcj. Cfkfns, c^t;bt j^job dskb ^ vty. njkmrj e 7% vjcr^bxtq, rfr ghf^bkj, e k.ltq c ^scibv jdhfpj^fybtv. 28% yf ltccthn gbkb xfq. Kj;fncz cgfnm vjcr^bxb yt jxtym gjplyj: 42% ktukb ^ 'ne chtle vt;le 11 b 12 xfcfvb. Rfr b cktlj^fkj j;blfnm, 56% vjkjl/;b ^ ^jphfcnt lj 25 ktn kj;bncz gjckt xfcf. (Adapted from `Cgenybr\ @ 12, 1996) Unit 17 Ehjr 17 ! Eghf;ytybt T2. djkmibycn^j; djkmit b djkmit; ytrjnjhst, (11%); vyjubt, (53%), (47%); ytrjnjhst, (32%); lheubt, (6%), (7%) Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. ujkjc exbntkz 2. ltncn^j uthjz 3. crfprf yzyb 4. kex cjkywf 5. cthtlbyf yjxb 6. dthtu htrb 7. xtnsht lyz Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. ^htvtyb 2. ^tnhf 3. ujcnz 4. Cthutz 5. vfnthb, jnwf 6. bvtyb 7. lzlb 8. jnwf 9. Djkub Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. e l^thb, ^scjrjuj hjcnf 2. ktnytq yjxb 3. gth^juj zy^fhz 4. bvtyb Xfqrj^crjuj 5. jn ljxthb Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. hedktq 2. gfkmwt^ 3. ekbw b gkjofltq 4. xfcj^ 5. xtkj^tr 6. lheptq 7. hextr b rfhfylfitq 8. ujcntq 9. ltytu Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. jn dthtuf Fyukbb 2. jn Gtnthdehuf lj Vjcr^s, xfcj^. 3. c enhf lj ^txthf 4. jn rfikz 5. bp-pf djktpyb, bp cgfkmyb 6. yfghjnb^ l^jhwf 7. dtp xtn^thnb 8. ytltkm 9. lj yfxfkf pfyznbq, lytq 10. rhjvt yfc 11. rjywf ^jctvyflwfnjuj ^trf Eghf;ytybt 6. (1) bp (2) cj (3) c (4) jn (5) bp (6) jn (7) c (8) dtp (9) gjckt (10) rhjvt - Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. (a) D [jkjlbkmybrt jcnfkjcm denskjr gznm gb^f. (d) D [jkjlbkmybrt jcnfkjcm jrjkj gznb denskjr gb^f. 2. (f ) Vfhufhtn N'nxth ghf^bkf ktn jlbyyflwfnm. (d) Vfhufhtn N'nxth ghf^bkf jrjkj jlbyyflwfnb ktn. 3. (f ) Z pfybvf.cm heccrbv zpsrjv vtczwt^ itcnm. (d) Z pfybvf.cm heccrbv zpsrjv jrjkj itcnb vtczwt^. 4. (f ) Jyb ghbikb xfcj^ ^ jlbyyflwfnm. (d) Jyb ghbikb jrjkj jlbyyflwfnb xfcj^. 5. (f ) D gfxrt jcnfkjcm cbufhtns nhb. (d) D gfxrt 57 On-line Answer key jcnfkjcm jrjkj nh/[ cbufhtn. 6. (f ) Tuj ctcnht ktn itcnyflwfnm. (d) Tuj ctcnht jrjkj itcnyflwfnb ktn. 7. (f ) Lj 'rpfvtyj^ jcnfkjcm ytltkm gznm. (d) Lj 'rpfvtyj^ jcnfkjcm jrjkj gznb ytltkm. V V V V Eghf;ytybt 8. xtkj^tr; yfhjle; xtkj^tr; k.ltq; xtkj^tr Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. Hjvfye 2. Rbhbkke 3. ujlf 4. vyt 5. ve;e 6. xbnftim 7. e vtyz 8. njuj 9. bvt.n 10. ^jkyetn 11. hfpybws 12. ^ ctvmt 13. cblbim 14. ve;f 15. ltnmvb 16. c htd/yrjv 17. [jhjifz 18. abprekmnehs 19. ^scitt 20. ^jghjcf 21. ujlf 22. lj l^e[cjn 23. c ^scibv jdhfpj^fybtv 24. vyt 25. e vtyz 26. yf jlt;le 27. ktnytt 28. ly. 29. ujle Eghf;ytybt 10. (13) pf (14) pf (1) c (2) pf (3) ^ (4) ^ (5) ^ (6) c (7) yf (8) bp (9) c (10) bp (11) c (12) c Eghf;ytybt 11. (1) bp (2) c (3) ^ (4) yf (5) ^ (6) bp (7) lkz (8) j (9) ^ (10) ^ (11) ^ (12) yf (13) ^ (14) ^ (15) j (16) pf (17) yf (18) c (19) e (20) ^ (21) yf (22) ^ (23) ^ Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 13.1 1. ^bltnm ^j cyt 2. bvtnm htd/yrf 3. nhfnbnm ^htvz 4. jgkfxb^fnm cx/n 5. jnytcnb ^ gjxbyre 6. ghj^tcnb jghjc 13.2 ^jcgbns^fnmcz ^jcgbnfybt ^jcgbnfntkm; ^shfcnb ^phjcksq; cjukfitybt cjukfcbt cjukfcbnmcz; ;tyf ;tybnmcz ;tycrbq; phtybt phbntkm; jdzpfyyjcnm jdzpfntkmysq; jnltktybt hfpltktybt; hjlbnmcz hj;ltybt; cybnmcz cjy dtccjyybwf ghjcyenmcz; cj^htvtyysq ^htvz ^htvtyysq; exfcn^j^fnm exfcnbt exfcnybr; wtyf wtybnm 13.4 erkf g rjh reg edbhfnm buhe x v ukf gjlv gj cnbh L J V F I Y B T L T K F s^fnm ltntq cgfnm regfnm ghjlerns bnm htd/yrf nm htd/yrf ^ ^fyyt rb yf vtcnj frhs^fnm yf cnjk cnbnm jde^m yznm gtk/yrb bnm nfnm ^ rjvyfnt b^fnm w^tns nm V 58 13.5 ve; b ;tyf cegheub; csy b ljxm ltnb; [ktd b vjkjrj ghjlerns; ve;xbyf b ;tyobyf k.lb; Ahfywbz b Hjccbz cnhfys; cfgj;ybr b vfkzh ghjatccbb; cnjk b cnek vtdtkm; aendjk b [jrrtq cgjhn; kbcf b vtl^tlm ;b^jnyst; Yt^f b Djkuf htrb; cfgjub b neakb jde^m; Zknf b Jh/k ujhjlf; On-line Answer key uhbgg b fyubyf djktpyb; dfyfy b zdkjrj aherns; at^hfkm b vfhn vtczws; ujkj^f b herf xfcnb ntkf; jctym b pbvf ^htvtyf ujlf; cnjkj^fz b cgfkmyz rjvyfns; yjcrb b .drf jlt;lf Eghf;ytybt 1. D Dtkbrjdhbnfybb yt njkmrj vfvs, yj b gfgs bvt.n c^jq ghfplybr. D ghjikjv ujle vfvby ltym jnvtxfkb 9 vfhnf, gjxnb jlyj^htvtyyj c yfibv ;tycrbv ly/v. `Ltym gfg\ jdsxyj ghfplye.n ktnjv, ^j ^njhjt ^jcrhtctymt b.yz. D ltym vfnthtq, rfr b e yfc, ltnb lfhzn vfvfv w^tns, gjlfhrb, gjplhf^bntkmyst jnrhsnrb, f ve;mz dthen yf ctdz ^c. hfdjne gj ljve. Djjdot fyukbqcrbt ve;xbys kexit, xtv yfib, cghf^kz.ncz c ljvfiytq hfdjnjq, b yt njkmrj gj ^tkbrbv ghfplybrfv. Cjukfcyj jabwbfkmyjq cnfnbcnbrt, ^ wtkjv gj cnhfyt djktt 50 ghjwtynj^ ve;xby k.dzn ujnj^bnm; 44 ghjwtynf evt.n cnbhfnm b ukflbnm, b 33 ghjwtyna jnwj^ gjhj^ye ltkzn c ;tyjq pfdjne j htd/yrt. Jrjkj 20 ghjwtynj^ fyukbxfy jn^tnbkb ghb jghjct, xnj ghtlgjxbnf.n cbltnm ljvf c ltnmvb b dsnm `ljvfiybv [jpzbyjv\, f ;tyt ghtljcnf^bnm ^jpvj;yjcnm hfdjnfnm b ltkfnm rfhmthe. (gj vfnthbfkfv ufptns `Rjvcjvjkmcrfz ghf^lf\) Eghf;ytybt 2. Ytlf^yj vjcrj^crbt cjwbjkjub ghj^tkb jghjc chtlb ltcznb nsczx vjkjls[ vjcr^bxtq b vjcr^bxtr ^ ^jphfcnt jn 20 lj 30 ktn. Jyb [jntkb epyfnm, rfr hfcghtltkz.ncz ljvfiybt jdzpfyyjcnb vt;le ve;tv b ;tyjq ^ cj^htvtyyjq vjkjljq ctvmt. Djn xnj gjrfpfkb htpekmnfns jghjcf. <jkmibycn^j ve;xby 62% ;fke.ncz, xnj ;tyf eltkztn ytljcnfnjxyj ^ybvfybz c^jtq ctvmt b ljvfiybv ltkfv. Jlyfrj, jrjkj 18% ve;tq edt;ltys, xnj b[ ;/ys nhfnzn yf ljvfiybt [kjgjns ujhfplj djkmit ^htvtyb, xtv ye;yj. 20% ve;xby jn^tnbkb ghb jghjct, xnj ;tyf pfybvftncz ljvfiybv [jpzqcn^jv hj^yj cnjkmrj, crjkmrj yflj. Ghbvthyj 49% ve;xby cjukfcyj c nhflbwbjyysv vytybtv, j njv, xnj ;tyf ljk;yf yt hfdjnfnm, f cbltnm ljvf b gjkyjcnm. gjc^znbnm ctdz ctvmt b ^jcgbnfyb. ltntq. `Gecnm hfdjnftn jlby ve;xbyf\, cxbnf.n jyb. Chtlb vjcrj^crb[ ;tyoby c 'nbv vytybtv cjukfcbkjcm njkmrj 13%. Cfvb ;t ve;xbys yt jxtym-nj j[jnyj dthen yf ctdz ljvfiybt ltkf b ctvtqyst jdzpfyyjcnb: 55% ve;tq jnrhj^tyyj ghbpyf.ncz, xnj cj^ctv ybxtuj yt ltkf.n gj ljve; 24% bp yb[ cxbnf.n, xnj `ytvyjuj gjvjuf.n\ ;tyt gj [jpzqcn^e; b njkmrj 12% ve;xby dthen yf ctdz gjkj^bye ^ct[ ljvfiyb[ ltk. Ytrjnjhst ve;xbys xe^cn^e.n ctdz ^byj^fnsvb gthtl ;tyjq, bp-pf njuj, xnj vfkj gjvjuf.n tq gj ljve. Yj, r cj;fktyb., b[ vtymibycn^j ^ctuj 9%. 10% vjcrj^crb[ ve;tq cjukfcys c gptlkj;tybtv, xnj ye;yj jnrhsnm jdzpfntkmyst cgtwbfkmyst rehcs gj ^jcgbnfyb. b gtht^jcgbnfyb. ve;xby, lkz njuj, xnjds bpvtybnm b[ jnyjitybt r c^jbv ctvtqysv b ljvfiybv jdzpfyyjcnzv. "nj ghtlkj;tybt c djkmibv 'ynepbfpvjv gjllth;fkb 89% vjkjls[ vjcr^bxtr! Eghf;ytybt 3. 1-sq xbnfntkm: Vyt yflj cktlbnm pf kbnthfnehjq gj cgtwbfkmyjcnb. "nj pfybvftn vyjuj ^htvtyb. Yf xntybt [elj;tcn^tyyjq kbnthfnehs ^htvtyb yt [^fnftn. 59 On-line Answer key Ghf^lf, tckb gjz^kztncz gj^tcnm bkb hjvfy, j rjnjhjv ^ct uj^jhzn, z jdzpfntkmyj cnfhf.cm b[ ghjxbnfnm. Rkfccbre, r cj;fktyb., gjxnb yt xbnf., cnb[j^ nj;t ytn ^htvtyb. Rybub dthe ^ dbdkbjntrt, e lheptq, vyjujt gjregf. cfv. 2-jq xbnfntkm: Z cnfhf.cm cktlbnm pf cj^htvtyyjq kbnthfnehjq b xbnf. gjxnb ^c/ bynthtcyjt, xnj ^s[jlbn. E^ktrf.cm cnb[fvb, xfcnj gthtxbns^f. c^jb[ k.dbvs[ gj'nj^. J[jnyj xbnf. yfexyj-gjgekzhye. kbnthfnehe. Xbnf. b rkfccbre, yj vtymit, xtv cj^htvtyye. kbnthfnehe. Jcjdtyyj k.dk. cj^htvtyye. pfhedt;ye. yj^tkke. 3-bq xbnfntkm: Yt vjue crfpfnm, xnj ckt;e pf cj^htvtyyjq kbnthfnehjq. E vtyz gjxnb ytn c^jdjlyjuj ^htvtyb. Gj'njve z ^jjdot vfkj xbnf. [elj;tcn^tyye. kbnthfnehe. Ghf^lf, jxtym k.dk. afynfcnbre, cnfhf.cm yt ghjgecnbnm yb jlyjq [jhjitq ^tob. K.dk. xbnfnm ltntrnb^s, ukf^ysv jdhfpjv ^ vtnhj. R cnb[fv z hf^yjleity. Dtxthfvb, tckb tcnm ^htvz, ghtlgjxbnf. ntkt^bpjh; xbnf. ufptns b bkk.cnhbhj^fyyst ;ehyfks. Unit 18 Ehjr 18 Eghf;ytybt B1. 1. Z [jxe gbnm. Ghbytcbnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ^jls. 2. D [jkjlbkmybrt ybxtuj ytn. C[jlbnt, gj;fkeqcnf, ^ vfufpby. 3. Z yt gjybvf.. Gj^njhbnt, gj;fkeqcnf. 4. D rjvyfnt leiyj. Jnrhjqnt, gj;fkeqcnf, jryj. 5. D rjhbljht jxtym ievyj. Pfrhjqnt, gj;fkeqcnf, l^thm. 6. E vtyz ytn rfhfylfif. Lfqnt, gj;fkeqcnf, rfhfylfi. 7. Z yt pyf., rfrjt ghbyznm ktrfhcn^j. Gjp^jyb ^hfxe. 8. E;by yf cnjkt. Czlmnt, gj;fkeqcnf, pf cnjk. 9. E ntdz ytn ckj^fhz? Djpmvb vjq ckj^fhm. 10. Ns lf^yj yt gbcfk dfdeirt. Yfgbib tq. 11. D jnltkt yt gkfnzn. Gkfnbnt ^ rfcce. 12. "nj Fylhtq, vjq yj^sq pyfrjvsq Gjpyfrjvmntcm, gj;fkeqcnf. & Eghf;ytybt D1. 1. jnrhs^fq 2. jdb;fqcz 3. gjjdtlfq 4. pfqlb 5. ^cnfym 6. cvjnhb 7. jdj;ubcm 8. pf;ub 9. gj^thyb 10. ^jpmvb 11. ^jpmvb 12. ^sqlb 13. kzu 14. ;lb 15. cthlbcm 16. crexfq Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Cfyrn-Gtnthdehu hfcgjkj;ty r ct^thj-pfgfle jn Vjcr^s. 2. <fre hfcgjkj;ty r .uj-^jcnjre jn Vjcr^s. 3. Jltccf hfcgjkj;tyf r .uj-pfgfle jn Vjcr^s. 4. Vbycr hfcgjkj;ty r pfgfle jn Vjcr^s. 5. Rbt^ hfcgjkj;ty r .ujpfgfle jn Vjcr^s. 6. Fh[fyutkmcr hfcgjkj;ty r ct^the jn Vjcr^s. 7. Rfpfym hfcgjkj;tyf r ^jcnjre jn Vjcr^s. 8. Zhjckf^km hfcgjkj;ty r ct^the jn Vjcr^s. 9. Yb;ybq Yj^ujhjl hfcgjkj;ty r ^jcnjre jn Vjcr^s. Eghf;ytybt 2. 8. cnjbn 1. cnjbn 2. kt;fn 3. cnjbn 4. cnjbn 5. ^bcbn 6. cnjzn 7. kt;fn - 60 Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. Ult yf[jlbncz ^fi ljv? 2. Yf rfrjv 'nf;t yf[jlbncz ^fif r^fhnbhf ? 3. Ult cnjbn gbfybyj? 4. Xnj cnjbn ^ ^fitq rjvyfnt? 5. Ult cnjzn rybub? 6. Crjkmrj 'nf;tq ^ ^fitv ljvt? 7. Crjkmrj rjvyfn ^ 'njq r^fhnbht? On-line Answer key - V V V V Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. D jdot;bnbb; yf .ut; ^ cfle; yf gjxnt; ^ ltht^yt; yf 'rcrehcbb; yf dthtue vjhz; yf pfyznbb; yf ekbwt; ^ ujhjlt; yf vjcne; ^ ktce; ^ Erhfbyt; ^ Rhsve; ^ Cbdbhb; yf ktrwbb 2. D dbdkbjntrt; ^ irfae; yf gjkrt; yf cnjkbrt; yf jryt; yf rhj^fnb; yf gjke; yf xthlfrt; ^ felbnjhbb 3. D rjvyfnt; yf dfkrjyt; ^ kfdjhfnjhbb; yf gjke; ^ cnjkj^jq; ^ rfdbytnt; ^ re[yt; ^ cfle; ^ ufhf;t 4. D nefktnt; ^ irfae; ^ gthtlytq; ^ r^fhnbht; ^ cgfkmyt; ^ gjl^fkt; yf cntyt; ^ euke; ^ ^fyyjq Eghf;ytybt 5. 1. ujle 2. lfxt 3. Rhsve 4. ljvbrt 5. dthtue 6. ktce 7. gfhrt 8. vjht 9. gkz;t 10. cfle Eghf;ytybt 6. 1. ^ djkmijv ljvt 2. yf ^njhjv 'nf;t 3. yf gth^jv 'nf;t 4. ^ 'njv ;t ljvt 5. ^ ujcnz[ 6. bp ljvf 7. yf ekbwe 8. c rhj^fnb 9. ^ gjcntkb 10. ^ jryj 11. c ltht^f 12. yf ptvk. 13. yf ptvk. 14. yf ltht^t 15. pf (^) jryj 16. c ltht^f 17. yf ptvk. 18. yf cntyt Eghf;ytybt 7. 1. Cjcnf^mnt nfdkbwe. 2. Yfgbibnt cjxbytybt. 3. Jn^tnmnt yf ^jghjcs. 4. Pfgjkybnt fyrtne. 5. Gtht^tlbnt yf fyukbqcrbq. 6. Pflfqnt ^jghjcs. 7. Ghj^tlbnt jghjc ^ uheggt. 8. Ghjxnbnt ntrcn. 9. Hfccrf;bnt j ctdt. 10. Yfqlbnt ^ ntrcnt ^shf;tybz ^htvtyb. 11. Pfgjkybnt ghjgecrb. 12. Dscrf;bnt c^j/ vytybt. Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. ^ jlyjq ltht^yt 2. yf gtxrt 3. jnrhskfcm 4. pfrhjq 5. pfrhjq 6. crf;tn 7. pfrhjtn 8. ctkf 9. ^ ljvt 10. ikb 11. xtkj^trf 12. ^jikb 13. ;b^/n 14. vjkxfn 15. rfie 16. ^recyjt 17. pfrhjq Eghf;ytybt 9. (1) c (2) ^ (3) e (4) ^ (5) c (6) ^ (7) c (8) ghb (9) ^ (10) dtp (11) yf (12) ^ (13) e (14) yf (15) jd (16) e (17) e (18) e (19) yf (20) yf (21) c (22) r (23) jn (24) yf (25) gthtl (26) ^ (27) dtp (28) ^ (29) c Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 11.1 ltht^j ltht^zyysq; rfvtym rfvtyysq; pjkjnj pjkjnjq; cthtdhj cthtdhzysq; rbhgbx rbhgbxysq 11.4 ytrjnjhst; ghbkj;bnm; jajhvkznm; ljrevtyns; gjkeifhbt 11.5 1. ^cnfymnt; 2. delmnt; 3. lfqnt; 4. blbnt; 5. uj^jhbnt; 6. ^jpmvbnt; 7. gjp^jybnt; 8. jnrhjqnt; 9. gjpyfrjvmntcm; 10. gjvybnt; 11. gjcvjnhbnt; 12. gjjdtlfqnt, gjlj;lbnt; 13. timnt Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. Yfktqnt ^jle ^ xfqybr 2. Dcrbgznbnt xfqybr. 3. Jd^fhbnt xfqybxtr rbgznrjv. 4. Yfcsgmnt ^ xfqybxtr pf^fhre gj jlyjq kj;rt yf xtkj^trf, gk.c to/ jlye kj;re. 5. Pfktqnt pf^fhre rbgznrjv. 61 On-line Answer key 6. Gecnm xfq gjcnjbn vbyens l^tnhb. 7. Hfpktqnt xfq gj xfirfv. 8. Ljktqnt ^ xfirb vjkjrf. 9. Ljdf^mnt cf[fh gj ^rece. Eghf;ytybt 2. Cybvbnt nhedre b ;lbnt uelrf. Rjulf ecksibnt ueljr, yfdthbnt yjvth. Rjulf ecksibnt jn^tn, jgecnbnt ;tnjy b uj^jhbnt. Tckb ecksibnt rjhjnrbt uelrb pfyznj gj^tcmnt nhedre. Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. . Timnt xfcnj b gjytvyjue. . Gtqnt gjdjkmit vjkjrf b ahernj^s[ cjrj^. . Timnt rfr vj;yj djkmit j^jotq b ahernj^, b rfr vj;yj vtymit ;bhj^, cjkb b ckflrjuj . X/hysq [ktd gjktpytt dtkjuj, b ^jjdot [ktd kexit tcnm x/hcn^sq. 2. . Djle bkb cjr yt gtqnt ^j ^htvz tls, f kexit lj bkb gjckt yt/. . Dsgb^fqnt yt djkmit xtnsh/[ cnfrfyj^ ;blrjcnb ^ ltym. 3. . Pf^nhfrfqnt [jhjij b csnyj, jdtlfqnt yt gjplyj b gkjnyj, f e;byfqnt ghbvthyj pf l^fnhb xfcf lj cyf. . Gthtl cyjv c]timnt zdkjrj bkb dfyfy, bkb ^sgtqnt cnfrfy vjkjrf bkb rtabhf. 4. . Jdzpfntkmyj gjcnfhfqntcm yfqnb ^htvz lkz t;tlyt^yjq ghjuekrb. . Yt vtytt gjkexfcf ^ ltym ghj^jlbnt yf ghbhjlt bkb ghjcnj yf c^t;tv ^jple[t. . Dj ^htvz ghjuekrb [jlbnt ytdscnhj, yj 'ythubxyj, lsibnt ukedjrj b hj^yj. (bp ;ehyfkf `Hfdjnybwf\) Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. Ns jxtym cbkmyj rfikztim. E ntdz yt djkbn ujhkj? Gj-vjtve, e ntdz ntvgthfnehf. Ghbvb ktrfhcn^j b kzu ^ gjcntkm. 2. Vs cjdbhftvcz gjt[fnm ^ jngecr yf Vfqjhre, yj yt pyftv, tcnm kb dbktns b yjvthf ^ ujcnbybwt. Gjp^jyb ^ nehbcncrjt d.hj b pfrf;b dbktns. 3 E vtyz ckjvfkbcm xfcs. To/ ^xthf [jhjij [jlbkb, f ctujlyz cnjzn. F gjcktpf^nhf z tle pf uhfybwe. Xnj ltkfnm? Jnytcb xfcs ^ htvjyn. 4. D [jkjlbkmybrt gecnj! E yfc ybxtuj ytn yf e;by. F r yfv ghblen ujcnb . . . Gjqlb ^ nfufpby b regb ghjlerns b ^byj. 5. Jq, rfr e vtyz djkbn ped! Z yt vjue pfybvfnmcz, yt vjue yb j x/v lheujv levfnm, rhjvt pedyjq djkb . . . Xnj ;t ltkfnm? C[jlb r pedyjbe ^hfxe. Eghf;ytybt 5. N^jq ^sdjh: ND bkb rybuf ? Gjl nfrbv yfp^fybtv ghjikf lbcreccbz j hjkb xntybz, dbdkbjntr b ntkt^bltybz ^ ;bpyb vjkjl/;b ctujlyz, rjnjhfz ghj[jlbkf ^ .yjitcrjq dbdkbjntrt u. Vjcr^s. Djn rfr jn^tnbkb yf 'nb ^jghjcs gznm exfcnybrj^ lbcreccbb: 1. 62 Cthutq Vfqdf, 16 ktn, extybr 9-juj rkfccf On-line Answer key Z levf., xnj ntkt^bpjh b rybuf yt bcrk.xf.n, f ljgjkyz.n lheu lheuf. Cfv z e^ktrf.cm bcnjhbtq b vyjuj xbnf.. R cj;fktyb. ^ yfib[ dbdkbjntrf[ yj^st rybub nhelyj ljcnfnm, gj'njve vyjujt z gjregf. ^ ryb;ys[ vfufpbyf[. Yj `ujkedjq 'rhfy\ nj;t wty.: jy yt njkmrj gjvjuftn vyt kexit gjyznm bcnjhb., yj b cktlbnm pf cjdsnbzvb ^ vbht, epyf^fnm j ;bpyb ^ lheub[ cnhfyf[. 2. Jkmuf Xedfhm, 17 ktn, cneltynrf 'ktrnhj-vt[fybxtcrjuj nt[ybrevf Z deleobq by;tyth gj rjvgm.nthfv. Dct extdybrb b rybub gj cgtwbfkmyjcnb gjregf. cfvf. D dbdkbjntrt dthe ^ jcyj^yjv dtkktnhbcnbre bkb rybub gj bcreccn^e. Gj ntkt^bpjhe cvjnh. njkmrj nt gthtlfxb, rjnjhst bvt.n jnyjitybt r vjtq cgtwbfkmyjcnb. Dojdot z ghj^j;e vtymit ^htvtyb e ntkt^bpjhf, xtv pf xntybtv. 3. Fynjy Zreit^, 18 ktn, cneltyn 1-juj rehcf Gtlfujubxtcrjuj bycnbnenf Gj-vjtve, ^ctve c^j/ ^htvz. Kbxyj vyt yhf^bncz b nj b lheujt. D 'ne dbdkbjntre ghb[j;e xfcnj, cnfhf.cm yt ghjgecrfnm yj^byrb kbnthfnehs ^ t;tvtczxys[ ;ehyfkf[. Yj b ntkt^bpjh cvjnh. c elj^jkmcn^btv rf;lsq ^txth. Ntgthm xfcnj gjrfps^f.n [jhjibt gthtlfxb lkz vjkjl/;b, jcjdtyyj gjckt gjkeyjxb. Yj rjulf e vtyz ^ herf[ bynthtcysq ltntrnb^, vjue ghjgecnbnm lf;t cfve. kexie. ntktgthtlfxe. 4. Nfyz Kepfyj^f, 17 ktn, ltcznbrkfccybwf Vj;tn dsnm, z ytcj^htvtyyf, yj ntkt^bpjh yt k.dk.. Rjytxyj, cvjnh., rjulf gjrfps^f.n xnj-nj jxtym bynthtcyjt, jlyfrj ghtlgjxbnf. [jhjie. rybue. Dtlm rybuf 'nj yf^ctulf, f ntkt^bltybt ;b^/n njkmrj ctujlyziybv ly/v. K.dk. hflbj: gj-vjtve, jyj ujhfplj bynthtcytt b hfpyjjdhfpytt, xtv ND. D irjkmyjq dbdkbjntrt pfybvf.cm rf;le. ytltk., [jnz ljvf e vtyz nfr;t jxtym vyjuj rybu. 5. Rjycnfynby Dfkb[by, 19 ktn, hfdjxbq b cneltyn-^txthybr Z execm yf ^txthytv jnltktybb gjkbnt[ybxtcrjuj bycnbnenf, ly/v hfdjnf.. Yf nj b yf lheujt ghjcnj yt [^fnftn ^htvtyb. Xbnf. ^c/, xnj vjue b ult vjue ^ vtnhj, ^ nhfv^fz[, yf hfdjnt b ljvf. D dbdkbjntrb [j;e htlrj, rjulf yflj ujnj^bnmcz r 'rpfvtyfv. Gj ntkt^bpjhe cnfhf.cm ^sdbhfnm njkmrj cfvjt ^f;yjt: yj^jcnb, byajhvfwbjyyst ghjuhfvvs. Jyb lf.n vyt ^jpvj;yjcnm epyfnm jdj ^c/v, xnj ghjbc[jlbn ^jrheu yfc. Unit 19 Ehjr 19 - Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. xnj 2. xnjds 3. xnj 4. xnjds 5. xnj 6. xnjds 7. xnj 8. xnjds 9. xnj 10. xnj 11. xnjds 12. xnj 13. xnjds 14. xnj 15. xnjds Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. (f ) jn lheptq b gjlheu (b) lhepmzv b gjlheufv (c) lheptq b 63 On-line Answer key gjlheu (d) lhepmz b gjlheub. 2. (a) l^jhwj^ b veptt^ (b) ^j l^jhws b veptb; gj l^jhwfv b veptzv (c) ^j l^jhwf[ b veptz[ (d) l^jhwfvb b veptzvb. 3. (a) ujcnb bp Cbdbhb (b) c ujcnzvb bp Cbdbhb (c) ujcnzv bp Cbdbhb (d) ujcntq bp Cbdbhb (e) ujcnzv bp Cbdbhb - Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. cflf[ b gfhrf[; 2. cneltynj^ b ghtgjlf^fntktq; 3. dhfnmzv b c/cnhfv; 4. ^jrpfkj^; 5. rfhnbyrfvb; 6. rybu; 7. cjctlzv; 8. ks;f[, rjymrf[, cfyrf[; 9. ufptnf[; 10. exbntktq; 11. cnhfy; 12. cnfywbq vtnhj; 13. pfx/nfv b 'rpfvtyfv; 14. htrf[ b jpthf[; 15. ujhjlj^ b ltht^tym Eghf;ytybt 5. Cnfhsq; cnfhfz; cnfhjt; cnfhst. Gjcktlybq; gjcktlyzz; gjcktlytt; gjcktlybt. Xe;jq; xe;fz; xe;jt; xe;bt. Hjlyjq; hjlyfz; hjlyjt; hjlyst. Nhtnbq; nhtnmz; nhtnmt; nhtnmb. Ujhzxbq; ujhzxfz; ujhzxtt; ujhzxbt. Ukedjrbq; ukedjrfz; ukedjrjt; ukedjrbt. Yfcnjzobq; yfcnjzofz; yfcnjzott; yfcnjzobt. {bvbxtcrbq; [bvbxtcrfz; [bvbxtcrjt; [bvbxtcrbt. Cxfcnkb^sq; cxfcnkb^fz; cxfcnkb^jt; cxfcnkb^st. Lfk/rbq; lfk/rfz; lfk/rjt; lfk/rbt. Bynthtcysq; bynthtcyfz; bynthtcyjt; bynthtcyst. C^jdjlysq; c^jdjlyfz; c^jdjlyjt; c^jdjlyst. Vjkjljq; vjkjlfz; vjkjljt; vjkjlst. <kbprbq; dkbprfz; dkbprjt; dkbprbt. Ljdhsq; ljdhfz; ljdhjt; ljdhst. Nb[bq; nb[fz; nb[jt; nb[bt. Pljhj^sq; pljhj^fz; pljhj^jt; pljhj^st. Lkbyysq; lkbyyfz; lkbyyjt; lkbyyst. Uhjvrbq; uhjvrfz; uhjvrjt; uhjvrbt. Ujhjlcrjq; ujhjlcrfz; ujhjlcrjt; ujhjlcrbt. Hfyybq; hfyyzz; hfyytt; hfyybt. {jhjibq; [jhjifz; [jhjitt; [jhjibt. Dscjrbq; ^scjrfz; ^scjrjt; ^scjrbt. Ljhjujq; ljhjufz; ljhjujt; ljhjubt. <jufnsq; djufnfz; djufnjt; djufnst. <jkmijq; djkmifz; djkmijt; djkmibt. Rhfcysq; rhfcyfz; rhfcyjt; rhfcyst. Dtxthybq; ^txthyzz; ^txthytt; ^txthybt Eghf;ytybt 6. (a) 1. vyjubt 2. bynthtcyjq 3. lfk/rb[ 4. rfrjq 5. ujkedsvb 6. 'njv 7. vyjubvb (b) 1. jlby 2. c^jtve 3. djkmijv 4. n^jtq (c) 1. yj^jv 2. ;/knj-cbytv 3. nfrjuj 4. eljdyst 5. vzurjq 6. ijrjkflyjuj 7. vjcrj^crjuj 8. ltncrbq 9. jnrhsnjuj 10. djkmijq rfvtyysq 11. cfvsq rhfcb^sq 12. lheub[ 13. hfpys[ cnhfyf[ Eghf;ytybt 7. (a) 1. jlyjuj bp^tcnyjuj heccrjuj [elj;ybrf. 2. c jlybv bp^tcnysv heccrbv [elj;ybrjv. 3. jlby bp^tcnysq heccrbq [elj;ybr. 4. jlyjve bp^tcnyjve heccrjve [elj;ybre. 5. rfhnbys jlyjuj bp^tcnyjuj heccrjuj [elj;ybrf. 6. jd jlyjv bp^tcnyjv heccrjv [elj;ybrt. (b) 1. vjz cnfhifz ctcnhf. 2. vj. cnfhie. ctcnhe. 3. c vjtq cnfhitq ctcnhjq. 4. vjtq cnfhitq ctcnht. 5. 'nj ajnjuhfabz vjtq cnfhitq ctcnhs. 6. j vjtq cnfhitq ctcnht Eghf;ytybt 8. 1. rjnjhjuj 2. j rjnjhjq 3. pf rjnjhjq 4. yfl rjnjhsv 5. rjnjhjuj 6. rjnjhst 7. yf rjnjhjv 8. rjnjhsq 9. ^ rjnjhjv 10. ^ rjnjhsq Eghf;ytybt 9. 1. D yfitq uheggt exbncz cneltynrf, rjnjhfz ghbt[fkf bp Lfybb / e rjnjhjq vyjuj lheptq / c rjnjhjq z gjpyfrjvbkcz ^ Vjcr^t. 2. E vtyz tcnm nj^fhbo, rjnjhjuj pj^en Djkjlz / rjnjhsq exbncz ^ vtlbycnbnent / rjnjhjve z - 64 On-line Answer key gjvjuf. bpexfnm fyukbqcrbq zpsr. 3. Ctujlyz yf ehjrt vs xbnfkb hfccrfp, rjnjhsq yfv jxtym gjyhf^bkcz / j rjnjhjv vs vyjuj cgjhbkb. V V Eghf;ytybt 10. 1. vfkf 2. gjkyf 3. ghf^fz 4. ghf^f 5. djkty 6. djkmyfz 7. ;b^ 8. ;b^jq 9. ye;ty 10. ye;yfz 11. ibhjrf 12. ibhjrfz 13. evysq 14. rhfcb^st 15. rhfcb^s Eghf;ytybt 11. 1. jnrhsn 2. vfks 3. pfyzn 4. djufnf 5. ujnj^s 6. djkty 7. pfyznf Eghf;ytybt 12. 1. vtczwf 2. cfgj;ybre 3. [jpzqcrjuj irfaf 4. devfub 5. crfvmt 6. ntdt 7. ntdz 8. Hj;ltcn^jv 9. ^ctuj 10. jnwf 11. vtyz 12. cke;fotuj 13. ktn 14. cvt.obvcz 15. gmzysvb ukfpfvb 16. rjgtqre 17. ifgre 18. ekbwe Eghf;ytybt 13. 1. ;bk 2. evth 3. jcnfkcz 4. pf[jntk 5. htibk 6. ghbi/k 7. cksifk 8. ^jpmvbnt 9. dele hfdjnfnm 10. cvjnhtnm 11. ghbi/k 12. ghb[jlbk 13. cflbkcz 14. ckeifk 15. xbnfnm 16. yfexbnmcz 17. ^pzk 18. yfgbcfk 19. cvskf 20. yfgbcfk 21. cvskf 22. ghjikj 23. cnfk Eghf;ytybt 14. (1) ^ (2) cj (3) pf (4) lj (5) yf (6) r (7) jrjkj (8) c (9) jn (10) c (11) ^ (12) yflj (13) xthtp (14) bp (15) j (16) jdj (17) pf (18) ^ (19) ^ Eghf;ytybt 17. D nsczxf lt^znmcjn lt^zyjcnj ^njhjv; jn xtnsh/[; lj gznyflwfnb; ltcznm; ^jcmvbltczns[; gznbltcznb gznb Lexical exercises Ktrcbxtcrbt eghf;ytybz 18.2 ^jkitdybr gfkjxrf; ^hfx cntnjcrjg; rfccbhif rfccf; rjk[jpybr nhfrnjh; jabwbfyn gjlyjc; j[jnybr he;m/; gfhbrvf[th yj;ybws; cnhjbntkm rbhgbx; exbntkm vtk Eghf;ytybt 1. <skf pbvf. Dtplt kt;fk xbcnsq dtksq cytu, rjnjhsq c^thrfk yf cjkywt. D gfhrt dskj jxtym rhfcb^j. Rf;lsq ltym Vbnz rfnfkcz yf cfyrf[, yf ks;f[ b yf rjymrf[. Jlyf;ls jy ghbi/k ^txthjv c ekbws ljvjq b crfpfk: Rfr [jhjij pbvjq! {jxe, xnjds ^ctulf dskf pbvf! Jntw gji/k r ctdt ^ rfdbytn b ^thyekcz c pfgbcyjq ryb;rjq. Jy lfk Vbnt pfgbcye. ryb;re b crfpfk: Pfgbib c^j/ ;tkfybt ^ pfgbcye. ryb;re. Ghbikf ^tcyf. Yf ltht^mz[ gjz^bkbcm kbcnmz, ^c/ ^jrheu gjptktytkj. Vbnz ghby/c bp ktcf gth^st gjlcyt;ybrb b crfpfk: Rfr rhfcb^j ^tcyjq ^ ktce! Z [jxe, xnjds ^ctulf dskf ^tcyf! Jntw crfpfk: Yfqlb pfgbcye. ryb;re, rjnjhe. z lfk ntdt pbvjq, b pfgbib ^ yt/ 'nj ;tkfybt. Yfcnegbkj ;fhrjt ktnj. Vbnz ;bk yf lfxt, regfkcz, pfujhfk, [jlbk c jnwjv yf hsdfkre. Vbnz crfpfk: 65 On-line Answer key Rfr ^tctkj ktnjv! Z jxtym xoxe, xnjds ktnj ybrjulf yt rjyxfkjcm! Jntw crfpfk, xnjds Vbnz pfgbcfk b 'nj ;tkfybt ^ pfgbcye. ryb;re. Jctym. Vbnz c jnwjv gjt[fkb r dfdeirt ^ ltht^y.. Vbnz gjvjufk dfdeirt c ltleirjq cjdbhfnm zdkjrb ^ cfle. <fdeirf ^fhbkf zdkjxyjt ^fhtymt b rjvgjn, gtrkf ^recyst zdkjxyst gbhjub. Vbnz jxtym k.dbk ckflrjt. Jy c ^jcnjhujv tk ^c/ b uj^jhbk: Jctym. kexit ^ctuj! {jxe, xnjds jctym ghjljk;fkfcm dtcrjytxyj. Njulf jntw jnrhsk pfgbcye. ryb;re b gjrfpfk Vbnt, xnj jy uj^jhbk nj ;t cfvjt cyfxfkf j pbvt, gjnjv j ^tcyt, gjnjv j ktnt b ntgthm jd jctyb. Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. Cthutq crfpfk lheue: `Jnytcb vjb rybub ^ dbdkbjntre ^ gjytltkmybr\. 2. B^fy Ctv/yj^bx gjghjcbk Vfhbye: `Gthtlfqnt ghb^tn rjkktufv ^ "lbydehut\. 3. Vfhbz B^fyj^yf ghjcbn vbkbwbjythf: `Gjvjubnt vyt, gj;fkeqcnf, gthtqnb xthtp ljhjue\. 4. Yflz gjghjcbkf ghtgjlf^fntkz: ` Hfccrf;bnt yfv j ;bpyb fdjhbutyj^ ^ F^cnhfkbb\. 5. Vfvf uj^jhbn ljxthb: `Ybrelf dtp vtyz yt [jlb b ybrjve yt jnrhs^fq l^thm\. 6. Jntw crfpfk ltnzv: `Yf ievbnt b yt vtifqnt vyt cvjnhtnm aendjkmysq vfnx\. Eghf;ytybt 3. D gznybwe Cth/;f ghbi/k ljvjq bp irjks gjplyj. Yfcnhjtybt e ytuj dskj gkj[jt rfr crfpfnm vfvt b gfgt, xnj exbntkmybwf gjcnf^bkf tve l^jqre pf cjxbytybt? Cth/;f ljkuj levfk, rfr tve dsnm, yj nfr ybxtuj [jhjituj b yt ghblevfk. Gjl[jlbn jy r ljve, cvjnhbn ^ jryf[ ntvyj. `Ye, pyfxbn jyb ntkt^bpjh cvjnhzn yf re[yt!\ jdhflj^fkcz jy. Z nb[jymrj ^jqle, jyb b yt pfvtnzn!\ Jnrhsk jy rk.xjv l^thm, f ^ r^fhnbht nb[j, ntvyj b gecnj. Ybrjuj ytn. Cth/;f dscnhj cyzk rehnre b ifgre, pf;/u c^tn ^j ^ct[ rjvyfnf[, ^rk.xbk ntkt^bpjh. Cvjnhbn, yf re[jyyjv cnjkt kt;bn pfgbcrf jn vfvs. `Cth/;tymrf! Vs c gfgjq et[fkb r dfdeirt ^ ltht^y., nfr rfr ltleirf pfdjktk, b ye;yj jn^tpnb tuj ^ djkmybwe. Dthy/vcz, yf^thyjt, pf^nhf bkb gjcktpf^nhf. Ns dtp yfc gje;byfq z ntdt ^c/ jcnf^bkf ^ [jkjlbkmybrt. Tckb pf[jxtim to/ xnj-ybdelm regbnm, ^jpmvb ltymub, rjnjhst z cghznfkf gjl gjleirjq e ntdz ^ cgfkmyt. Jdzpfntkmyj pfrhjq l^thm yf rk.x b yf wtgjxre. Ybrjve yt jnrhs^fq l^thm, lf;t yf wtgjxrt. Jryf b ajhnjxrb ljk;ys dsnm ^ctulf pfrhsns. Yf ntktajyyst p^jyrb yt jn^txfq. Htdzn b lt^jxtr r ctdt yt ghbukfifq. F tckb jyb ^c/ hf^yj ghblen, yb ^ rjtv ckexft yt gjrfps^fq bv, rfrbt e yfc ^ r^fhnbht wtyyst ^tob! Cvjnhb ntkt^bpjh b ybrelf yt [jlb. Gfgf cgtwbfkmyj jcnf^bk ntdt yj^sq `^blbr\. Yt crexfq. Z ntdt pf^nhf gjp^jy. hfyj enhjv. Wtke. ntdz rhtgrj. N^jz vfvf.\ Cth/;f jnrhsk [jkjlbkmybr b e^bltk nfv ytcrjkmrj denskjr gb^f. Jy ^pzk jlye denskre b ctk cvjnhtnm gfgby ^blbr. Abkmv jrfpfkcz lkz ^phjcks[, nfrjq, rjnjhst jdsxyj Cth/;t cvjnhtnm yt hfphtifkb . . . Vfkmxbr gjdt;fk r ntktajye b jdp^jybk ^ct[ c^jb[ lheptq: `Ghb[jlbnt 66 On-line Answer key cvjnhtnm bynthtcysq abkmv! crfpfk Cth/;f. Hjlbntktq ytn, gb^f vyjuj, z jlby ljvf !\ Eghf;ytybt 4. C fghtkz 'njuj ujlf htlfrwbz ufptns `Rjvcjvjkmcrfz ghf^lf\ yfxbyftn yj^e. t;tytltkmye. gedkbrfwb. gjl hedhbrjq: `Rfr 'nj ltkftncz ^ lheub[ cnhfyf[?\ Vs [jnbv gjpyfrjvbnm yfib[ xbnfntktq c hfpkbxysvb fcgtrnfvb ;bpyb k.ltq ^ cnhfyf[ T^hjgs b Fpbb, Fvthbrb b Fahbrb: Ult ghtlgjxbnf.n ghj^jlbnm c^jq jngecr zgjyws? Rfr fyukbxfyt gjregf.n dbktns yf cfvjk/n? Xtv pfybvf.ncz abyys ^ ljkubt pbvybt ^txthf ? Rjulf b rfr ghj[jlbn pyfvtybnsq rfhyf^fk ^ Hbj-lt-:fytqhj? Jd 'njv b j vyjujv lheujv rf;le. ytltk. delen hfccrfps^fnm yf cnhfybwf[ ufptns yfib cgtwbfkmyst rjhhtcgjyltyns bp l^tyflwfnb cnjkbw vbhf. Ctujlyz yfi gfhb;crbq rjhhtcgjyltyn Dbrnjh <jhj^crbq hfccrf;tn ^fv j njv, xnj xbnf.n ahfyweps. To/ djktt ltcznb ktn yfpfl pfgflyst cjwbjkjub c nht^jujq jnvtxfkb, xnj ahfyweps xbnf.n ^c/ vtymit b vtymit. D ghjikjv ujle ^j Ahfywbb dsk ghj^tl/y jghjc yfctktybz c wtkm. ^szcybnm, rnj b xnj xbnftn. <jkmit ^ctuj xbnftn vjkjl/;m, ^ ^jphfcnt jn 15 lj 20 ktn, jcjdtyyj cneltyns. Vyjuj xbnf.n b k.lb c ^scibv jdhfpj^fybtv ghtgjlf^fntkb, exbntkz, ^hfxb, .hbcns ghbx/v yt njkmrj ghjatccbjyfkmye., yj b [elj;tcn^tyye. kbnthfnehe. Bynthtcyj jnvtnbnm, xnj ;bntkb djkmib[ ujhjlj^ xbnf.n djkmit, xtv ^ ghj^bywbb, b xnj ;tyobys djkmit e^ktrf.ncz xntybtv, xtv ve;xbys: cjukfcyj jghjce, `xtvgbjyrfvb\ xntybz hjvfyj^ jrfpfkbcm vjkjlst ythfdjnf.obt gfhb;fyrb! Vtymit ^ct[ xbnf.n ahfywepcrbt athvths, f nfr;t, rfr yb cnhfyyj, gtycbjyths. 13% ahfywepj^ uj^jhzn, xnj htuekzhyj gjkmpe.ncz dbdkbjntrjq. Yj b ^ ryb;ys[ vfufpbyf[ ahfyweps gjregf.n ntgthm ^ 2 hfpf djkmit rybu, xtv 20 ktn njve yfpfl. "njn afrn ^ pyfxbntkmyjq vtht jd]zcyztncz ntv, xnj ctqxfc vyjubt ghjbp^tltybz rfr rkfccbxtcrjq, nfr b cj^htvtyyjq [elj;tcn^tyyjq kbnthfnehs bplf.ncz ^ ^blt ytljhjub[ rybu rfhvfyyjuj ajhvfnf. Xbnf.n ahfyweps ght;lt ^ctuj hjvfys: jrjkj 62% jghjityys[ uj^jhzn, xnj k.dzn xbnfnm ltntrnb^s, f djktt 70% bp yb[ ghtlgjxbnf.n hjvfynbxtcrbt gj^tcnb j k.d^b. Gj-ght;ytve gjgekzhys rkfccbrb ahfywepcrjq kbnthfnehs: Djkmnth, <fkmpfr, Akjdth, Cntylfkm, Pjkz b lheubt. Eghf;ytybt 5. (bp gbcmvf Fynjyf Rheukj^f ^ ufptne `Vjcrj^crbt yj^jcnb\) Yfc dskj 15 xtkj^tr ^ct bp Vjcr^s, ^ct bp jlyjq irjks, bp jlyjuj rkfccf, ltcznjuj. Vs ghj;bkb wtksq vtczw ^ ujhjlt Ctyn-Keb, infn Vbccehb. :bkb vs ^ ctvmz[, [jlbkb ^ jdsxye. fvthbrfycre. irjke. E vjb[ [jpzt^, ^ ctvmt dbpytcvtyf L;j Rhjkkj, ^ct ctvtqyst ltkf b rjyakbrns htif.ncz jxtym ltvjrhfnbxyj. Tckb e yfc ljvf ^c/ ds^ftn gj ghbywbge `^phjckst ^ctulf ghf^s\, nj e yb[ cxbnftncz, xnj ghf^ njn, rnj ghf^ b ^c/! Vyt jxtym [jntkjcm epyfnm, cktlzn kb fvthbrfycrbt hjlbntkb pf ex/djq ltntq, 67 On-line Answer key pfcnf^kz.n kb b[ gj ^txthfv ltkfnm ehjrb. Yj ^ ctvmt L;j Rhjkkj 'njuj yt dskj. Lf b ^jjdot ljvfiyb[ pflfybq htdznfv gjxnb yt pflf^fkb. Nhelyj chf^yb^fnm b[ irjkmye. ;bpym c yfitq. E yb[ djkmibycn^j cnfhitrkfccybrj^ gjl]tp;f.n r irjkt yf cjdcn^tyyjv f^njvjdbkt, f gj genb gjl^jpzn b c^jb[ nj^fhbotq. Vfksitq ghb^jpzn yf vfibyt hjlbntkb. Ybrjve yt yflj gj enhfv, rfr e yfc, njkrfnmcz ^ gthtgjkytyyjv vtnhj bkb f^njdect. D cthtlbyt lyz ^ irjkt xfcj^fz gthtvtyf vj;yj ecgtnm b gjtcnm, b gjbuhfnm ^ dtqcdjk bkb ^ yfcnjkmysq ntyybc. Exbntkz jdhfof.ncz cj irjkmybrfvb rfr c hf^ysvb. F vs ghb^srkb, xnj yfvb ^ irjkt, rfr b ljvf, ^ctulf ^phjckst rjvfyle.n. Yf ehjrf[ extybrb jn^txf.n cblz, b cghfib^f.n njkmrj nt[, rnj cfv [jxtn jn^txfnm. Ybrnj, rfr e yfc, yt ^sps^ftn ntdz gj rkfccyjve ;ehyfke jn^txfnm `r ljcrt\. Pfnj e yb[ jxtym xfcnj ds^f.n rjynhjkmyst b pfx/ns gj ^ctv irjkmysv ghtlvtnfv, lf b 'rpfvtys ujhfplj nhelytt yfib[. Yj bynthtc r pfyznbzv juhjvysq! B yt njkmrj gjnjve, xnj ^ rkfccf[ ^tplt yj^tqifz rjvgm.nthyfz nt[ybrf, yj ukf^yjt gjnjve, xnj ^sdjh ghtlvtnj^ ^ irjkt jxtym ibhjrbq: lhfvf, rbyj, gjkbnbrf, 'rjyjvbrf, htkbubz, ytcrjkmrj byjcnhfyys[ zpsrj^ (^ njv xbckt b heccrbq). Rf;lsq extybr vj;tn ^sdhfnm itcnm bkb djktt ghtlvtnj^. Jnyjitybt r ex/dt, lf b ^jjdot r ;bpyb, e fvthbrfycrb[ irjkmybrj^ ujhfplj djktt cthm/pyjt. Dct vjb fvthbrfycrbt jlyjrkfccybrb gj ^txthfv hfdjnf.n, [jnz ltytu e b[ hjlbntktq, ghzvj crf;tv, [^fnftn. F yfv ljvf gjxtve-nj b ^ ujkj^e yt ghb[jlbn gjvjxm hjlbntkzv. C^jdjlyjuj ^htvtyb e fvthbrfywt^ yfvyjuj vtymit, xtv, yfghbvth, e vtyz. B ghj^jlzn jyb tuj ^ jcyj^yjv e ntkt^bpjhf. F yf `ebr-'yls\ cjdbhf.ncz ^vtcnt yf ^txthbyrb c hjr-vepsrjq b rjrf-rjkjq. Yt nj, xnj vs ^ Vjcr^t [jlbv gj ekbwfv, necetvcz ^ cr^thf[ b cflbrf[, f gjqnb ytrelf. Rjytxyj, pf ytcrjkmrj ytltkm Fvthbre ytkmpz `jnrhsnm\, yj t/ vj;yj gjk.dbnm! Fynjy R. extybr 10 rkfccf (gj vfnthbfkfv ufptns `Vjcrj^crbt yj^jcnb\, vfhn 1989 u.) Unit 20 Ehjr 20 Eghf;ytybt D2. Fynjy cneltyn; Ybrbnf by;tyth; Hfbcf rfccbhif; K.lvbkf ^hfx. Fynjy k.dbn Hf.; K.lf k.dbn Fynjyf; Hfz b Ybrbnf k.dzn lheu lheuf; Fynjy b Ybrbnf ytyf^blzn lheu lheuf Eghf;ytybt D3. clockwise: gfgf, Gtnz, bfbf, ltleirf, dfdeirf, Vfif 68 Eghf;ytybt 1. 1. ytult 2. ybult 3. ytxtuj, ybxtuj 4. ybxtuj, ytrjulf 5. yt j xtb, yb j x/b 6. yt c rtv 7. yb c rtv Eghf;ytybt 2. 1. r (dative) 2. dtp (genitive) 3. c (instrumental) 4. j (prepositional) 5. bp (genitive) 6. jn (genitive) 7. yf (accusative) 8. pf ( accusative) 9. gj (dative) 10. ^ (accusative) On-line Answer key - Eghf;ytybt 3. 1. gjckt cvthnb 2. ghjatccb. 3. gthti/k 4. ^ ltcznsq rkfcc 5. irjke 6. clfnm 7. jcnfkcz 8. dtp ^scituj jdhfpj^fybz 9. yf vfibyrt 10. ^scie. r^fkbabrfwb. 11. bp rhegys[ ktybyuhflcrb[ bplfntkmcn^ 12. dtp cke;ds 13. gj enhfv 14. ^ [jkjlt 15. ghb 'ktrnhbxtcrjv c^tnt 16. yf nhfv^fqyjq jcnfyj^rt 17. k.ltq 18. hfdjxtuj lyz 19. lt^jxrjq 20. bp-pf yfcvjhrf 21. [jlbnm. Eghf;ytybt 4. 1. [jxe 2. vjue 3. regbnm 4. evth 5. ^cnhtxfkf 6. gjvjufkf 7. ghb[jlbkf 8. kj;bkfcm 9. gjljikf 10. gjql/v 11. dskj 12. gjdt;fkf 13. gjyhf^bkcz 14. gjldt;fkf 15. pfrhbxfkf 16. lfq 17. jn^tnbkf 18. dthb (^jpvj;yj ^jpmvb) 19. ^cnhtnbkf 20. lfkf 21. ghbytc/n 22. gjwtkj^fkf 23. ghbytckf 24. cvjukf 25. ^blbim 26. ^thyekf 27. gjyzkf 28. bl/n 29. ghbl/n 30. jdvfyen Eghf;ytybt 1. Gj lfyysv Dctvbhyjq jhufybpfwbb nehbpvf, pf ghjiksq ujl ^j ^c/v vbht abyfycj^st gjcnegktybz jn vt;leyfhjlyjuj nehbpvf cjcnf^bkb ^ wtkjv 324 vbkkbfhlf ljkkfhj^. Bcgfybz pfhfdjnfkf pf 'njn ujl yf nehbpvt 21 vbkkbfhl, F^cnhbz 15 vbkkbfhlj^, CIF 63. Ctqxfc ^ CIF nehbpv cnfk ^njhsv gj ^tkbxbyt ctrnjhjv 'rjyjvbrb. Dj vyjub[ cnhfyf[, rfr `gth^juj\ nfr b `nhtnmtuj\ vbhf nehbpv e^thtyyj ^s[jlbn yf gth^jt vtcnj, b j;blftncz, xnj r l^e[nsczxyjve ujle jy jgthtlbn ^ct lheubt ^bls 'rjyjvbxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb. Hjccbz ;t, rfr ^ctulf, bl/n `c^jbv gen/v\. Yfib nehfutyncn^f jgznm egecnbkb ifyc. D ghjikjv ujle ltymub xtnsh/[ c gjkj^byjq vbkkbjyj^ hjccbqcrb[ nehbcnj^, jnls[f^ib[ pf uhfybwtq, gthtikb ghzvj ^ rfhvfys byjcnhfyys[ abhv, vbyez yfib hjccbqcrbt dfyrb b nehbcncrbt rjvgfybb. F byjcnhfyyst nehbcncrbt abhvs, vt;le ghjxbv, lj^jkmyj dscnhj gjyzkb, xnj Hjccbz 'nj Rkjylfqr, dtpuhfybxysq bcnjxybr yj^juj gjnjrf nehbcnj^, b cnfhf.ncz rfr vj;yj crjhtt ^sqnb yf hjccbqcrbq nehbcnbxtcrbq hsyjr. Ctqxfc ^ Vjcr^t b gj ^ctq Hjccbb ceotcn^etn gjxnb nsczxf pfhedt;ys[ nehfutyncn^. Hfpybwf vt;le ybvb b yfibvb `ljvjhjotyysvb\ nehfutyncn^fvb cjcnjbn ^ njv, xnj byjcnhfyyst rjvgfybb e;t lf^yj bvt.n [jhjij hfp^bnst c^zpb gj ^ctve vbhe. Jyb vjuen ghtlkj;bnm nehbcne ibhjrbq ^sdjh rjvajhnfdtkmys[ ujcnbybw, nhfycgjhn ^ f'hjgjhn b jdhfnyj, f^njvjdbkm c ija/hjv; vjuen pfdhjybhj^fnm xfhnthyst vt;leyfhjlyst f^bfhtqcs. B ghb 'njv wtys yf nehgjtplrb e yb[ ^c/ ^htvz gflf.n. Nfr xnj ^ dkb;fqitt ^htvz, b ^thjznyj, yfljkuj, hjccbqcrbv nehbcnbxtcrbv rjvgfybzv euhj;ftn cthm/pyfz rjyrehtywbz cj cnjhjys pfhedt;ys[ abhv. (gj vfnthbfkfv `VY Rjkktrwbz\, b.ym 1993) Eghf;ytybt 2. Hjccbz, rf;tncz, ght^hfoftncz ^ rhegytqituj 'rgjhn/hf yt^tcn. Jrjkj l^e[ c gjkj^byjq nsczx bynthyfwbjyfkmys[ dhfrj^ htubcnhbhetncz ^ Vjcr^t rf;lsq ujl. Cjukfcyj jghjcfv, 23% hjccbqcrb[ vfnthtq [jntkb ds, xnjds b[ ljxm ^sikf pfve; pf byjcnhfywf. D cnjkbwt b ^ lheub[ ujhjlf[ Hjccbb gjz^bkbcm cgtwbfkmyst abhvs, ghtlkfuf.obt dhfrb c byjcnhfywfvb. Vjcrj^crjt Vt;leyfhjlyjt dhfxyjt futyncn^j `Fkmzyc\ ghjw^tnftn e;t 69 On-line Answer key ctlmvjq ujl. Chtlb vyjujxbcktyys[ futyncn^, ghtlkfuf.ob[ eckeub gj jhufybpfwbb rjynfrnj^, pyfrjvcn^ b dhfrj^ c byjcnhfyysvb uhf;lfyfvb `Fkmzyc\ jlyj bp cfvs[ bp^tcnys[ ^ cnjkbwt, c jxtym eljdysv flhtcjv hfcgjkj;tyj jyj hzljv c ujcnbybwtq `Bynehbcn\. Bvttn abkbfks ^ lheub[ heccrb[ ujhjlf[ b pf hedt;jv. Lbhtrnjh Nfvfhf Fktrctt^yf Ieyrj^f ds^ibq ;ehyfkbcn, b ^jjdot xtkj^tr bp^tcnysq: jyf jlyj^htvtyyj z^kztncz lbhtrnjhjv Hjccbqcrjuj Bycnbnenf ctvmb, f nfr;t htlfrnjhjv t;tytltkmybrf `Vjcrj^crfz dhfxyfz ufptnf\. Rf;lsq ltym ^ futyncn^j ghb[jlzn pfz^rb jn 1012 lt^eitr, yj njkmrj l^e[ nh/[ bp yb[ cnf^zn yf ex/n ^ rfhnjntre. Dtlm ^ `Fkmzyct\ ceotcn^e.n jghtltk/yyst rhbnthbb jndjhf. . Dj-gth^s[, ;tkfntkmyj bvtnm [jhjie. ghjatccbjyfkmye. r^fkbabrfwb.. Tckb ;tyobyf ghtecgt^ftn ^ c^jtq ghjatccbjyfkmyjq ltzntkmyjcnb, pyfxbn jyf cevttn ghbvtybnm c^jb cgjcjdyjcnb b pf uhfybwtq. . Dj-^njhs[, ytjd[jlbvj [jhjitt pyfybt byjcnhfyyjuj zpsrf. . D-nhtnmb[, ^ytiyt jyf ljk;yf cjjn^tncn^j^fnm cnfylfhnyjve ghtlcnf^ktyb. t^hjgtqwt^ j heccrjq ;tyobyt nj tcnm ^scjrfz dkjylbyrf c ujkedsvb ukfpfvb. Lt^eitr, elj^ktn^jhz.ob[ 'nbv rhbnthbzv, ^ rfhnjntrt `Akmzycf\ yfdbhftncz lj l^e[ nsczx ^ ujl. Bp yb[ ghbvthyj 10% ^s[jlzn pfve; b etp;f.n pf uhfybwe. Jrjkj 40% ghjljk;f.n gjbcrb yf ^njhjq, byjulf b yf nhtnbq ujl, f e jcnfkmys[ ifycs dkbprb r yek.. Gkfnf pf eckeub `Fkmzycf\ ytvfktymrfz: lkz 25-ktnyb[ ;tyoby dtp ltntq jyf cjcnf^kztn 150 hedktq ^ ujl, lkz 30-ktnyb[ b cnfhit 200, f yf rf;ljuj htd/yrf ljgjkybntkmyfz gkfnf ^ 50 hedktq. Ghb 'njv jxtym ytvyjubv ;tyobyfv elf/ncz jceotcn^bnm c^j. vtxne pf jlby ujl. Byjcnhfywt^ ^ rfhnjntrt `Fkmzycf\ jn 300 lj 400 bv/y ^ ujl. D jcyj^yjv jdhfof.ncz ;tyb[b bp Fvthbrb, Rfyfls, F^cnhbb, Uthvfybb, Fyukbb. R ybv ghtl]z^kztncz njkmrj jlyj nhtdj^fybt: vfnthbfkmyfz jdtcgtxtyyjcnm. Futyncn^j nofntkmyj ghj^thztn b[ gfcgjhnyst lfyyst b jdzpfntkmyj ghjcbn ghbckfnm cghf^re c vtcnf hfdjns b bp dfyrf. D Vjcr^t tcnm ytvfkj lheub[ futyncn^, cgtwbfkbpbhe.ob[cz yf pyfrjvcn^f[ c byjcnhfywfvb. Yfghbvth, abhvf `Yflt;lf\ cjxtnftn `nehbpv c k.dj^m.\. Ghb^jpbn ^ Vjcr^e uhegge byjcnhfywt^, rjnjhst boen heccre. ;tye, b pyfrjvzn b[ c uheggjq yfib[ lt^eitr, ;tkf.ob[ ^sqnb pf byjcnhfywf. Chtlb yb[ hjvfynbxtcrbt nehbcns b ^sdbhf.n ctdt gjlheue ;bpyb. Gfhny/hs epyf.n lheu lheuf, jdofzcm ^ ntxtybt nehbcncrjq gjtplrb gj Hjccbb. Ytrjnjhst cke;ds bkb d.hj pyfrjvcn^ c byjcnhfywfvb gjvtotybz ^jjdot yt bvt.n, f ltqcn^e.n c gjvjom. ntktajyf b gjxns. Gedkbre.n jd]z^ktybz ^ ufptnf[ nbgf: `Ecnhj. pyfrjvcn^j c byjcnhfywtv. Ytljhjuj. P^jybnt gj ntktajye . . . \ B k.lb p^jyzn. Eghf;ytybt 3. Gcb[jkjub, exbntkz, kbyu^bcns, gtlfujub-vtnjlbcns lf^yj cgjhzn j njv, rfrjq vtnjl bpextybz byjcnhfyys[ zpsrj^ cfvsq 'aatrnb^ysq. Xnjds epyfnm vytybt cfvb[ cneltynj^, ghj^tkb jghjc chtlb k.ltq hfpys[ ^jphfcnj^ b hfpkbxys[ ghjatccbq. Dct 'nb k.lb pfybvf.ncz fyukbqcrbv zpsrjv kbdj yf ^txthyb[ 70 On-line Answer key rehcf[, kbdj cfvjcnjzntkmyj. B ^ct jyb [jnzn rfr vj;yj crjhtt b kexit yfexbnmcz uj^jhbnm gj-fyukbqcrb. Djn xnj ytrjnjhst bp yb[ jn^tnbkb yf ^jghjc: `Rfr gj-^fitve, kexit cfvjcnjzntkmyj bpexfnm byjcnhfyyst zpsrb?\ Bujhm Djkrj^ hfdjxbq, 19 ktn: Z cxbnf., xnj cfvjt ^f;yjt 'nj rfr vj;yj djkmit ckeifnm zpsr. Rfr njkmrj z ghb[j;e ljvjq c hfdjns, chfpe ^rk.xf. hflbj b ckeif. Ujkjc Fvthbrb bkb <b-db-cb: gj-fyukbqcrb, rjytxyj. Xfcnj ckeif. gkfcnbyrb bkb vfuybnjajyyst pfgbcb pfhedt;yjq gjg-vepsrb. Cfv z ytvyjuj buhf. yf hjzkt. Cnfhf.cm ^sexbnm yfbpecnm ckj^f gjgekzhys[ gtcty, xnjds gjnjv gtnm b[ gj-fyukbqcrb. F to/ z jxtym [jntk ds gjt[fnm ^ fyukj-uj^jhzoe. cnhfye. Gj-vjtve, cfvfz kexifz ghfrnbrf 'nj jdotybt c ;b^svb yjcbntkzvb zpsrf. Fyz Gfirj^f irjkmybwf, 14 ktn: D irjkt ehjrb fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf jxtym crexyst, jcjdtyyj uhfvvfnbrf. Z kbxyj ghtlgjxnf. ckeifnm ehjrb gj hflbj b gj ntkt^bpjhe. Htuekzhyj cvjnh. ntkt^bpbjyyst ehjrb fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf. Jxtym k.dk. fvthbrfycrbt vekmnbrb. Cnfhf.cm yt ghjgecrfnm ytledkbhj^fyyst fyukbqcrbt b fvthbrfycrbt rbyjabkmvs. Tckb ^cnhtxf. yf ekbwt byjcnhfywt^, cnfhf.cm uj^jhbnm c ybvb gj-fyukbqcrb, [jnm b c jibdrfvb. Vyt jxtym bynthtcyj c ybvb hfpuj^fhb^fnm. B rjytxyj, z vtxnf. gjds^fnm ^ Fvthbrt bkb ^ Fyukbb. Jkmuf Rjvfhj^f, ghtgjlf^fntkm, 45 ktn: Vyt rf;tncz, xnj cfvjt ukf^yjt ^ zpsrt pyfnm uhfvvfnbre. Z yfghbvth, xbnf. uhfvvfnbxtcrbq extdybr rf;lsq ^txth gthtl cyjv. Z e^thtyf, xnj tckb [jhjij pyftim uhfvvfnbre, nj ^c/ jcnfkmyjt e;t ghjot. Rjytxyj, yflj bvtnm [jhjie. gfvznm, xnjds pfgjvbyfnm yj^st ckj^f b ^shf;tybz. Yj 'njuj gj-vjtve, ytljcnfnjxyj. Dtlm lkz njuj, xnjds pyfnm, rfr ghf^bkmyj egjnhtdkznm 'nb ckj^f, yflj [jhjij pyfnm uhfvvfnbxtcrbt ghf^bkf. Njkmrj njulf vj;yj yfexbnmcz uj^jhbnm yf byjcnhfyyjv zpsrt ghf^bkmyj, dtp jibdjr. Gfekm Fhybcn' gtycbjyth bp "cnjybb, 70 ktn: Rjulf z ^sitk yf gtycb., htibk ^sexbnm rfr vj;yj djkmit byjcnhfyys[ zpsrj^. Ctqxfc z e;t ytvyjuj uj^jh. yf gznb t^hjgtqcrb[ zpsrf[. Fyukbqcrbv z yfxfk pfybvfnmcz ^ctuj gjkujlf yfpfl. Z cxbnf., xnj lkz ^ct[, rnj njkmrj yfxbyftn exbnm yj^sq byjcnhfyysq zpsr, cfvjt nhelyjt 'nj rfr vj;yj crjhtt yfxfnm uj^jhbnm yf 'njv zpsrt, yt djzcm jibdjr. Byjulf xtkj^tr ljkuj exbn zpsr, yj djbncz yf y/v uj^jhbnm, djbncz cltkfnm uhfvvfnbxtcre. jibdre. Yj ^tlm tckb djznmcz jibdjr, nj ybrjulf yt deltim c^jdjlyj uj^jhbnm yf zpsrt. Z kbxyj yt dj.cm ltkfnm jibdrb b cnfhf.cm yfxfnm uj^jhbnm yf byjcnhfyyjv zpsrt, rjulf pyf. njkmrj 100 ckj^! 71
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