FEMALE LEADERS’ 360-DEGREE SELF-PERCEPTION ACCURACYwee5.2
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FEMALE LEADERS’ 360-DEGREE SELF-PERCEPTION ACCURACYwee5.2

Course Number: MGT 200802, Fall 2009

College/University: Laurentian

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FEMALE LEADERS' 360-DEGREE SELF-PERCEPTION ACCURACY FOR LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS by Catherine C Turkel STEPHEN TVORIK, Ph.D., Faculty Mentor and Chair MARTIN LEES, Ph.D., M.D., Committee Member MARTA ELVIRA,, Ph.D., Committee Member Kurt Linberg, Ph.D., Dean, School of Business & Technology Click to edit Master subtitle style A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for...

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LEADERS' FEMALE 360-DEGREE SELF-PERCEPTION ACCURACY FOR LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS by Catherine C Turkel STEPHEN TVORIK, Ph.D., Faculty Mentor and Chair MARTIN LEES, Ph.D., M.D., Committee Member MARTA ELVIRA,, Ph.D., Committee Member Kurt Linberg, Ph.D., Dean, School of Business & Technology Click to edit Master subtitle style A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Capella University January 2008 5/19/09 UMI Number: 3291457 Women leaders 11 FEMALE LEADERS' 360-DEGREE SELF-PERCEPTION ACCURACY FOR LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS by Catherine C Turkel STEPHEN TVORIK, Ph.D., Faculty Mentor and Chair MARTIN LEES, Ph.D., M.D., Committee Member MARTA ELVIRA,, Ph.D., Committee Member Kurt Linberg, Ph.D., Dean, School of Business & Technology Click to edit Master subtitle style A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Capella University January 2008 5/19/09 UMI Number: 3291457 Women leaders 22 Leaders with more self-accurate ratings have been found to be more effective and more successful than those leaders with selfevaluations that are not aligned with others (Atwater & Yammarino, 1992; Bass & Yammarino, 1991). Several reports from the 1980's suggest that women underrate their own performance as leaders and managers (Parsons, Meece, Adler, & Kaczala, 1982; LaNoue & Curtis, 1985, Meehan & Overton, 1986 as cited in Van Velsor, Taylor, & Leslie, 1993; Beyer, 1990) despite the lack of specific data to substantiate these inferences. The conclusion that others likely draw from these repeated messages is that 5/19/09 Women leaders 33 This study examined contemporary data to test whether female leaders working in today's business environment under-rated their own performance as leaders. Ex Post Facto research using data from an existing, large database was used to investigate the relationships of female leaders' selfassessment and the assessments of other raters (including direct reports, peers, managers and others). The database was analyzed to test whether female leaders under-rated, over-rated, or were in-agreement with how others rated their leadership skills and behaviors using the High Impact Leadership ModelTM (Linkage, 2003). Dedication Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 44 The literature suggests that it is common knowledge that women are more likely to underrate their managerial abilities and leadership competencies than men. However, there is no direct evidence or study that reports specific data to substantiate this finding. There is only one study that has noted that a subgroup of ten female managers tended to rate themselves lower than their supervisors rated them, and lower than male managers rated themselves (p< 0.06) (Wohlers & London, 1989). Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 55 Another study found that women in mixed-sex situations not only had a lowered expectation than men about their performance on assigned tasks, but they in fact did perform worse. However, in same sex or when performing an assigned task alone, women's expectations and performance did not differ from men's (LaNoue & Curtis, 1985). In a report published in 1990, more than a decade ago, women consistently underestimated their performance on masculine-type managerial tasks (Beyer, 1990). An obvious issue worth further exploration is an evaluation of whether female leaders underrate their performance as leaders (e.g. confirming that they lack self-awareness), or whether the common belief is in fact false. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 66 There has been one study that suggests that women are not more likely to underrate their own skills on measures of leadership competency (Van Velsor, Taylor & Leslie, 1993). In this study, however, only ratings from direct reports were analyzed for congruence. These authors suggest that these results "...reflect a growing comfort among women with the sex role appropriateness of managerial roles [that] may reflect the greater self-confidence of women who tend to enter managerial jobs" (p 259). These authors conclude that their research indicates "...we should no longer assume that women's inclination is to underrate" (p 259). Data from this study was collected from a random sample of 816 managers (451 females, 170 males, gender not reported for 195) who had completed a multi-rater assessment instrument prior to 1990 and an additional 79 male and female (no gender distribution data provided) hospital administrators who completed the instrument in 1990. The Click to edit Master subtitle style study was published in 1993, yet subsequent literature has continued to infer the common belief that women underrate themselves as leaders. 5/19/09 Women leaders 77 In 2003, results from an annual survey of executive education reported that 134 companies from 20 nations reported enrolling more than 21,000 employees in leadership programs, at a cost of $210 million (Merritt, 2003). Behavioral feedback comparing the ratings from peers, direct reports and managers to self-ratings has become increasingly popular (commonly referred to as 360-degree feedback), and frequently is a standard practice in leadership training programs. It is felt that having diverse information from multiple raters may help the leader become more aware of how others view their performance as a leader, and that improved self-awareness may lead to improved leader performance and effectiveness (Bass & Yammarino, 1991; Atwater & Yammarino, 1992). Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 88 Shortly after the introduction and adoption of 360-degree assessments in mid-1980, researchers began exploring congruence of self-assessment and other-rater agreement (Bass & Yammarino, 1991; Atwater & Yammarino, 1992). In these studies, self-aware leaders were defined as those whose selfratings of their leadership were in agreement with the ratings of others. These researchers found that self-awareness acts as a moderator of leadership behavior performance. They conclude that "self-aware individuals appear to be using the information they receive about their leadership to improve their overall performance ratings" (Atwater & Yammarino, 1992, p. 159). Furthermore, such leaders were rated as more transformational, and thus able to influence best performance of their followers. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 99 Additionally, various research studies from the 1980's infer that there are gender differences in congruence of self versus other assessments based on data that found women more often display learned helplessness (Parsons, Meece, Adler, & Kaczala, 1982) and they underrate their performance on gender-specific tasks (Beyer, 1990). Other data suggests that women underrate their performance because they attribute success to external forces and their effort rather than to their own skills (Meehan & Overton, 1986 as cited in Van Velsor, Taylor, & Leslie, 1993). There is also evidence that suggests that women underrate their performance when they are involved in mixed-sex or opposite sex performance situations (LaNoue & Curtis, 1985). However, none of these studies explicitly evaluated leadership behaviors, skills or performance. Thus, there is no direct evidence that women underrate themselves on leadership behavior or skills, yet these and other studies are frequently Click to edit Master subtitle style positioned in various research papers in the literature as sound evidence that such data exists. 5/19/09 Women leaders 1010 The theoretical conceptual model for the problem to be studied focuses on whether female leaders have good self-awareness or not of their leadership skills and behaviors, and thus are more or less effective leaders (Figure 1, Model A and B, respectively). If they lack self-awareness, as suggested by the literature, then this may contribute to lack of advancement to more senior positions. However, if they do not lack self-awareness as leaders, then other yet to be determined factors, may be contributing to the lack of advancement. Stereotypical bias may be a factor (e.g. Figure 1, model B). Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders Women leaders 1111 Model A Model B Failure to advance to more senior positions Unknown Moderator awareness as a leader Poor self awareness as a Failure to leader Good self Click advance to more to edit Master subtitle style senior positions Poor performance 5/19/09 as a leader performance as a Women leaders Good 1212 leader The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leaders' self-ratings and other-raters' rating of the leaders by examining contemporary, archived 360degree feedback data of female leaders' competencies and skills. An evaluation of this relationship may provide further insight regarding whether female leaders are in-agreement or not with how others perceive their leadership, and thus may provide information about the extent of self-awareness by female leaders from a variety of business settings. Good self-awareness, for purposes of this research, is defined as being in agreement with other raters (i.e., direct reports, peers, managers and non-designated others) regarding their own leadership competencies and skills. Alternatively, these leaders may under-rate or overrate their leadership competencies and style compared to others, Click to edit Master subtitle skills suggesting that female leaders have poor self-awareness. 5/19/09 Women leaders 1313 Stereo-typical gender roles have been suggested to have pervasive effects on leadership perception resulting in women not typically being perceived as leaders (Brown & Geis, 1984; Butler & Geis, 1990; Eagly et al., 1992 all cited in Malloy & Janowski, 1992). It is important to understand if women leaders themselves have a clear perception of their own leadership competency and performance, and the way that others perceive their leadership ability (referred to as metaperception by Malloy & Janowski, 1992). Research suggests that accurate self-reports (i.e. congruence with the perception of others) relate to traits that are deemed important to be an effective leader. Traits such as self-esteem (Farh & Dobbins, 1989), private selfconsciousness (Gibbons, 1983; Nasby, 1989), intelligence, achievement status, and locus of control (Mabe & West, 1982)" (Van Velsor, Taylor, & Leslie, 1993) Click to edit Master subtitle style are examples of traits frequently associated with effective leaders. 5/19/09 Women leaders 1414 It has been suggested that negative attitudes stemming from perceived violations of traditional female roles (homemakers instead of business leaders) may contribute to hardships that women managers continue to face in the workplace (Moore, Grunberg, & Greenberg, 2004). Negative based beliefs or judgments about female leaders' roles by direct reports, peers and managers may result in metaperception incongruence. Further, if women underestimate their own leadership competencies, this may contribute to the lack of advancement of women to more senior leadership positions. Lastly, despite improved opportunities for women in management, there continues to be a persistence gender leadership imbalance favoring male leaders for many business sectors (Eagly, Makhijani 5/19/09 Women leaders 1515 & Klonsky, 1992; MacRae, 2005; Ryan & Haslam, 2007). Academic Click to edit Master subtitle style Ho1: There is no difference between female leaders and other-raters in ratings of overall leadership (combination of leadership competency and skill ratings). Question 1: Do female leaders rate their overall leadership competency and skill differently than how their direct reports, peers, managers and nondesignated others rate their overall leadership as evaluated by the combination of their competencies and skills? Ho2: There is no difference between female leaders and other-raters in ratings of leadership competency. Question 2: Do female leaders rate their leadership competency differently than how their direct reports, peers, managers and non-designated others Click to edit Master subtitle style rate their leadership competency? Ho3: There is no difference between female leaders and other-raters in ratings of leadership skills. Question 3: Do female leaders rate their leadership skill differently than how their direct reports, peers, managers and non-designated others rate their leadership skill? And, lastly, because different environmental factors may have a strong 5/19/09 Women leaders 1616 influence on any leader within a given environment, an exploratory analysis of The primary nature of the study was Ex Post Facto research to investigate the relationships of female leaders' self-assessment of their leadership competencies and skills, and the assessments of other-raters by examination of an existing database. The database was analyzed to test whether female leaders rate in agreement, under-rate, or over-rate their leadership as compared to assessments by other-raters (i.e., direct reports, peers and managers) as related to five leadership competencies (focus drive, emotional intelligence, trusted influence, conceptual thinking, and systems thinking) and five leadership skills (change management, coaching/mentoring, communication, negotiation, and problem solving) that comprise the High Impact Leadership ModelTM (Linkage, 2003). This research also explored the relationship of the Click to edit Master subtitle style congruence of 360-degree rater evaluations for female leaders from different business sectors. The data analyzed in this study was collected using the second revision of the Leadership Assessment Inventory (LAI) instrument from leaders who participated in leadership development training seminars conducted by Linkage from late 2001 through 2006 5/19/09 Women leaders 1717 Linkage is a for-profit, global organizational development company that specializes in leadership development (http://www.linkageinc.com/ company/ about_us.aspx). The company was founded in 1988 and to date more than 100,000 leaders and managers have attended Linkage development training programs. The headquarters for Linkage is in Burlington, Massachusetts. Regional offices are located in Minneapolis, Atlanta, San Francisco, Brussels, Bucharest, Johannesburg, London, Seoul, Singapore and Tokyo. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 1818 Leadership is defined as "...a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal" (Northouse, 2004, p. 3). Leadership competencies are defined as focused drive, emotional intelligence, trusted influence, conceptual thinking, and systems thinking (Linkage, 2003). Focused drive is defined as "the capability of focusing on a goal and harnessing your energy in order to meet that goal a balance between focus and drive" (Linkage, 2003, p. 7). Focus is defined as "the ability to identify an important goal or vision and to channel efforts at specific targets that support that goal/vision" (Linkage, 2003, p. 9). Click to edit Master subtitle style Drive is defined as "the ability to persevere, sacrifice (when necessary), and expend high degrees of energy to reach high levels of performance" (Linkage, 2003, p. 9). Emotional intelligence is defined as "the capability of understanding and mastering your emotions (and those of others) in a way that instills confidence a balance between perception and emotional maturity" (Linkage, 5/19/09 Women leaders 1919 2003, p. 7). Commitment is defined as "the ability to evoke trust from others by keeping commitments, adhering to high ethical standards and principles, and building shared goals/values" (Linkage, 2003, p. 9). Empowerment is defined as "the ability to help others reach higher levels of performance through trust, delegation, participation, and coaching" (Linkage, 2003, p. 9). Conceptual thinking is defined as "the capability of conceiving and selecting innovative strategies and ideas for your organization a balance between innovation and big picture thinking" (Linkage, 2003, p. 7). Innovation is defined as "the ability to create/enhance ideas, products, and services that lead to bottom line success" (Linkage, 2003, p. 9). Click to edit Master subtitle style Big picture thinking is defined as "the ability to see all of the forces, events, entities, and people involved in the situation at hand" (Linkage, 2003, p. 9). Systems thinking is defined as "the capability of connecting processes, events, and structures a balance between process orientation and mental discipline" (Linkage, 2003, p. 7). Process orientation is defined as "the ability to increase overall learning 5/19/09 Women leaders 2020 and performance by designing, implementing, and/or connecting Change management is defined as "the skill of adapting to and thriving in times of internal and external change" (Linkage, 2003, p. 6). Coaching/mentoring is defined as "the skill of mastering a comfortable coaching style and using it strategically to improve performance" (Linkage, 2003, p. 6). Communication is defined as "the skill of communicating and relating to a broad range of people internally and externally" (Linkage, 2003, p. 6). Negotiation is defined as "the skill of arriving at and reaching understanding and agreements with a broad range of people, internally and externally" (Linkage, 2003, p. 6). Problem solving is defined as "the skill of employing analytical abilities, pragmatism, and other tools to resolve complex problems in a variety of contexts" (Linkage, 2003, p. 6). 360-degree feedback is defined as a method whereby a person is Click to edit Master subtitle style provided with feedback from others such as direct reports, peers and/or managers regarding their performance. 5/19/09 Women leaders 2121 Assumptions and Limitations Some limitations ...Data were analyzed from individuals who participated in a leadership development conference that included the 360 degree assessment of the leader. It is assumed, but cannot be confirmed, that individuals participating in the conference already had some experience as a leader and were not in the conference to learn how to become a leader and therefore the ratings were obtained from raters who based their assessment on having observed and/or been led by the leader. By nature, 360-degree feedback relies on subjective information gathered at a single point in time from respondents who are expressing their opinion, attitude, experience, expectation and/or observations about the competencies of the person being rated. Thus, whatever environmental and/or other factors that areto edit Master subtitle style in time may influence the Click also occurring at that point feedback. 5/19/09 Women leaders 2222 Further, the study relied on the leader, as well as his/her direct reports, peers, managers and non-designated others to report on the leader's behavior. It is not known to what extent the relationship that the raters have with the leader may influence the subjective rating (e.g. duration of the relationship). This study was limited to those leaders who completed the LAI instrument and had at least one subordinate, peer, manager and/or other person rates them on the same instrument. There were no demographic data available for the leaders or raters such as gender, age, race or culture. The gender for the leaders analyzed in this study was empirically assigned based on the first name of the leader and an assumption of the gender that name (e.g. Mary was deemed female, Mike was deemed male) based on common Anglo-American name-gender assignment. Gender assignments were made where possible. In some instances, it Click to edit Master subtitle style was not possible to assign gender due to the possibility that the person could be male or female based on their first name (e.g., Pat, Dana). In such instances, the data were excluded from the population sample. 5/19/09 Women leaders 2323 Another limitation of this study was that no information was available on the number of people the leader directed overall. Nor was data available regarding the number of years that the leader had been in a leadership role overall or specifically in their current role at the time of completion of the LAI instrument. Also, educational training and background of the leader was not available. No information regarding the leaders specific relationship with the raters was available. For instance, the duration of time of any relationship was not known. There was no specific information available on the name, size or sector of the company for whom the leader or raters worked. In other words, it was not clear Click to edit Master subtitle style if the raters were current or previous direct reports, peers and/or managers for the leader since the leader themselves designated to whom the other-rater requests were distributed. An attempt has been made to determine the business sector in which the leader worked at the time they completed the LAI based on information from the leaders email address. Information available from the email address (i.e., any apparent business named after @ sign from their email address) was used to assign a business sector category. For 5/19/09 Women leaders 2424 example, if the email address was xxxxx@boeing.com, then it was assumed Trait Approach Leadership Theories These theories put forth that leaders are born with unique characteristics that qualify them to serve as leaders. This is in contrast to the viewpoint that one can learn to become a leader. The trait theory is easy to conceptualize by simple notation of some of the dominant traits/characteristics of leaders Generally, the major leadership traits of leaders that have been identified include intelligence, alertness, insight, responsibility, initiative, persistence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991; Kornr & Nordvik, 2004; Nordvik & Brovold, 1998; Stogdill, 1948 as cited in Northouse, 2004;). Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 2525 It is important to acknowledge that the focus of these trait theories is solely on the leader and not on the followers or the situation/context where/when the leadership occurs. A criticism is that these theories were generated potentially from a biased view in that the vast majority of studies conducted to identify leadership traits/characteristics were performed in the United States (US) of America public businesses, which were heavily dominated by a Caucasian, male employee base. Click to edit Master subtitle style Skills Approach Leadership Theories Leadership skills have also been studied directly or indirectly for years. The skills approach was first suggested by Katz (1955). He proposed that certain knowledge, abilities, and behaviors, that can be developed (versus are innate), are needed for an 5/19/09 Women leaders administrator to be effective. He defined2626 these skills Situational Leadership Theories These theories support the basic notation that strategic deployment of specific skills/talents of a leader can be more or less effective when environmental factors are taken into account. In other words, a leader's style can be highly variable depending on the situation and the leader's emotions. This theory suggests that leaders adapt their style to address needs of a given follower based on how ready and willing the follower is to performing required tasks. Thus, the leader takes into account the competence and the motivations of followers in deciding the best way to deploy their own leadership skills. These situational factors are important dimensions of leader-member relations (e.g. group atmosphere, members' attitudes toward the leader, etc.). Other factors such as the task-structure (routine versus novel) and positional power of the leader may also influence the leader's style. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 2727 These theorists then went on to develop a new model that they called The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership. The theory's name was inspired by the model of changes in parenting styles that occurs as children progress from infancy to adulthood. They felt that the same logic held true for manager's who were leading a range of workers including the inexperienced new worker, the developing worker, and the experienced worker (Hersey, 1996). As the level of the maturity (i.e., relative independence, ability to take responsibility and self-achievement motivation) of the follower continues to increase, appropriate leader behavior is less structure (task) and less socio-emotional support (relationship). Thus, as the maturity of the follower increases, the leader's behavior moves from high task plus low relationship, to high task plus high relationship, to low task plus high relationship, and finally to low task plus low relationship. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 2828 It wasn't until 1972 that these researchers began referring to this theory as Situational Leadership instead of Life-Cycle Theory of Leadership. Others adapted the theory and developed the managerial grid as an instructional tool used in organization and management training courses (Blake & Mouton as cited in Hersey & Blanchard, 1996). The tool creates a 2x2 grid with interfaces for high/low relationship behavior of the leader against high/low task behavior of the leader. The interfacing squares are referred to as `telling, selling, participating and delegating' (Northouse, 2004). Depending on the development level of a follower (i.e. their maturity), it is suggested that leaders will adopt one of these leadership styles. The theory has been evaluated in many studies. One study evaluated 105 health care institution nursing staff (Norris & Vecchio, 1992). The study setting has practical relevance to the findings since there was an Click to edit Master subtitle style established supervisor-subordinate hierarchy of authority for performance appraisal, despite the professional level status of these employees. Like several other prior studies, results from this study provided only mixed support for this theory. The information obtained from the nursing staff suggested a level of maturity that did not match up well with the chosen situational leadership style as suggested by the nursing supervisor staff. Despite these and others with similar mixed findings, situational leadership continues to be popular in organizational business settings and is, in the eyes of many, an optimal style of supervision (Norris & Vecchio, 1992) 5/19/09 Women leaders 2929 Transformational Leadership Theory The essence of transformational leadership is the process by which the leader changes and transforms individuals through their actions and behaviors (Bass 1999; Northouse, 2004). This leadership theory espouses that the to edit Master subtitle style emotions, values, ethics, Click standard and long-term goals of the leader are focused on the follower in a way that is considerate of the followers motives and needs (Bass, 1999). The theory proposes that there is 3030 an 5/19/09 Women leaders Emotional Intelligence Leadership Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 3131 There are a few similarities between the theories discussed above. First, most have a core component that addresses a dimension pertaining to the follower. The core of situational leadership, for instance, is to be cognizant of the needs of followers in a particular circumstance, and then adapt leadership behavior to meet their needs. Likewise, transformational leadership requires assessing followers' motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings. And lastly, a core aspect of EI is the ability to monitor feelings and emotions of others, to discriminate among them, and then use this information to guide actions. Another similarity lies between EI and transformational leadership as related to actions of initiating, managing and leading change within an organization. Being a change catalyst is an important social competency in the EI model, and is a core process for successful transformational leaders. Situational leadership is not similar in this way, although a situational Click to edit Master subtitle style leader may need to initiate and manage change in how they lead followers, depending on the situation. EI, transformational leadership and situational leadership are all similar in requiring the leader to have some level of social competency and/or awareness of how to influence others. The methodology of how this is achieved is explained as slightly different for each of these models. EI model indicates that the leader simply has to possess a social competency skill that relates to influencing others. Transformational leadership relies on charisma and communication of vision to influence others. And, situational leadership will vary their influencing styles depending on the 5/19/09 Women leaders 3232 need to tell, sell, participate or delegate, depending on the situation. An interesting relationship between trait theory, transformational leadership and emotional intelligence has recently been reported (Rubin, Munz & Boomer, 2005). The study evaluated aspects of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. There were five hypotheses tested in the study including whether leader emotion recognition, agreeableness, and extraversion, positive affectivity were positively associated with transformational leadership behavior. Also, an assessment of whether leader extraversion (a trait) moderated the relationship of emotion recognition and transformational leadership behaviors was evaluated. A total of 145 leaders met the inclusion criteria and took part in the study (Rubin, Munz & Boomer, 2005). In turn, a total of 480 subordinates participated. Each group completed a group-specific survey. The Click to their direct leader style subordinates ratededit Master subtitle using a survey that consisted of 22 items that pertained to the following 6 dimensions: a) articulating a vision, b) providing a role model, d) communicating high performance expectations, d) providing individualized support, e) fostering the acceptance of group goals, and f) providing intellectual stimulation. Overall the study results supported that personality traits of agreeableness and positive affectivity predict transformational leadership behavior. Extraversion did not predict transformational leadership behavior. Emotion recognition was positively related to transformational leadership behavior (Rubin et al., 2005) 5/19/09 Women leaders 3333 The High Impact Leadership ModelTM As a result of extensive evaluation and synthesis of a variety of leadership behaviors displayed by `best leaders' from a variety of industries, organizations and positions the High Impact Leadership ModelTM (figure 2) was proposed by the Linkage Consulting Research Team, which included Professor Warren Bennis, Ph.D., of the University of Southern California (Linkage, 2003). The model summarizes five leadership capabilities (i.e. competencies), five leadership skills, and five leadership responsibilities. The model describes key areas that were felt to best describe components that an individual leader must possess to be a more effective. The five specific leadership competencies defined in the High Impact Click to edit Master subtitle style Leadership ModelTM are defined as focused drive, emotional intelligence, trusted influence, conceptual thinking and systems thinking (Linkage, 2003). Each leadership competency is comprised of two leadership components. Focused drive, for example, is comprised of `focus' and `drive'. Focus is defined as "the ability to identify an important goal or vision and to channel efforts at specific targets that support that goal/vision" (Linkage, 2003, p.7). Drive is defined as "the ability to persevere, sacrifice (when necessary), and 5/19/09 Women leaders 3434 expend high degrees of energy to reach high levels of performance" (Linkage, The High Impact Leadership Model Figure 2. The High Impact Leadership ModelTM (Linkage, 2003) Linkage (2003). Leadership Assessment Profile Report: The High Impact Leadership ModelTM and The Leadership Assessment InstrumentTM (LAI). Burlington, MA: Author. Copyright 1998 by Linkage. Used with permission of Linkage. Leadership Competencie s Leadership Leadership Click to edit Master subtitle style Responsibiliti Skills es 5/19/09 Women leaders 3535 Likewise, emotional intelligence is comprised of perception and emotional maturity. Trusted influence is comprised of commitment and empowerment. Conceptual thinking is comprised of innovation and big picture thinking. And, lastly, system thinking is comprised of process orientation and mental discipline (Linkage, 2003). The model also includes five leadership skills (change management, coaching/mentoring, communication, negotiation, and problem solving) and defines five leadership responsibilities (creating results, creating the vision, creating the organization, creating the people of the future, and creating the knowledge of the future). Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 3636 Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire The Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is another example of a leadership measurement tool. The MLQ was developed in the mid 1980's to evaluate the latent variables of the Multifactor Leadership Theory (Avolio & Bass, 1991 as cited in Antonakis, Avolio, & Sivasubramaniam, 2003). This theory was first proposed by Bass as a result of data he collected from surveys completed by 198 US Army military officers who were rating their superior officers using an early form of the MLQ (Bass, 1985 as cited in Avolio, Bass & Jung, 1999). From this research he identified six factors that included three transformational factors (referred to as charismaticinspirational, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration), two Click to edit Master subtitle style transactional factors (referred to as contingent reward and management-byexception) and a passive-avoidant factor (also referred to as laissez-faire). 5/19/09 Women leaders 3737 The MLQ was used in a study reported in 1992 to investigate self versus other agreement on leadership perceptions (Atwater & Yammarino, 1992). The purposes of this research were to investigate the extent that individuals inflated their self-ratings of leadership, as well as to explore contributory factors to inflated self-ratings of leadership and how self awareness affects the degree of relationship between the leader behavior and performance outcome. In this study two different samples were used. The first sample was comprised of 91 student leaders who were in training at the United States Naval Academy; of whom only 8 were female. A total of 1145 subordinate ratings and 11 superior ratings for these Click to edit Master subtitle style leaders were analyzed for this study in addition to the leader's selfassessment. The second sample was comprised of 158 male, naval officer leaders who were rated by 793 subordinates (90% of whom were male). Leaders were assigned to one of three agreement groups (underestimator, over-estimator or agreement) relative to the differences between their ratings and the ratings of their subordinates, and separately of their managers for sample 1. Deviations from the mean 5/19/09 Women leaders 3838 Factors That Influence Self and Other Ratings Because 360-degree leadership measures rely heavily on subjective assessments of self and other reporting, it is important to consider factors that may adversely influence such ratings. Self-reports for 360-degree assessments require higher-order cognitive processing of recall, weighting, inference, prediction, interpretation and evaluation (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986). Thus, while responding to such an instrument, the individual is working at "a fairly high level of abstraction" (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986, p. 533) and is essentially providing a summary judgment that entails many endpoints. Another well established point of view that emerges from the literature argues that different raters will observe different dimensions of leadership and Click to edit Master subtitle style therefore, the congruence between ratings may differ. Further, it has been suggested that due to the different relationships and greater frequency of opportunities for some raters to observe the leader than others, one might expect higher concordance for self-subordinate than self-supervisor, self-peer or peer-supervisor. That being said, however, it has been proposed that a rating scale that is well defined and behaviorally based is likely to show agreement between different raters (Harris & Schaubroeck, 1988). Meta5/19/09 Women of 360-degree feedback have found that 3939 analyses that evaluated congruence leaders Gender, Leadership and 360-degree Leadership Assessment Van Velsor, Taylor and Leslie (1993, p. 249) concluded that "contrary to common belief, our research shows that women are not more likely to underrate their own skills on measures of leadership competency". This seminal work is frequently referenced as the first evidence that women are not more likely to underrate their own skills. The research literature is replete with statements inferring that there are numerous consistent findings that women tend to underrate themselves as compared to others ratings (e.g. peers) in the area of leadership (e.g., Alimo-Metcalfe, 1998; Fletcher 1999; Van Velsor, Taylor, & Leslie, 1993) despite the fact that there are only a few studies that actual report data evaluating gender differences in self-assessment of any kind. Evidence that women underrate themselves on leadership effectiveness is, in fact, absent from the literature. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4040 There is evidence that female leaders' style of leadership is different than male leaders. Rosener (1990) found that men tend to use reward and punishment as means to influence performance. Women leaders, however, tend to use a more interactive leadership style that encompasses sharing information and power. Subsequently, several studies have found that women tend to be more transformational in their leadership style than men (Bass, Avolio, & Atwater, 1996; Bass & Avolio, 1994) So much of early leadership theory development, especially pertaining to the trait, skill and behavioral approaches, was based on business models that were highly predominantly influenced by the white, male leaders. Even today, nearly 50 years after leadership theory development began in earnest, leadership and managerial roles and tasks continue to be defined from a masculine gender perspective. Leadership research literature has Click to edit Master subtitle style not adequately established whether women leaders do or do not underrate their own skills on measures of leadership. Thus, Van Velsor, Taylor and Leslie's (1993) examination of this issue, while suggesting that women do not underrate their own skills and competencies, needs to be confirmed. 5/19/09 Women leaders 4141 It is important to develop leadership theories that are not biased with regard to gender, or other characteristics (e.g. race, culture). After all, women leaders and managers are not as novel in the workplace as they may have been even 15 years ago, with approximately 40% of all managers in US firms being women (Carr-Ruffino, 2003). Also, developing theories to further examine and understand sources and effects of bias is important. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4242 Population Sample The population for this study comes from an existing, archived dataset that included 1153 female leaders from a variety of business sectors that had survey data from 8141 other-raters (peers, direct reports, managers and non-designated others) who had completed a self-rating of the Leadership Assessment Instrument (LAITM) between late 2001 and August 2006. In this dataset, there were 862 female leaders that had at least one self-evaluation and one evaluation by another rater. Since this represented a sample population of this dataset, the to edit Master subtitle from all 862 female leaders. It was Click analysis included data style estimated, however, that a sample of at least 385 leaders would be needed to evaluate concordance of the agreement categories with 95% confidence. Research Instrument The data analyzed in this study were from female leaders from various business sectors who completed self-examinations using the Leadership Assessment InstrumentTM as well as received 360-degree feedback as part of a leadership development course conducted by staff from 4343 Linkage between 5/19/09 Women leaders late 2001 and August 2006. This instrument was selected since it is a Main Findings Samples Population N = 3580 Male or Gender unidentified N = 2427 Female N = 1153 (females with self -rating and at least one rating by another rater) N = 862 Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4444 The first research question was to ascertain whether female leaders rated their overall leadership competency and skill (LAI overall) differently than how their direct reports, peers, managers or others rated their overall leadership. This assessment was made by comparing the mean LAI overall score (combination of competency and skill scores) for each pair of raters, and then comparing these mean score differences for significance. A difference (p<0.0001) was observed between leaders and each of the types of raters, with the leaders always having a lower mean overall score than the other rater types (table 3). The leaders mean LAI overall score was 3.6, compared to 3.9, 3.8, 3.7 and 3.9 for direct reports, managers, peers and non-designated other raters, respectively. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4545 The second research question was to ascertain whether female leaders rated their leadership competency differently than how their direct reports, peers, managers or others rated their leadership competency. This assessment was made by comparing the mean score for the 50 competency questions on the LAI for each pair of raters, and then comparing the competency mean score differences for significance. A difference (p<0.0001) was observed between leaders and each of the types of raters, with the leaders always having a lower mean LAI competency score than the other rater types. The leaders mean LAI competency score was 3.6, compared to 3.9, 3.8, 3.7 and 3.9 for direct reports, managers, peers and other raters, respectively. These mean scores were identical to the mean LAI overall scores. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4646 The third research question was to ascertain whether female leaders rated their leadership skills differently than how their direct reports, peers, managers or others rated their leadership skills. This assessment was made by comparing the mean score for the 25 skill questions on the LAI for each pair of raters, and then comparing the skill mean score differences for significance. A difference (p<0.0001) was observed between leaders and each of the types of raters with the leaders always having a lower mean skill score than the other rater types. The leaders mean LAI skill score was 3.5, compared to 3.8, 3.7, 3.6 and 3.8 for direct reports, managers, peers and other raters, respectively. These mean scores were lower than the mean LAI overall and mean LAI competency scores. Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4747 An additional analysis was performed whereby the sample Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders 4848 Table 8. N (%) Mean Under-Rater Accurate rater Over-rater P-Value 1262 (18.2) 5059 (73.1) 599 (8.7) <0.0001 (SD) Median 3.06 (0.48) 3.56 (0.50) 3.96 (0.48) ---- Click to edit Master subtitle style Minimum 3.08 1.33 3.60 1.80 Mean 4.00 5.00 4.00 2.40 5.00 Maximum 5/19/09 Women leaders 4949 The last research question was to ascertain whether female leaders from different business sectors rated their overall leadership differently than how all others providing 360-degree feedback rated their overall leadership. The business sector was unknown for 166 leaders. Thus, a business sector was assigned for a total of 696 (80.7%) of the leaders. A total of 50 different business sectors were identified. Most sectors, however, had less than ten leaders represented. There were a total of seven business sectors that had 20 or more leaders within a given sector. These included banking (N=27), drug (N=75), education (Ed) (N=57), government (Govt) (N=63), health service plans (HSP) (N=40), insurance (ins) (N=216), and medical supplies (MedS) (N=76). Mean scores for the LAI overall, LAI competency and LAI skill scores from leaders in these business sectors are presented in table 9. The mean LAI competency scores were higher than the mean LAI skill scores within each Click to edit Master subtitle style of these business sectors except for the insurance sector (mean scores were the same). The mean LAI competency score was the same as the mean LAI overall score for most of the leaders in these sectors, with the exception of the banking sector. In this case, the mean LAI competency score was higher than the mean LAI overall and mean LAI skill scores. Bank Drug Educ Govt HSP Ins Meds N 27 N75 N 57 N 63 N 40 N 216 N 76 5/19/09 Women leaders 5050 The final exploratory analysis was an evaluation of the rating accuracy of the female leaders for these seven business sectors versus all of their other raters (direct reports, managers, peers and others, combined). As was done with the entire sample population as described above, these female leaders were characterized as accurate raters, under-raters or over-raters based on the mean paired difference for the leader versus all other raters for the mean LAI overall score. Results from this analysis are presented in table 10. For all sectors, 86.1% or more of leaders were categorized as accurate raters. When inaccurate rating did occur, however, the leader was typically categorized more often as under-rating. Indeed, no leaders in the banking, drug, education, or health service plan sectors were categorized as over raters. Table 10. Accuracy of LAI overall ratings for female leaders from seven different business sectors Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/19/09 Women leaders Women leaders 5151 Table 10. Accuracy of LAI overall ratings for female leaders from seven different business sectors. business sectors Accuracy of LAI overall ratings for female l different business sectors. business sectors Sector N Under rater Accurate Overrater -rater Banking Drug Education Government 27 75 57 63 1 (3.7%) 6 (8.0%) 7 (12.3%) 5 (7.9%) 26 (96.3%) 69 (92.0%) 50 (87.7%) 0 0 0 3 0 55 (87.3%) (4.8%) Click to edit Master subtitle style Health 40 4 (10.0%) 36 (90.0%) Service Plans Insurance Medical Supplies 5/19/09 216 76 24 (11.1%) 5 (6.6%) 6 (2.8%) 67 (88.1%) (5.3%) 5252 4 Women leaders Brief Summary of Data Findings The current research study found that the mean ratings by the leaders were less than any ...

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Laurentian - MGT - 200802
IN PRACTICEGENDER MAINSTREAMINGA ToolkitGender Mainstreaming in Practice: A ToolkitThere is no copyright attached to this publication. It may be reproduced in whole or in part without prior permission from the United Nations Development Progr
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Gender &amp; CommunicationThe Difference &amp; Why? Wk 2.1Gender&amp; communication1Organizational &amp; Home Setting Did u see/perceive any difference in communication between male and female employees? When was the last time u visited an office? Any gend
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Gender, Glass Ceiling &amp; Leadership Styles&quot; The Glass Ceiling&quot; the invisible artificial barriers created by attitudinal and organizational prejudices that bar women from top executives. Domestic &amp; International Perspectives; Facilitating, Working in
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Gender &amp; SexSEX: geneticGENDER: Social &amp; Cultural AspectsWhat is it with women as managers? Where, Who, What See Women in Management (Malaysians) http:/classes.uleth.ca/200502/mgmt3850a See Anita Hill, Bonnie Reitz, Regina Herzlinger ( http:/w
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It was a wonderful life narrated by Jodie Foster. A film by MicheleOhayon. (82 min. color) Academy Award nominee Michele Ohayon presents a riveting and powerful account of 6 women who are members of America's growing &quot;hidden homeless&quot; population. W
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Kementerian Pembangunan Wanita, Keluarga dan MasyarakatMEASURING AND MONITORING GENDER EQUALITYMALAYSIA'S GENDER GAP INDEXPublished by Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, Level 15, Block E, Bukit Perdana Government Office Comple
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CHAPTER 14 (WOMEN &amp; GENDER BY MARY CRAWFORD &amp; RHODA UNGER, 2004. BOSTON: MCGRAW HILL)_Mental and Physical HealthCHAPTER OUTLINE (EXPANDED VERSION OF OUTLINE THAT APPEARS IN TEXTBOOK)I. Gender and psychological disorders A. Is there a feminist vi
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STOP SEXUAL HARASSMENTIs natural and instinctiveNo! It is not inherited Learned behaviour Can be unlearnedFlirtingFlirting is consensual If unwanted, it is Sexual HarassmentOrIf it is unacceptable to a 3rd person, it can be Sexual Harassme
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PREDICTORS OF CAREER SUCCESS &amp; GENDER: A PRELIMINARY CONCEPT PAPER BySupervisors: Intan Osman &amp; Mahfooz A AnsariRachel SamuelUniversiti Sains Malaysia Wk 6.1BACKGROUNDWomen make up an increasing proportion of full time workforce and of ma
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Mmfflsafasflassflassflas ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffDiscussion PapersRole of Gender Equality in Development A Literature ReviewAnne Mikkola University of Helsinki, RUESG and HECERDiscussion Paper No. 84 November 2005 ISSN 1795-0562
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Special Dispatch | No. 1875 | March 18, 2008Saudi Arabia/Reform ProjectSaudi Shura Council Recommends Allowing Saudi Women to Drive With LimitationsSUBSCRIBE | UNSUBSCRIBE | DONATE | CONTACT USMEMRI | MEMRI TV | THE MEMRI BLOG | MEMRI ECONOMIC
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Understanding Gender &amp; Health Wk 3: 2Health &amp; Gender wk 3:2 Summer 08 1How Does Gender Perceives Fitness, Body Weight, Height (Body Mass Index)Diet What is to men &amp; women fitness mean? How do you see your own body weight, height? What t
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n &amp; G ender Wome d in a Social Grounde erspective &amp; u ti a system P ntrjustcsex-onist of meanings related to power Gender isCo than morestatus. Individual, interactional &amp; cultural levels to structure people's lives. Individual: gender identity &amp; ge
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The reality of &quot;new&quot; careers for men and for womenCarol Ackah; Norma Heaton Journal of European Industrial Training; 2004; 28, 2-4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 141Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
Laurentian - MGT - 200802
&quot;How do men and women conceptualise the concept of Success?&quot;A Preliminary FindingMs. Adida Yang Amri adida@usm.my Associate Professor Zainal Ariffin Ahmad zaba@usm.my School of Management Universiti Sains Malaysia05/19/09Aya QRAM 071Resea
Laurentian - MGT - 200802
&quot;How do men and women conceptualise the concept of Success?&quot;A Preliminary FindingMs. Adida Yang Amri adida@usm.my Associate Professor Zainal Ariffin Ahmad zaba@usm.my School of Management Universiti Sains Malaysia05/ 19/ 09Aya QRAM 071Res
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Laurentian - MGT - 200802
Chapter 1 Why Information Systems Matterwww.pearsoned.ca/jes supRobert Riordan, Carleton UniversityClick to edit Master subtitle styleInformation Systems Today, 2/C/5/19/092008 Pearson Education11-1Why Learn about Information SystemsI
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5/19/09Information Systems for Competitive AdvantageClick to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 25/19/09six major roles and goals of IT 1. 2.Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs usingEnhance decision making
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5/19/09Data and Knowledge ManagementClick to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 3MBNA5/19/09Managing data and informationUsually too much data rather than too little in organizations How does an organization _ all this data and informatio
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5/19/09Appendix A Hardware Appendix B SoftwareClick to edit Master subtitle style5/19/09Stuff for class5/19/09six major roles and goals of IT 1. 2.Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs usingEnhance decisio
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5/20/09 The Internet and SecurityClick to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 45/20/09six major roles and goals of IT 1. 2.Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs usingEnhance decision making 3. Improve team c
Laurentian - MGT - 200802
5/19/09Electronic Business, Intranets &amp; ExtranetsClick to edit Master subtitle style5/19/09Electronic CommerceThe _ exchange of goods, services, and money among firms, and between _ and their customers25-25/19/09Types of Electronic Com
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5/19/09Organizational Information SystemsClick to edit 6 Chapter Master subtitle styleFire your Customer5/19/09What do Managers Do?They make _ _ _= better managers The amount of information people must understand to make __ , solve problem
Laurentian - MGT - 200802
5/19/09Enterprise-Wide Information SystemsClick to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 7System CategoriesEnterprise-wide Systems aka _ _ are systems that allow companies to integrate information across operations on a company-wide basis5/19/09
Laurentian - MGT - 200802
5/19/09Information Systems for Competitive AdvantageClick to edit Master subtitle style Chapter 95/19/09six major roles and goals of IT 1. 2.Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs usingEnhance decision making
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link to tipping point http:/radio.weblogs.com/0107127/stories/2003/01/01/tippingPointNetVersion.html
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
6/16/2008Bilingual and Multilingual CommunitiesWhen speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for their languages to influence each other Bilingual speakers often borrow new word incorporate new words, morphological and gram
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
6/12/2008Class and RaceSpeech Community a group of people who use language in a unique yet similar way that is mutually accepted among themselves. Speech communities can be social groups such as neighbourhoods, members of a profession with a spec
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
6/3/2008Communicative InteractionsPersonal Goals in conversation? State an opinion find information get something exert power Social goals avoid conflict make friends How do we win friends and influence people through our conversation? We have to
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
5/29/2008An Ethnography of CommunicationSpeakers make choices as to the language they use based on class, gender, race etc. the context of the speech event, the topic of discussion, and their goals.Ethnography of Communication To understand the
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6/12/2008Gender and LanguageSex Versus Gender Sex refers to biologicaldifferences, Gender refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics. &quot;The ways members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated and expected to beha
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5/17/2008LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND COMMUNICATIONBasic Concepts Anthropology Culture Cultural Holism Norms Cultural Model Enculturation Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Ethnography Ethnology Participant Observation Emic etic Ethnolinguis
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5/29/2008Language and Cultural Meaning A man who waits for a roast duck to fly into his mouth must wait a very, very long time.Proverbs Reflect CultureChinese Proverbs A camel standing amidst a flock of sheep. A man who says it cannot be done sh
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5/17/2008Acquisition of Communicative CompetenceWhen children learn to speak they learn several things simultaneously The sounds (phonemes) of their language and their meanings (morphemes) and the rules by which they are put together (syntax) They
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6/18/2008Language and Institutional Encountersin addition to the words spoken messages often contain subtexts of human interaction Reveal motivations values, attitudes and so on about rights and worthiness of othersEvery culture has systems of
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5/17/2008Learning Language&quot;That's one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind&quot;.learning language a universal processLearning a Language Involves. Learning the language's sounds and sound patterns, its specific words, and the ways in
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AGE SUBCULTURESAge and Consumer IdentityGeneral marketing strategies are often modified to fit specific age groups. Why?Age exerts a significant influence on identity Consumers undergo predictable changes in their values, lifestyles, and consumpt
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Consumer AttitudesAttitudesWhat is an attitude? Expressions of inner feelings that reflect whether a person is favorably or unfavorably predisposed to some object in marketing, &quot;object&quot; can be a brand, a brand name, a service, a service provider
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The Cultural Meaning of Consumer GoodsThe Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods Consumer goods have asignificance that goes beyond their utilitarian and commercial value They carry and communicatecultural meaning Cultural meaning is located in
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INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKINGThe Purchasing ProcessWhy do we buy anything?A Rational Problem Solver?How do we solve our Problems What's the process?PROBLEM RECOGNITION INFORMATION SEARCH EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES PRODUCT CHOICE CONSUMPTION &amp;
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PERCEPTIONApril 2007broadcast and cable networks run anaverage 15 minutes of nonprogram time per hour in prime time, according to the annual Clutter Watch study issued by media agency MindShare. MTV had the most noncommercialminutes with 16:0
Laurentian - MGT - 200802
The SelfWhat is the Self Concept?The ideas, attitudes, and perceptions people have aboutthemselves The image one has of oneself. self-concept is important in how a person judges and evaluates other persons or products. What model or brand of au
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Cultural Influences on Consumer BehaviourCross-Cultural Marketing gaffs Chevrolet Nova didn't do well in Spanish speaking countries .Nova means 'No Go' In Brazil the Ford Pinto flopped because Pinto was Brazilian slang for &quot;tiny male genitals.&quot; For
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Family or Household Decision MakingTypes of Households/FamiliesWhy is it Important for Marketers to know about Families and Households?1. impart lifestyle and consumption values to their members 2. influential in consumption decisions 3. make s
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Group Influences1996What is a Reference Group? an individual or group who serve as points of comparison or reference and have a significant relevance on an individual's evaluations, aspirations or behaviour What do they do? Play a vital role in
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What is it?Consumer Behaviour&quot;the processes involved when individuals or groups select, use, or dispose of products, services, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires.&quot;Solomon et al. 2007&quot;Open Your Mind&quot; 1. Significative 2. Symbolic 3. Soc
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Learning and MemoryWhat is Learning?A change in Behaviour caused by experienceWhat is Consumer learning?Why is it important to understand how consumer's learn?From a marketer's perspective learning becomes teaching What do we want to teach t
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MOTIVATIONMotivationWhat is a motive? from the Latin motus - to move A motive is something that causes a person to act (or move). It answers the question Why? What is Motivation? An inner drive or process that causes a person to act to fulfil a
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CONSUMERS AND SUBCULTURESWhat are some demographics Age education occupation social class Ethnic group gender family size and composition distribution of populationSo What Are demographics? Objective Quantifiable Characteristics of a p
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Bilingual and Multilingual CommunitiesWhen speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for their languages to influence each other Bilingual speakers often borrow new word incorporate new words, morphological and grammatical str
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
Class and RaceSpeech Community a group of people who use language in a unique yet similar way that is mutually accepted among themselves. Speech communities can be social groups such as neighbourhoods, members of a profession with a specialize
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
Communicative InteractionsPersonal Goals in conversation? State an opinion find information get something exert power Social goals avoid conflict make friends How do we win friends and influence people through our conversation? We have to be Agr
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
An Ethnography of CommunicationSpeakers make choices as to the language they use based on class, gender, race etc. the context of the speech event, the topic of discussion, and their goals.Ethnography of Communication To understand the choi
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
Gender and Language Sex refers to Sex Versus Genderbiological differences, Gender refers to the cultural construction of male and female characteristics. &quot;The ways members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated and expected to beh
Laurentian - ANTH - 200802
LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND COMMUNICATIO NBasic Concepts Anthropology Culture Cultural Holism Norms Cultural Model Enculturation Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Ethnography Ethnology Participant Observation Emic etic EthnolinguisticsWhat
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L anguage and Cultur al M eaning A ma n who wa i ts for a r oa st duck to fl y i nto hi s mouth must wa i t a ver y, ver y l ong ti me.Pr over bs Reflect Cult ur eChinese Pr over bs A ca mel sta ndi ng a mi dst a fl ock of sheep. A ma n who sa ys