chapter_12
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chapter_12

Course Number: PS 104, Fall 2008

College/University: Embry-Riddle FL/AZ

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PS104 Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat 1. Common Temperature Scales Converting from a Fahrenheit to a Celsius temperature Tc = (TF - 32)(5/9) Converting from a Celsius to a Fahrenheit temperature TF = TC (9/5) + 32 2. The Kelvin temperature scale The kelvin is the SI base unit for temperature. T (kelvin) = TC + 273.15 A change of 1 Co is equal to a change of 1 K The constant-volume gas thermometer Problem...

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12 Temperature PS104 Chapter and Heat 1. Common Temperature Scales Converting from a Fahrenheit to a Celsius temperature Tc = (TF - 32)(5/9) Converting from a Celsius to a Fahrenheit temperature TF = TC (9/5) + 32 2. The Kelvin temperature scale The kelvin is the SI base unit for temperature. T (kelvin) = TC + 273.15 A change of 1 Co is equal to a change of 1 K The constant-volume gas thermometer Problem 2 On the moon the surface temperature ranges from 375 K during the day to 1.00 102 K at night. What are these temperatures on the (a) Celsius and (b) Fahrenheit scales? 3. Thermometers Thermometric property a physical property that changes with temperature length of a merucry column pressure of a gas in a constant-volume gas thermometer potential difference in a thermocouple electrical resistance thermometers made of platinum wire. 1 4. Linear thermal expansion The length Lo of an object changes by an amount L when its temperature changes by an amount T : L = Lo T where is the coefficient of linear expansion and L = L - Lo . for steel is (Steel) = 12 10-6 (C o )-1 Thermal Stress Stress = Y (L/Lo ) = YT where Y = Young's modulus and Stress = pressure = F/A. The bimetallic strip The expansion of holes The maximum density of water (4o C) Problem 11 Find the approximate length of the Golden Gate bridge if it is known that the steel in the roadbed expands by 0.53 m when the temperature changes from +2 to +32o C 5. Volume Thermal Expansion The volume of a normal material increases as the temperature increases. The volume Vo of an object changes by an amount V when its temperature changes by an amount T : V = Vo T Problem 26 A swimming pool contains 110 m3 of water. The sun heats the water from 17 to 27 o C. What is the change in the volume of the water? Answer: 0.228 m3 2 6. Heat and internal energy Heat is energy that flows from a high-temperature object to a lowertemperature object because of the difference in temperatures. The SI unit of heat is the joule (J) Object are hotter because of their internal energy (i.e., their molecular kinetic energy) 7. Heat and temperature change For a limited temperature range, experiments show that the amount of heat Q (joules) is directly proportional to the in change temperature T and to the mass m. The heat Q that must be supplied or removed to change the temperature of a substance of mass m by an amount T is: Q = cmT where c is the specific heat capacity SI unit for specific heat capacity: J/(kgCo ) Table of specific heats: cwater = 4186 J/(kgCo ) at 15 o C Gases: the specific heat capacity depends upon whether or not the heat exchanged is done at constant pressure or constant volume. This will be discussed later in chapter 15. 1 calorie = 4.186 joules 1 kcal = 4186 joules Calorimetry: In a closed system, the total heat exchanged between systems in thermal contact must add up to zero. Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0 Q is positive if heat enters the system m1 c1 T1 + m2 c2 T2 + m3 c3 T3 = 0 Problem 47 In a passive solar house, the sun heats water stored in barrels to a temperature of 38 o C. The stored energy is then used to heat the house on cloudy days. Suppose that 2.4 108 J of heat are needed to maintain the inside of the house at 21 o C. How many barrels (1 barrel = 0.16 m3 ) of water are needed? Answer: 21.1 barrels 3 8. Heat and phase change: Latent heat Three phases of mattergas, liquid, and solid Phase transition: solid liquid solid gas (sublimation) or liquid gas or During phase transitions, heat is exchanged but the temperature does not change. Q = mL where is the latent heat of the substance The SI unit of latent heat: J/kg Latent heat of fusion, Lf Water at 0 o C Lf = 33.5 104 J/kg Water at 100 o C Lv = 22.6 105 J/kg Latent heat of vaporization, Lv Problem 51 How much heat must be added to 0.45 kg of aluminum to change it from a solid at 130o C to a liquid at 660o C (its melting point)? The latent heat of fusion for aluminum is 4.0 105 J/kg. Answer: 3.9 105 J Problem 56 The latent heat of vaporization of H2 O at body temperature (37.0 o C) is 2.42 106 J/kg. To cool the body of a 75-kg jogger [average specific heat capacity = 3500 J/(kgCo )] by 1.5 o C, how many kilograms of water in the form of sweat have to be evaporated? Answer: 0.163 kg Extra Problem Problem 78 A 10.0-kg block of ice has a temperature of -10.0o C. The pressure is one atmosphere. The block absorbs 4.11 106 J of heat. What is the final temperature of the liquid water? Answer: 13.4o C 4

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Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS103Chapter 13The Transfer of Heat 1. Convection Convection is the process by which heat is carried from place to place by the bulk movement of a fluid. Examples are the convection currents in a house, the cooling coils in a refrigerator, the
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS103Chapter 14The ideal gas law and kinetic theory1. The mole, Avaogadro's number, and molecular mass To compare the mass of one atom with another, the mass scale known as the atomic mass scale has been established. The accepted unit of mass
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PS104Chapter 15Thermodynamics1. Thermodynamic systems and their surroundings The system is the collection of objects upon which attention is being focused (e.g., the burning of fuel, the expansion of gas, etc.), while the surroundings describes
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
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Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS104Chapter 17May 23, 2003The principle of linear superposition and interference phenomena Introduction: Since we are going to skip the first four sections of this chapter, there needs to be some introduction leading up to the sections we are g
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS104Chapter 18Electric Forces and Electric Fields1.The origin of electricity The electrical nature of matter is inherent in atomic structure. The nuclear model of the atom with protons and neutrons in the nucleus surrounded by electrons, re
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
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Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS103Chapter 21Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields1.Magnetic elds Magnetic eld lines (unlike electric eld lines) are continuous loops. We have not observed north or south magnetic charges in our universe. The search for magnetic charges, cal
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS104Chapter 22Electromagnetic Induction1.Induced emf E and induced current I There are many ways a magnetic eld can be used to generate an electric current. The ability to produce electrical energy and transport it long distances has had a
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS104Chapter 23Alternating Current Circuits1.Capacitors and capacitive reactance In this chapter we introduce other electrical elements into the ac circuit, namely the capcitance C and the inductance L Recall the relationship for the voltag
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
7 6 5 4 3 2 150556065Percent Scores Assignment: Exam 1, Fully Scored Percent Score 100.0 53.3 46.7 93.3 89.5 9.9 Grade Name A F A B707580859095100Maximum Minimum Range Median Average Std deviationRaw Score 60.00 32.00 28.0
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
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Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS104Instructor: Lectures: Labs: Dr. Darrel Smith PS104.01 PS104.50 PS104.51 M-F T Th T ThSummer A200412:00 1:15 9:10 10:10 2:50 3:50orWeb Page: Office: Office Hours:http:/physicsx.pr.erau.edu/ Building 35 Room 6 M W F 8:30 10:30"
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Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Prescott CampusCourse Instructor Office Hours Office Phone PS150 Physics I for Engineers (Fall 2004) 3 credit hoursDr. Darrel Smith See my website: http:/physicsx.pr.erau.edu/ Building 35 Room 6 777-6663Cours
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Monday J A N 14 Ch. 1 Momentum & U.P. 1.2, 1.4 21 Martin Luther King Holiday 28 Ch. 2 Free ParticleWednesday 9 Ch. 1 Bohr Atom & Schr. Eq.Friday 11 Ch. 1 Probability & Normaliz.16Ch. 2 Stationary States Inf. Sq. Well 1.9, 1.15 23 Ch. 2 SHO Al
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Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Prescott CampusCourse EP455 Bldg. 55B Quantum Physics (Spring 2008) M W F 1:50-2:50 PM 3 credit hoursInstructor Office Hours Office PhoneDr. Darrel Smith See my website: http:/physicsx.pr.erau.edu/ Building A
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Experiment Schedule for PS103 Lab (Summer A 2004) Date May 11 May 13 May 18 May 20 May 25 May 27 June 1 June 3 June 8 June 10 June 15 Experiment Intro and Protocol Graphing Ratios Spring Break (No Lab) Pendulum Projectile Motion (Formal Report 1) Con
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
54321304050Percent Scores Assignment: Exam 1, Partly Scored Percent Score 97.5 35.0 62.5 80.0 77.9 15.6 Grade Name A F B C60708090Maximum Minimum Range Median Average Std deviationRaw Score 39.00 14.00 25.00 32.00 31.14 6.
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
54321FDCBAGrade Names Assignment: Exam #2, Partly Scored Raw Score 60.00 34.00 26.00 47.00 45.23 7.14 Percent Score 100.0 56.7 43.3 78.3 75.4 11.9 Grade Name A F C CMaximum Minimum Range Median Average Std deviationStatistics
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 250
Student ID 0886436 0667199 0688642 0956358 0752153 0862688 0855037 0882753 0818720 0760150 0644996 0679622 0764633 0671030 0755796 0689483 0855063 0791794 0755962 0665733 0836483 0696725 0836875 0845062 0646762 0786328 0844774 0755759 0859476 0798801
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 250
Student ID 0688576 0741697 0803042 0862314 0640073 0713777 0714724 0775997 0865703 0842752 0738486 0822403 0822978 0705868 0754207 0761940 0307375 0682329 0612402 0824329 0820160 0728275 0691312 0752329 0757517 0737887 0795186 0150743 0808207 0752433
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 250
Student ID 0802363 0864535 0609155 0726691 0798555 0738940 0751440 0861159 0764968 0846498 0741656 0734810 0823004 0754438 0755977 0734332 0870698 0611457 0855099 0685609 0688073 0763868 0573471 0758171Final 70 87 79 87 85 73 60 87 74 84 90 71 93 7
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 103
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PS103Chapter 3Kinematics in two dimensions1. Displacement, velocity, and acceleration From the previous chapter we wrote the displacement vector in one dimension as x = x xo . In two dimensions we write the displacement vector as: r = r ro L
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Appendix A Calculating the Smallest Standard Deviation Every now and then we encounter a situation where all the measurements of a physical quantity fall into the same histogram bin. This possibility is shown in Fig. A.1 below where measurement after
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GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATIONG O A L S : Using an Atwood Machine, a freefall apparatus and a pendulum, measurements of time and distance will enable calculations to be made to discover the value of gravitational acceleration at the Prescott campus. In
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PS253-4Ballistic PendulumGOALS: Using a ballistic pendulum, experimental measurements will be used to test the equations of motion that describe projectile motion and inelastic collisions. The initial velocity of the projectile will be found using
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Radius (r) Jalapeos Oranges Soup Tomatoes 3.5 cm 3.8 cm 4.3 cm 5.1 cmHeight (h) 7.6 cm 11.3 cm 11.3 cm 12 cmh/r 2.17 2.97 2.63 2.36
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 253
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM AND ENERGY in collisionsIN ORDER TO GET CREDIT FOR THIS LAB, YOU MUST HAVE YOUR LAB INSTRUCTOR APPROVE your data tables your graphs slope calculations answers to the conclusion questions. lab area left clean and neat. I
Kentucky - MA - 113
To: Team 113 From: Russell Brown Date: 20 January 2006 Subject: Room assignments for common exams Midterm exams will be 7:30pm9:30pm, Tuesdays, 7 February, 7 March, 11 April. The nal exam will be 68pm, Monday, 1 May 2006. Sections are assigned to roo
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Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 253
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 253
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Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS103Chapter 13The Transfer of Heat 1. Convection Convection is the process by which heat is carried from place to place by the bulk movement of a fluid. Examples are the convection currents in a house, the cooling coils in a refrigerator, the
Kentucky - MA - 113
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Final Web average Wksht total Enter scores: 67 87 84 66 62 55 Enter raw test scores. The curve has been subtracted from the gradelines.Homework 70.91Curve Exam 1 Curve Exam 2 Curve Exam 3 Curve final Gradeline for A Gradeline
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
86420102030405060708090100Percent Scores Assignment: Exam 1, Partly Scored Raw Score 55.00 0.00 55.00 48.00 43.92 10.74 Percent Score 100.0 0.0 100.0 87.3 79.8 19.5 Grade Name A F B CMaximum Minimum Range Median Averag
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
1086420102030405060708090Percent Scores Assignment: Exam 2, Partly Scored Raw Score 49.00 0.00 49.00 39.00 38.83 9.75 Percent Score 98.0 0.0 98.0 78.0 77.7 19.5 Grade Name A F C CMaximum Minimum Range Median Average St
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
PS104Instructor: Lectures: Labs: Web Page: Office: Office Hours: Dr. Darrel Smith PS104.01 PS104.50 PS104.51 M-F MW MWSummer A20041:25 2:40 9:10 10:10 2:50 3:50orhttp:/physicsx.pr.erau.edu/"click" on classes 9:10 10:10Building AC1
Embry-Riddle FL/AZ - PS - 104
Gradebook for "Untitled", 6/25/05 (Raw Scores) PS104 Summer A 2005 Lab 1 Lab 2 Lab 3 Lab 4 10 10 10 15 Lab 5 10 8.50 9.00 9.50 9.00 9.50 ? Lab 6 10 9.50 8.50 9.00 9.50 8.50 ? 10.00 9.50 9.50 10.00 9.50 10.00 9.00 8.00 9.50 Lab 7 10 9.50 9.00 9.50 * 1