Lec12 Agg Blending, Absorption, and Specific Gravity
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Lec12 Agg Blending, Absorption, and Specific Gravity

Course Number: CIVL 598, Fall 2009

College/University: CSU Chico

Word Count: 1407

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CIVL 598 Asphalt Paving Materials AGGREGATE BLENDING, ABSORPTION, & SPECIFIC GRAVITY Aggregates Topics to be Covered Specific Gravity Tests for Aggregates Aggregate specific gravities Gradations Blending stockpiles Two tests are needed Coarse aggregate (retained on the 4.75 mm sieve) Fine aggregate (passing the 4.75 mm sieve) Apparent Specific Gravity, Gsa Bulk Specific Gravity, Gsb Surface Voids Gsb...

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598 CIVL Asphalt Paving Materials AGGREGATE BLENDING, ABSORPTION, & SPECIFIC GRAVITY Aggregates Topics to be Covered Specific Gravity Tests for Aggregates Aggregate specific gravities Gradations Blending stockpiles Two tests are needed Coarse aggregate (retained on the 4.75 mm sieve) Fine aggregate (passing the 4.75 mm sieve) Apparent Specific Gravity, Gsa Bulk Specific Gravity, Gsb Surface Voids Gsb = Mass of aggregate, oven dry Vol of agg, + surface voids Mass of Aggregate, oven dry Gsa = Volume of aggregate Vol. of water-perm. voids 1 Effective Specific Gravity, Gse Surface Voids Water Absorption Surface Voids SSD weight - Oven dry weight Gse = Mass, dry Effective Volume Solid Agg. Particle Vol. of water-perm. voids not filled with asphalt Absorbed asphalt Solid Agg. Particle Oven dry weight Effective volume = volume of solid aggregate particle + volume of surface voids not filled with asphalt Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity ASTM C127 Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Dry aggregate Soak in water for 24 hours Decant water Use pre-dampened towel to get SSD precondition Determine mass of SSD aggregate in air Determine mass of SSD aggregate in water Dry to constant mass Determine oven dry mass Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations Gsb = A / (B - C) A = mass oven dry B = mass SSD C = mass under water Gs,SSD = B / (B - C) Gsa = A / (A - C) Water absorption capacity, % Absorption % = [(B - A) / A] * 100 2 Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations - Example Problem Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations - Example Problem Given: Apparent Specific Gravity - Gsa A / (A - C) Mass oven dry - 3625.5 (A) Mass SSD - 3650.3 (B) Mass under Water - 2293.0 (C) Bulk Specific Gravity - Gsb A / (B - C) Absorption, % (B - A) / A Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations - Example Problem Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity ASTM C128 Apparent Specific Gravity - Gsa 3625.5/ (3625.5-2293.0) = 2.721 (3625.5- Dry aggregate Soak in water for 24 hours Spread out and dry to SSD Add 500 g of SSD aggregate to pycnometer of known volume Bulk Specific Gravity - Gsb 3625.5 / (3650.3 - 2293.0) = 2.671 Pre-filled with some water PreAdd more water and agitate until air bubbles have been removed Fill to calibration line and determine the mass of the pycnometer, aggregate and water pycnometer, Empty aggregate into pan and dry to constant mass Determine oven dry mass Absorption, % (3650.3 - 3625.5) / 2293.0 = 0.68 % Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity 3 Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations Gsb = A / (B + S - C) Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity A = mass oven dry B = mass of pycnometer filled with water C = mass pycnometer, SSD aggregate and pycnometer, water S = mass SSD aggregate Gsb,SSD = S / (B + S - C) Gsa = A / (B + A - C) Water absorption capacity, % Absorption % = [(S - A) / A] * 100 Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations - Example Problem Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity Calculations - Example Problem Given A = mass oven dry =498.9 B = mass of pycnometer filled with water = 666.5 C = mass pycnometer, SSD aggregate and pycnometer, water = 982.3 S = mass SSD aggregate = 500.1 Gsb = A / (B + S - C) = 498.9/(666.5+500.1-982.3) 498.9/(666.5+500.1= 2.707 Gsb,SSD = S / (B + S - C) = 500.1/(666.5+500.1-982.3) 500.1/(666.5+500.1= 2.714 Gsa = A / (B + A - C) = 498.9/(666.5+498.9-982.3) 498.9/(666.5+498.9= 2.725 absorption Water = [(S - A) / A] * 100 = (500.1-498.9)/498.9 = 0.24 % (500.1- Aggregate Gradation Types Of Gradations * Open graded - Few points of contact - Stone on Stone contact - High permeability * Well graded - Good interlock - Low permeability * Gap graded - Lacks intermediate sizes - Good interlock - Low permeability Distribution of particle sizes expressed as percent of total weight Determined by sieve analysis 4 Superpave Aggregate Gradation Percent Passing 100 max density line Design Aggregate Structure restricted zone nom max size max size control points 0 .075 .3 2.36 4.75 9.5 12.5 19.0 100 100 90 72 65 48 36 22 15 9 4 Definitions 100 99 89 Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size 72 one size larger than the first sieve to65 48 retain more than 10% 36 Maximum Aggregate Size 22 one size larger than nominal 15 maximum size 9 4 Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power Superpave Mix Size Designations 9.5 mm Superpave Designation 19.0 mm 12.5 mm 9.5 mm Nom Max Size (mm) 19 12.5 9.5 Max Size (mm) 25 19 12.5 12.5 mm 19.0 mm Blending of Aggregates Reasons for blending Blending of Aggregates Numerical method Obtain desirable gradation Single natural or quarried material not enough Economical to combine natural and process materials Trial and error Basic formula 5 Blending of Aggregates P = Aa + Bb + Cc + .... Where: Blending of Aggregates P = Aa + Bb + ... Material % Used % Used Sieve Sieve 3/8 3/8 No. 4 No. 4 No. 8 No. 8 No. 16 No. 16 No. 30 No. 30 No. 50 No. 100 No. 50 No. 200 No. 100 No. 200 P3/8 = (0.50 * 100) + (0.50 * 100) = 100.0 Blend Target P= % of material passing a given sieve for the blended aggregates A, B, C, ... = % material passing a given sieve for each aggregate a, b, c, .... = Proportions (decimal fractions) of aggregates to be used in blend Aggregate Aggregate No. 1 No. 2 a 50.0% b 50.0% % Passing % Batch % Passing % Batch % Passing % Batch % Passing % Batch 50.0% 50.0% B 100 A 100 100 100 45.0% 50.0% B 100 A 90 90 100 30 100 15.0% 50.0% 30 100 44.0% 7 88 3.5% 7 88 3 47 1.5% 23.5% 3 47 1 32 0.5% 16.0% 1 32 0.0% ...

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