6 Pages

#### pchem_notes_01

Course: COURSEPHYS 311, Fall 2009

School: LA Tech

Word Count: 1288

Rating:

###### Document Preview

CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES System, Surroundings, and States Fig. 1.4 Note the three different types of systems based on the type of boundary between system and surroundings. Intensive and Extensive Properties Intensive Properties: Intrinsic to the substance, does not change with the amount of substance. Examples: density, molecular mass, refractive index Extensive Properties: Depend on the amount of substance....

##### Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Louisiana >> LA Tech >> COURSEPHYS 311

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES System, Surroundings, and States Fig. 1.4 Note the three different types of systems based on the type of boundary between system and surroundings. Intensive and Extensive Properties Intensive Properties: Intrinsic to the substance, does not change with the amount of substance. Examples: density, molecular mass, refractive index Extensive Properties: Depend on the amount of substance. Examples: mass, volume, energy State Variables: The minimum number of properties that need to be specified (i.e., measured) in order to determine the state of the system. Equilibrium: A system is in equilibrium with its surroundings when its state variables do not change with time. Thermal Equilibrium: When two bodies are in contact and their temperature remain constant, they are in thermal equilibrium. Two bodies in thermal equilibrium with a third are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. Temperature scales Celsius &amp; Farenheit: Both based on the freezing point and boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure. Kelvin Scale: Based on ideal gas behavior extrapolated to absolute zero. Triple point scale: Based on a single point: the triple point of water, which is defined to be exactly 273.16 K. Pressure Pressure is force per unit area. The most common units in the US for pressure of gases are the atmosphere (atm), or pounds per square inch (psi). Another common unit is torr or mm Hg, which refers to the height of a mercury column supported by the pressure of the gas. 1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg. The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa). 1 Pa = 1 N m 2. A more useful unit when dealing with gases is the bar. 1 bar = 105 Pa. 1 bar is close to, but not the same as 1 atm. 1 atm = 1.01325 bar = 101.325 kPa = 101,325 Pa = 760 torr. 1 bar = 100.000 kPa = 100,000 Pa = 750 torr. Ideal Gas Law Pressure measuring devices: A mercury barometer is commonly used to measure atmospheric pressure. A mercury manometer is commonly used to measure pressure of gases in various containers. There are two types of manometers: closed end and open end. See Fig. 1.4 and note how they work. See Example 1.1, Problems 1.7 1.9 Boyle s Law: PV = constant, at constant T. Lines connecting points on a PV diagram at a fixed temperature are called isotherms. Charles (Gay Lussac s) Law: V/T = constant, at constant P. Ideal Gas Law: Combination of Boyle s and Charle s Laws: PV/T = constant. PV = nRT Ideal Gas Law(alternate statement): R is the Universal Gas Constant. Its numerical value in various systems of units is given in Table 1.1, on p. 16. Problems: 1.11 1.13 Molecular masses from Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT = M RT P= Therefore, m m RT n RT V RT = ( V ) M = G M , where is the density of the gas. RT . M=G P Also see Problems 1.15 1.17 Important Results from Kinetic Theory Pressure: PV = 1 Nmu 2 . 3 The quantity u 2 is called mean-square velocity. Kinetic Energy: (1.41) A k = 1 mu 2 = 3 k B T per molecule, where kB is called the Boltzmann constant. 2 2 E k = 3 RT, per mole. 2 Therefore, R = LkB, where L is the Avogradro number. Graham s Law of Effusion: Rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the molecular mass. Assumptions of Kinetic Theory: Gases consist of particles which are so small compared to the distances between them that the volume of the individual particles can be assumed to be zero. The particles are in constant motion, colliding with each other and the walls of the container in perfectly elastic collisions. Collisions with the walls give rise to the pressure exerted by the gas. The particles have no forces of attraction or repulsion with each other or the walls of the container. The average kinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. Real Gases Real gases deviate from ideal behavior because they do not strictly conform to the assumptions listed above. The compression factor, Z, defined as PV m PV Z = nRT = RT , (1.98) Vm is the molar volume, is useful to analyze the deviation from ideal behavior. For ideal gas, Z = 1 always. See Fig. 1.17 (p. 33). Real gases have forces of attraction between molecules. Therefore, if the temperature is low enough, application of pressure will lead to the formation of molecular clusters. The clusters grow into liquid droplets. This is the principle of liquefaction of gases by application of pressure and cooling. If gases behaved ideally, they would never form liquids. There is a special temperature, called critical temperature, Tc, beyond which gases cannot be liquefied by application of pressure. See Fig. 1.18. At Tc, there is a certain value of P and V at which the PV curve goes through an inflection. This is called the critical point. The pressure and volume at this point are called the critical pressure, Pc ,and critical volume, Vc , respectively. The Below Tc, there is a region where the gas and liquid are in equilibrium. The <a href="/keyword/van-der-waals-equation/" >van der waals equation</a> : Corrects for two assumptions inherent in Ideal Gas Law: (a) attraction/repulsion between molecules, which affects the pressure term, and (b) the volume occupied by the molecules themselves, which affects the volume term. P + an 2 (V nb ) = nRT V2 P + a (V b ) = RT m V2 m for n moles, and for one mole. The simplest two parameter gas equation in existence. The constants a and b have been experimentally determined for a large number of gases. Provides a natural explanation for critical phenomena. Rearranges to give a closed form expression for pressure: P = RT a2 , Vm b Vm but yields a cubic equation for volume: PV 3 (nbP + nRT)V 2 + aV ab = 0. m m A cubic equation has three roots, which explains the oscillatory behavior of the P-V curve predicted by <a href="/keyword/van-der-waals-equation/" >van der waals equation</a> in the critical region. (See Fig. 1.21). Analysis of the behavior of the <a href="/keyword/van-der-waals-equation/" >van der waals equation</a> in the critical region: 2 P = 0 and P = 0 at V = Vc. V 2 V These two equations and the equation for pressure above can be used to solve for the van der Waals constants a and b and yields an expression for R in terms of the critical variables Pc, Vc and Tc: 8P c V c 1 a = 3P c V 2, b = 3 V c , and R = 3T . c c (1.109) Using these definitions in the <a href="/keyw...

Textbooks related to the document above:

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

LA Tech - CHEM - 102
General ChemistryElectronic Structure and Periodic Table A. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE 1. Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital 2. Ground state, excited states 3. Absorption and emission spectra 4.
LA Tech - CHEM - 121
HOMEWORK #10CHEM 121, section 1 Winter 2009 Background for the Chapter. 22. Nucleic Acid Homework Feb 27, 2009 by 12:15 PM! Printed Name: Group Name:1) Give the names of names of pentose sugars written in Fisher projections (linear form) below.2
Dallas - JXC - 064000
Copyright 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. NavatheSlide 17- 1Chapter 17Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and TheoryCopyright 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. NavatheChapter Outline1 Introduction to Transaction Processing
Dallas - HXM - 025000
Frequency Offset Estimation for MB-OFDM-based UWB SystemsYinghui Li, Trent Jacobs, and Hlaing Minn Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas {yxl044000, taj016000, hlaing.minn}@utdallas.edu.Abstract- We address low-complex
Acton School of Business - COMP - 160
bin\x86\Debug\Content\Textures\button_01.xnbbin\x86\Debug\Content\Textures\button_02.xnbbin\x86\Debug\Content\Textures\button_03.xnbbin\x86\Debug\Content\Textures\button_04.xnbbin\x86\Debug\Content\Textures\button_05.xnbbin\x86\Debug\Content\Tex
BYU - PRS - 506
BYU - PRS - 506
Purdue - ECON - 370
Homework 4 Econ 370 For Q18, assume the markets for wheat and oil are perfectly competitive. 1. In autarky, Costa Rica can produce wheat for \$25 a bushel. The world price of wheat is \$10 and Costa Rica represents a very small share of
UGA - AMR - 0203
AUXILIARY SERVICESAuxiliary Service units provide a wide range of services for the University community in the following operational areas: Food Services University Bookstore University Printing Campus Transit System Vending Services University Golf
Purdue - ECON - 370
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 4349
Py{ } wz yw Cv q PCP PFFxuw y'wq 7vwq yUP7Cx e z Fw 7vPxw yuwt YsEw Fq x x x w x w w b w v w q q q w w qu w z w q v c 7zyxFwWvuts rs juy s yq7zxsw yw FxFw sp u l p ycwq 7vu!wq wP7Cxz w x
LA Tech - EDCI - 424
2/1/2009What is Guided Reading?Guided reading is a framework where the teacher supplies whatever assistance or guidance students need in order for them to read a selection successfully. Small group format with up to 8 students. Students grouped ac
Dallas - CS - 4349
q q j l j n l g ql j j l g p i l g l g 7d q ql j lgq q i E7q j lg n q7 ll p ysnil j gs g gs P\$sinmis lll jsg p l e\$ilil j gEe g gEe lll j g yeinCk'ee jq q g j g q i hf f p xh ps f c iVi)wh 's|hc q g iexedc
Acton School of Business - BIOS - 302
6Bios 302, 2001 5Test No. 1Mean 4 No of Tests No of Tests = 99 Mean = 67 Median = 69 Min= 28 Max= 953210 204060 Score80100
LA Tech - EDCI - 489
Evaluation of Blog1-5Ideas and Content Your classroom blog is random and disorganized.6-1011-1516-20SubTotalClass ParticipationYour students did not contribute to the blog. You did nothing to enhance or personalize the blog space.Enha
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
Dallas - CS - 5333
UAB - GROUP - 600
AUGUSTANA FACULTY, University of AlbertaAUSCA 210: Scandinavian Studies and Information LiteracyWinter 2007, Tuesdays 2:15 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. LIBRARY INSTRUCTION ROOMInstructor: Robin Sakowski Office Hours: Drop-in or by appointment Reference Librar
UC Davis - ATT - 0065
SZSN Expansion To Increase Production By 60 Million KG Shandong Zhouyuan Seed and Nursery Co., Ltd (SZSN) \$0.28 UP 16.6% SZSNs 45,000 square foot expansion and new advanced production line will increase annual production by 60 Million KGs of seed. Th
UAB - GROUP - 2659
CLASSICS 100F GREEK CIVILIZATIONLectures 6-7 History of Archaic PeriodHistory of Archaic Period (ca. 750 480 BC) 1. Renewed contact with Near East 2. Introduction of Phoenician alphabet alpha, beta, gamma (aleph, bet, gimel) Phoenician: cons
UGA - MYWEB - 6200
Grammar Quest EvaluationAnswer the following questions for each activity that you have completed. This evaluation can be completed online, printed, or saved. Name Types of SentencesFor each question choose one answer by clicking in the right box.
UAB - GROUP - 2658
CLA 102 Lecture 25: The Returns &amp; the Odyssey1. 1. 2. 4 The Returns Folktale Elements in the Odyssey Adventures as encounters with Death Structural Interpretation of Cyclopes1.The Returns a. Agamemnon killed by wife Clytemnestra b. Menelaus
LSU Alexandria - CS - 204
Procurement Services and Property ManagementBasic Purchasing Procedures (revised August 2003) Scope: These procedures apply to all LSUA accounts and those other university accounts utilizing the LSUA Purchasing Office for procurement of goods and se
Arizona - ECE - 474
THE I2C-BUS SPECIFICATION VERSION 2.1 JANUARY 2000document order number: 9398 393 40011Philips SemiconductorsThe I2C-bus specificationCONTENTS 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 3 4 5 6 6.1 6.2 7 7.1 7.2 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 9 10 10.1 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 1
UAB - GROUP - 2658
CLA 102 Lecture 23: The Mycenaean Saga1. 2. 3. The House of Atreus The House of Atreus in Tragedy Historical Basis1.The House of AtreusT a n t a lu s P e lo p s A tre u s T h y e s te s M e n e la u s A e g is t h e u sA gam em nonEast Pedi
UAB - GROUP - 2658
CLA 222/HIS 204Lecture 16 Alexander's Successors: The Hellenistic World1. Hellenistic Period a. Dates 323 (death of Alexander III) 30 BCE (death of Cleopatra VII, last of Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt) b. Name Hellenistic = &quot;Greek-like&quot; to distin
UAB - GROUP - 2658
CLA 102: Lecture 17: Hermes1. 2. 3. 4. Character Theories of Origin Cults Myths1. Character a. b. c. d. e. f. g. god of travelers and roads conductor of dead to underworld god of thieves god of market-place messenger of the gods protector o
UGA - MIST - 5660
Adding a New MemberThe New Member Input Page Recall that in the presentation on using Visual InterDev, we created a page called NewMember.htm. Since there were errors in that page, download it from the Web page in the Classfiles section. The NewM
UAB - GROUP - 2658
CLA 102 Lecture 22: The Theban SagaIntroduction 1. Foundation of Thebes 2. House of LabdacusIntroduction to Greek Sagas A saga is a traditional story which has its origins in historical events The next 9 chapters in our text describe the main Gr
UAB - GROUP - 2658
Augustana University College Classics 102W Greek and Roman Mythology Course Outline Winter Term 2009 Instructor: Office: E-Mail: Office hours: Dr. David W. Dahle Founders= Hall 311 Telephone: 679-1177 ddahle@augustana.ca MWThF 1:99-2:00 pm; or at oth
Supported by Cadence Design Systems, Inc.Practical Iterated Fill Synthesis for CMP UniformityY. Chen, A. B. Kahng, G. Robins, A. Zelikovsky (UCLA, UVA and GSU)http:/vlsicad.cs.ucla.eduOutline Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Filling Proble
Statistical Gate Delay Calculation with Crosstalk Alignment ConsiderationAndrew B. KahngUC San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093Bao LiuUC San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093Xu XuUC San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093abk@ucsd.edu ABSTRACTbliu@cs.ucsd.eduxuxu@c
LA Tech - CIS - 450
NDT4/24/2006User's Manual Version 11. Enter the user name provided for you by the system administrator. 2. Enter the password provided for you by the system administrator. 3. Click the &quot;Login&quot; button to login or click the &quot;Cancel&quot; button to ter
LA Tech - CIS - 450
LA Tech - CIS - 450
LA Tech - CIS - 450
NDT5/1/2006Risk Assessment Version 2Size Risk AssessmentRisk Factor 1 Total development work hours for system &lt; 200 hours: score = 1 201 to 500 hours: score = 2 501 to 1,000 hours: score = 3 &gt; 1,000 hours: score = 4 Estimated project implement
LA Tech - CIS - 450
Design Alternative Matrix Version 1NDT 4/17/06Alternative 1: In-House DevelopmentScoreAlternative 2: Packaged Software TECHNICAL FEASIBILITYScoreAlternative 3: OutsourcingScoreWeight Familiarity with ApplicationAll five members
LA Tech - CIS - 450
2/8/2006Program Specification Version 1 February 7, 2006 Module _ Name: Calculate Total Service Commissions Purpose: To calculate total commissions for services for one employee for one day Programmer: Andrea Robeaux and B.J. Alvis Date Due: Februa
CUNY Baruch - CSCI - 493
with emphasis on string algorithms and BioinformaticsCSCI 493.66 Unix ToolsHomework 3 Due 03/12/09Saad Mneimneh Computer Science Hunter College of CUNYProblem 1: Basic regular expression matcher In this problem, you are asked to implement a bas
UGA - TASH - 3408
WHITE SULPHUR ELEMENTARY 8/2 First Day Of School 8/15Ice Cream Sandwich Day 8/19Progress Reports Go Home 8/24 Reading Day 8/29 Math MayhemWELCOME TO MS. HUMPHREY'S THIRD Have a Great Year! 20052006GRADE CLASSCONTACT INFORMATION: EMAI
UCSD - ECE - 120
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGOElectrical and Computer Engineering Department ECE 120 - Spring 2009 Solar System Physics MIDTERM EXAM KEY No books, no notes, no calculators or electronic devices.PRINT YOUR NAME Student ID NumberProblem 1 2 3
UGA - SH - 0814
EDIT 2010 Instructional Technology Competencies Contact InformationInstructor: Yi-Chun (Shelly) Hong Location: 626B Aderhold Hall Class Location: 616 Aderhold Hall E-mail: shellyuga@gmail.com Phone: 706-542-4025 Class Time: Mon/Wed, 8:00-8:50Clas
UGA - GRETZ - 156
Sarah SmithSchool Address: 835 Seckman Rd. Arnold, Mo 63010Permanent Address: Email:2811 Wellington Way Apple, IL 30987BG@aol.comEducation Major: International Business and Spanish Work Experience Manager at Express (2002) Supervised over t
UGA - EDIT - 6400
Piaget, Children, and Adults: Can we extend Piaget's concepts to teaching recent immigrants to USA?Teaching recent immigrants involves 3 skill areas: language, socialcultural and political-economic. Their learning curve may depend on their experienc
Saint Louis - CSCI - 180
CSCI 180 Spring 2009 Data Structures Michael H. Goldwasser Saint Louis UniversityHandout: SyllabusMonday, 12 January 2009CSCI 180: Data Structures Contents1 Overview 1.1 Catalog Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UGA - SCWDS - 1988
Pen-Raised Wild Turkey Project Finalized SCWDS Briefs, April 1988, 4.1 The SCWDS study on diseases and parasites of pen-raised wild turkeys undertaken in conjunction with the National Wild Turkey Federation (NWTF) has been completed. The project was
UGA - SCWDS - 1988
Turkey Federation Funds Mycoplasma Research SCWDS Briefs, January 1988, 3.4 The National Wild Turkey Federation has funded a research project to search for mycoplasmosis in wild turkeys on Cumberland Island National Seashore on the Georgia coast. The
UGA - SCWDS - 1988
Bont Tick Control Hopeful for Antigua SCWDS Briefs, January 1988, 3.4 The tropical bont tick (Amblyomma variegatum) was introduced into the Caribbean in 1830 on cattle from Senegal, West Africa, and has since been found on 15 Caribbean islands. This
Saint Louis - CSCI - 180
1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16: 17: 18: 19: 20: 21: 22: 23: 24: 25: 26: 27: 28: 29: 30: 31: 32: 33: 34: 35: 36: 37: 38: 39: 40: 41: 42: 43: 44: 45: 46: 47: 48: 49: 50: 51: 52: 53: 54: 55: 56: 57: 58: 59: 60: 61: 62: 63: 64: 65:
LA Tech - FOR - 201
THE INTERNET1BackgroundCreated in 1969, connected computers at UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, U. of Utah, and UC at Santa Barbara With an estimated 200 million nodes and 1 billion users, the Internet is connects people of all ages and intere
MD University College - ME - 200
Physical PunctuationFine and Gross Motor Skills Commas, Semi-colons, and Periodshttp:/www.kor.dk/borge/b-mus-1.htmFine Motor Skills Fine motor skills can be defined as small muscle movements: those that occur in the finger, in coordination with