McCarthy
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McCarthy

Course Number: HST 112, Spring 2008

College/University: Miami University

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MIAMI UNIVERSITY HISTORY 112 SURVEY OF AMERICAN HISTORY March 26, 2008 THE ANTI-COMMUNIST CRUSADE Val Lorwin's Story Questions to Consider Why Was There Such Fear of Communism? Why Was There Fear of Communist Subversion within the United States? How Did Actions of the Truman Administration Contribute to the Climate of Fear? How Did Joseph McCarthy Fit into the Anti-Communist Crusade? Cold War Fears Suspicion of...

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UNIVERSITY MIAMI HISTORY 112 SURVEY OF AMERICAN HISTORY March 26, 2008 THE ANTI-COMMUNIST CRUSADE Val Lorwin's Story Questions to Consider Why Was There Such Fear of Communism? Why Was There Fear of Communist Subversion within the United States? How Did Actions of the Truman Administration Contribute to the Climate of Fear? How Did Joseph McCarthy Fit into the Anti-Communist Crusade? Cold War Fears Suspicion of the Soviet Union Fear of the Communist Party o The CP in America There were communist parties at universities such as Harvard and Yale In 1945 and 1946 70% of the us believed we could work with the Soviet Union Never very big Many who joined joined as solely as an economic alternative. o Fear of Foreign Influence The Truman Loyalty Program The Rhetoric of Politics o Truman made a deal to scare the hell out of Americans about communism o "All the things that we believe in are in great danger" The Temporary Commission (1946) o Lead to the federal employee loyalty program the next year Federal Employee Loyalty Program (1947) o Initially Built with safeguards but began to assume that everyone was guilty until proven innocent. You had to prove that you were absolutely loyal and not a risk in any way shape or form. Consequences of the Program Other Issues House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) o 1930s invested initially nazi issues o The Case of the Hollywood Ten Went to jail for 6 months- 1 year o The Case of Elia Kazan Won a number of Oscars and was a member of the communist party in the 1960s Admitted he was a member and also named the names of the people he was associated with 1 People refused to work with him and when he received an award in 1990 people turn their backs to him o The Homosexual "Threat" If you were homosexual you were a security threat because you could be bribed or blackmailed. anyone deemed gay or subject of being gay could loose their jobs The Alger Hiss Case o Alger Hiss vs. Chambers Whittaker Whittaker Chambers went to Columbia University and became a communist in the 1920s and breaks from the party in the 1930s and becomes anti-communist. Whittaker charges Hiss of being a communist. Hiss went to Hopkins and everyone assumed he was squeaky clean. Hiss was indited for purgery lying under oath and goes to jail for the next 4 years o Impact of Richard Nixon The Rosenberg Case o Julius & Ethel Rosenberg Were accused of having been spies Accused of stealing the secret of the atomic bomb and giving it to the soviets Were electrocuted. o Conviction Joseph R. McCarthy Background o Came from Wisconsin--Irish catholic from a poor family o Graduated from Marquette and went to law school Career o Ran for the position for circuit court judge and was elected Was best known for granting quick divorces o When World War II came he left his judgeship and joined the marines o In 1945 he comes back and runs for the senate in 1946 and McCarthy is elected Became a very public figure in the years that follow Techniques o Multiple Untruth o Use of the Press Knew when somebody had a deadline o Use of Documents Always had a piece of paper in his hand o Disheveled Appearance He would call reports to his hotel room and would come out of the shower in his towel and would give an interview Use of Staff o Roy Cohn Went to Columbia law school Was working in the district attorneys office at the time of the Rosenberg's and was instrumental in sending them to the electric chair Becomes McCarthy's right hand man o David Schine Brilliant Homosexual and dies of aids Cohn and Shine went around Europe for McCarthy Fuels the charges McCarthy was making against people right and left The Army-McCarthy Hearings o Charges 2 o o Accusations Says that the army is communist Impact of Joseph Welch Prominent attorney from boston Why Was McCarthy So Powerful? How Do We Account for His Success? How Do We Account for His Demise? 3
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