Ch10
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Ch10

Course Number: BIOE 109, Spring 2009

College/University: UCSC

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CHAPTER 10 THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES 10.1 To be the central atom in a compound, the atom must be able to simultaneously bond to at least two other atoms. He, F, and H cannot serve as central atoms in a Lewis structure. Helium is a noble gas, and as such, it does not need to bond to any other atoms. Hydrogen (1s1) and fluorine (1s22s22p5) only need one electron to complete their valence shells. Thus, they can only...

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10 CHAPTER THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES 10.1 To be the central atom in a compound, the atom must be able to simultaneously bond to at least two other atoms. He, F, and H cannot serve as central atoms in a Lewis structure. Helium is a noble gas, and as such, it does not need to bond to any other atoms. Hydrogen (1s1) and fluorine (1s22s22p5) only need one electron to complete their valence shells. Thus, they can only bond to one other atom, and it does not have d orbitals available to expand its valence shell. Plan: Draw a Lewis structure and then see if additional structures may be drawn. Solution: Resonance must be present any time that a single Lewis structure is inadequate in explaining one or more aspects of a molecule or ion. The two N-O bonds in NO2 are equivalent; no single Lewis structure shows this. The following Lewis structures may be drawn for NO2: O N O O N O O N O O N O 10.2 The average of all of these structures gives equivalent N-O bonds with a bond length that is between N-O and N=O. 10.3 For an element to obey the octet rule it must be surrounded by 8 electrons. To determine the number of electrons present (1) count the individual electrons actually shown adjacent to a particular atom, and (2) add two times the number of bonds to that atom. Using this method the structures shown give: (a) 0 + 2(4) = 8; (b) 2 + 2(3) = 8; (c) 0 + 2(5) = 10; (d) 2 + 2(3) = 8; (e) 0 + 2(4) = 8; (f) 2 + 2(3) = 8; (g) 0 + 2(3) = 6; (h) 8 + 2(0) = 8. All the structures obey the octet rule except: c and g. For an atom to expand its valence shell, it must have readily available d orbitals. The d orbitals do not become readily available until the third period or below on the periodic table. For the elements in the problem F, S, H, Al, Se, and Cl, the period numbers are 2, 3, 1, 3, 4, and 3, respectively. All of these elements, except those in the first two periods (H and F), can expand their valence shells. Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures. Solution: Total valence electrons: SiF4 has 32; SeCl2 has 20; and COF2 has 24. The Si, Se, and the C are the central atoms, because these are the elements in their respective compounds with the lower group number (in addition, we are told C is central). Place the other atoms around the central atoms and connect each to the central atom with a single bond. At this point the Si has an octet, and the remaining electrons are placed around the fluorines (3 pairs each). The 2 bonds plus 2 lone pairs complete the octet on Se and leave enough electrons to complete the Cl octet with 3 pairs each. The 3 bonds to the C leave it 2 electrons short of an octet. Forming a double bond to the O completes the C octet, and leaves sufficient electrons to form 2 lone pairs on the O and 3 lone pairs on each of the Fs. All atoms in each of the structures end with an octet of electrons. (b) SeCl2 (c) COF2 (a) SiF4 10.4 10.5 F F Si F F Cl Se Cl F C O F 10-1 10.6 Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures. Solution: Total valence electrons: PH4+ has 8; C2F4 has 36; and SbH3 has 8. Ignoring H, the atom in the lower group number is central P, C, and Sb. Added proof: H and F are never central. The two central Cs must be adjacent. Place all the other atoms around the central atom. Split the Fs so that each C gets 2. Connect all the atoms with single bonds. This uses all the electrons in PH4+, and gives P an octet. The Cs have 6 electrons each, but can achieve an octet by forming a double bond. The Hs need no additional electrons. Splitting the 24 remaining electrons in C2F4 into 12 pairs and giving 3 pairs to each F leaves each F with an octet. The last 2 electrons in SbH3 end as a lone pair on the Sb, and complete its octet. (a) (b) (c) H H P H 10.7 F H F C C F H F Sb H H Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures. Solution: The P and the Cs are central. Two of the Os in part b also are central. Place appropriate single bonds between all atoms. The O in part b without a hydrogen needs a double bond as do both the Ss in part c. The remaining electrons serve as lone pairs. All atoms, except the Hs, have octets. b) H2CO3 (24 valence e-) c) CS2 (16 valence e-) a) PF3 (26 valence e-) F P F F H O C O O H S C S 10.8 Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures. Solution: The Cs and Ss are central. The S in part (a) is attached to an H and the C. All atoms are attached with single bonds and the remaining electrons are divided into lone pairs. All the atoms, except H, have octets. a) CH4S b) S2Cl2 c) CHCl3 H H H C H S H Cl S S Cl Cl C Cl Cl 10.9 Plan: The problem asks for resonance structures, so there must be more than one answer for each part. Solution: a) NO2+ has 16 valence electrons. No resonance is required as all atoms can achieve an octet with double bonds. O N O 10-2 b) NO2F is like NO2, but has an extra atom (F) to interact with the lone electron on the N. In this structure all atoms have an octet. F N O 10.10 F N O O O Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures. Additional structures are needed to show resonance. Solution: a) O H O H N b) N O O O O 2O O H As O O H O O As O O 2- 2O O H As O O H O O As O O 2- 10.11 Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures. Additional structures are needed to show resonance. Solution: a) N3- has 16 valence electrons. The nitrogens must all be attached to each other with at least one bond. This uses 4 electrons leaving 12 electrons (6 pairs). Giving 3 pairs on each end nitrogen gives them an octet, but leaves the central N with only 4 electrons as shown below: N N N 10-3 The central N needs 4 electrons. There are three options to do this: (1) one of the end Ns could form a triple bond by sharing two of its lone pairs; (2) the other end N could form the triple bond instead; (3) each of the end Ns could form a double bond to the central N by sharing one of its pairs. N N N N N N N N N FC = -1 +1 -1 0 +1 -2 -2 +1 0 Formal charges (FC) are shown for comparison. b) NO2- has 18 valence electrons. The nitrogen should be the central atom with each of the oxygens attached to it by a single bond (2 x 2 = 4 electrons). This leaves 14 electrons (7 pairs). If 3 pairs are given to each O and 1 pair is given to the N, then both Os have an octet, but the N only has 6. To complete an octet the N needs to gain a pair of electrons from one O or the other (from a double bond). The resultant structures are: O N O O N O 10.12 Plan: Follow the pattern established in the preceding problem. Solution: a) HCO2- has 18 valence electrons. H C O O H C O O b) HBrO4 has 32 valence electrons. O O H Br O O O H O Br O O O H O Br O O O O O H Br O 10-4 10.13 Plan: Initially, the method used in the preceding problems may be used to establish a Lewis structure. The total of the formal charges must equal the charge on an ion or be equal to 0 for a compound. The FC only needs to be calculated once for a set of identical atoms. Solution: a) IF5 has 42 valence electrons. The presence of 5 Fs around the central I means that the I will have a minimum of 10 electrons; thus, this is an exception to the octet rule. The 5 I-F bonds use 10 electrons leaving 32 electrons (16 pairs). Each F needs 3 pairs to complete an octet. The 5 Fs use 15 of the 16 pairs, so there is 1 pair left for the central I. This gives: F F F I F F Calculating formal charges: FC = valence electrons - (lone electrons + 1/2 (bonded electrons)) For iodine: FCI = 7 - (2 + 1/2(10)) = 0 For each fluorine FCF = 7 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = 0 Total formal charge = 0 = charge on the compound. b) AlH4- has 8 valence electrons. The 4 Al-H bonds use all the electrons and leave the Al with an octet. H H Al H H For aluminum: FCAl = 3 - (0 + 1/2(8)) = -1 For each hydrogen FCH = 1 - (0 + 1/2(2)) = 0 Total formal charge = -1 = charge on the ion. 10.14 Plan: Initially, the method used in the preceding problems may be used to establish a Lewis structure. The total of the formal charges must equal the charge on an ion or be equal to 0 for a compound. Solution: a) COS has 16 valence electrons. S C O FCS +6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 +4 - (0 + 1/2(8)) = 0 FCC +6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 FCO b) NO (has 11 valence electrons), the odd number means there will be an exception to the octet rule. O N O N FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (3 + 1/2(4)) = +1 FCN = 5 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = -1 FCN = 5 - (3 + 1/2(4)) = 0 The first resonance structure has a better distribution of formal charges. 10-5 10.15 Plan: The same general method as in the preceding problems will be applied. Solution: a) CN- has 10 valence electrons. A triple bond between the two atoms plus a lone pair on each atom satisfies the octet rule and uses all 10 electrons. C N FCC = 4 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = -1 FCN = 5 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = 0 Check: The total formal charge equals the charge on the ion (-1). b) ClO- has 14 valence electrons. Cl O FCCl = 7 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = -1 Check: The total formal charge equals the charge on the ion (-1). 10.16 Plan: Use the same procedure as in the preceding problems. Solution: a) BF4- has 32 valence electrons. F F B F FCF = 7 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = 0 FCB = 3 - (0 - 1/2(8)) = -1 b) ClNO has 18 valence electrons. F Cl N O FCCl = 7 - (6 + 1/2(2) = 0 FCN = 5 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 10.17 Plan: The general procedure is similar to the preceding problems, plus the oxidation number determination. Solution: a) BrO3- has 26 valence electrons. Placing the Os around the central Br and forming 3 Br-O bonds uses 6 electrons and leaves 20 electrons (10 pairs). Placing 3 pairs on each O (3 x 3 = 9 total pairs) leaves 1 pair for the Br and yields structure I below. In structure I, all the atoms have a complete octet. Calculating formal charges: FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 FCBr = 7 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = +2 The FCO is acceptable, but FCBr is larger than is usually acceptable. Forming a double bond between any one of the Os gives: FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 FCBr = 7 - (2 + 1/2(8)) = +1 Double bonded O The FCBr can be improved further by forming a second double bond to one of the other Os (structure II). FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 FCBr = 7 - (2 + 1/2(10)) = 0 Double bonded Os 10-6 Structure II has the more reasonable distribution of formal charges. The oxidation numbers (O.N.) are: O.N.Br = +5 and O.N.O = -2. O Br O O O Br O O I II Check: The total formal charge equals the charge on the ion (-1). b) SO32- has 26 valence electrons. Placing the Os around the central S and forming 3 S-O bonds uses 6 electrons and leaves 20 electrons (10 pairs). Placing 3 pairs on each O (3 x 3 = 9 total pairs) leaves 1 pair for the S and yields structure I below. In structure I all the atoms have a complete octet. Calculating formal charges: FCS = 6 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = +1 FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 The FCO is acceptable, but FCS is larger than is usually acceptable. Forming a double bond between any one of the Os gives: FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 FCS = 6 - (2 + 1/2(8)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 Double bonded O 22- O S O O O S O O I II Structure II has the more reasonable distribution of formal charges. The oxidation numbers (O.N.) are: O.N.S = +4 and O.N.O = -2. Check: The total formal charge equals the charge on the ion (-2). 10.18 Plan: Follow the general procedure in problem 10.17. Solution: a) AsO43- has 32 valence electrons. FCAs = 5 - (0 - 1/2(8)) = +1 FCO = 6 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = -1 each Net formal charge (+1 - 4) = -3 The octet rule is followed by all atoms. 3O O As O O 10-7 FCAs = 5 - (0 - 1/2(10)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = -1 single bonds FCO = 6 - (4 - 1/2(4)) = 0 double bonded Net formal charge (0 + 3(-1)) + 0 = -3 Improved formal charge distribution O.N.: total; As +5 3O O -2 each x 4 = -8 O As O O b) ClO2- has 20 valence electrons. * * O Cl O O Cl O FCCl = 7 - ( 4 - 1/2(6)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (4 - 1/2(4)) = 0 Only one answer is needed O.N.: O -2 each x 2 = -4 total; Cl +3 10.19 FCO* = 6 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = -1 Plan: We know that each of these compounds does not obey the octet rule. Solution: a) BH3 has 6 valence electrons. These are used in 3 B-H bonds. The B has 6 electrons instead of an octet. b) AsF4- has 34 valence electrons. Four As-F bonds use 8 electrons leaving 26 electrons (13 pairs). Each F needs 3 pairs to complete its octet and the remaining pair goes to the As. The As has an expanded octet with 10 electrons. The F cannot expand its octet. c) SeCl4 has 34 valence electrons. The SeCl4 is isoelectronic (has the same electron structure) as AsF4-, and so its Lewis structure looks the same. Se has an expanded octet of 10 electrons. H B H (a) 10.20 F F H As F (b) F Cl Cl Se Cl (c) Cl Plan: We know that each of these substances does not obey the octet rule. Solution: P has an expanded outer shell to 12 e-. a) PF6- has 48 valence electrons. F F P F F F F 10-8 b) ClO3 has 19 valence electrons. The odd number means that there will be an exception. This is a radical: the chlorine or one of the oxygens will lack an e- to complete its octet. O Cl O O Cl O O O There are 2 additional resonance structures where the other Os are the ones lacking the octet. The FC predicts that Cl will end with the odd electron. c) H3PO3 has 26 valence electrons. To balance the formal charges; the O lacking an H will form a double bond to the P. This compound is an exception in that one of the Hs is attached to the central P. P has an expanded outer shell to 10 e-. H O H 10.21 P O O H Plan: We know that each of these compounds does not obey the octet rule. Solution: a) BrF3 has 28 valence electrons. After the Fs complete their octets, the Br ends with the last 2 lone pairs. The Br expands its octet to 10 electrons. b) ICl2- has 22 valence electrons. After the Cls complete their octets, the iodine finishes with the last 3 lone pairs. The iodine has an expanded octet of 10 electrons. c) BeF2, has 16 valence electrons. The Fs complete their octets, and there are no electrons left for the Be. Formal charges work against the formation of double bonds. Be, with only 4 electrons, is electron deficient. F Br F F Cl I Cl F Be F (a) 10.22 (b) (c) Plan: We know that each of these compounds does not obey the octet rule. Solution: a) O3- has 19 valence electrons (note the odd number). There are several resonance structures possible, only one is necessary for the answer. One of the Os has the odd electron (7 total). O O O O O O O O O b) XeF2 has 22 valence electrons. F Xe F Xe has an expanded outer shell of 10 e-. c) SbF4- has 34 valence electrons. Sb has an expanded outer shell of 10 e-. F F Sb F F 10-9 10.23 Plan: Draw Lewis structures for the reactants and products. Solution: Beryllium chloride has the formula BeCl2. Chloride ion has the formula Cl-. Cl Cl Cl Be Cl + Cl 10.24 2- Cl Be Cl Cl Plan: Draw a Lewis structure. If the formal charges are not ideal, a second structure may be needed. Solution: O O Br O O O O Br O O In the structure on the left, all atoms have octets. The formal charges are: FCBr = 7 - (0 + 1/2(8)) = +3 FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 The structure on the right expands the valence shell of the Br to give more favorable formal charges. FCBr = 7 - (0 + 1/2(17)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 Doubled bonded Os 10.25 Plan: Count the total valence electrons and draw a Lewis structure. Solution: F F F F Al F F 3- 10.26 Plan: Use the structures in the text to determine the formal charges. Solution: Structure A: FCC = 4 - (0 - 1/2(8)) = 0; FCO = 6 - (4 - 1/2(4)) = 0; FCCl = 7 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = 0 Total FC = 0 Structure B: FCC = 4 - (0 - 1/2(8)) = 0; FCO = 6 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = -1; FCCl = 7 - (4 - 1/2(4)) = +1 (double bonded) FCCl = 7 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = 0 (single bonded) Total FC = 0 Structure C: FCC = 4 - (0 - 1/2(8)) = 0; FCO = 6 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = -1; FCCl = 7 - (4 - 1/2(4)) = +1 (double bonded) FCCl = 7 - (6 - 1/2(2)) = 0 (single bonded) Total FC = 0 Structure A has the most reasonable set of formal charges. Plan: Determine the total number of valence electrons present. Next, draw a Lewis structure. Finally, use VSEPR or Valence-Bond theory to predict the shape. 10.27 10-10 10.28 10.29 The molecular shape and the electron-group arrangement are the same when no lone pairs are present. Plan: A V-shaped molecule will have the stoichiometry AX2, so only AX2En geometries are needed. Solution: The presence of one or two lone pairs in the three and four electron group arrangements can produce a bent (Vshaped) molecule as either AX2E or AX2E2. Examples are: NO2- and H2O. O N O H O H 120 AX2E 10.30 109.5 AX2E2 Plan: Examine a list of all possible structures, and choose the ones needed. Solution: Tetrahedral AX4 Trigonal pyramidal AX3E Bent or V-shaped AX2E2 Solution: The number of electron pairs governs the overall arrangement of the electrons. The superposition of the atoms on this arrangement gives rise to the molecular shape. The actual molecular shape reflects the positions of the atoms. Plan: Begin with the basic structures and redraw them. Solution: a) A molecule that is V-shaped has two bonds and generally has either one (AX2E) or two (AX2E2) lone electron pairs. b) A trigonal planar molecule follows the formula AX3 and has no lone electron pairs. c) A trigonal bipyramidal molecule contains five electron groups (single bonds) and no lone pairs (AX5). d) A T-shape molecule has three bonding groups and two lone pairs (AX3E2). e) A trigonal pyramidal molecule follows the formula AX3E. f) A square pyramidal molecule shape follows the formula AX5E. X X X 10.31 10.32 A X X (a) X X A X (d) X A X X X A X (b) X A X X (c) X X A X (f) X X A X (e) X 10-11 10.33 Plan: Determine the geometry from the lone pairs and the number of groups attached to the central atom. Solution: tetrahedral 109.5 smaller a) AX3E linear 180 none b) AX2 trigonal planar 120 none c) AX3 d) AX2E2 tetrahedral 109.5 smaller linear 180 none e) AX2 trigonal bipyramidal 120, 90 smaller f) AX4E Plan: First, draw a Lewis structure, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: a) The molecule has 18 electrons. This gives the following Lewis structure: 10.34 O O O or O O O There are three groups around the central O, one of which is a lone pair. This gives a trigonal planar electrongroup arrangement, a bent molecular shape, and an ideal bond angle of 120. b) This ion has 8 electrons. This gives the following Lewis structure: H O H H H O H H There are four groups around the O, one of which is a lone pair. This gives a tetrahedral electron-group arrangement, a trigonal pyramidal molecular shape, and an ideal bond angle of 109.5. c) The molecule has 26 electrons. This gives the following Lewis structure: F N F F F N F F There are four groups around the N, one of which is a lone pair. This gives a tetrahedral electron-group arrangement, a trigonal pyramidal molecular shape, and an ideal bond angle of 109.5. 10.35 Plan: First, draw a Lewis structure, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: Lewis Structure Electron-group Arrangement (a) Tetrahedral 22O O Molecular Shape Tetrahedral Ideal Bond Angle 109.5 O S O O O O S O In addition, there are other resonance forms. 10-12 (b) Trigonal Planar Bent 120 O N O O N O In addition, there are other resonance forms. (c) Tetrahedral Trigonal Pyramidal 109.5 H P H H H P H H 10.36 Plan: First, draw a Lewis structure, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: Lewis Structure Electron-group Arrangement (a) Trigonal Planar (All resonance forms) 22O O O C O C O O + 2 additional resonance forms (b) Trigonal Planar Molecular Shape Trigonal Planar Ideal Bond Angle 120 Bent (V-shaped) 120 O S O O S O Tetrahedral 109.5 (c) Tetrahedral F F C F F F C F F F 10-13 10.37 Plan: First, draw a Lewis structure; then apply VSEPR. Solution: Lewis Structure Electron-group Molecular Shape Arrangement Trigonal Planar Trigonal Planar O S O O S O O O Linear N N O N N O Ideal Bond Angle 120 Linear 180 Tetrahedral Tetrahedral 109.5 H Cl C H 10.38 Cl Cl Cl C H H Plan: Examine the structure shown, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: a) This structure shows three electron groups with three bonds around the central atom. There appears to be no distortion of the bond angles so the shape is trigonal planar, the classification is AX3, with an ideal bond angle of 120. b) This structure shows three electron groups with three bonds around the central atom. The bonds are distorted down indicating the presence of a lone pair. The shape of the molecule is trigonal pyramidal and the classification is AX3E, with an ideal bond angle of 109.5. c) This structure shows five electron groups with five bonds around the central atom. There appears to be no distortion of the bond angles so the shape is trigonal bipyramidal and the classification is AX5, with ideal bond angles of 90 and 120. Plan: Examine the structure shown, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: a) This structure shows five electron groups with five bonds around the central atom. There appears to be no distortion of the bond angles so the shape is square pyramidal, (in reality square pyramidal structures have a slight distortion of the bond angles because there is a lone pair across from the atom at the apex of the pyramid). The classification is AX5E, with an ideal bond angle of 90. b) This structure shows three electron groups with three bonds around the central atom. There appears to be no distortion of the bond angles so the shape is T-shaped, (in reality T-shaped structures have a slight distortion of the bond angles to the apical bonds because there are two equatorial lone pairs). The classification is AX3E2, with an ideal bond angle of 90. c) This structure shows four electron groups with four bonds around the central atom. There appears to be no distortion of the bond angles so the shape is tetrahedral and the classification is AX4, with ideal bond angles of 109.5. 10.39 10-14 10.40 Plan: The Lewis structures must be drawn, and VSEPR applied to the structures. The structures are shown after the discussion. Solution: a) The ClO2- ion has 20 valence electrons. The Cl is the central atom. There are two bonds (to the Os) and two lone pairs on the Cl (AX2E2). The shape is bent (or V-shape). The structure is based on a tetrahedral electrongroup arrangement with an ideal bond angle of 109.5. The presence of the lone pairs will cause the remaining angles to be less than 109.5. b) The PF5 molecule has 40 valence electrons. The P is the central atom. There are 5 bonds to the P and no lone pairs (AX5). The shape is trigonal bipyramidal. The ideal bond angles are 90 and 120. The absence of lone pairs means the angles are ideal. c) The SeF4 molecule has 34 valence electrons. The Se is the central atom. There are 4 bonds to the Se which also has a lone pair (AX4E). The shape is see-saw. The structure is based on a trigonal bipyramidal structure with ideal angles of 90 and 120. The presence of the lone pairs means the angles are less than ideal. d) The KrF2 molecule has 22 valence electrons. The Kr is the central atom. There are 2 bonds to the Kr which also has 3 lone pairs (AX2E3). The shape is linear. The structure is based on a trigonal bipyramidal structure with ideal angles of 90 and 120. The placement of the Fs makes their ideal bond angle to be 2 x 90 = 180. The placement of the lone pairs is such that they cancel each others repulsion, thus the actual bond angle is ideal. O Cl O F F P F F F F F F Se F (c) (d) F Kr F (a) (b) O Cl O (a) 10.41 (b) F F F P F F (c) F F Se F F F Kr F (d) Plan: The Lewis structures must be drawn, and VSEPR applied to the structures. The structures are shown after the discussion. Solution: a) The ClO3- ion has 26 valence electrons. The Cl is the central atom. There are 3 bonds (to the Os) and 1 lone pair on the Cl (AX3E). The shape is trigonal pyramidal. The structure is based on a tetrahedral electron-group arrangement with an ideal bond angle of 109.5. The presence of the lone pair will cause the remaining angles to be less than 109.5. b) The IF4- ion has 36 valence electrons. The I is the central atom. There are 4 bonds to the I and 2 lone pairs (AX4E2). The shape is square planar. The structure is based on an octahedral electron-group arrangement with ideal bond angles of 90. The repulsion from the two lone pairs cancels so the angles are ideal. c) The SeOF2 molecule has 26 valence electrons. The Se is the central atom. There are 3 bonds to the Se which also has a lone pair (AX3E). The shape is trigonal pyramidal. The structure is based on a tetrahedral structure with ideal angles of 109.5. The presence of the lone pair means the angles are less than ideal. d) The TeF5- ion has 42 valence electrons. The Te is the central atom. There are 5 bonds to the Te which also has 1 lone pair (AX5E). The shape is square pyramidal. The structure is based on an octahedral with ideal angles of 90. The presence of the lone pair means the angles are less than ideal. 10-15 O Cl O O F I F F F F F (c) F Se O F F F (d) Te F (a) (b) F Cl O O O I F F F F Se O F F F Te F F F 10.42 Plan: The Lewis structures must be drawn, and VSEPR applied to the structures. Solution: a) In the CH3OH molecule, both carbon and oxygen serve as central atoms. (H can never be central.) The carbon has 4 bonds and no lone pairs (AX4), so it is tetrahedral with no deviation (no lone pairs) from the ideal angle of 109.5. The oxygen has 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs (AX2E2), so it is V-shaped or bent with the angles less than the ideal angle of 109.5. H H H C O H H H C O H H b) In the N2O4 molecule, both nitrogens serve as central atoms. This is the arrangement given in the problem. Both nitrogens are equivalent with 3 bonds and no lone pairs (AX3), so the arrangement is trigonal planar with no deviation (no lone pairs) from the ideal angle of 120. The same results arise from the other resonance structures. O O N O N O O O N N O O 10-16 10.43 Plan: The Lewis structures must be drawn, and VSEPR applied to the structures. Solution: a) In the H3PO4 molecule the P and each of the Os with an H attached serve as central atoms. The P has 4 groups and no lone pairs (AX4), so it is tetrahedral with no deviation from the ideal angle of 109.5. The H bearing Os have 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs (AX2E2), so the arrangement is V-shaped or bent with angles less than the ideal values of 109.5. O O O H P O O H H O H P O O H H b) In the CH3OCH2CH3 molecule, all atoms except the hydrogens serve as central atoms. All the carbons have 4 bonds and no lone pairs (AX4), so they are tetrahedral with no deviation from the ideal bond angle of 109.5. The oxygen has 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs (AX2E2), so the arrangement is V-shaped or bent with angles less than the ideal values of 109.5. H H H H H O H C C H C O C C H H H C H H H H H 10.44 H Plan: The Lewis structures must be drawn, and VSEPR applied to the structures. Solution: a) In the CH3COOH molecule, the carbons and the O with H attached serve as central atoms. The carbon labeled C1 has 4 groups and no lone pairs (AX4), so it is tetrahedral with no deviation from the ideal angle of 109.5. The carbon labeled C2 has 3 groups and no lone pairs (AX3), so it is trigonal planar with no deviation from the ideal angle of 120. The H bearing O has 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs (AX2E2), so the arrangement is V-shaped or bent with an angle less than the ideal values of 109.5. H H C H O C O H H C H O C O H H b) In the H2O2 molecule, all oxygens serve as central atoms. Both Os have 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs (AX2E2), so they are V-shaped or bent with angles less than the ideal values of 109.5. O H O H H O O H 10-17 10.45 Plan: The Lewis structures must be drawn, and VSEPR applied to the structures. Solution: a) In the H2SO3 molecule, the S and the Os with an H attached serve as central atoms. The S has 3 groups and no lone pairs (AX3), so it is trigonal pyramidal with no deviation from the ideal angle of 120. The H bearing Os each have 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs (AX2E2), so the arrangement is V-shaped or bent with an angle less than the ideal values of 109.5. O H O S O O S O O H H H b) The N2O3 molecule has the structure indicated in the problem with the Ns serving as central atoms. The nitrogen labeled N1 has 2 bonds and a lone pair (AX2E), so it is V-shaped or bent with angles less than the ideal values of 120. The nitrogen labeled N2 has 3 bonds and no lone pairs (AX3), so it is trigonal planar with no deviation from the ideal angle of 120. O N 1 N O 2 O O N N O O 10.46 Plan: First, draw a Lewis structure, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: F F B F F F Be F F C F F F N F F F O F Bond angles: OF2 < NF3 < CF4 < BF3 < BeF2 BeF2 is an AX2 type molecule, so the angle is the ideal 180. BF3 is an AX3 molecule, so the angle is the ideal 120. CF4, NF3, and OF2 all have tetrahedral electron-group arrangements of the following types: AX4, AX3E, and AX2E2, respectively. The ideal tetrahedral bond angle is 109.5, which is present in CF4. The one lone pair in NF3 decreases the angle a little. The two lone pairs in OF2 decrease the angle even more. 10-18 10.47 Plan: First, draw a Lewis structure, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: 2Cl Cl S Cl Cl O Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl Si Cl Cl Cl Si Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Bond angles: SiCl4 > PCl3 > SCl2 > OCl2 > SiCl62All the species except SiCl62- are based on a tetrahedral electron group arrangement. SiCl62- has an octahedral electron arrangement with an ideal angle of 90. The tetrahedral arrangement has an ideal bond angle of 109.5, which is present in AX4 species like SiCl4. The ideal tetrahedral bond angle is reduced slightly in AX3E species such as PCl3. A greater reduction in the ideal tetrahedral bond angle is present in AX2E2 species such as SCl2 and OCl2. The angle is reduced less around the larger S atom. 10.48 Plan: The ideal bond angles depend on the electron-group arrangement. Deviations depend on lone pairs. Solution: a) The C and N have 3 groups, so they are ideally 120, and the O has 4 groups, so ideally the angle is 109.5. The N and O have lone pairs, so the angles are less than ideal. b) All central atoms have 4 pairs, so ideally all the angles are 109.5. The lone pairs on the O reduce this value. c) The B has 3 groups leading to an ideal bond angle of 120. All the Os have 4 pairs (ideally 109.5), 2 of which are lone, and reduce the angle. Plan: The ideal bond angles depend on the electron-group arrangement. Deviations depend on lone pairs. Solution: a) The N has 3 groups, no lone pairs, so the angle is ideal, and equal to 120. The O, attached to the H, has 4 groups (ideally 109.5), the lone pairs reduce the bond angle from ideal. b) The C, attached to the O, has 3 groups and no lone pairs so the angle will be the ideal 120. The remaining C has 3 groups, and with no lone pairs the angle will be ideal and equal to 120. c) The C with 3 groups will have angles that are ideal (120). The O, with the H attached, has 4 groups. The presence of 4 groups gives an ideal angle of 109.5, which is reduced by the lone pairs. Plan: The ideal bond angles depend on the electron-group arrangement. Deviations depend on lone pairs. Solution: Shape: bent a) Type: AX2E Ideal angle: 120 Actual angle: <120 (because of the lone pair) H H Sn H H H C Sn C H C C H H H H H H b) Type: AX3E Shape: trigonal pyramidal Ideal angle: 109.5 Actual angle: <120 (because of the lone pair) 10.49 10.50 Cl Sn Cl Sn Cl Cl Cl Cl 10-19 c) Type: AX4 Ideal angle: 109.5 CH3 H3C Sn CH3 Shape: tetrahedral Actual angle: <109.5 (because of the lone pair) CH3 Sn H3C CH3 CH3 CH3 d) Type: AX5 Ideal angles: 120 and 90 Shape: trigonal pyramidal Actual angle: 120 and 90 (there are no lone pairs) F F Sn F e) Type: AX6 Ideal angles: 90 F F F F Sn F Shape: octahedral Actual angle: 90 (there are no lone pairs) F F 2F F Sn F F F F F Sn F F F F F 2- 10.51 Plan: The Lewis structures are needed to predict the ideal bond angles. Solution: The P atoms have no lone pairs in any case so the angles are ideal. PCl4+: PCl6-: PCl5: Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl P 10-20 The original PCl5 is AX5, so the shape is trigonal bipyramidal, and the angles are 120 and 90. The PCl4+ is AX4, so the shape is tetrahedral, and the angles are 109.5. The PCl6- is AX6, so the shape is octahedral, and the angles are 90. Half the PCl5 (trigonal bipyramidal, 120 and 90) become tetrahedral PCl4+ (tetrahedral, 109.5), and the other half become octahedral PCl6- (octahedral, 90). 10.52 Plan: Apply VSEPR. Solution: Molecules are polar if they have polar bonds that are not arranged to cancel each other. A polar bond is present any time there is a bond between elements with differing electronegativities. Plan: Apply VSEPR. Solution: When polar bonds are arranged so that their polarities cancel, the molecule is nonpolar. An example is BF3 where the 3 polar B-F bonds are pointed towards the corners of a equilateral triangle. The polarities of the 3 B-F bonds cancel. Plan: Apply VSEPR. Solution: Molecules must come together to react. This becomes difficult for large molecules. Biomolecules are generally large molecules and have difficulty reacting if the shapes of the molecules are not compatible. Plan: To determine if a bond is polar, determine the electronegativity difference of the atoms participating in the bond. To determine if a molecule is polar, it must have polar bonds, and a certain shape determined by VSEPR. Solution: a) The greater the difference in electronegativity the more polar the bond: Molecule Bond Electronegativities Electronegativity difference S-Cl S = 2.5 Cl = 3.0 3.0 - 2.5 = 0.5 SCl2 F-F F = 4.0 F = 4.0 4.0 - 4.0 = 0.0 F2 C-S C = 2.5 S = 2.5 2.5 - 2.5 = 0.0 CS2 C-F C = 2.5 F = 4.0 4.0 - 2.5 = 1.5 CF4 BrCl Br-Cl Br = 2.8 Cl = 3.0 3.0 - 2.8 = 0.2 The polarities of the bonds increases in the order: F-F = C-S < Br-Cl < S-Cl < C-F. Thus, CF4 has the most polar bonds. b) The F2 and CS2 cannot be polar since they do not have polar bonds. CF4 is a AX4 molecule, so it is tetrahedral with the 4 polar C-F bonds arranged to cancel each other giving an overall nonpolar molecule. BrCl has a dipole moment since there are no other bonds to cancel the polar Br-Cl bond. SCl2 has a dipole moment (is polar) because it is a bent molecule, AX2E2, and the S-Cl bonds both pull to one side. Plan: To determine if a bond is polar, determine the electronegativity difference of the atoms participating in the bond. To determine if a molecule is polar, it must have polar bonds, and a certain shape determined by VSEPR. Solution: a) The greater the difference in electronegativity the more polar the bond: Molecule Bond Electronegativities Electronegativity difference B-F B = 2.0 F = 4.0 4.0 - 2.0 = 2.0 BF3 P-F P = 2.1 F = 4.0 4.0 - 2.1 = 1.9 PF3 Br-F Br = 2.8 F = 4.0 4.0 - 2.8 = 1.2 BrF3 S-F S = 2.5 F = 4.0 4.0 - 2.5 = 1.5 SF4 S-F S = 2.5 Cl = 4.0 4.0 - 2.5 = 1.5 SF6 The polarities of the bonds are increasing in the order: Br-F < S-F < P-F < B-F. Thus, BF3 has the most polar bonds. 10.53 10.54 10.55 10.56 10-21 b) All the molecules meet the requirement of having polar bonds. The arrangement of the bonds must be considered in each case. BF3 is trigonal planar, AX3, so it is nonpolar because the polarities of the bonds cancel. PF3 has a dipole moment (is polar) because it has a trigonal pyramidal geometry, AX3E. BrF3 has a dipole moment because it has a T-shaped geometry, AX3E2. SF4 has a dipole moment because it has a see-saw geometry, AX4E. SF6 is nonpolar because it is octahedral, AX6, and the bonds are arranged so they cancel. F B F F F P F F F Br F F F F S F F F F F 10.57 F S F F Plan: If only 2 atoms are involved, only an electronegativity difference is needed. If there are more than 2 atoms, the structure must be determined. Solution: a) All the bonds are polar covalent. The SO3 molecule is trigonal planar, AX3, so the bond dipoles cancel leading to a nonpolar molecule (no dipole moment). The SO2 molecule is bent, AX2E, so the polar bonds both pull to one side. SO2 has a greater dipole moment because it is the only one of the pair that is polar. O S O O O S O b) ICl and IF are polar, as are all diatomic molecules composed of atoms with differing electronegativities. The electronegativity difference for ICl is less than that for IF. The greater difference means that IF has a greater dipole moment. c) All the bonds are polar covalent. The SiF4 molecule is nonpolar (has no dipole moment) because the bonds are arranged tetrahedrally, AX4. SF4 is AX4E, so it has a see-saw shape, where the bond dipoles do not cancel. SF4 has the greater dipole moment. F F Si F F F F S F F F F Si F F F F S F F d) H2O and H2S have the same basic structure. They are both bent molecules, AX2E2, and as such, they are polar. The electronegativity difference in H2O is greater so H2O has a greater dipole moment. 10.58 Plan: If only 2 atoms are involved, only an electronegativity difference is needed. If there are more than 2 atoms, the structure must be determined. Resonance structures are not required. Solution: a) All the bonds are polar covalent. Both the molecules are bent (SO2 and ClO2 are AX2E2) and, therefore, polar. SO2 has a greater electronegativity difference so SO2 has a greater dipole moment. 10-22 b) HBr and HCl are polar, as are all diatomic molecules composed of atoms with differing electronegativities. The electronegativity difference for HBr is less than that for HCl. The greater difference means that HCl has a greater dipole moment. c) All the bonds are polar covalent. The BeCl2 molecule is nonpolar (has no dipole moment) because the bonds are arranged linearly, AX2. SCl2 is AX2E2, so it has a bent shape, where the bond dipoles do not cancel. SF4 has the greater dipole moment. d) All the bonds are polar covalent. AsF5 is AX5, so it is trigonal bipyramidal and nonpolar. AsF3 is AX3E, so it is trigonal pyramidal and polar. AsF3 has a greater dipole moment. 10.59 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: There are 3 possible structures for the compound C2H2Cl2: H C Cl C Cl Cl C C Cl H C C Cl H H H H Cl I II III The presence of the double bond prevents rotation about the C=C bond, so the structures are fixed. The C-Cl bonds are more polar than the C-H bonds, so the key to predicting the polarity is the positioning of the C-Cl bonds. Compound I has the C-Cl bonds arranged so that they cancel leaving I as a nonpolar molecule. Both II and III have C-Cl bonds on the same side so the bonds work together making both molecules polar. Both I and II will react with H2 to give a compound with a Cl attached to each C (same product). Compound III will react with H2 to give a compound with 2 Cls on one C and none on the other (different product). Compound I must be X as it is the only one that is nonpolar (has no dipole moment). Compound II must be Z because it is polar and gives the same product as compound X. This means that compound III must be the remaining compound Y. Compound Y (III) has a dipole moment. 10.60 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: The possible structures for the compounds differ only in the positions of the N-F bonds. These structures are fixed because the N=N bond does not allow rotation. The N-F bonds are polar. a) F N N F F N N F (trans) (cis) b) In the trans-form the N-F bonds pull equally in opposite directions, thus, they cancel and the molecule is nonpolar. The N-F bonds in the cis-form pull in the same general direction resulting in a polar molecule. 10-23 10.61 Plan: The Lewis structures are needed to do this problem. Solution: a) The H atoms cannot be central, and they are evenly distributed on the Ns. All the Ns have octets. H N H N H H H N N H N N Nitrogen Diazene Hydrazine The single (bond order = 1) N-N bond is weaker and longer than any of the others are. The triple bond (bond order = 3) is stronger and shorter than any of the others. The double bond (bond order = 2) has an intermediate strength and length. b) H N H N N N H H N N H + N N H H H Hbonds broken = 4 N-H = 4 mol (391 kJ/mol) Hbonds formed = 4 N-H = 4 mol (391 kJ/mol) 2 N-N = 2 mol (160 kJ/mol) 1 N-N = 1 mol (160 kJ/mol) 1 N=N = 1 mol (418 kJ/mol) 1 NN = 1 mol (945 kJ/mol) = 2302 kJ = 2669 kJ Hrxn = Hbonds broken - Hbonds formed = 2302 kJ - (2669 kJ) = -367 kJ Note: It is correct to report the answer in kJ or kJ/mol as long as the value refers to a reactant or product with a molar coefficient of 1. 10.62 Plan: Count the total number of valence electrons, then arrange the atoms for bonds, and finally try to follow the octet rule. Solution: F F P F (a) Cl I Cl (d) F F Cl Cl C Cl (b) Cl Cl H O H (c) H H Be H P H H (e) (f) 10-24 Br Br Ge Br (g) F F Br F (j) 10.63 Br H C H (h) H Cl B Cl (i) F Cl F O Xe O (k) O F Te F (l) F Plan: Apply VSEPR to the structures shown in problem 10.62. Solution: a) AX5 = trigonal bipyramidal F F P F b) AX4 = tetrahedral F F Cl C Cl Cl Cl c) AX3E = trigonal pyramidal O H H H d) AX3E2 = T-shaped Cl I Cl Cl e) AX2 = linear H Be f) AX2E2 = bent H P H H 10-25 g) AX4 = tetrahedral Br Ge Br Br Br h) AX3E = trigonal pyramidal C H H H i) AX3 = trigonal planar Cl B Cl j) AX4E = see-saw Cl F F Br F F k) AX3E = trigonal pyramidal Xe O l) AX4E = see-saw O O F F Te F F 10.64 Plan: Use the Lewis structures shown in the text. Solution: a) Formal charges for Al2Cl6: FCAl = 3 - (0 + 1/2(8)) = -1 FCCl, ends = 7 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = 0 FCCl, bridging = 7 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = +1 (Check: Formal charges add to zero, the charge on the compound.) Formal charges for I2Cl6: FCI = 7 - (4 + 1/2(8)) = -1 FCCl, ends = 7 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = 0 FCCl, bridging = 7 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = +1 (Check: Formal charges add to zero, the charge on the compound.) b) The aluminum atoms are AX4, so they are tetrahedral. The 2 tetrahedral Als cannot give a planar structure. The iodine atoms are AX4E2 are square planar. Placing the square planar Is adjacent can give a planar molecule. 10-26 10.65 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then determine the formal charges. Solution: The atom sequence may be ONF, NOF, or NFO. F is never central so the structure cannot be NFO. NOF O N F O N F FCO = +6 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = +1 FCO = +6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 FCN = +5 - (2 + 1/2(6)) = 0 FCN = +5 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = -1 FCF = +7 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = 0 FCF = +7 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = 0 Thus, the structure on the left is the correct structure. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10.66 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: The Lewis structure for each is required. Compound Pre-VSEPR Lewis Structure XeF2 Linear VSEPR Linear (AX2E3) F XeF4 Xe F Tetrahedral F Xe F Square planar (AX4E2) F F Xe F XeF6 Octahedral F F F Xe F Distorted octahedral (AX6E) F F F F F Xe F F F F F F Xe F F 10.67 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: H H H H H F F F B O H C C H H H H F B F F H + O C C H H C C H C C H H H H H H The BF3 (AX3) is trigonal planar (bond angle = 120). The O (AX2E2) is bent in the ether. In the product B is AX4, thus, it is tetrahedral. The O in the product is now AX3E and so it is trigonal pyramidal. 10-27 10.68 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: From the Lewis structures, both are AX2E, but the pair in NO2 is only half a pair, so it only exerts half the repulsion. This allows to bond angle to open to a larger than normal bond angle. The complete lone pair in NO2-, like other lone pairs, forces the bonding pairs together to give a smaller than normal bond angle. O N O O N O O 10.69 N O O N O Plan: Use the heat of formation given in the problem and the values in the bond energy table. Solution: The 3 F-F bonds must be broken, and 6 Xe-F bonds are formed. Xe(g) + 3 F2(g) XeF6(g) Hf = 3 BEF-F - 6 BEXe-F -402 kJ/mol = (3) (159 kJ/mol) - 6 BEXe-F BEXe-F = 146.5 = 146 kJ/mol Plan: Draw the Lewis structures, and then use VSEPR to describe propylene oxide. Solution: (a) H H 10.70 C H3C H H CH2 + H2O2 H3C H C O CH2 + H2O H C C C H O a) In propylene oxide, the Cs are all AX4. All the ideal bond angles for the Cs in propylene oxide are 109.5. b) In propylene oxide, the C that is not part of the three-membered ring should have an ideal angle. The atoms in the ring form an equilateral triangle. The angles in an equilateral triangle are 60. The angles around the 2 carbons in the rings are reduced from the ideal 109.5 to 60. H 10-28 10.71 Plan: Draw the Lewis structures, and then use VSEPR to predict the shapes. Solution: Cl Cl C Cl O C H + O H H Cl Cl C Cl O C O H H H Cl Cl Cl C C O + H H O H Cl Cl Cl O C C H O H H The C with the chlorines attached does not change shape. The other C changes from trigonal planar (AX3) to tetrahedral (AX4). 10.72 Plan: Draw an acceptable Lewis structure using both the octet rule and the minimization of formal charges. Solution: The molecule has 56 electrons. Putting the molecule together as described in the problem gives: O O Cl O O O Cl O O The formal charges now need to be calculated for each type of atom: FCCl = 7 - (0 + 1/2(8)) = +3 FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 (bridging O) FCO = 6 - (6 + 1/2(2)) = -1 (terminal Os) The formal charges check (the total is 0), but the values for the Cls are high. An attempt should be made to decrease the formal charges. The formal charges in the Cls may be reduced by the formation of double bonds. To reduce the formal charge from +3 to 0 would require three double bonds. This is allowed since Cl can exceed an octet. This gives: O O Cl O O Cl O O O The formal charge need to be recalculated: FCCl = 7 - (0 + 1/2(14)) = 0 FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 (bridging O) FCO = 6 - (4 + 1/2(4)) = 0 (terminal Os) The formal charges check (the total is 0). All the values are reasonable (0). O ClO3 ClO3 The central O is AX2E2, which has an ideal bond angle of 109.5, but the lone pairs make this less than ideal. 10-29 10.73 Plan: Count the valence electrons, and draw the appropriate Lewis structures. Draw resonance structures when necessary. Solution: a) Bond Order (avg.) C O 3.0 b) 2C O O C O O C O O O O O Each C-O bond is a single bond two-thirds of the time and a double bond the rest of the time. The average is [(1 + 1 + 2)/3] = 4/3 = 1.33 c) H C H O 2.0 d) H H C H O H 1.0 e) O C O O H O C O O H The resonating double bond means the average bond length is [(1 + 2)/2] = 1.5 The C-O bond for the O attached to the H does not resonate and remains 1.0 Bond strength d<b<e<c<a ignoring O attached to H Bond length a<c<e<b<d 10.74 Plan: Write and balance the equation. Use the bond energy table to obtain the appropriate bond energies. Solution: The reaction is balanced as usual: ClCH2CH2SCH2CH2Cl + 2 H2O HOCH2CH2SCH2CH2OH + 2 HCl Most of the molecule remains the same. Bonds broken: 2 C-Cl 2(339 kJ/mol) Bonds formed: 2 H-Cl 2(427 kJ/mol) 8 C-H 8(413 kJ/mol) 8 C-H 8(413 kJ/mol) 2 C-S 2(259 kJ/mol) 2 C-S 2(259 kJ/mol) 2 C-C 2(347 kJ/mol) 2 C-C 2(347 kJ/mol) 2 x 2 O-H 4(467kJ/mol) 2 O-H 2(467 kJ/mol) 2 C-O 2(358kJ/mol) Totals: 7062 kJ 7020 kJ Hrxn = Hbonds broken - Hbonds formed = 7062 kJ - 7020 kJ = 42 kJ 10-30 10.75 Plan: Draw Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR. Solution: CBr4 < CH2Br2 < CH2Cl2 < CF2Cl2 < CF2Br2 < CH2F2 10.76 Plan: Assume all reactants and products are assumed to be gaseous. Ethanol burns (combusts) with O2 to produce CO2 and H2O. Solution: a) To save time the balanced equation includes the Lewis structures: H H H C C O + 3 O O 2 O C O + 3 O H H H H H Bonds broken: 1 C-C 1(347 kJ/mol) Bonds formed: 2 x 2 C=O 4(799 kJ/mol) 5 C-H 5(413 kJ/mol) 2 x 3 O-H 6(467 kJ/mol) 1 C-O 1(358 kJ/mol) 1 O-H 1(467 kJ/mol) 3 O=O 3(498 kJ/mol) Totals: 4731 kJ 5998 kJ H = Bonds broken - Bonds formed = 4731 kJ - 5998 kJ = -1267 kJ for each mole of ethanol burned. b) If it takes 40.5 kJ/mol to vaporize the ethanol, part of the heat of combustion must be used to convert liquid ethanol to gaseous ethanol. The new value becomes: Hcomb(liquid) = -1267 kJ + (1 mol) (40.5 kJ/mol) = -1226.5 = -1226 kJ per mol of liquid ethanol burned c) Hcomb(liquid) = nH o (products) - mH o (reactants) f f Hcomb(liquid) = [2(Hf(CO2(g))) + 3(Hf (H2O(g)))] - [(Hf (C2H5OH(l))) + 3(Hf (O2(g)))] Hcomb(liquid) = [2(-393.5 kJ) + 3(-241.826 kJ)] - [(-277.63 kJ) + 3(0 kJ)] = -1234.848 = -1234.8 kJ The two answers differ by less than 10 kJ. This is a very good agreement since average bond energies were used to calculate answers a and b. d) The Lewis structures for the reaction are: H H H H O + C C H C C O H H H H H H H The energy to break the reactant bonds is: BE(C=C) + 4 BE(C-H) + 2 BE(O-H) = (1 mol) (614 kJ/mol) + (4 mol) (413 kJ/mol) + (2 mol) (467 kJ/mol) = 3200. kJ The energy from forming the product bonds is: BE(C-C) + 5 BE(C-H) + BE(C-O) + BE(O-H) = (1 mol) (347 kJ/mol) + (5 mol) (413 kJ/mol) + (1 mol) (358 kJ/mol) + (1 mol) (467 kJ/mol) = 3237 kJ Hrxn = Hbonds broken - Hbonds formed = 3200. kJ - (3237 kJ) = -37 kJ 10-31 10.77 Plan: Draw the appropriate Lewis structures and observe the bonds. Solution: a) H H C Bond Order 1 C C H b) H Bond Order 2 H C H Bond Order 1 (all) H H H H c) C C H H C C H H C C H Bond Order 2 H Bond Order 1 d) H C C H e) H C C H H C C H C H Bond Order 1.5 (all) C H H H C C H C H C C C H H H H C C H C C Bond Order 1.5 (all) C C H H H 10-32 10.78 Plan: Determine the empirical formula from the percent composition (assuming 100 grams of compound). The empirical formula and the molar mass may then be used to determine the molecular formula. Count the valence electrons in the empirical formula and then construct the Lewis structure. Name the compound from its molecular formula. Solution: N 25.9 g / (14.01 g/mol) = 1.849 mol / 1.849 mol = 1.00 Only round at the end. O (100.0 - 25.9) g / (16.00 g/mol) = 4.631 mol / 1.849 mol = 2.50 Doubling the ratios gives N = 2 and O = 5 or N2O5 with a molar mass of 108.02 g/mol. Since this is the same as the molar mass given in the problem, the empirical and molecular formulas are both N2O5. This formula has 40 valence electrons, and when drawn with no N-N or O-O bonds one gets the following Lewis structure: O N O N O O O The name of this compound is dinitrogen pentoxide. 10.79 Plan: Determine the empirical formula from the percent composition (assuming 100 grams of compound). Use the titration data to determine the mole ratio of acid to the NaOH. This ratio relates the number of acidic Hs to the formula of the acid. Finally, combine this information to construct the Lewis structure. Solution: H 2.24 g / (1.008 g/mol) = 2.222 mol / 2.222 mol = 1.00 Only round at the end. C 26.7 g / (12.01 g/mol) = 2.223 mol / 2.222 mol = 1.00 O 71.1 g / (16.00 g/mol) = 4.443 mol / 2.222 mol = 2.00 The empirical formula is HCO2. The titration required: (0.040 mol NaOH / L) (50.0 mL) (1 L / 1000 mL) (1 mmole / 0.001 mol) = 2.0 mmole NaOH Thus, the ratio is 2.0 mmole base / 1.0 mmole acid, or each acid molecule has two hydrogens to react (diprotic). The empirical formula indicates a monoprotic acid, so the formula must be doubled to: H2C2O4. There are 34 valence electrons to be used in the Lewis structure. A C-C bond attaches the two empirical formula units: H O C O C O H O 10.80 Plan: Determine the empirical formula from the percent composition (assuming 100 grams of compound). The molar mass may be determined from the density of the gas. The empirical formula and the molar mass may then be used to determine the molecular formula. Count the valence electrons in the empirical formula and then construct the Lewis structure. Try to draw other empirical formulas. Solution: C 24.8 g / (12.01 g/mol) = 2.065 mol / 2.006 mol = 1.00 Only round at the end. H 2.08 g / (1.008 g/mol) = 2.063 mol / 2.006 mol = 1.00 Cl 73.1 g / (35.45 g/mol) = 2.006 mol / 2.006 mol = 1.00 Thus, the empirical formula is CHCl, and its molar mass is: 48.47 g/mol. The density is 4.3 g/L at STP: M = (4.3g/L) (22.4 L/mol) = 96.32 = 96 g/mol 10-33 The molar mass (96 g/mol) is double the empirical formula mass (48.47 g/mol), so the empirical formula must be doubled to get the molecular formula: C2H2Cl2. The formula contains 24 valence electrons. A variety of structures may be drawn: H C Cl C H Cl or Cl H C C Cl H or Cl Cl C C H H 10.81 Plan: Count the valence electrons and begin four Lewis structures. Place bonds as described in the problem. Solution: There are 32 valence electrons present. Begin four Lewis structures by placing a Cl in the center and 4 Os around it. Connect all the Os to the central Cls with single bonds. In the second structure, convert one of the single bonds to a double bond. In the third structure, two of the bonds are double, and in the last, three of the bonds are double. (It does not matter which bonds are chosen to become double bonds.) O O Cl O FC = +3 on Cl Average Bond order 10.82 O O O Cl O FC = +2 on Cl (3 x 2) + (1 x 1) = 1.75 4 O O O Cl O FC = +1 on Cl (most important) O O O Cl O FC = 0 on Cl O Plan: Write the balanced chemical equations for the reactions. Draw the Lewis structures and look for potential problems. Calculate the heat of reaction from the bond energies, and divide the value by the number of moles of oxygen gas appearing in each reaction. Solution: CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) H H C H + 2 O O O C O + 2 O H H 4 C-H 4(413 kJ/mol) O=O 2(498 kJ/mol) Totals: 2648 kJ H = Bonds broken - Bonds formed = 2648 kJ - 3466 kJ = -818 kJ / 2 mol O2 Per mole of O2 = -409 kJ/mol O2 H Bonds broken: Bonds formed: 2 C=O 2 x 2 O-H 2(799 kJ/mol) 4(467 kJ/mol) 3466 kJ 10-34 2 H2S(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 SO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 2 S H + 3 O O 2 O S O + 2 H O H 2 x 2 S-H 4(347 kJ/mol) 3 O=O 3(498 kJ/mol) Totals: 2882 kJ H = Bonds broken - Bonds formed = 2882 kJ - 4076 kJ = -1194 kJ / 3 mol O2 Per mole of O2 = -398 kJ/mol O2 10.83 H Bonds broken: Bonds formed: 2 x 2 S=O 2 x 2 O-H 4(552 kJ/mol) 4(467 kJ/mol) 4076 kJ Plan: Draw the Lewis structures and look for potential problems. Solution: F F S F (a) F S F (b) F F S F (c) F F F F F (d) Stable: a, c, and e Unstable radicals: b and d 10.84 F F S F F (e) F F F S Plan: Draw the Lewis structure of the OH species. Find the additional information from the bond energy table. Solution: a) The OH molecule has 7 valence electrons. Thus, no atom can have an octet, and one electron is left unpaired. The Lewis structure is: O H b) The formation reaction is: 1/2 O2(g) + 1/2 H2(g) OH(g). The heat of reaction is: Hreaction = Hbroken - Hformed = 39.0 kJ [BEO=O + BEH-H] - [BEO-H] = 39.0 kJ [(1/2 mol) (498 kJ/mol) + (1/2 mol) (432 kJ/mol)] - [BEO-H] = 39.0 kJ BEO-H = 426 kJ c) The average bond energy (from the bond energy table) is 467 kJ/mol. There are 2 O-H bonds so a total of 2 x 467 kJ/mol = 934 kJ. The answer to part b accounts for 426 kJ of this, leaving: 934 kJ - 426 kJ = 508 kJ 10-35 10.85 Plan: Determine the total valence electrons and draw resonance forms for the two species. Solution: Both N3- and HN3 have 16 valence electrons. Azide ion: N N N N N N N N N There are three resonance structures for the N3- ion. The formal charges in the first structure are, from left to right, -1, +1, and -1. In the other 2 Lewis structures the single bonded N has a formal charge of -2, making both of these less stable than the first structure. The central N is +1 and the N on the other end is 0. The first resonance structure is more important, the structure should have 2 equal bonds with a bond order of 2. Hydrazoic acid: H N N N H N N N H N N N HN3 also has 3 resonance structures. The formal change for the H is 0 in all the structures. In the structure with 2 double bonds, the formal charges for the Ns are, left to right: 0, +1, and -1. The structure where the H is attached to the single bonded N, has Ns with the following formal charges: -1, +1, and 0. In the final Lewis structure, the formal charges on the Ns are: +1, -1, and -2. The third structure is clearly not as good as the other two. The first two structures should be averaged to give, starting at the H-end, a bond order of 1.5 then a bond order of 2.5. Thus, the two bonds are unequal. 10.86 Plan: The basic Lewis structure will be the same for all species. The Cl atoms are larger than the F atoms. Solution: a) The F atoms will occupy the smaller axial positions first. The molecules containing only F or only Cl are nonpolar, as all the polar bonds would cancel. The molecules with one F or one Cl would be polar since there would be no corresponding bond to cancel the polarity. The presence of 2 axial Fs means that their polarities will cancel (as would the 3 Cls) giving a nonpolar molecule. The molecule with 3 Fs is also polar. b) F Cl Cl P Cl Cl Polar 10.87 F Cl Cl P Cl F Non-polar F Cl F P Cl F Polar F F F P Cl F Polar F F F P F F Non-polar Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures for the resonance forms. Solution: N N O N N O N N O F.C. -1 +1 0 -2 +1 +1 0 +1 -1 The third structure has a more reasonable distribution of formal charges. The third form has a strong bond between the Ns and a weak N-O bond. It is easy to break the N-O bond which is why this compound easily decomposes to support combustion. 10-36 10.88 Plan: Count the valence electrons and draw Lewis structures for the resonance forms. Solution: H2C2O4: HC2O4-: H O O H H O O H O C O C O O C C O O C C O - O C2O42-: O C O C O 2O C C O O 2- O O O C O C O 2- O C C O 2- O O O In H2C2O4, there are 2 shorter C=O bonds and 2 longer CO bonds. In HC2O4-, the C-O bonds on the side retaining the H remain as 1 long C-O and 1 shorter C=O. The C-O bonds on the other side of the molecule have resonance forms with an average bond order of 1.5, so they are intermediate in length and strength. In C2O42-, all the carbon to oxygen bonds are resonating and have an average bond order of 1.5. 10.89 Plan: Count the valence electrons. Thirty electrons are accounted for in the structure shown in the problem. Solution: H H H H N C C C O H H O H C H H All the atoms have 0 formal charge except the N (FC = +1), and the single bonded O (FC = -1). 10-37 10.90 Plan: Write a balanced equation. Find the appropriate bond energies in the table. Solution: N2H4(g) + O2(g) N2(g) + 2 H2O(g) H H N N + O O N N +2 O H H H H H = BEbroken - BEformed = [4(391) + 160 + 498] - [945 + 2x 2(467)] kJ = 2222 - 2813 kJ = - 591 kJ per mole of N2H4 reacted 10.91 Plan: Draw the Lewis structures and look for potential problems. Calculate the heat of reaction from the bond energies. Solution: SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H2SO7(l) O O O O S O OH + H O S O O H Bonds formed: O H 4 S=O 4 S-O 2 O-H S O O S O H Bonds broken: 5 S=O 5(552 kJ/mol) 2 S-O 2(265 kJ/mol) 2 O-H 2(467 kJ/mol) Totals: 4224 kJ H = Bonds broken - Bonds formed = 4224 kJ - 4202 kJ = 22 kJ O 4(552 kJ/mol) 4(265 kJ/mol) 2(467 kJ/mol) 4202 kJ 10.92 Plan: Draw the 2 Lewis structures, and then apply VSEPR to predict the angles. Solution: H H C C C H H There are no deviations from the ideal angles. The central carbon is linear (180). The end Cs are trigonal planar (120). H H C C C H H Ideally, the single bonded carbon should be tetrahedral (109.5), and the double bonded carbons are trigonal planar (120). The 3-membered ring will approximate an equilateral triangle with 60 angles. The external bonds are probably close to ideal, but the internal bonds are much less. 10-38 10.93 Plan: Pick the VSEPR structures for AY3 substances. Then determine which are polar. Solution: Y Y A Y Y A Y Y Y Y A Y (a) (b) (c) 3 groups 4 groups 5 groups (AX3) (AX3E) (AX3E2) The trigonal planar molecules, such as (a), are nonpolar, so it cannot be AY3. Trigonal pyramidal molecules (b) and T-shaped molecules (c) are polar, so either could represent AY3. 10.94 Plan: Draw the resonance structures for the fulminate ion, and determine the formal charges: Solution: C N O C N O C N O F.C. -2 +1 0 -3 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 None of the structures has a good distribution of formal charges, thus, none are stable. The best of the choices is the middle structure. 10.95 Plan: First, draw the appropriate Lewis structures, and then follow the procedure from the preceding problem. Solution: The simplified Lewis structures for the reaction are: H-CN + 2 H-H H H C N H H H The energy to break the reactant bonds is: BE(C-H) + BE(CN) + 2 BE(H-H) = (1 mol) (413 kJ/mol) + (1 mol) (891 kJ/mol) + (2 mol) (432 kJ/mol) = 2168 kJ The energy from forming the product bonds is: 3 BE(C-H) + BE(C-N) + 2 BE(N-H) = (3 mol) (413 kJ/mol) + (1 mol) (305 kJ/mol) + (2 mol) (391 kJ/mol) = 2326 kJ Hrxn = Hbonds broken - Hbonds formed = 2168 kJ - (2326 kJ) = -158 kJ 10.96 Plan: Draw the appropriate Lewis structures, and use VSEPR to predict the angles. Solution: a) H C H C H F H F C C F F All the carbons are trigonal planar so the ideal angles should all be 120. b) The observed angles are slightly less than ideal because the C=C bond repels better than the single bonds. The larger Fs cannot get as close together as the smaller Hs, so the angles in tetrafluoroethylene are not reduced as much. 10-39 10.97 Plan: Compare the two structures and look for similarities. Solution: The tops of the molecules are similar and the tops will interact with biomolecules in a similar manner. Plan: Draw the Lewis structure of each compound. Atoms 180 apart are separated by the sum of the bonds length. Atoms not at 180 apart must have their distances determined by geometrical relationships. Solution: 10.98 (a) H C C H (b) F F F S F F F (c) F F F P F F a) The Hs are separated by two carbon-hydrogen bonds (109 pm) and a carbon-carbon triple bond (121 pm). Total separation = 2 (109 pm) + 121 pm = 339 pm b) The fluorines on opposite sides of the S are separated by twice the sulfur-fluorine bond length (158 pm). Total separation = 2 (158 pm) = 316 pm Adjacent fluorines are at two corners of a right triangle, with the sulfur at the 90 angle. Two sides of the triangle are equal to the sulfur-fluorine bond length (158 pm). The separation of the fluorines is at a distance equal to the hypotenuse of this triangle. This length of the hypotenuse may be found using the Pythagorean Theorem (a2 + b2 = c2). In this case a = b = 158 pm. Thus, c2 = (158 pm)2 + (158 pm)2, and so c = 223.4457 = 223 pm c) Thus, distance between equatorial fluorines may be determined in a similar manner as between adjacent fluorines in SF6. The central angle is 120. The distance is = 273.66 = 274 pm. 10.99 Plan: First, write a balanced chemical equation, then draw the appropriate Lewis structures. Finally, apply VSEPR to the Lewis structures. Solution: PCl5(l) + SO2(g) POCl3(l) + SOCl2(l) Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl PCl5: SO2: POCl3: SOCl2: AX5 AX2E AX4 AX3E trigonal bipyramid bent tetrahedral trigonal pyramid O + O S O Cl P Cl + O Cl S Cl Cl 10-40

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Hemodynamics and Vasculature (Lecture 18-19) 5/22/09 Blood o Component: 55% plasma, 45% cells o Viscosity: higher hematocrit produces higher viscosity Vascular system o Anatomy of different vessels: diameter and total areas (refer to the Table in p
UCSD - PHYS - bipn 100
Chem 6CHQuiz 1.1 25 PtsName (Last, First):_ UCSD ID:_FIVE points per question. For multiple choice questions, CIRCLE the correct answer. For Questions 4 and 5, provide your answer on the blank line given (be mindful of sig figs). ALL QUESTIONS
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
Chapter 17 Even AnswersChapter 18 Even Assigned AnswersChapter 19 Even Assigned Answers
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass SpectrometryOrganic Chemistry IIntroduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. Based on how a molecules behaves when exposed to certain types of electromagnetic radiation. It
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
Highlights of Main Group ChemistryMain Group ChemistrySlide MG-1Fig. 14.2Main Group ChemistrySlide MG-21Main Group ChemistrySlide MG-3Main Group ChemistrySlide MG-42Diagonal RelationshipsMain Group ChemistrySlide MG-5Mai
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
Rate Laws From MechanismsConsider the following reaction and its experimental rate law: 2NO2 ( g ) + F2 ( g ) 2NO2 F( g ) rate law = kobs [NO2 ][F2 ] and three possible mechanisms: k1 Mechanism 1: 2NO 2 + F2 2NO 2 F k 1 Mechanism 2 : NO2 + F2
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
Nuclear ChemistryNuclear ChemSlide 1Introduction to Nuclear ChemNuclei can change: what happens when they do? In Review: 1. All atoms have isotopes (nuclides) 2. All naturally occurring elements are mixtures of two or more nuclides 3. Differen
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Nuclear ChemSlide 26Nuclear ChemSlide 271Nuclear EnergeticsWhen protons and neutrons form a nucleus, or when a nuclear reaction occurs, energy is released; why?14C 613.999950 amu14N 713.999234 amu+0e -10.000549 amum = -1.67 x
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
RECOGNIZE THESE CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPSNAME GROUP OF ATOMSH C C&quot;TRIVIAL NAME&quot;Alkane Alkene Alkyne Benzene Alcohol Phenol(all single bonds)Not designated a f.g. &quot;Double bond&quot;; &quot;olefin&quot; &quot;Triple bond&quot;; &quot;acetylene&quot;CCCCOR&quot;Be
UCSD - CHEM - chem6ch
Chapter 1 Introduction to Organic ChemistryChemistry 6CHDefinitions Old: derived from living organisms New: chemistry of carbon compounds From inorganic to organic, Whler, 1828O NH4 OCN+ -heatH2N C NH2 ureaIntroduction and ReviewSlide