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3344 Soc Study Guide Test 2 Sp 07 Chapter 3 1. Which screening process is recommended for achieving the best pool of applicants? a. screening out b. screening in c. lateral screening d. vertical screening Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in employment based on all of the following EXCEPT: a. race. b. age. c. sex. d. religion. Which of the following most accurately describes the court's likely reaction when it has determined that a police department has discriminated against groups or classes in hiring practices? a. It will likely demand a settlement to the plaintiff, but not require changes in hiring practices. b. It will likely strike down some of the department's promotion practices, but not hiring practices. c. It will likely strike down some or all of the department's hiring practices. d. It will likely call for the chief to be fired. Which of the following best describes "disparate rejection?" a. It applies to groups when the employer adopts a policy that excludes members of a minority. b. It applies to groups and is commonly referred to as the 80 percent rule. c. It applies to groups and consists of a practice where the courts compare the percentage of minority employees with the percentage of minorities in the community. d. It applies to individuals and consists of a policy by which a qualified minority applies for an advertised position and is rejected. Which of the following is true regarding Griggs v. Duke Power Co.? a. The Court found that it did not matter if discrimination was intentional or unintentional. b. The Court found that once it established the existence of discrimination, the burden of proof fell upon the plaintiff to prove that the selection process was discriminatory. c. There could be NO differences in hiring rates, even if the hiring practices were related to job performance. d. all of the above Which of the following court cases was the first to establish reverse discrimination? a. Griggs v. Duke Power Co. b. Bakke v. California c. Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Antonio d. Thomas v. City of Evanston When was the first African-American police officer hired in the United States? a. the 1860s b. the 1920s c. the 1950s d. the 1960s Approximately what percentage of police officers in America are African-Americans? a. 4 b. 8 c. 11 d. 15 Which of the following are the two broad categories of explanations for the lack of minority representation in law enforcement agencies? a. institutional barriers and educational standards b. institutional barriers and personal preference 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. c. personal preference and educational standards d. personal preference and residency requirements 10. Which of the following is a type of "institutional barrier" that dissuades minorities from seeking employment? a. complicated applications b. multistaged selection process c. the department's image regarding minorities d. all of the above 11. Why has policing been such a male-dominated vocation? a. Women have always preferred to stay home and care for the children. b. Smaller size limits the duties women can perform. c. Males have been the powerholders in society. d. Women were believed too emotional for police work. 12. Which of the following is true regarding the first female police officer in the United States? a. She quickly rose up the ranks to become the chief of her department. b. She was responsible for investigating serious violent crimes. c. She was responsible for enforcing laws in skating rinks. d. She was hired in 1890. 13. Poulos and Doerner studied Florida police departments to determine female representation. According to their study, what percentage of officers in Florida is female? a. 8 b. 25 c. 40 d. 51 14. Approximately what percentage of police officers in America are women? a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20 15. Which of the following best describes the primary difference between male and female police officers? a. Males subscribe to a "morality of care" while females subscribe to a "morality of justice." b. Males subscribe to a "morality of crime fighting" while females subscribe to a "morality of crime nurture." c. Males subscribe to a "morality of justice" while females subscribe to a "morality of care." d. There really are no differences between male and female officers. 16. Which of the following best defines police "recruitment?" a. the development of a pool of sufficiently qualified applicants b. the development of a pool of minimally qualified applicants c. the development of a pool of exceedingly qualified applicants d. the process of transferring officers from other departments 17. Which of the following is a result of limiting recruitment to a specific geographic area? a. It assures that the best people will be hired because they can better serve the community they know. b. It assures that the worst people will be hired. c. It limits the pool of applicants. d. It increases the number of qualified applicants. 18. Davis v. Dallas (1985) dealt with which recruitment standard? a. education b. vision c. residency d. physical agility 19. In Thomas v. City of Evanston (1985), the Supreme Court determined that in order for physical agility tests in law enforcement to be acceptable, the tests must: a. be based on job analysis. b. represent the content of the job. c. be equally challenging for both genders. d. both a and b 20. When a department develops a drug usage policy regarding recruits, which of the following should be considered? a. recency of usage b. patterns or frequency of usage c. types of drugs used d. all of the above 21. In Hild v. Bruner (1980), the Court made which of the following rulings? a. It found a police department negligent for not performing a psychological assessment of its applicants. b. It found a police department negligent for not performing a polygraph examination on its applicants. c. It found that police departments could not have height requirements because they discriminate against females and certain minorities. d. It found a police department negligent for failing to provide firearm training for its recruits. 22. Which of the following tests are used in the selection of police officers? a. written examinations b. physical agility tests c. polygraph tests d. all of the above 23. Which of the following best describes the "role-play" exercise simulated in an assessment center? a. It consists of candidates acting out scenarios, such as taking a report. b. It tests the candidates' ability to use facts and other information. c. It is an exercise in which candidates review paperwork and decide how it should be processed. d. It consists of candidates displaying their verbal skills in front of groups. 24. Basic training serves to orient personnel with the police department. Which of the following is a function of orientation? a. creating favorable impressions b. enhancing interpersonal acceptance c. increasing performance d. all of the above 25. Which of the following is a topic covered in basic training? a. criminal law b. human values c. patrol and investigation procedures d. all of the above 26. Which of the following is a justification for field training officer (FTO) programs? a. Some police concepts are not amenable to classroom instruction. b. Most officers do not learn well in a classroom environment. c. Most departments do not have the resources for classroom training. d. all of the above 27. In-service training may include all of the following activities EXCEPT: a. radio training. b. departmental training sessions. c. roll-call training. d. basic academy training. 28. Which of the following best describes the two directions of career development in law enforcement? a. promotions and testing b. service and enforcement c. education and training d. lateral and vertical expansion 29. The expansion of the number of levels of rank within a police organization is referred to as: a. vertical expansion. b. horizontal expansion. c. lateral expansion. d. parallel expansion. 1. Some researchers believe that police departments could save millions of dollars annually through more judicious selection procedures. Police organizations should attempt to "screen out" rather than "screen in" personnel in their selection processes. "Screening in" of applicants is a process through which applicants who are unqualified are identified through various procedures and removed from consideration. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits the use of statistical adjustments in employee tests to give advantage to minority candidates. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act was the first legislative action taken in this country to prohibit discrimination in employment. Selection standards are rooted in departmental regulations. Minorities are still underrepresented in American police organizations. All jurisdictions mandate that the minimum age for a candidate is 21 years. Vision standards are clearly rejected by Title VII. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The oral interview board is generally the last step in the selection process. 11. A large majority of police agencies in the United States require some college education for employment. 12. Assessment centers are being used in a majority of departments across the country. 13. Human values training is viewed as a means of ensuring that officers afford minorities and females greater respect and regard toward their problems when interacting with them. 14. In-service training refers to training that is designed to provide veteran officers with new skills or to update them regarding changes in the law and procedures. 15. Lateral expansion refers to job specialization within a department. 16. Women and minorities are just as likely as white males to retire from policing after a long career. Chapter 4 1. Which of the following is best defined as "how a department is structured?" a. management b. organization c. administration d. rank Which of the following is best defined as "the processes that occur within the structure?" a. management b. administration c. duties d. regulations Which of the following is NOT one of Luther Gulick's functions of police administration? a. budgeting b. coordinating 2. 3. c. planning d. training 4. Which of the following best defines "organization?" a. the structuring and staffing of a department b. deciding the goals and objectives of a department c. keeping everyone informed of operations d. all of the above The definition of "administration" consists of two components. What are they? a. evaluation and forecasting b. politics and law c. organization and management d. crime and policymaking What is the acronym developed by Luther Gulick to identify the most basic administrative processes? a. MANAGER b. OPSIT c. ORGMAN d. POSDCORB Which of the following is a responsibility of upper level administrators? a. training new recruits b. scheduling patrol c. determining the department's mission d. recruiting new officers Which of the following is the typical administrative foundation of the typical police organization? a. classical organizational theory b. systems theory c. human relations theory d. none of the above Which of the following are classical organizational principles? a. hierarchy and specialization b. decentralization and internal expansion c. decentralization and vertical expansion d. none of the above 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Another name commonly used for "hierarchy" is: a. span of control. b. chain of command. c. unity of command. d. specialization. 11. Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of classical organization? a. coordination b. specialization c. procedural guidelines d. organizational documentation 12. The concept of __________ ensures that everyone in the organization has a superior to whom they should report. a. authority b. division of labor c. hierarchy d. specialization 13. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of specialization? a. simplified training b. administrative control c. development of expertise d. enhanced solidarity 14. __________ are important because they outline to everyone in the department their duties, responsibilities, and limitations. a. Procedural guidelines b. Directives c. Objectives d. Goals 15. Who is the theorist associated with comparing classical organizational theory to the "McDonaldization" of society? a. Ritzer b. Hawthorne c. Maslow d. Weber 16. Theory __________ assumes that employees are basically lazy and need to be directed if they are to accomplish organizational objectives. a. X b. Y c. Z d. none of the above 17. Which of the following best describes the results of the Hawthorne studies? a. Productivity increased because employees felt they were important. b. Productivity increased because they liked the new patterns of illumination. c. Productivity decreased because employees did not like the new break patterns. d. none of the above 18. The perspectives presented in Theory X include which of the following statements? a. People are by nature resistant to change. b. People are inherently self-centered. c. Average workers are not interested in the organization. d. all of the above 19. Maslow's hierarchy of needs included all EXCEPT which of the following human needs? a. self-actualization b. social c. esteem d. economic 20. Which of the following statements is true regarding participative management? a. Low-ranking officers are allowed to make departmental decisions. b. Low-ranking officers are allowed to provide input toward the decision-making process. c. Only sergeants and captains provide input. d. none of the above 21. Developing formalized organizational arrangements whereby officers at lower levels of the organization can have input into departmental matters is known as: a. participative management. b. classical management. c. systems theory. d. contingency management. 22. Who participates in quality circles? a. management volunteers b. nonmanagement volunteers c. community volunteers d. all of the above 23. A group of volunteer employees from the same unit who meet on a regular basis to discuss and study problems confronting their area is known as a(an): a. focus group. b. employee assistance program. c. quality circle. d. contingency plan. 24. When did the human relations school of organizational theory begin? a. 1900s b. 1910s c. 1920s d. 1930s 25. Who was the first person to outline the principles of organization? a. Ritzer b. Hawthorne c. Maslow d. Weber 26. According to police department hierarchy, which of the following holds the highest rank? a. patrol lieutenant b. patrol officer c. operations captain d. patrol sergeant 27. Which of the following are the attributes that contribute to the success of "Management by Objectives"? a. goals and goal setting, participation, and feedback b. goal setting, communication, and mission c. mission, communication, and feedback d. participation, mission, and goal setting 28. __________ is the idea that there is no one best way to manage an organization. a. Classical management b. Systems management c. Contingency management d. Human relations management 29. A philosophy and set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization, all of the processes within the organization, and the degree to which current and future needs of the customer are met is known as: a. contingency management. b. management by objectives. c. systems management. d. total quality management. 30. Which of the following are the three primary areas of "Total Quality Management?" a. counting, output, and customers b. culture, customers, and counting c. customers, goals, and counting d. culture, goals, counting 1. 2. 3. 4. Organization refers to how a police department is structured. Management refers to the processes that occur within an organization's structure. Administrators are routinely involved in both organization and management decisions. Middle managers in law enforcement organizations are usually responsible for establishing the mission of the organization, devising programs by which to achieve goals, and obtaining resources. Hierarchy in an organization equates to levels of authority and chain of command. Hierarchy decreases as the number of employees increases. "Appointment based on qualifications" was a management technique that resulted from the Hawthorne studies. Classical organizational principles and theory emphasize the importance and welfare of the employee. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Participative management allows officers at lower levels of the organization to have input into departmental matters. 10. Vertical staff meetings were among the first efforts to establish participative management in police departments. 11. Problem-solving groups are organized to focus on a specific problem. 12. COMPSTAT is a managerial process that uses crime analysis information. 13. Today 95 percent of all police departments have some form of collective bargaining. 14. Contingency management represents a distinct management theory. 15. Culture refers to the values that reside within an organization. Chapter 5 1. A traffic unit is charged with reducing accidents and facilitating the flow of traffic. How do such units accomplish these two goals? a. enforcement, education, engineering b. enforcement, direction, counseling c. patrolling, ticketing, arresting d. enforcement, education, communication Which of the following best defines the allocation of police personnel? a. deciding how many officers will patrol a specific area b. deciding how many officers will work during each shift c. deciding how many officers will work on each unit d. deciding how many officers will investigate a case According to Alpert and Dunham, which of the following is NOT a police patrol activity? a. deterring crime b. enforcing laws c. maintaining order d. prosecuting criminals Which of the following is NOT one of the factors used to determine police patrol beats? a. number of serious Part I crimes b. number of calls for service c. population density d. desired criminal apprehension rate The police have used foot patrol to accomplish a number of objectives. Which of the following is NOT one of the legitimate objectives of foot patrol? a. punish problem officers b. increase citizen perception of safety c. deliver service consistent with community needs d. create community awareness Which of the following best defines "downtime?" a. the time an officer is not responding to calls b. the time an officer is at the station doing paperwork c. the time an officer is committed to some call or police activity d. the time an officer is off duty Which of the following is a benefit of mounted patrols? a. They are not as expensive as automobile patrols. b. It is easy to enforce traffic laws. c. It increases the area that can be covered by foot patrol officers. d. Officers can carry all the necessary equipment. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of bicycle patrols? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a. b. c. d. 9. They can be used in inclement weather. They are more maneuverable in traffic than cars. They can be used at night. The cost is low. What percentage of departments serving populations of more than 250,000 report using at least one fixed-wing aircraft? a. 10 percent b. 20 percent c. 30 percent d. 40 percent 10. What percentage of departments serving a population of more than 250,000 use boats as patrol vehicles? a. 10 b. 20 c. 40 d. 50 11. The type of patrol in which officers are assigned to beats in marked vehicles and randomly patrol to reduce opportunities for criminal acts when not involved in police activities is known as: a. split-force patrol. b. differential response. c. routine preventive patrol. d. delayed response patrol. 12. Which of the following best describes routine preventive patrol? a. saturating a problem area with officers in marked patrol cars b. dispersing officers during certain times of the day to problem areas c. dispersing officers in marked patrol cars throughout the agency's jurisdiction d. none of the above 13. Which of the following most accurately describes the results of the Kansas City Patrol Experiment? a. Citizens were very aware that their patrol levels had been altered. b. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, decreased in the areas of increased patrol. c. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, increased in the areas of decreased patrol. d. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, showed no significant differences. 14. The effectiveness of police patrol at reducing crime was called into question by research conducted in the __________ police department. a. New York City b. Chicago c. Kansas City d. Flint, Michigan 15. The Kansas City patrol study found that __________ percent of the department's patrol time is uncommitted. a. 10 b. 20 c. 40 d. 60 16. The National Commission on Productivity concluded that a rapid police response accomplished which of the following objectives? a. deterrent to criminal activity b. decreased apprehension rate c. decreased citizen confidence in the police d. decrease in citizen safety 17. Which of the following statements is true regarding rapid police response? a. Response time does not necessarily influence apprehension rates. b. Response time greatly influences apprehension rates. c. Response time is only influenced by police action, and not affected by individual citizens. d. Dispatchers should never tell a citizen when there will be a delay. 18. What do most police organizations use to categorize calls for service? a. prioritization b. random selection c. systematic selection d. routinization 19. McEwen has identified several possible alternatives to an immediate police patrol response to citizens' calls for service. Which of the following is NOT one of those alternatives? a. taking reports over the phone b. refusing to take certain types of calls c. developing procedures for a delayed response d. referring calls to other agencies 20. What type of patrol attempts to deter crime or problems in a specific area by deploying large numbers of officers? a. unlimited patrol b. random patrol c. routine patrol d. saturation patrol 21. According to Osterburg and Ward, which of the following is NOT an objective of a criminal investigator? a. to determine whether a crime has been committed b. to discover all the facts pertaining to the crime c. to locate and apprehend the perpetrator d. to prosecute the perpetrator 22. Which of the following is a primary responsibility of a detective? a. locating a suspect b. being the first at the scene c. identifying a suspect d. both a and c 23. Which of the following was characteristic of the "detective as secretive rogue?" a. They focused on criminals rather than crimes. b. They focused on investigating crimes. c. They performed intricate, detailed investigations. d. They were mostly female. 24. The movement toward the bureaucratization of criminal investigation was greatly affected by which of the following? a. the Vietnam War b. the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment c. the due process revolution d. a focus on individual criminals 25. What is a "preliminary investigation?" a. The investigation done prior to arrest. b. The investigation done prior to a preliminary hearing. c. The initial investigation of a reported crime. d. The investigation done prior to the sentencing of the defendant. 26. The Rand study on the effectiveness of criminal investigators found that: a. criminal investigators were the most effective members of the police department. b. 80 percent of the cases cleared by the police were the result of on-the-scene arrests. c. forensic science has greatly improved a detective's ability to solve crimes. d. most crimes are cleared through the collection of physical evidence. 27. Enforcement of traffic laws falls under which function of police? a. Order-maintenance Law b. enforcement c. Convenience norm enforcement d. none of the above 28. Research conducted by Mastrofski and Ritti asserts that police officers fail to enforce DUI laws for several reasons. Which of the following is one of those reasons? a. They are concerned about productivity. b. They are lazy or incompetent. c. They realize that many police officers are alcoholics. d. They know that it can be financially devastating to the arrestee. 29. Kraska and Kappeler conducted a survey of 690 law enforcement agencies. What percentage of departments has paramilitary units? a. about 10 b. about 20 c. about 50 d. about 90 1. 2. The patrol function is considered to be the "backbone" of policing. Allocating personnel refers to making decisions about how many officers should be assigned to various units in the department. The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of, and citizen satisfaction with, differential response. Police patrol has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing all types of criminal activity. A rapid police response to citizen calls for service has been found to reduce crime and increase the rate of criminal apprehension. The investigative function centers around solving crimes reported to or discovered by the police. Research has demonstrated that criminal investigators are the most effective police personnel in apprehending criminal suspects. Police detectives or investigators solve the majority of all crimes through follow-up investigations. No police activity affects more people than the patrol function. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Seat belt enforcement is of paramount importance to law enforcement today. 11. Police Paramilitary Units (PPUs) often refer to themselves as "heavy weapons units." Chapter 6 1. Which of the following statements is true regarding discretion in the criminal justice system? a. Only police officers are allowed to use discretion. b. Only judges and police officers are allowed to use discretion in decisionmaking. c. Only prosecutors and police officers are allowed to use discretion in decisionmaking. d. Judges, prosecutors, and police officers are allowed to use discretion in decisionmaking. Which of the following is best defined as "effective limits on a public official's power leave him or her free to make a choice among a number of possible courses of action?" a. discretion b. control c. policy formulation d. authority Which of the following elements influence police officer's decision-making process? a. offender variables b. situational variables c. system variables d. all of the above Reflection of one's values and attitudes that develop through the socialization process is: a. prejudice. 2. 3. 4. 5. b. discrimination. c. perspective. d. perception. Which of the following is a characteristic of police officers who apply discretion correctly? a. curiosity b. empathy c. decisive e. all of the above Which of the following is a form of administrative discretion? a. allocating personnel b. focus on particular crimes c. regulation of pursuits d. all of the above Making decisions concerning the allocation of police personnel, and developing plans and policy, are examples of which type of discretion? a. enforcement b. administrative c. selective d. managerial The decisions of an individual police officer to investigate or report a crime or to effect an arrest are each examples of which type of discretion? a. administrative b. vice c. enforcement d. issue Which of the following is the most common objective or goal of police officers and detectives? a. arrest b. patrol c. promotion d. all of the above 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. In what way do administrators attempt to control officer discretion? a. by establishing policies b. by providing direction through orders c. by providing direction through supervision d. all of the above 11. Which of the following is NOT a decision element when an officer contemplates arrest? a. offender variables b. officer variables c. situation variables d. system variables 12. Which of the following statements is true regarding offender-based criteria as it relates to police discretion? a. If the victim is young and the offender is old, an arrest is likely. b. If the victim is black and the offender is white, an arrest is likely. c. If the victim is wealthy and the offender is poor, an arrest is likely. d. If the victim or the offender is famous, an arrest is likely. 13. The nuances of the interaction between officers and citizens are known as: a. situation variables. b. offender variables. c. system variables. d. officer variables. 14. Which of the following best describes the historical police view of domestic violence? a. a serious crime b. a private matter c. a threat to the family d. a situation that called for mandatory arrest 15. Which of the following is best defined as "idiosyncrasies of the criminal justice system that may influence officers to exercise their discretion?" a. situation variables b. officer variables c. system variables d. offender variables 16. Which of the following most accurately describes the results of studies examining police decisionmaking in domestic violence cases? a. The demeanor of the victim is most important. b. The demeanor of the offender is most important. c. The officer's mood is most important. d. none of the above 17. Support for the idea of mandatory arrests in cases of domestic violence was provided by research conducted in: a. Minneapolis, Minnesota. b. Kansas City, Missouri. c. Washington, DC. d. New York, New York. 18. Which of the following is a vice crime? a. prostitution b. pornography c. gambling d. all of the above 19. Which of the following best defines "vice crimes?" a. Criminal activity that does not comply with religious beliefs. b. Criminal activity that is against the public order or public morality. c. Criminal activity that results in money laundering. d. all of the above 20. Which of the following is a problem associated with the enforcement of vice laws? a. The laws are almost unenforceable. b. There is no uniformity in the manner in which the laws are enforced. c. Enforcement of vice laws is extremely time-consuming and expensive. d. all of the above 21. Which of the following makes enforcement of vice laws problematic for police? a. Claims of entrapment. b. The department can be corrupted. c. The officer can become involved in illegal activity. d. all of the above 22. Which type of prostitute is most likely to be found in a city's drug district? a. B-girls b. streetwalkers c. call girls d. bar girls 23. Which of the following statements best describes the Supreme Court's ruling in Miller v. California (1973)? a. The Court defined pornography so that local officials would know exactly what to look for. b. The Court left the definitional problems to each local community. c. The Court made the possession of pornography illegal. d. The Court allowed adult but not child pornography. 24. In 1970, the National Commission on Obscenity and Pornography called for which of the following? a. the elimination of anti-pornography laws b. strict enforcement of pornography laws c. police use of discretion in enforcing pornography laws d. allowing adult pornography, but not child pornography 25. Which best describes the priority departments give to the enforcement of gambling laws? a. no priority b. top c. middle d. priority equal to prostitution 26. Crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on certain group characteristics are known as: a. vice crimes. b. hate crimes. c. domestic crimes. d. violent crimes. 27. Which of the following is member of a "disenfranchised" population? a. the mentally ill b. the homeless c. public inebriates d. all of the above 28. Which of the following is NOT a form of internal control of police discretion? a. policies b. training c. civilian review boards d. supervision 29. Which of the following has attempted external controls on police discretion? a. citizens b. legislative c. judicial d. all of the above 30. Which of the following is (are) legislative means of control of police discretion? a. enactment of laws b. training and supervision guidelines for organizations c. allocation of funds d. both a and c 31. In which case did the Supreme Court rule that officers must read a suspect his/her rights upon arrest? a. Escobedo v. Illinois b. Mapp v. Ohio c. Gideon v. Wainwright d. Miranda v. Arizona 1. 2. Discretion is the foundation of the American system of criminal justice. Administrative discretion refers to decisions concerning the allocation of police personnel and the development of plans and policies. Police officers are the only workers in the criminal justice system who exercise discretion. Discretion can have both positive and negative connotations. Discrimination is a reflection of one's values and attitudes that develop through the socialization process. Enforcement discretion refers to the operational decisions of street enforcement officers. Police officers are considered to be the gatekeepers of the criminal justice system. Community expectations and standards influence police officer's interpretation and application of the law. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. When an officer decides to arrest an individual, the most significant factor affecting his/her decision is the offender's attitude. 10. Historically, police have viewed domestic violence as problematic and have been willing to become quickly involved in these types of cases. 11. The enforcement of vice laws is problematic because there is no societal consensus on the issues involved. 12. Vice statutes generally are enacted to regulate or control morality. 13. Pornography is a complex area of law enforcement primarily because of the varying levels of public acceptance. 14. It is possible to totally eliminate police discretion. 15. Attempts at controlling police discretion have taken two forms, internal and external. 16. The greatest amount of police discretion is found in the duties of investigators. 17. Departmental policies provide guidance when officers are confronted with situations where they need assistance. 18. Today, there are jobs for everyone, and homeless people just don't want to work. 19. Homelessness is very rare in rural areas. Chapter 7 1. Which of the following is one of the three criteria used to identify excessive force? a. criminal law b. civil liability c. fear of scandal d. all of the above Which of the following is true regarding courts' reactions in cases involving use of force? a. They almost always rule for the victim. b. They almost always rule for the police. c. They rule for the victim and police at the same rate. d. They rule for the victim slightly more than for the police. Which of the following best defines "excessive force?" a. When officers legally apply force in too many incidents. b. When an officer willfully uses force that exceeds the boundaries of authority. c. When an officer applies too much force in a specific situation. d. When well-intentioned officers are unable to handle a situation and resort to force too quickly. Which of the following best describes the court's ruling in Tennessee v. Garner? a. Police cannot use deadly force to prevent the escape of a felon unless the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious injury to the officer or others. b. Police can use deadly force to prevent the escape of a felon in any circumstance. c. Proper use of deadly force is an issue to be defined by police departments within the confines of state law. d. The court indicated that an officer's situational discretion is the most important determinant of when deadly force is necessary. Which of the following statements is true regarding police/citizen contacts? a. A large majority are initiated by citizens. b. A large majority are initiated by police. c. About half are initiated by citizens. d. Almost all are initiated by police. Which of the following is true regarding the number of citizens killed each year by police? a. Police kill about 400 citizens each year. b. Police kill about 800 citizens each year. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. c. Police kill about 1,000 citizens each year. d. Police kill about 3,000 citizens each year. 7. Which of the following is true regarding race and rates of police homicide? a. African-Americans are about two times more likely to be killed by police. b. African-Americans are about four times more likely to be killed by police. c. Whites are far more likely to be killed by police. d. There is no difference in police homicide rates by race. Which of the following is best defined as "physically grabbing a suspect to control him/her?" a. soft-handed force b. hard hands c. threatening force d. excessive force Which of the following is defined as "fighting with a suspect?" a. soft-handed force b. hard hands c. threatening force d. excessive force 8. 9. 10. Which of the following best describes deadly force? a. When an officer unholsters a firearm. b. When an officer uses a baton. c. When an officer threatens to shoot the suspect. d. When an officer discharges his/her weapon. 11. Which of the following best describes use of force by the Phoenix police department? a. Officers rarely used threats or shouts. b. Officers rarely pursued fleeing suspects. c. Officers often used restraints. d. all of the above 12. Which of the following is true regarding pepper spray? a. Another name for pepper spray is OC spray. b. Pepper spray contains derivatives from cayenne peppers. c. Pepper spray is not used when the suspect is using passive resistance. d. all of the above 13. A national study of the use of impact munitions was done by: a. Morabito and Doerner. b. Hubbs and Klinger. c. Norwicki. d. Lumb and Friday. 14. Which of the following is a difference between the use of force by on and off-duty officers? a. Off-duty officers are usually without radio contact. b. On-duty officers are less likely to follow procedural guidelines. c. Off-duty officers are less likely to be involved in personal disputes that lead to force. d. There are no differences. 15. Which police department implemented the first early warning system to identify problem officers? a. Boston b. New York c. Miami d. Los Angeles 16. Which of the following best describes the four performance criteria in an early warning system used t...