time.measurement
32 Pages

time.measurement

Course Number: CS 201, Fall 2008

College/University: Portland

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Time Measurement CS 201 Gerson Robboy Portland State University Topics Time scales Interval counting Cycle counters K-best measurement scheme Computer Time Scales Microscopic Time Scale (1 Ghz Machine) Macroscopic Disk Access Screen Refresh Keystroke 1s 1.E+00 Integer Add FP Multiply FP Divide 1 ns 1.E-09 1 s 1.E-06 Keystroke Interrupt Handler 1 ms Time (seconds) 1.E-03 Two Fundamental Time Scales...

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Measurement CS Time 201 Gerson Robboy Portland State University Topics Time scales Interval counting Cycle counters K-best measurement scheme Computer Time Scales Microscopic Time Scale (1 Ghz Machine) Macroscopic Disk Access Screen Refresh Keystroke 1s 1.E+00 Integer Add FP Multiply FP Divide 1 ns 1.E-09 1 s 1.E-06 Keystroke Interrupt Handler 1 ms Time (seconds) 1.E-03 Two Fundamental Time Scales Implication Processor: Keyboard input Disk seek Screen refresh ~109 sec. External events: ~102 sec. Can execute many instructions while waiting for external event to occur Can alternate among processes without anyone noticing 2 Measurement Challenge How Much Time Does Program X Require? CPU time How many total seconds are used when executing X? Small dependence on other system activities Actual ("Wall") Time How many seconds elapse between the start and the completion of X? Depends on system load, I/O times, etc. Confounding Factors How does time get measured? Many processes share computing resources 3 "Time" on a Computer System real (wall clock) time = user time (time executing instructions in the user process) = system time (time executing instructions in kernel on behalf of user process) = some other user's time (time executing instructions in different user's process) + + = real (wall clock) time We will use the word "time" to refer to user time. cumulative user time 4 Activity Periods: Light Load Activity Periods, Load = 1 Active Inactive 1 0 10 20 30 40 Time (ms) 50 60 70 80 Most of the time spent executing one process Periodic interrupts every 10ms Interval timer Schedules processes to run Other interrupts Due to I/O activity Inactivity periods System time spent processing interrupts ~250,000 clock cycles 5 Activity Periods: Heavy Load Activity Periods, Load = 2 Active Inactive 1 0 10 20 30 40 Time (ms) 50 60 70 80 Sharing processor with one other active process From perspective of this process, system appears to be "inactive" for ~50% of the time Other process is executing 6 Interval Counting OS Measures Runtimes Using Interval Timer In other words, statistical sampling. Similar to profiling. Maintain 2 counts per process User time System time On each timer interrupt, increment counter for executing process User time if running in user mode System time if running in kernel mode 7 Interval Counting Example (a) Interval Timings A B A B A Au Au Au As Bu Bs Bu Bu Bu Bu As Au Au Au Au Au Bs Bu Bu Bs Au Au Au As As (b) Actual Times A B A B A A B 120.0u + 33.3s 73.3u + 23.3s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Exercise: What timings does the interval timer give us for Au, As, Bu, and Bs? How far off are they from "actual?" 8 Unix time Command time make osevent gcc -O2 -Wall -g -march=i486 gcc -O2 -Wall -g -march=i486 gcc -O2 -Wall -g -march=i486 gcc -O2 -Wall -g -march=i486 0.820u 0.300s 0:01.32 84.8% -c -c -c -o clock.c options.c load.c osevent osevent.c . . . 0+0k 0+0io 4049pf+0w 0.82 seconds user time 82 timer intervals 0.30 seconds system time 30 timer intervals 1.32 seconds wall time 84.8% of total was used running these processes (.82+0.3)/1.32 = .848 Exactly what process or processes are using that . 82 of user time? 9 Accuracy of Interval Counting A A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Minimum Maximum Computed time = 70ms Min Actual = 60 + Max Actual = 80 Worst Case Analysis Single process segment measurement can be off by how much? No bound on error for multiple segments Could consistently underestimate, or consistently overestimate Pretty unlikely 10 Accuracy of Int. Cntg. (cont.) A A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Minimum Maximum Computed time = 70ms Min Actual = 60 + Max Actual = 80 Average Case Analysis Over/underestimates tend to balance out As long as total run time is sufficiently large Min run time ~1 second 100 timer intervals Consistently miss 4% overhead due to timer interrupts 11 Cycle Counters Most modern systems have built in registers that are incremented every clock cycle Very fine grained Elapsed global time ("wall clock" time) Accessed with a special instruction On (recent model) Intel machines: It's a 64 bit counter called the time stamp counter. Accessed with RDTSC instruction RDTSC sets %edx to high order 32-bits, %eax to low order 32-bits 12 Cycle Counter Period Wrap Around Times for 550 MHz machine Low order 32 bits wrap around every 232 / (550 * 106) = 7.8 seconds High order 64 bits wrap around every 264 / (550 * 106) = 33539534679 seconds 1065 years For 2 GHz machine Low order 32-bits every 2.1 seconds High order 64 bits every 293 years 13 Measuring with Cycle Counter Main Idea Get current value of cycle counter store as pair of unsigned's cyc_hi and cyc_lo Compute something Get new value of cycle counter Perform double precision subtraction to get elapsed cycles /* Keep track of most recent reading of cycle counter */ static unsigned cyc_hi = 0; static unsigned cyc_lo = 0; void start_counter() { /* Get current value of cycle counter */ access_counter(&cyc_hi, &cyc_lo); } 14 So how do you implement access_counter() in C? Need to do an RDTSC instruction. One way: Write a function in assembly language, in a separate source file, conforming to the C language call/return conventions. An easier way with gcc: Use inline assembly code When you see the syntax, you may not believe it's easier 15 Accessing Linux Cycle Counter GCC allows inline assembly code with mechanism for matching registers with program variables This only works on x86 machine compiling with GCC void access_counter(unsigned *hi, unsigned *lo) { /* Get cycle counter */ asm("rdtsc; movl %%edx,%0; movl %%eax,%1" : "=r" (*hi), "=r" (*lo) : /* No input */ : "%edx", "%eax"); } Emit assembly with rdtsc and two movl instructions 16 Extended ASM: A Closer Look asm("Instruction String" : Output List : Input List : Clobbers List); } void access_counter (unsigned *hi, unsigned *lo) { /* Get cycle counter */ asm("rdtsc; movl %%edx,%0; movl %%eax,%1" : "=r" (*hi), "=r" (*lo) : /* No input */ : "%edx", "%eax"); } Instruction String Series of assembly commands Separated by ";" or "\n" Use "%%" normally where would use "%" 17 Extended ASM, Cont. asm("Instruction String" : Output List : Input List : Clobbers List); } void access_counter (unsigned *hi, unsigned *lo) { /* Get cycle counter */ asm("rdtsc; movl %%edx,%0; movl %%eax,%1" : "=r" (*hi), "=r" (*lo) : /* No input */ : "%edx", "%eax"); } Output List Expressions indicating destinations for values %0, %1, ..., %j Enclosed in parentheses Must be lvalue Value that can appear on LHS of assignment Tag "=r" indicates that symbolic value (%0, etc.), should be replaced by register 18 Extended ASM, Cont. asm("Instruction String" : Output List : Input List : Clobbers List); } void access_counter (unsigned *hi, unsigned *lo) { /* Get cycle counter */ asm("rdtsc; movl %%edx,%0; movl %%eax,%1" : "=r" (*hi), "=r" (*lo) : /* No input */ : "%edx", "%eax"); } Input List Series of expressions indicating sources for values %j+1, %j+2, ... Enclosed in parentheses Any expression returning value Tag "r" indicates that symbolic value (%0, etc.) will come from register 19 Extended ASM, Cont. asm("Instruction String" : Output List : Input List : Clobbers List); } void access_counter (unsigned *hi, unsigned *lo) { /* Get cycle counter */ asm("rdtsc; movl %%edx,%0; movl %%eax,%1" : "=r" (*hi), "=r" (*lo) : /* No input */ : "%edx", "%eax"); } Clobbers List List of register names that get altered by assembly instruction Compiler will make sure doesn't store something in one of these registers that must be preserved across asm Value set before & used after 20 Accessing Cycle Counter, Cont. Emitted Assembly Code movl 8(%ebp),%esi movl 12(%ebp),%edi # hi # lo rdtsc; movl %edx,%ecx; movl %eax,%ebx movl %ecx,(%esi) movl %ebx,(%edi) # Store high bits at *hi # Store low bits at *lo Used %ecx for *hi (replacing %0) Used %ebx for *lo (replacing %1) Does not use %eax or %edx for value that must be carried across inserted assembly code 21 Accessing the Cycle Cntr. (cont.) Now are you convinced you'll never write one of those? Relax, no one ever does, from scratch. Start with an existing snippet of code that looks pretty much like what you want. Inline assembly really comes in handy sometimes, once you get used to it. 22 Completing the Measurement Perform double precision subtraction to get elapsed cycles Express as double to avoid overflow problems double get_counter() { unsigned ncyc_hi, ncyc_lo unsigned hi, lo, borrow; /* Get cycle counter */ access_counter(&ncyc_hi, &ncyc_lo); /* Do double precision subtraction */ lo = ncyc_lo - cyc_lo; borrow = lo > ncyc_lo; hi = ncyc_hi - cyc_hi - borrow; return (double) hi * (1 << 30) * 4 + lo; } Why do they do this? borrow = lo > ncyc_lo; 23 Timing With Cycle Counter Determine Clock Rate of Processor Count number of cycles required for some fixed number of seconds double MHZ; int sleep_time = 10; start_counter(); sleep(sleep_time); MHZ = get_counter()/(sleep_time * 1e6); Time Function P First attempt: Simply count cycles for one execution of P double tsecs; start_counter(); P(); tsecs = get_counter() / (MHZ * 1e6); 24 Measurement Pitfalls Overhead Calling get_counter() incurs small amount of overhead Want to measure long enough code sequence to compensate Unexpected Cache Effects artificial hits or misses e.g., these measurements were taken with the Alpha cycle counter: 25 foo1(array1, cycles */ foo2(array1, cycles */ vs. foo2(array1, array2, array3); array2, array3); /* 68,829 /* 23,337 array2, array3); /* 70,513 Dealing with Cache Effects Execute function once to "warm up" the cache Both data and instructions P(); /* Warm up ca...

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+RPHZRUN $QVZHUV &amp;KDSWHU WK (G (7.3) 1 =J/ 902 / 3 , 2 = 9 9 2(7.6) 1 =(7.16) 1 = 9 = FRQV tan W (7.19)3 4 = I 3 5 3 ' ' (7.61)4 = 5.47P 3 / V (7.67) = 533USP, ) = 78.1N1 , 7 = N1 P (7.69) ) = 0.2731 ,
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Separating Azeotropic Mixtures CHEN 4460 Process Synthesis, Simulation and OptimizationDr. Mario Richard Eden Department of Chemical Engineering Auburn UniversityLecture No. 7 Sequencing Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures October 9, 2007 Contai
Auburn - ENG - 4460
CHEN 4460 LECTURE PLANDr. Mario Richard Eden (Updated August 14, 2007) All page references are for Seider, W. D., J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin, &quot;Product and Process Design Principles&quot;, 2. Edition Wiley, 2004 (SSL) unless otherwise noted. Date 8/21
Auburn - ENG - 4460
CHEN 4460 LECTURE PLANDr. Mario Richard Eden (Updated September 27, 2007) All page references are for Seider, W. D., J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin, Product and Process Design Principles, 2. Edition Wiley, 2004 (SSL) unless otherwise noted. Date 8/2
Auburn - ENG - 4460
Chemical Engineering Department Auburn University CHEN 4460 Mario Richard Eden &amp; Ahmed AbdelhadyINTRODUCTION TO ASPEN PLUS SIMULATIONWhat is Process Simulation/Analysis? The purpose of analysis/simulation is to model and predict the performance of
Auburn - ENG - 4460
AUBURN UNIVERSITY COURSE OUTCOMES Course Number: Course Title: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Corequisites: CHEN 4460 PROCESS SIMULATION, SYNTHESIS, AND OPTIMIZATION Lec. 1, Lab. 3 CHEN 3370, 3630, 3650, 3660, 3700 with grades of C or higher. CHEN 3820