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The vibrating strings induce a voltage in pickup coils that detect and amplify the musical sounds being produced. The details of how this phenomenon works are discussed in this chapter. 20 O U T L I N E CHAPTER PhotoDisc/Getty Images 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and Magnetic Flux Faraday's Law of Induction Motional emf Lenz's Law Revisited (the Minus Sign in Faraday's Law) Generators Self-Inductance RL Circuits Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field Induced Voltages and Inductance In 1819, Hans Christian Oersted discovered that an electric current exerted a force on a magnetic compass. Although there had long been speculation that such a relationship existed, Oersted's finding was the first evidence of a link between electricity and magnetism. Because nature is often symmetric, the discovery that electric currents produce magnetic fields led scientists to suspect that magnetic fields could produce electric currents. Indeed, experiments conducted by Michael Faraday in England and independently by Joseph Henry in the United States in 1831 showed that a changing magnetic field could induce an electric current in a circuit. The results of these experiments led to a basic and important law known as Faraday's law. In this chapter we discuss Faraday's law and several practical applications, one of which is the production of electrical energy in power generation plants throughout the world. 20.1 <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> AND MAGNETIC FLUX An experiment first conducted by Faraday demonstrated that a current can be produced by a changing magnetic field. The apparatus shown in Active Figure 20.1 (page 661) consists of a coil connected to a switch and a battery. We will refer to this coil as the primary coil and to the corresponding circuit as the primary circuit. The coil is wrapped around an iron ring to intensify the magnetic field produced by the current in the coil. A second coil, at the right, is wrapped around the iron ring and is connected to an ammeter. This is called the secondary coil, and the corresponding circuit is called the secondary circuit. It's important to notice that there is no battery in the secondary circuit. At first glance, you might guess that no current would ever be detected in the secondary circuit. However, when the switch in the primary circuit in Active Figure 20.1 is suddenly closed, something amazing happens: the ammeter 660 20.1 <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and Magnetic Flux 661 Ammeter Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.1, where you can open and close the switch and observe the current in the ammeter. Switch + Iron Battery Primary coil Secondary coil By kind permission of the President and Council of the Royal Society ACTIVE FIGURE 20.1 Faraday's experiment. When the switch in the primary circuit at the left is closed, the ammeter in the secondary circuit at the right measures a momentary current. The emf in the secondary circuit is induced by the changing magnetic field through the coil in that circuit. measures a current in the secondary circuit and then returns to zero! When the switch is opened again, the ammeter reads a current in the opposite direction and again returns to zero. Finally, whenever there is a steady current in the primary circuit, the ammeter reads zero. From observations such as these, Faraday concluded that an electric current could be produced by a changing magnetic field. (A steady magnetic field doesn't produce a current, unless the coil is moving, as explained below.) The current produced in the secondary circuit occurs only for an instant while the magnetic field through the secondary coil is changing. In effect, the secondary circuit behaves as though a source of emf were connected to it for a short time. It's customary to say that an <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is produced in the secondary circuit by the changing magnetic field. MICHAEL FARADAY, British physicist and chemist (1791 1867) Faraday is often regarded as the greatest experimental scientist of the 1800s. His many contributions to the study of electricity include the invention of the electric motor, electric generator, and transformer, as well as the discovery of electromagnetic induction and the laws of electrolysis. Greatly influenced by religion, he refused to work on military poison gas for the British government. Magnetic Flux In order to evaluate <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> s quantitatively, we need to understand what factors affect the phenomenon. While changing magnetic fields always induce electric fields, there are also situations in which the magnetic field remains constant, yet an induced electric field is still produced. The best example of this is an electric generator: A loop of conductor rotating in a constant magnetic field creates an electric current. The physical quantity associated with magnetism that creates an electric field is a changing magnetic flux. Magnetic flux is defined in the same way as electric flux (Section 15.9) and is proportional to both the strength of the magnetic field passing through the plane of a loop of wire and the area of the loop. The magnetic flux B through a loop of wire with area A is defined by B : Magnetic flux B A BA cos [20.11] where B is the component of B perpendicular to the plane of the loop, as : in Figure 20.2a, and is the angle between B and the normal (perpendicular) to the plane of the loop. SI unit: weber (Wb) u B B u Loop of area A B (a) (b) u B Figure 20.2 (a) A uniform mag: netic field B making an angle with a direction normal to the plane of a wire loop of area A.(b) An edge view of the loop. u 662 Chapter 20 u = 0 Induced Voltages and Inductance u = 90 B B, max = BA =0 (a) (b) Figure 20.3 An edge view of a loop in a uniform magnetic field. (a) When the field lines are perpendicular to the plane of the loop, the magnetic flux through the loop is a maximum and equal to B BA. (b) When the field lines are parallel to the plane of the loop, the magnetic flux through the loop is zero. From Equation 20.1, it follows that B B cos . The magnetic flux, in other words, : is the magnitude of the part of B that is perpendicular to the plane of the loop times the area of the loop. Figure 20.2b is an edge view of the loop and the penetrating magnetic field lines. When the field is perpendicular to the plane of the loop as in Figure 20.3a, 0 and B has a maximum value, B, max BA. When : the plane of the loop is parallel to B as in Figure 20.3b, 90 and B 0. The flux can also be negative. For example, when 180 , the flux is equal to BA. Because the SI unit of B is the tesla, or weber per square meter, the unit of flux is T m2, or weber (Wb). We can emphasize the qualitative meaning of Equation 20.1 by first drawing magnetic field lines, as in Figure 20.3. The number of lines per unit area increases as the field strength increases. The value of the magnetic flux is proportional to the total number of lines passing through the loop. We see that the most lines pass through the loop when its plane is perpendicular to the field, as in Figure 20.3a, so the flux has its maximum value at that time. As Figure 20.3b shows, no lines pass through the loop when its plane is parallel to the field, so in that case B 0. Applying Physics 20.1 Flux Compared Argentina has more land area (2.8 106 km2) than Greenland (2.2 106 km2). Why is the magnetic flux of the Earth's magnetic field larger through Greenland than through Argentina? Explanation Greenland (latitude 60 north to 80 north) is closer to a magnetic pole than Argentina (latitude 20 south to 50 south), so the magnetic field is stronger there. That in itself isn't sufficient to conclude that the magnetic flux is greater, but Greenland's proximity to a pole also means the angle magnetic field lines make with the vertical is smaller than in Argentina. As a result, more field lines penetrate the surface in Greenland, despite Argentina's slightly larger area. EXAMPLE 20.1 Magnetic Flux Goal Calculate magnetic flux and a change in flux. Problem A conducting circular loop of radius 0.250 m is placed in the xy-plane in a uniform magnetic field of 0.360 T that points in the positive z-direction, the same direction as the normal to the plane. (a) Calculate the magnetic flux through the loop. (b) Suppose the loop is rotated clockwise around the x-axis, so the normal direction now points at a 45.0 angle with respect to the z-axis. Recalculate the magnetic flux through the loop. (c) What is the change in flux due to the rotation of the loop? Strategy After finding the area, substitute values into the equation for magnetic flux for each part. Solution (a) Calculate the initial magnetic flux through the loop. First, calculate the area of the loop: Substitute A, B, and 0 into Equation 20.1 to find the initial magnetic flux: A B r2 AB cos (0.250 m)2 0.196 m2 (0.196 m2)(0.360 T) cos (0 ) 0.070 6 Wb 0.070 6 T m2 (b) Calculate the magnetic flux through the loop after it has rotated 45.0 around the x-axis. Make the same substitutions as in part (a), except the : 45.0 : angle between B and the normal is now (c) Find the change in the magnetic flux due to the rotation of the loop. B AB cos (0.196 m2 )(0.360 T) cos (45.0 ) 0.049 9 Wb 0.049 9 T m2 20.2 Faraday's Law of Induction 663 Subtract the result of part (a) from the result of part (b): B 0.049 9 Wb 0.070 6 Wb 0.020 7 Wb Remarks Notice that the rotation of the loop, not any change in the magnetic field, is responsible for the change in flux. This changing magnetic flux is essential in the functioning of electric motors and generators. Exercise 20.1 The loop, having rotated by 45 , rotates clockwise another 30 , so the normal to the plane points at an angle of 75 with respect to the direction of the magnetic field. Find (a) the magnetic flux through the loop when 75 and (b) the change in magnetic flux during the rotation from 45 to 75 . Answers (a) 0.018 3 Wb (b) 0.031 6 Wb 20.2 FARADAY'S LAW OF INDUCTION The usefulness of the concept of magnetic flux can be made obvious by another simple experiment that demonstrates the basic idea of electromagnetic induction. Consider a wire loop connected to an ammeter as in Active Figure 20.4. If a magnet is moved toward the loop, the ammeter reads a current in one direction, as in Active Figure 20.4a. When the magnet is held stationary, as in Active Figure 20.4b, the ammeter reads zero current. If the magnet is moved away from the loop, the ammeter reads a current in the opposite direction, as in Active Figure 20.4c. If the magnet is held stationary and the loop is moved either toward or away from the magnet, the ammeter also reads a current. From these observations, it can be concluded that a current is set up in the circuit as long as there is relative motion between the magnet and the loop. The same experimental results are found whether the loop moves or the magnet moves. We call such a current an induced current, because it is produced by an <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . This experiment is similar to the Faraday experiment discussed in Section 20.1. In each case, an emf is induced in a circuit when the magnetic flux through the circuit changes with time. It turns out that the instantaneous emf induced in a circuit equals the negative of the rate of change of magnetic flux with respect to time through the circuit. This is Faraday's law of magnetic induction. If a circuit contains N tightly wound loops and the magnetic flux through each loop changes by the amount B during the interval t, the average emf induced in the circuit during time t is N B TIP 20.1 Induced Current Requires a Change in Magnetic Flux The existence of magnetic flux through an area is not sufficient to create an <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . A change in the magnetic flux over some time interval t must occur for an emf to be induced. Faraday's law t [20.2] I N S Ammeter (a) ACTIVE FIGURE 20.4 (a) When a magnet is moved toward a wire loop connected to an ammeter, the ammeter reads a current as shown, indicating that a current I is induced in the loop. (b) When the magnet is held stationary, no current is induced in the loop, even when the magnet is inside the loop. (c) When the magnet is moved away from the loop, the ammeter reads a current in the opposite direction, indicating an induced current going opposite the direction of the current in part (a). N S Ammeter (b) I N S Ammeter (c) Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.4, where you can move the magnet and observe the current in the ammeter. 664 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Because B BA cos , a change of any of the factors B, A, or with time produces an emf. We explore the effect of a change in each of these factors in the following sections. The minus sign in Equation 20.2 is included to indicate the polarity of the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . This polarity simply determines which of two different directions current will flow in a loop, a direction given by Lenz's law: Lenz's law The current caused by the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> travels in the direction that creates a magnetic field with flux opposing the change in the original flux through the circuit. Lenz's law says that if the magnetic flux through a loop is becoming more positive, say, then the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> creates a current and associated magnetic field that produces negative magnetic flux. Some mistakenly think this &quot;counter magnetic field&quot; : created by the induced current, called Bind (&quot;ind&quot; for induced) will always point in : a direction opposite the applied magnetic field B, but this is only true half the time! Figure 20.5 shows a field penetrating a loop. The graph in Figure 20.5b shows : that the magnitude of the magnetic field B shrinks with time. This means the flux : : of B is shrinking with time, so the induced field Bind will actually be in the same di: : : rection as B. In effect, Bind &quot;shores up&quot; the field B, slowing the loss of flux through the loop. The direction of the current in Figure 20.5 can be determined by right-hand rule number 2: Point your right thumb in the direction that will cause the fingers : on your right hand to curl in the direction of the induced field Bind . In this case, that direction is counterclockwise: with the right thumb pointed in the direction of the current, your fingers curl down outside the loop and around and up through the inside of the loop. Remember, inside the loop is where it's important for the induced magnetic field to be pointing up. z Bind B y x (a) B I t (b) Figure 20.5 (a) The magnetic : field B becomes smaller with time, reducing the flux, so current is induced in a direction that creates : an induced magnetic field Bind opposing the change in magnetic flux. (b) Graph of the magnitude of the magnetic field as a function of time. Quick Quiz 20.1 Figure 20.6 is a graph of the magnitude B versus time for a magnetic field that passes through a fixed loop and is oriented perpendicular to the plane of the loop. Rank the magnitudes of the emf generated in the loop at the three instants indicated, from largest to smallest. B a Figure 20.6 b c t (Quick Quiz 20.1) EXAMPLE 20.2 Faraday and Lenz to the Rescue Goal Calculate an <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and current with Faraday's law, and apply Lenz's law, when the magnetic field changes with time. B z Problem A coil with 25 turns of wire is wrapped on a frame with a square crosssection 1.80 cm on a side. Each turn has the same area, equal to that of the frame, and the total resistance of the coil is 0.350 . An applied uniform magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the coil, as in Figure 20.7. (a) If the field changes uniformly from 0.00 T to 0.500 T in 0.800 s, find the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil while the field is changing. Find (b) the magnitude and (c) the direction of the induced current in the coil while the field is changing. x I Figure 20.7 (Example 20.2) y Strategy Part (a) requires substituting into Faraday's law, Equation 20.2. The necessary information is given, except for B , the change in the magnetic flux during the elapsed time. Compute the initial and final magnetic fluxes with Equation 20.1, find the difference, and assemble all terms in Faraday's law. The current can then be found with Ohm's law, and its direction with Lenz's law. 20.2 Faraday's Law of Induction 665 Solution (a) Find the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil. To compute the flux, the area of the coil is needed: The magnetic flux B,i through the coil at t 0 is zero because B 0. Calculate the flux at t 0.800 s: Compute the change in the magnetic flux through the cross-section of the coil over the 0.800-s interval: Substitute into Faraday's law of induction to find the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil: A B,f L2 (0.018 0 m)2 3.24 10 4 m2 4 BA cos (0.500 T)(3.24 4 Wb 1.62 10 B,f B,i 10 m2) cos (0 ) B 1.62 10 4 Wb 10 4 Wb 0.800 s N 5.06 B t 10 (25 turns) 3 1.62 V (b) Find the magnitude of the induced current in the coil. Substitute the voltage difference and the resistance into Ohm's law: (c) Find the direction of the induced current in the coil. The magnetic field is increasing up through the loop, in the same direction as the normal to the plane; hence the flux is positive and increasing, also. A downwardpointing induced magnetic field will create negative flux, opposing the change. If you point your right thumb in the clockwise direction along the loop, your fingers curl down through the loop -- the correct direction for the counter magnetic field. I V R 5.06 10 0.350 3V 1.45 10 2A Remark Lenz's law can best be handled by sketching a diagram, first. Exercise 20.2 Suppose the magnetic field changes uniformly from 0.500 T to 0.200 T in the next 0.600 s. Compute (a) the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil and (b) the magnitude and direction of the induced current. Answers (a) 4.05 10 3 V (b) 1.16 10 2 A, counterclockwise The ground fault interrupter (GFI) is an Alternating Circuit interesting safety device that protects peocurrent breaker ple against electric shock when they touch appliances and power tools. Its operation makes use of Faraday's law. Figure 20.8 Sensing shows the essential parts of a ground fault coil interrupter. Wire 1 leads from the wall out1 let to the appliance to be protected, and Iron ring 2 wire 2 leads from the appliance back to the wall outlet. An iron ring surrounds the two wires to confine the magnetic field set up by each wire. A sensing coil, which can activate a circuit breaker when changes in magnetic flux occur, is wrapped around part of the iron ring. Because the currents in the wires are in opposite directions, the net magnetic field through the sensing coil due to the currents is zero. However, if a short circuit occurs in the appliance so that there is no returning current, the net magnetic field through the sensing coil is no longer zero. This can happen if, for example, one of the wires loses its insulation, providing a path through you to ground if you happen to be touching the appliance and are grounded as in Figure 18.23a. Because the current is alternating, the magnetic flux through the sensing coil changes with time, producing an induced voltage in the coil. This induced voltage is used to trigger a circuit breaker, stopping the Figure 20.8 Essential components of a ground fault interrupter (contents of the gray box in Fig. 20.9a). In newer homes, such devices are built directly into wall outlets. The purpose of the sensing coil and circuit breaker is to cut off the current before damage is done. A P P L I C AT I O N Ground Fault Interrupters 666 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Hair dryer Wall outlet Ground fault interrupter 120 V (a) Figure 20.9 (a) This hair dryer has been plugged into a ground fault interrupter that is in turn plugged into an unprotected wall outlet. (b) You likely have seen this kind of ground fault interrupter in a hotel bathroom, where hair dryers and electric shavers are often used by people just out of the shower or who might touch a water pipe, providing a ready path to ground in the event of a short circuit. A P P L I C AT I O N Electric Guitar Pickups A P P L I C AT I O N Apnea Monitors current quickly in about a millisecond before it reaches a level that might be harmful to the person using the appliance. A ground fault interrupter provides faster and more complete protection than even the case-ground-and-circuit-breaker combination shown in Figure 18.23b. For this reason, ground fault interrupters are commonly found in bathrooms, where electricity poses a hazard to people. (See Fig. 20.9.) Another interesting application of Faraday's law is the production of sound in an electric guitar. A vibrating string induces an emf in a coil (Fig. 20.10). The pickup coil is placed near the vibrating guitar string, which is made of a metal that can be magnetized. The permanent magnet inside the coil magnetizes the portion of the string nearest the coil. When the guitar string vibrates at some frequency, its magnetized segment produces a changing magnetic flux through the pickup coil. The changing flux induces a voltage in the coil; the voltage is fed to an amplifier. The output of the amplifier is sent to the loudspeakers, producing the sound waves that we hear. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a devastating affliction in which a baby suddenly stops breathing during sleep without an apparent cause. One type of monitoring device, called an apnea monitor, is sometimes used to alert caregivers of the cessation of breathing. The device uses induced currents, as shown in Figure 20.11. A coil of wire attached to one side of the chest carries an alternating current. The varying magnetic flux produced by this current passes through a pickup coil attached to the opposite side of the chest. Expansion and contraction of the chest caused by breathing or movement changes the strength of the voltage induced in the pickup coil. However, if breathing stops, the pattern of the induced voltage stabilizes, and external circuits monitoring the voltage sound an alarm to the caregivers after a momentary pause to ensure that a problem actually does exist. Pickup coil N N S Magnet S Figure 20.10 (a) In an electric guitar, a vibrating string induces a voltage in the pickup coil. (b) Several pickups allow the vibration to be detected from different portions of the string. To amplifier Guitar string (a) (b) b, Charles D. Winters Magnetized portion of string b, George Semple 20.3 Motional emf 667 Courtesy of PedsLink Pediatric Healthcare Resources, Newport Beach, CA Figure 20.11 This infant is wearing a monitor designed to alert caregivers if breathing stops. Note the two wires attached to opposite sides of the chest. Bin v Fm 20.3 MOTIONAL emf In Section 20.2, we considered emfs induced in a circuit when the magnetic field changes with time. In this section we describe a particular application of Faraday's law in which a so-called motional emf is produced. This is the emf induced in a conductor moving through a magnetic field. First consider a straight conductor of length moving with constant velocity through a uniform magnetic field directed into the paper, as in Figure 20.12. For simplicity, we assume that the conductor moves in a direction perpendicular to the field. A magnetic force of magnitude Fm qvB, directed downward, acts on the electrons in the conductor. Because of this magnetic force, the free electrons move to the lower end of the conductor and accumulate there, leaving a net positive charge at the upper end. As a result of this charge separation, an electric field is produced in the conductor. The charge at the ends builds up until the downward magnetic force qvB is balanced by the upward electric force qE. At this point, charge stops flowing and the condition for equilibrium requires that qE qvB or E vB Figure 20.12 A straight conductor v of length moving with velocity : : through a uniform magnetic field B di: rected perpendicular to v . The vector : F m is the magnetic force on an electron in the conductor. An emf of B v is induced between the ends of the bar. Bin R Fm v Fapp I x (a) I Because the electric field is uniform, the field produced in the conductor is related to the potential difference across the ends by V E , giving V E B v [20.3] R Because there is an excess of positive charge at the upper end of the conductor and an excess of negative charge at the lower end, the upper end is at a higher potential than the lower end. There is a potential difference across a conductor as long as it moves through a field. If the motion is reversed, the polarity of the potential difference is also reversed. A more interesting situation occurs if the moving conductor is part of a closed conducting path. This situation is particularly useful for illustrating how a changing loop area induces a current in a closed circuit described by Faraday's law. Consider a circuit consisting of a conducting bar of length , sliding along two fixed parallel conducting rails, as in Active Figure 20.13a. For simplicity, assume that the moving bar has zero resistance and that the stationary part of the circuit has con: stant resistance R. A uniform and constant magnetic field B is applied perpendicular to the plane of the circuit. As the bar is pulled to the right with velocity : v : under the influence of an applied force Fapp , a magnetic force along the length of the bar acts on the free charges in the bar. This force in turn sets up an induced current because the charges are free to move in a closed conducting path. In this case, the changing magnetic flux through the loop and the corresponding <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> across the moving bar arise from the change in area of the loop as the bar moves through the magnetic field. = B v (b) ACTIVE FIGURE 20.13 (a) A conducting bar sliding with v velocity : along two conducting rails under the action of an applied force : : F app. The magnetic force F m opposes the motion, and a counterclockwise current is induced in the loop. (b) The equivalent circuit of that in (a). Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.13, where you can adjust the applied force, the magnetic field, and the resistance, and observe the effects on the motion of the bar. 668 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance R Assume that the bar moves a distance x in time t, as shown in Figure 20.14. The increase in flux B through the loop in that time is the amount of flux that now passes through the portion of the circuit that has area x: B BA B x 1), we find that the x Figure 20.14 As the bar moves to the right, the area of the loop increases by the amount x and the magnetic flux through the loop increases by B x . Using Faraday's law and noting that there is one loop (N magnitude of the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is B t B x t B v [20.4] This <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is often called a motional emf because it arises from the motion of a conductor through a magnetic field. Further, if the resistance of the circuit is R, the magnitude of the induced current in the circuit is B v [20.5] R R Active Figure 20.13b shows the equivalent circuit diagram for this example. I Applying Physics 20.2 Space Catapult Applying a force on the bar will result in an <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the circuit shown in Active Figure 20.13. Suppose we remove the external magnetic field in the diagram and replace the resistor with a high-voltage source and a switch, as in Figure 20.15. What will happen when the switch is closed? Will the bar move, and does it matter which way we connect the high-voltage source? Explanation Suppose the source is capable of establishing high current. Then the two horizontal conducting rods will create a strong magnetic field in the area between them, directed into the page. (The movable bar also creates a magnetic field, but this field can't exert force on the bar itself.) Because the moving bar carries a downward current, a magnetic force is exerted on the bar, directed to the right. Hence, the bar accelerates along the rails away from the power supply. If the polarity of the power were reversed, the magnetic field would be out of the page, the current in the bar would be upward, and the force on the bar would still be directed to the right. The BI force exerted by a magnetic field according to Equation 19.6 causes the bar to accelerate away from the voltage source. Studies have shown that it's possible to launch payloads into space with this technology. (This is the working principle of a rail gun.) Very large accelerations can be obtained with currently available technology, with payloads being accelerated to a speed of several kilometers per second in a fraction of a second. This is a larger acceleration than humans can tolerate. Rail guns have been proposed as propulsion systems for moving asteroids into more useful orbits. The material of the asteroid could be mined and launched off the surface by a rail gun, which would act like a rocket engine, modifying the velocity and hence the orbit of the asteroid. Some asteroids contain trillions of dollars worth of valuable metals. S Conducting bar free to slide Conducting rails Figure 20.15 (Applying Physics 20.2) Quick Quiz 20.2 A horizontal metal bar oriented east west drops straight down in a location where the Earth's magnetic field is due north. As a result, an emf develops between the ends. Which end is positively charged? (a) the east end (b) the west end (c) neither end carries a charge 20.3 Motional emf 669 Quick Quiz 20.3 You intend to move a rectangular loop of wire into a region of uniform magnetic field at a given speed so as to induce an emf in the loop. The plane of the loop must remain perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. In which orientation should you hold the loop while you move it into the region with the magnetic field in order to generate the largest emf ? (a) With the long dimension of the loop parallel to the velocity vector, (b) with the short dimension of the loop parallel to the velocity vector, or (c) either way -- the emf is the same regardless of orientation. EXAMPLE 20.3 The Electrified Airplane Wing Goal Find the emf induced by motion through a magnetic field. Problem An airplane with a wingspan of 30.0 m flies due north at a location where the downward component of the Earth's magnetic field is 0.600 10 4 T. There is also a component pointing due north which has a magnitude of 0.470 10 4 T. (a) Find the difference in potential between the wingtips when the speed of the plane is 2.50 10 2 m/s. (b) Which wingtip is positive? Strategy Because the plane is flying north, the northern component of the magnetic field won't have any effect on the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . The <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> across the wing is caused solely by the downward component of the Earth's magnetic field. Substitute the given quantities into Equation 20.4. Use right-hand rule number 1 to find the direction positive charges would be propelled by the magnetic force. Solution (a) Calculate the difference in potential across the wingtips. Write the motional emf equation and substitute the given quantities: (b) Which wingtip is positive? Apply right hand rule number 1: Point your right fingers north, in the direction of the velocity, curl them down, in the direction of the magnetic field. Your thumb points west. B v (0.600 10 4 T)(30.0 m)(2.50 10 2 m/s) 0.450 V Remark An <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> such as this can cause problems on an aircraft. Exercise 20.3 Suppose the magnetic field in a given region of space is parallel to the Earth's surface, points north, and has magnitude 1.80 10 4 T. A metal cable attached to a space station stretches radially outwards 2.50 km. (a) Estimate the potential difference that develops between the ends of the cable if it's traveling eastward around Earth at 7.70 10 3 m/s. (b) Which end of the cable is positive, the lower end or the upper end? Register to View Answer3.47 10 3 V (b) The upper end is positive. EXAMPLE 20.4 Where Is the Energy Source? Goal Use motional emf to find an <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and a current. Problem (a) The sliding bar in Figure 20.13a has a length of 0.500 m and moves at 2.00 m/s in a magnetic field of magnitude 0.250 T. Using the concept of motional emf, find the induced voltage in the moving rod. (b) If the resistance in the circuit is 0.500 , find the current in the circuit and the power delivered to the resistor. (Note : The current, in this case, goes counterclockwise around the loop.) (c) Calculate the magnetic force on the bar. (d) Use the concepts of work and power to calculate the applied force. 670 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Strategy For part (a), substitute into Equation 20.4 for the motional emf. Once the emf is found, substitution into Ohm's law gives the current. In part (c), use Equation 19.6 for the magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor. In part (d), use the fact that the power dissipated by the resistor multiplied by the elapsed time must equal the work done by the applied force. Solution (a) Find the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> with the concept of motional emf. Substitute into Equation 20.4 to find the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> : (b) Find the induced current in the circuit and the power dissipated by the resistor. Substitute the emf and the resistance into Ohm's law to find the induced current: Substitute I and 0.250 V into Equation 17.8 to find the power dissipated by the 0.500- resistor: (c) Calculate the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on the bar. Substitute values for I, B, and into Equation 19.6 (with sin (90 ) 1) to find the magnitude of the force: sin Apply right hand rule number 2 to find the direction of the force: Fm IB (0.500 A)(0.250 T) (0.500 m) 6.25 10 2N B v (0.250 T)(0.500 m)(2.00 m/s) 0.250 V I R I V 0.250 V 0.500 0.500 A (0.500 A)(0.250 V) 0.125 W Point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the positive current, then curl them in the direction of the magnetic field. Your thumb points in the negative x-direction. (d) Find the value of Fapp, the applied force. Set the work done by the applied force equal to the dissipated power times the elapsed time: Solve for Fapp and substitute d v t: Wapp Fappd t d t v t t 0.125 W 2.00 m/s 2N Fapp v 6.25 10 Remarks Part (d) could be solved by using Newton's second law for an object in equilibrium: two forces act horizontally on the bar, and the acceleration of the bar is zero, so the forces must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Notice the agreement between the answers for Fm and Fapp , despite the very different concepts used. Exercise 20.4 Suppose the current suddenly increases to 1.25 A in the same direction as before, due to an increase in speed of the bar. Find (a) the emf induced in the rod, (b) the new speed of the rod. Answers (a) 0.625 V (b) 5.00 m/s 20.4 LENZ'S LAW REVISITED (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law) To reach a better understanding of Lenz's law, consider the example of a bar moving to the right on two parallel rails in the presence of a uniform magnetic field directed into the paper (Fig. 20.16a). As the bar moves to the right, the magnetic flux through the circuit increases with time because the area of the loop increases. Lenz's law says that the induced current must be in a direction such that the flux it produces opposes the change in the external magnetic flux. Because the flux due 20.4 Lenz's Law Revisited (the Minus Sign in Faraday's Law) 671 to the external field is increasing into the paper, the induced current, to oppose the change, must produce a flux out of the paper. Hence, the induced current must be counterclockwise when the bar moves to the right. (Use right-hand rule number 2 from Chapter 19 to verify this direction.) On the other hand, if the bar is moving to the left, as in Figure 20.16b, the magnetic flux through the loop decreases with time. Because the flux is into the paper, the induced current has to be clockwise to produce its own flux into the paper (which opposes the decrease in the external flux). In either case, the induced current tends to maintain the original flux through the circuit. Now we examine this situation from the viewpoint of energy conservation. Suppose that the bar is given a slight push to the right. In the preceding analysis, we found that this motion led to a counterclockwise current in the loop. Let's see what would happen if we assume that the current is clockwise, opposite the direction required by Lenz's law. For a clockwise current I, the direction of the magnetic force BI on the sliding bar is to the right. This force accelerates the rod and increases its velocity. This, in turn, causes the area of the loop to increase more rapidly, thereby increasing the induced current, which increases the force, which increases the current, and so forth. In effect, the system acquires energy with zero input energy. This is inconsistent with all experience and with the law of conservation of energy, so we're forced to conclude that the current must be counterclockwise. Consider another situation. A bar magnet is moved to the right toward a stationary loop of wire, as in Figure 20.17a. As the magnet moves, the magnetic flux through the loop increases with time. To counteract this rise in flux, the induced current produces a flux to the left, as in Figure 20.17b; hence, the induced current is in the direction shown. Note that the magnetic field lines associated with the induced current oppose the motion of the magnet. The left face of the current loop is therefore a north pole and the right face is a south pole. On the other hand, if the magnet were moving to the left, as in Figure 20.17c, its flux through the loop, which is toward the right, would decrease with time. Under these circumstances, the induced current in the loop would be in a direction to set up a field directed from left to right through the loop, in an effort to maintain a constant number of flux lines. Hence, the induced current in the loop would be as shown in Figure 20.17d. In this case, the left face of the loop would be a south pole and the right face would be a north pole. As another example, consider a coil of wire placed near an electromagnet, as in Figure 20.18a (page 672). We wish to find the direction of the induced current in the coil at various times: at the instant the switch is closed, after the switch has been closed for several seconds, and when the switch is opened. When the switch is closed, the situation changes from a condition in which no lines of flux pass through the coil to one in which lines of flux pass through in the Bin R I Fm v (a) R I v Fm (b) Figure 20.16 (a) As the conducting bar slides on the two fixed conducting rails, the magnetic flux through the loop increases with time. By Lenz's law, the induced current must be counterclockwise so as to produce a counteracting flux out of the paper. (b) When the bar moves to the left, the induced current must be clockwise. Why? TIP 20.2 There are Two Magnetic Fields to Consider When applying Lenz's law, there are two magnetic fields to consider. The first is the external changing magnetic field that induces the current in a conducting loop. The second is the magnetic field produced by the induced current in the loop. v N S N I I S S v S N I I N (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 20.17 (a) When the magnet is moved toward the stationary conducting loop, a current is induced in the direction shown. (b) This induced current produces its own flux to the left to counteract the increasing external flux to the right. (c) When the magnet is moved away from the stationary conducting loop, a current is induced in the direction shown. (d) This induced current produces its own flux to the right to counteract the decreasing external flux to the right. 672 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Figure 20.18 Lenz's law. An example of Electromagnet Coil (a) (b) (c) direction shown in Figure 20.18b. To counteract this change in the number of lines, the coil must set up a field from left to right in the figure. This requires a current directed as shown in Figure 20.18b. After the switch has been closed for several seconds, there is no change in the number of lines through the loop; hence, the induced current is zero. Opening the switch causes the magnetic field to change from a condition in which flux lines thread through the coil from right to left to a condition of zero flux. The induced current must then be as shown in Figure 20.18c, so as to set up its own field from right to left. Quick Quiz 20.4 A bar magnet is falling through a loop of wire with constant velocity with the north pole entering first. Viewed from the same side of the loop as the magnet, as the north pole approaches the loop, what is the direction of the induced current? (a) clockwise (b) zero (c) counterclockwise (d) along the length of the magnet Tape Recorders A P P L I C AT I O N Magnetic Tape Recorders One common practical use of induced currents and emfs is associated with the tape recorder. Many different types of tape recorders are made, but the basic principles are the same for all. A magnetic tape moves past a recording and playback head, as in Figure 20.19a. The tape is a plastic ribbon coated with iron oxide or N N Rollers Tape S S Motion of tape Iron core Magnetic field lines Coil Bulk erase head Record/playback head (a) From amplifier (b) Figure 20.19 (a) Major parts of a magnetic tape recorder. If a new recording is to be made, the bulk erase head wipes the tape clean of signals before recording. (b) The fringing magnetic field magnetizes the tape during recording. 20.5 Generators 673 chromium oxide. The hard drives in computers work on the same principle, but use a coated disk instead of tape, allowing for faster access. The recording process uses the fact that a current in an electromagnet produces a magnetic field. Figure 20.19b illustrates the steps in the process. A sound wave sent into a microphone is transformed into an electric current, amplified, and allowed to pass through a wire coiled around a doughnut-shaped piece of iron, which functions as the recording head. The iron ring and the wire constitute an electromagnet, in which the lines of the magnetic field are contained completely inside the iron except at the point where a slot is cut in the ring. Here the magnetic field fringes out of the iron and magnetizes the small pieces of iron oxide embedded in the tape. As the tape moves past the slot, it becomes magnetized in a pattern that reproduces both the frequency and the intensity of the sound signal entering the microphone. To reconstruct the sound signal, the previously magnetized tape is allowed to pass through a recorder head operating in the playback mode. A second wirewound doughnut-shaped piece of iron with a slot in it passes close to the tape, so that the varying magnetic fields on the tape produce changing field lines through the wire coil. The changing flux induces a current in the coil which corresponds to the current in the recording head that originally produced the tape. This changing electric current can be amplified and used to drive a speaker. Playback is thus an example of induction of a current by a moving magnet. 20.5 GENERATORS A P P L I C AT I O N Alternating-Current Generators Generators and motors are important practical devices that operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction. First, consider the alternating-current (AC) generator, a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. In its simplest form, the AC generator consists of a wire loop rotated in a magnetic field by some external means (Active Fig. 20.20a). In commercial power plants, the energy required to rotate the loop can be derived from a variety of sources. For example, in a hydroelectric plant, falling water directed against the blades of a turbine produces the rotary motion; in a coal-fired plant, heat produced by burning coal is used to convert water to steam, and this steam is directed against the turbine blades. As the loop rotates, the magnetic flux through it changes with time, inducing an emf and a current in an external circuit. The ends of the loop are connected to slip rings that rotate with the loop. Loop Slip rings N S max External circuit External rotor Brushes (a) (b) t ACTIVE FIGURE 20.20 (a) A schematic diagram of an AC generator. An emf is induced in a coil, which rotates by some external means in a magnetic field. (b) A plot of the alternating emf induced in the loop versus time. Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.20, where you can adjust the speed of rotation and the strength of the field to see the effects on the generated emf. 674 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Figure 20.21 (a) A loop rotating at a constant angular velocity in an external magnetic field. The emf induced in the loop varies sinusoidally with time. (b) An edge view of the rotating loop. N v B C a 2 v sin u B D S u v Magnetic field lines v v (a) A (b) A Connections to the external circuit are made by stationary brushes in contact with the slip rings. We can derive an expression for the emf generated in the rotating loop by making use of the equation for motional emf, B v. Figure 20.21a shows a loop of wire rotating clockwise in a uniform magnetic field directed to the right. The magnetic force (qvB) on the charges in wires AB and CD is not along the lengths of the wires. (The force on the electrons in these wires is perpendicular to the wires.) Hence, an emf is generated only in wires BC and AD. At any instant, wire BC has velocity : at an angle with the magnetic field, as shown in Figure 20.21b. (Note v that the component of velocity parallel to the field has no effect on the charges in the wire, whereas the component of velocity perpendicular to the field produces a magnetic force on the charges that moves electrons from C to B.) The emf generated in wire BC equals B v , where is the length of the wire and v is the component of velocity perpendicular to the field. An emf of B v is also generated in wire DA, and the sense of this emf is the same as that in wire BC. Because v v sin , the total <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is 2B v 2B v sin [20.6] Luis Castaneda/The Image Bank/Getty Images If the loop rotates with a constant angular speed , we can use the relation t in Equation 20.6. Furthermore, because every point on the wires BC and DA rotates in a circle about the axis of rotation with the same angular speed , we have v r (a/2) , where a is the length of sides AB and CD. Equation 20.6 therefore reduces to 2B a 2 sin t B a sin t If a coil has N turns, the emf is N times as large because each loop has the same emf induced in it. Further, because the area of the loop is A a, the total emf is NBA sin t [20.7] Turbines turn electric generators at a hydroelectric power plant. This result shows that the emf varies sinusoidally with time, as plotted in Active Figure 20.20b. Note that the maximum emf has the value max NBA [20.8] A P P L I C AT I O N Direct Current Generators which occurs when t 90 or 270 . In other words, max when the plane of the loop is parallel to the magnetic field. Further, the emf is zero when t 0 or 180 , which happens whenever the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the loop. In the United States and Canada the frequency of rotation for commercial generators is 60 Hz, whereas in some European countries 50 Hz is used. (Recall that 2 f, where f is the frequency in hertz.) The direct current (DC) generator is illustrated in Active Figure 20.22a. The components are essentially the same as those of the AC generator, except that the contacts to the rotating loop are made by a split ring, or commutator. In this design, the output voltage always has the same polarity and the current is a pulsating direct current, as in Active Figure 20.22b. This can be understood by noting 20.5 Generators 675 Commutator N S ACTIVE FIGURE 20.22 (a) A schematic diagram of a DC generator. (b) The emf fluctuates in magnitude, but always has the same polarity. Brush Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.22, where you can adjust the speed of rotation and the strength of the field, observing the effects on the generated emf. t Armature (a) (b) that the contacts to the split ring reverse their roles every half cycle. At the same time, the polarity of the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> reverses. Hence, the polarity of the split ring remains the same. A pulsating DC current is not suitable for most applications. To produce a steady DC current, commercial DC generators use many loops and commutators distributed around the axis of rotation so that the sinusoidal pulses from the loops overlap in phase. When these pulses are superimposed, the DC output is almost free of fluctuations. EXAMPLE 20.5 Emf Induced in an AC Generator Goal Understand physical aspects of an AC generator. Problem An AC generator consists of eight turns of wire, each having area A 0.090 0 m2, with a total resistance of 12.0 . The loop rotates in a magnetic field of 0.500 T at a constant frequency of 60.0 Hz. (a) Find the maximum <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . (b) What is the maximum induced current? (c) Determine the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and current as functions of time. (d) What maximum torque must be applied to keep the coil turning? Strategy From the given frequency, calculate the angular frequency and substitute it, together with given quantities, into Equation 20.8. As functions of time, the emf and current have the form A sin t, where A is the maximum emf or current, respectively. For part (d), calculate the magnetic torque on the coil when the current is at a maximum. (See Chapter 19.) The applied torque must do work against this magnetic torque to keep the coil turning. Solution (a) Find the maximum <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . First, calculate the angular frequency of the rotational motion: Substitute the values for N, A, B, and into Equation 20.8, obtaining the maximum <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> : (b) What is the maximum induced current? Substitute the maximum <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> max and the resistance R into Ohm's law to find the maximum induced current: (c) Determine the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and the current as functions of time. Substitute variation of max 2 f 2 (60.0 Hz) NAB 136 V 377 rad/s. max 8(0.090 0 m2)(0.500 T)(377 rad/s) I max max R 136 V 12.0 11.3 A and into Equation 20.7 to obtain the with time t in seconds: max sin t (136 V) sin 377t 676 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance The time variation of the current looks just like this, except with the maximum current out in front: (d) Calculate the maximum applied torque necessary to keep the coil turning. Write the equation for magnetic torque: Calculate the maximum magnetic moment of the coil, : Substitute into the magnetic torque equation, with 90 to find the maximum applied torque: I (11.3 A) sin 377t B sin Imax AN max (11.3 A)(0.090 m2)(8) 8.14 A m2 4.07 N m (8.14 A m2)(0.500 T) sin 90 Remarks The number of loops, N, can't be arbitrary, because there must be a force strong enough to turn the coil. Exercise 20.5 An AC generator is to have a maximum output of 301 V. Each coil has an area of 0.100 m2 and a resistance of 16.0 and rotates in a magnetic field of 0.600 T with a frequency of 40.0 Hz. (a) How many turns of wire should the coil have to produce the desired emf? (b) Find the maximum current induced in the coil. (c) Determine the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> as a function of time. Answers (a) 20 turns (b) 18.8 A (c) (301 V) sin 251t Motors and Back emf A P P L I C AT I O N Motors Motors are devices that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Essentially, a motor is a generator run in reverse: instead of a current being generated by a rotating loop, a current is supplied to the loop by a source of emf, and the magnetic torque on the current-carrying loop causes it to rotate. A motor can perform useful mechanical work when a shaft connected to its rotating coil is attached to some external device. As the coil in the motor rotates, however, the changing magnetic flux through it induces an emf which acts to reduce the current in the coil. If it increased the current, Lenz's law would be violated. The phrase back emf is used for an emf that tends to reduce the applied current. The back emf increases in magnitude as the rotational speed of the coil increases. We can picture this state of affairs as the equivalent circuit in Figure 20.23. For illustrative purposes, assume that the external power source supplying current in the coil of the motor has a voltage of 120 V, that the coil has a resistance of 10 , and that the back emf induced in the coil at this instant is 70 V. The voltage available to supply current equals the difference between the applied voltage and the back emf, 50 V in this case. The current is always reduced by the back emf. When a motor is turned on, there is no back emf initially, and the current is very large because it's limited only by the resistance of the coil. As the coil begins to rotate, the induced back emf opposes the applied voltage and the current in the coil is reduced. If the mechanical load increases, the motor slows down, which decreases the back emf. This reduction in the back emf increases the current in the coil and therefore also increases the power needed from the external voltage source. As a result, the power requirements for starting a motor and for running it under heavy loads are greater than those for running the motor under average loads. If the motor is allowed to run under no mechanical load, the back emf reduces the current to a value just large enough to balance energy losses by heat and friction. 10 coil resistance 70 V back emf 120 V external source Figure 20.23 A motor can be represented as a resistance plus a back emf. 20.6 Self-Inductance 677 EXAMPLE 20.6 Induced Current in a Motor Goal Apply the concept of a back emf in calculating the induced current in a motor. Problem A motor has coils with a resistance of 10.0 and is supplied by a voltage of V 1.20 102 V. When the motor is running at its maximum speed, the back emf is 70.0 V. Find the current in the coils (a) when the motor is first turned on and (b) when the motor has reached its maximum rotation rate. Strategy For each part, find the net voltage, which is the applied voltage minus the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . Divide the net voltage by the resistance to get the current. Solution (a) Find the initial current, when the motor is first turned on. If the coil isn't rotating, the back emf is zero and the current has its maximum value. Calculate the difference between the emf and the initial back emf and divide by the resistance R , obtaining the initial current: (b) Find the current when the motor is rotating at its maximum rate. Repeat the calculation, using the maximum value of the back emf: I back I back 1.20 R 10 2 V 10.0 0 12.0 A 1.20 R 5.00 A 10 2 V 10.0 70.0 V 50.0 V 10.0 Remark The phenomenon of back emf is one way in which the rotation rate of electric motors is limited. Exercise 20.6 If the current in the motor is 8.00 A at some instant, what is the back emf at that time? Answer 40.0 V 20.6 SELF-INDUCTANCE Consider a circuit consisting of a switch, a resistor, and a source of emf, as in Figure 20.24. When the switch is closed, the current doesn't immediately change from zero to its maximum value, /R. The law of electromagnetic induction -- Faraday's law -- prevents this. What happens instead is the following: as the current increases with time, the magnetic flux through the loop due to this current also increases. The increasing flux induces an emf in the circuit that opposes the change in magnetic flux. By Lenz's law, the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is in the direction indicated by the dashed battery in the figure. The net potential difference across the resistor is the emf of the battery minus the opposing <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . As the magnitude of the current increases, the rate of increase lessens and hence the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> decreases. This opposing emf results in a gradual increase in the current. For the same reason, when the switch is opened, the current doesn't immediately fall to zero. This effect is called self-induction because the changing flux through the circuit arises from the circuit itself. The emf that is set up in the circuit is called a self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . As a second example of self-inductance, consider Figure 20.25 (page 678), which shows a coil wound on a cylindrical iron core. (A practical device would have several hundred turns.) Assume that the current changes with time. When the current is in the direction shown, a magnetic field is set up inside the coil, directed from right to left. As a result, some lines of magnetic flux pass through S B I R I Figure 20.24 After the switch in the circuit is closed, the current produces its own magnetic flux through the loop. As the current increases towards its equilibrium value, the flux changes in time and induces an emf in the loop. The battery drawn with dashed lines is a symbol for the self<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . 678 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Figure 20.25 (a) A current in the coil produces a magnetic field directed to the left. (b) If the current increases, the coil acts as a source of emf directed as shown by the dashed battery. (c) The <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil changes its polarity if the current decreases. Lenz's law emf + B Lenz's law emf + I (a) I increasing (b) I decreasing (c) the cross-sectional area of the coil. As the current changes with time, the flux through the coil changes and induces an emf in the coil. Lenz's law shows that this <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> has a direction so as to oppose the change in the current. If the current is increasing, the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is as pictured in Figure 20.25b, and if the current is decreasing, the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is as shown in Figure 20.25c. To evaluate self-inductance quantitatively, first note that, according to Faraday's law, the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is given by Equation 20.2: t The magnetic flux is proportional to the magnetic field, which is proportional to the current in the coil. Therefore, the self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> must be proportional to the rate of change of the current with time, or L I t [20.9] N B JOSEPH HENRY, American physicist (1797 1878) Henry became the first director of the Smithsonian Institution and first president of the Academy of Natural Science. He was the first to produce an electric current with a magnetic field, but he failed to publish his results as early as Faraday because of his heavy teaching duties at the Albany Academy in New York State. He improved the design of the electromagnet and constructed one of the first motors. He also discovered the phenomenon of selfinduction. The unit of inductance, the henry, is named in his honor. North Wind Picture Archives where L is a proportionality constant called the inductance of the device. The negative sign indicates that a changing current induces an emf in opposition to the change. This means that if the current is increasing ( I positive), the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is negative, indicating opposition to the increase in current. Likewise, if the current is decreasing ( I negative), the sign of the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is positive, indicating that the emf is acting to oppose the decrease. The inductance of a coil depends on the cross-sectional area of the coil and other quantities, all of which can be grouped under the general heading of geometric factors. The SI unit of inductance is the henry (H), which, from Equation 20.9, is equal to 1 volt-second per ampere: 1H 1 V s/A In the process of calculating self-inductance, it is often convenient to equate Equations 20.2 and 20.9 to find an expression for L : N B t B L N I I t B Inductance L N I [20.10] Applying Physics 20.3 Making Sparks Fly In some circuits, a spark occurs between the poles of a switch when the switch is opened. Why isn't there a spark when the switch for this circuit is closed? Explanation According to Lenz's law, the direction of <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> s is such that the induced magnetic field opposes change in the original magnetic flux. When the switch is opened, the sudden drop in the magnetic field in the circuit induces an emf in a direction that opposes change in the original current. This <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> can cause a spark as the current bridges the air gap between the poles of the switch. The spark doesn't occur when the switch is closed, because the original current is zero and the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> opposes any change in that current. 20.6 Self-Inductance 679 In general, determining the inductance of a given current element can be challenging. Finding an expression for the inductance of a common solenoid, however, is straightforward. Let the solenoid have N turns and length . Assume that is large compared with the radius and that the core of the solenoid is air. We take the interior magnetic field to be uniform and given by Equation 19.16, B 0nI N 0 I where n N/ is the number of turns per unit length. The magnetic flux through each turn is therefore B BA N 0 AI where A is the cross-sectional area of the solenoid. From this expression and Equation 20.10, we find that L N I B 0N 2A [20.11a] This shows that L depends on the geometric factors and A and on 0 and is proportional to the square of the number of turns. Because N n , we can also express the result in the form L where V (n )2 0 A 0n 2A 0n 2V [20.11b] A is the volume of the solenoid. EXAMPLE 20.7 Inductance, Self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> , and Solenoids Goal Calculate the inductance and self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> of a solenoid. Problem (a) Calculate the inductance of a solenoid containing 300 turns if the length of the solenoid is 25.0 cm and its cross-sectional area is 4.00 10 4 m2. (b) Calculate the self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the solenoid described in (a) if the current in the solenoid decreases at the rate of 50.0 A/s. Strategy Substituting given quantities into Equation 20.11a gives the inductance L. For part (b), substitute the result of part (a) and I/ t 50.0 A/s into Equation 20.9 to get the self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . Solution (a) Calculate the inductance of the solenoid. Substitute the number N of turns, the area A, and the length into Equation 20.11a to find the inductance: L (4 1.81 (b) Calculate the self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the solenoid. Substitute L and I/ t 50.0 A/s into Equation 20.9, finding the self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> : I t 9.05 mV L (1.81 10 4 H)( 0N 2A 10 10 7T 4T m/A) m 2/A (300)2(4.00 10 4 m2) 25.0 10 2 m 0.181 mH 50.0 A/s) Remark Notice that I/ t is negative because the current is decreasing with time. 680 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Exercise 20.7 A solenoid is to have an inductance of 0.285 mH, a cross-sectional area of 6.00 10 4 m2, and a length of 36.0 cm. (a) How many turns per unit length should it have? (b) If the self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is 12.5 mV at a given time, at what rate is the current changing at that instant? Answers (a) 1 025 turns/m (b) 43.9 A/s R S 20.7 RL CIRCUITS A circuit element that has a large inductance, such as a closely wrapped coil of many turns, is called an inductor. The circuit symbol for an inductor is . We will always assume that the self-inductance of the remainder of the circuit is negligible compared with that of the inductor in the circuit. To gain some insight into the effect of an inductor in a circuit, consider the two circuits in Figure 20.26. Figure 20.26a shows a resistor connected to the terminals of a battery. For this circuit, Kirchhoff's loop rule is IR 0. The voltage drop across the resistor is VR S (a) L IR [20.12] In this case, we interpret resistance as a measure of opposition to the current. Now consider the circuit in Figure 20.26b, consisting of an inductor connected to the terminals of a battery. At the instant the switch in this circuit is closed, because IR 0, the emf of the battery equals the back emf generated in the coil. Hence, we have L (b) Figure 20.26 A comparison of the effect of a resistor with that of an inductor in a simple circuit. L I t [20.13] I a R L b S ACTIVE FIGURE 20.27 A series RL circuit. As the current increases towards its maximum value, the inductor produces an emf that opposes the increasing current. Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.27, where you can adjust the values of R and L and observe the effect on current. A graphical display as in Active Figure 20.28 is available. From this expression, we can interpret L as a measure of opposition to the rate of change of current. Active Figure 20.27 shows a circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a battery. Suppose the switch is closed at t 0. The current begins to increase, but the inductor produces an emf that opposes the increasing current. As a result, the current can't change from zero to its maximum value of /R instantaneously. Equation 20.13 shows that the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is a maximum when the current is changing most rapidly, which occurs when the switch is first closed. As the current approaches its steady-state value, the back emf of the coil falls off because the current is changing more slowly. Finally, when the current reaches its steady-state value, the rate of change is zero and the back emf is also zero. Active Figure 20.28 plots current in the circuit as a function of time.1 This plot is similar to that of the charge on a capacitor as a function of time, discussed in Chapter 18. In that case, we found it convenient to introduce a quantity called the time constant of the circuit, which told us something about the time required for the capacitor to approach its steady-state charge. In the same way, time constants are defined for circuits containing resistors and inductors. The time constant for an RL circuit is the time required for the current in the circuit to reach 63.2% of its final value /R ; the time constant of an RL circuit is given by L R 1The Time constant for an RL circuit [20.14] equation for the current in the circuit as a function of time may be obtained from calculus and is I R (1 e Rt/L) 20.7 ACTIVE FIGURE 20.28 A plot of current versus time for the RL circuit shown in Figure 20.27. The switch is closed at t 0, and the current increases towards its maximum value /R. The time constant is the time it takes the current to reach 63.2% of its maximum value. RL Circuits 681 I /R 0.632 R t = L/R Log into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and go to Active Figure 20.28, where you can observe this graph develop after the switch in Active Figure 20.27 is closed. Iron bar t t Quick Quiz 20.5 The switch in the circuit shown in Figure 20.29 is closed and the lightbulb glows steadily. The inductor is a simple air-core solenoid. An iron rod is inserted into the interior of the solenoid, increasing the magnitude of the magnetic field in the solenoid. As the rod is inserted, the brightness of the lightbulb (a) increases, (b) decreases, or (c) remains the same. S AC Source L Figure 20.29 (Quick Quiz 20.5) EXAMPLE 20.8 An RL Circuit Goal Calculate a time constant and relate it to current in an RL circuit. Problem A 12.6-V battery is in a circuit with a 30.0-mH inductor and a 0.150- resistor, as in Active Figure 20.27. The switch is closed at t 0. (a) Find the time constant of the circuit. (b) Find the current after one time constant has elapsed. (c) Find the voltage drops across the resistance when t 0 and t one time constant. (d) What's the rate of change of the current after one time constant? Solution (a) What's the time constant of the circuit? Substitute the inductance L and resistance R into Equation 20.14, finding the time constant: (b) Find the current after one time constant has elapsed. First, use Ohm's law to compute the final value of the current after many time constants have elapsed: After one time constant, the current rises to 63.2% of its final value: (c) Find the voltage drops across the resistance when t 0 and t one time constant. Initially, the current in the circuit is zero, so, from Ohm's law, the voltage across the resistor is zero: Next, using Ohm's law, find the magnitude of the voltage drop across the resistor after one time constant: (d) What's the rate of change of the current after one time constant? Using Kirchhoff 's voltage rule, calculate the voltage drop across the inductor at that time: VR VL 0 VR VR (t VR (t 0 s) IR (0 A)(0.150 ) 0 ) 7.97 V I max I1 R 12.6 V 0.150 84.0 A 53.1 A L R 30.0 10 0.150 3H 0.200 s (0.632)I max (0.632)(84.0 A) 0.200 s) (53.1 A)(0.150 682 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Solve for VL : Now solve Equation 20.13 for I/ t and substitute: VL VL I t L I t VL L VR 12.6 V ( 7.97 V) 4.6 V 4.6 V 30.0 10 3 H 150 A/s Remarks The values used in this problem were taken from actual components salvaged from the starter system of a car. Because the current in such an RL circuit is initially zero, inductors are sometimes referred to as &quot;chokes,&quot; since they temporarily choke off the current. In solving part (d), we traversed the circuit in the direction of positive current, so the voltage difference across the battery was positive and the differences across the resistor and inductor were negative. Exercise 20.8 A 12.6-V battery is in series with a resistance of 0.350 and an inductor. (a) After a long time, what is the current in the circuit? (b) What is the current after one time constant? (c) What's the voltage drop across the inductor at this time? (d) Find the inductance if the time constant is 0.130 s. Answers (a) 36.0 A (b) 22.8 A (c) 4.62 V (d) 4.55 10 2 H 20.8 ENERGY STORED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD The emf induced by an inductor prevents a battery from establishing an instantaneous current in a circuit. The battery has to do work to produce a current. We can think of this needed work as energy stored in the inductor in its magnetic field. In a manner similar to that used in Section 16.9 to find the energy stored in a capacitor, we find that the energy stored by an inductor is Energy stored in an inductor PE L 1 2 2 LI [20.15] Note that the result is similar in form to the expression for the energy stored in a charged capacitor (Equation 16.18): Energy stored in a capacitor PE C 1 2 C( V )2 EXAMPLE 20.9 Magnetic Energy Goal Relate the storage of magnetic energy to currents in an RL circuit. Problem A 12.0-V battery is connected in series to a 25.0- resistor and a 5.00-H inductor. (a) Find the maximum current in the circuit. (b) Find the energy stored in the inductor at this time. (c) How much energy is stored in the inductor when the current is changing at a rate of 1.50 A/s? Strategy In part (a), Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's voltage rule yield the maximum current, because the voltage across the inductor is zero when the current is maximal. Substituting the current into Equation 20.15 gives the energy stored in the inductor. In part (c), the given rate of change of the current can be used to calculate the voltage drop across the inductor at the specified time. Kirchhoff's voltage rule and Ohm's law then give the current I at that time, which can be used to find the energy stored in the inductor. Solution (a) Find the maximum current in the circuit. Apply Kirchhoff's voltage rule to the circuit: V batt VR IR L VL I t 0 0 Summary 683 When the maximum current is reached, I/ t is zero, so the voltage drop across the inductor is zero. Solve for the maximum current I max: (b) Find the energy stored in the inductor at this time. Substitute known values into Equation 20.15: (c) Find the energy in the inductor when the current changes at a rate of 1.50 A/s. Apply Kirchhoff's voltage rule to the circuit, once again: I max R 12.0 V 25.0 0.480 A PEL 1 2 2 L I max 1 2 (5.00 H)(0.480 A)2 0.576 J IR 1 R 1 25.0 L I t L I t 0 Solve this equation for the current I and substitute: I [12.0 V 1 2 (5.00 (5.00 H)(1.50 A/s)] H)(0.180 A)2 0.180 A Finally, substitute the value for the current into Equation 20.15, finding the energy stored in the inductor: PE L 1 2 2 LI 0.081 0 J Remark Notice how important it is to combine concepts from previous chapters. Here, Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's loop rule were essential to the solution of the problem. Exercise 20.9 For the same circuit, find the energy stored in the inductor when the rate of change of the current is 1.00 A/s. Answer 0.196 J SUMMARY Take a practice test by logging into PhysicsNow at www.cp7e.com and clicking on the Pre-Test link for this chapter. Lenz's law states that the current from the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> creates a magnetic field with flux opposing the change in magnetic flux through a circuit. 20.1 <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and Magnetic Flux B 20.3 Motional emf [20.1] If a conducting bar of length moves through a magnetic : field with a speed v so that B is perpendicular to the bar, then the emf induced in the bar, often called a motional emf, is B v [20.4] The magnetic flux through a closed loop is defined as B BA cos where B is the strength of the uniform magnetic field, A is the cross-sectional area of the loop, and is the angle : between B and a direction perpendicular to the plane of the loop. 20.5 Generators When a coil of wire with N turns, each of area A, rotates with constant angular speed in a uniform magnetic field : B, the emf induced in the coil is NAB sin t [20.7] 20.2 Faraday's Law of Induction Faraday's law of induction states that the instantaneous emf induced in a circuit equals the negative of the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit, N B t [20.2] Such generators naturally produce alternating current (AC), which changes direction with frequency /2 . The AC current can be transformed to direct current. where N is the number of loops in the circuit. The magnetic flux B can change with time whenever the : magnetic field B, the area A, or the angle changes with time. 20.7 RL Circuits When the current in a coil changes with time, an emf is induced in the coil according to Faraday's law. This 684 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance self-<a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> is defined by the expression I [20.9] t where L is the inductance of the coil. The SI unit for inductance is the henry (H); 1 H 1 V s/A. The inductance of a coil can be found from the expression L [20.10] I where N is the number of turns on the coil, I is the current in the coil, and B is the magnetic flux through the coil produced by that current. For a solenoid, the inductance is given by L L 0N 2A If a resistor and inductor are connected in series to a battery and a switch is closed at t 0, the current in the circuit doesn't rise instantly to its maximum value. After one time constant L/R, the current in the circuit is 63.2% of its final value /R. As the current approaches its final, maximum value, the voltage drop across the inductor approaches zero. N B 20.8 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field The energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor carrying current I is PE L 1 2 2L I [20.15] [20.11] As the current in an RL circuit approaches its maximum value, the stored energy also approaches a maximum value. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 1. A circular loop is located in a uniform and constant magnetic field. Describe how an emf can be induced in the loop in this situation. 2. Does dropping a magnet down a copper tube produce a current in the tube? Explain. 3. A spacecraft orbiting the Earth has a coil of wire in it. An astronaut measures a small current in the coil, although there is no battery connected to it and there are no magnets in the spacecraft. What is causing the current? 4. A loop of wire is placed in a uniform magnetic field. For what orientation of the loop is the magnetic flux a maximum? For what orientation is the flux zero? 5. As the conducting bar in Figure Q20.5 moves to the right, an electric field directed downward is set up. If the bar were moving to the left, explain why the electric field would be upward. Bin 1 9. Eddy currents are induced currents set up in a piece of metal when it moves through a nonuniform magnetic field. For example, consider the flat metal plate swinging at the end of a bar as a pendulum, as shown in Figure Q20.9. At position 1, the pendulum is moving from a region where there is no magnetic field into a region : where the field Bin is directed into the paper. Show that at position 1 the direction of the eddy current is counterclockwise. Also, at position 2 the pendulum is moving out of the field into a region of zero field. Show that the direction of the eddy current is clockwise in this case. Use righthand rule number 2 to show that these eddy currents lead to a magnetic force on the plate directed as shown in the figure. Because the induced eddy current always produces a retarding force when the plate enters or leaves the field, the swinging plate quickly comes to rest. Pivot 2 Bin v E v Fm Figure Q20.5 (Conceptual Questions 5 and 6) Figure Q20.9 Fm v 6. As the bar in Figure Q20.5 moves perpendicular to the field, is an external force required to keep it moving with constant speed? 7. Wearing a metal bracelet in a region of strong magnetic field could be hazardous. Discuss this statement. 8. How is electrical energy produced in dams? (That is, how is the energy of motion of the water converted to AC electricity?) 10. Suppose you would like to steal power for your home from the electric company by placing a loop of wire near a transmission cable in order to induce an emf in the loop (Don't do this; it's illegal.) Should you locate the loop so that the transmission cable passes through your loop or simply place your loop near the transmission cable? Does the orientation of the loop matter? 11. A piece of aluminum is dropped vertically downward between the poles of an electromagnet. Does the magnetic Problems 685 field affect the velocity of the aluminum? [Hint: See Conceptual Question 9.] 12. A bar magnet is dropped toward a conducting ring lying on the floor. As the magnet falls toward the ring, does it move as a freely falling object? 13. If the current in an inductor is doubled, by what factor does the stored energy change? 14. Is it possible to induce a constant emf for an infinite amount of time? 15. Why is the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> that appears in an inductor called a back (counter) emf? 16. A magneto is used to cause the spark in a spark plug in many lawn mowers today. A magneto consists of a permanent magnet mounted on a flywheel so that it spins past a fixed coil. Explain how this arrangement generates a large enough potential difference to cause the spark. 17. A ramp runs from the bed of a truck down to the level ground. The ramp holds two parallel conducting rails connected at its base. A metal bar slides on the rails without friction. A magnet supplies an external magnetic field directed toward the ground. It is found that the bar slides down the ramp at a constant speed. (a) What is the direction of the induced current in the bar as viewed from above? (b) What can you conclude about the forces exerted on the bar? 18. A bar magnet is held above the center of a wire loop in a horizontal plane, as shown in Figure Q20.18. The south end of the magnet is toward the loop. The magnet is dropped. Find the direction of the current in the resistor as viewed from above (a) while the magnet is falling toward the loop and (b) after the magnet has passed through the loop and moved away from it. N S R Figure Q20.18 19. What is the direction of the current induced in the resistor when the current in the long, straight wire in Figure Q20.19 decreases rapidly to zero? R I Figure Q20.19 PROBLEMS 1, 2, 3 = straightforward, intermediate, challenging full solution available in Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide coached problem with hints available at www.cp7e.com biomedical application Section 20.1 <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> and Magnetic Flux 1. A magnetic field of strength 0.30 T is directed perpendicular to a plane circular loop of wire of radius 25 cm. Find the magnetic flux through the area enclosed by this loop. 2. Find the flux of the Earth's magnetic field of magnitude 5.00 10 5 T through a square loop of area 20.0 cm 2 (a) when the field is perpendicular to the plane of the loop, (b) when the field makes a 30.0 angle with the normal to the plane of the loop, and (c) when the field makes a 90.0 angle with the normal to the plane. 3. A square loop 2.00 m on a side is placed in a magnetic field of magnitude 0.300 T. If the field makes an angle of 50.0 with the normal to the plane of the loop, find the magnetic flux through the loop. 4. A long, straight wire carrying a current of 2.00 A is placed along the axis of a cylinder of radius 0.500 m and a length of 3.00 m. Determine the total magnetic flux through the cylinder. 5. A long, straight wire lies in the plane of a circular coil with a radius of 0.010 m. The wire carries a current of 2.0 A and is placed along a diameter of the coil. (a) What is the net flux through the coil? (b) If the wire passes through the center of the coil and is perpendicular to the plane of the coil, find the net flux through the coil. 6. A solenoid 4.00 cm in diameter and 20.0 cm long has 250 turns and carries a current of 15.0 A. Calculate the magnetic flux through the circular cross-sectional area of the solenoid. 7. A cube of edge length 2.5 cm is positioned as shown in Figure P20.7. There is a uniform magnetic field throughout the region with components Bx 5.0 T, B y 4.0 T, and Bz 3.0 T. (a) Calculate the flux through the shaded face of the cube. (b) What is the total flux y B x z Figure P20.7 686 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance emerging from the volume enclosed by the cube (i.e., the total flux through all six faces)? Section 20.2 Faraday's Law of Induction 8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique used to stimulate regions of the human brain. A small coil is placed on the scalp, and a brief burst of current in the coil produces a rapidly changing magnetic field inside the brain. The <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> can be sufficient to stimulate neuronal activity. One such device generates a magnetic field within the brain that rises from zero to 1.5 T in 120 ms. Determine the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> within a circle of tissue of radius 1.6 mm and that is perpendicular to the direction of the field. 9. A square, single-turn coil 0.20 m on a side is placed with its plane perpendicular to a constant magnetic field. An emf of 18 mV is induced in the coil winding when the area of the coil decreases at the rate of 0.10 m2/s. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field? 10. The flexible loop in Figure P20.10 has a radius of 12 cm and is in a magnetic field of strength 0.15 T. The loop is grasped at points A and B and stretched until its area is nearly zero. If it takes 0.20 s to close the loop, find the magnitude of the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in it during this time. 3.00 cm 1.00 cm 1.00 cm Figure P20.14 A B Figure P20.10 15. A 300-turn solenoid with a length of 20 cm and a radius of 1.5 cm carries a current of 2.0 A. A second coil of four turns is wrapped tightly about this solenoid so that it can be considered to have the same radius as the solenoid. Find (a) the change in the magnetic flux through the coil and (b) the magnitude of the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil when the current in the solenoid increases to 5.0 A in a period of 0.90 s. 16. A circular coil enclosing an area of 100 cm2 is made of 200 turns of copper wire. The wire making up the coil has resistance of 5.0 , and the ends of the wire are connected to form a closed circuit. Initially, a 1.1-T uniform magnetic field points perpendicularly upward through the plane of the coil. The direction of the field then reverses so that the final magnetic field has a magnitude of 1.1 T and points downward through the coil. If the time required for the field to reverse directions is 0.10 s, what average current flows through the coil during that time? 17. To monitor the breathing of a hospital patient, a thin belt is girded around the patient's chest as in Figure P20.17. The belt is a 200-turn coil. When the patient inhales, the area encircled by the coil increases by 39.0 cm2. The magnitude of the Earth's magnetic field is 50.0 T and makes an angle of 28.0 with the plane of the coil. Assuming a patient takes 1.80 s to inhale, find the magnitude of the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil during that time. 11. A wire loop of radius 0.30 m lies so that an external magnetic field of magnitude 0.30 T is perpendicular to the loop. The field reverses its direction, and its magnitude changes to 0.20 T in 1.5 s. Find the magnitude of the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the loop during this time. 12. A 500-turn circular-loop coil 15.0 cm in diameter is initially aligned so that its axis is parallel to the Earth's magnetic field. In 2.77 ms, the coil is flipped so that its axis is perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field. If an average voltage of 0.166 V is thereby induced in the coil, what is the value of the Earth's magnetic field at that location? 13. The plane of a rectangular coil, 5.0 cm by 8.0 cm, is : perpendicular to the direction of a magnetic field B. If the coil has 75 turns and a total resistance of 8.0 , at : what rate must the magnitude of B change to induce a current of 0.10 A in the windings of the coil? 14. A square, single-turn wire loop 1.00 cm on a side is placed inside a solenoid that has a circular cross section of radius 3.00 cm, as shown in Figure P20.14. The solenoid is 20.0 cm long and wound with 100 turns of wire. (a) If the current in the solenoid is 3.00 A, find the flux through the loop. (b) If the current in the solenoid is reduced to zero in 3.00 s, find the magnitude of the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the loop. Coil Figure P20.17 Section 20.3 Motional emf 18. Consider the arrangement shown in Figure P20.18. Assume that R 6.00 and 1.20 m, and that a uniform 2.50-T magnetic field is directed into the page. At what speed should the bar be moved to produce a current of 0.500 A in the resistor? 19. A Boeing 747 jet with a wingspan of 60.0 m is flying horizontally at a speed of 300 m/s over Phoenix, Arizona, at a location where the Earth's magnetic field is 50.0 T at Problems w 687 58.0 below the horizontal. What voltage is generated between the wingtips? R Fapp Bout Figure P20.18 (Problems 18 and 57) v Figure P20.24 20. A 12.0-m-long steel beam is accidentally dropped by a construction crane from a height of 9.00 m. The horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field over the region is 18.0 T. What is the <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the beam just before impact with the Earth? Assume the long dimension of the beam remains in a horizontal plane, oriented perpendicular to the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field. An automobile has a vertical radio 21. antenna 1.20 m long. The automobile travels at 65.0 km/h on a horizontal road where the Earth's magnetic field is 50.0 T, directed toward the north and downwards at an angle of 65.0 below the horizontal. (a) Specify the direction the automobile should move in order to generate the maximum motional emf in the antenna, with the top of the antenna positive relative to the bottom. (b) Calculate the magnitude of this <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> . 22. A helicopter has blades of length 3.0 m, rotating at 2.0 rev/s about a central hub. If the vertical component of Earth's magnetic field is 5.0 10 5 T, what is the emf induced between the blade tip and the central hub? Section 20.4 Lenz's Law Revisited (the Minus Signin Faraday's Law) 23. A bar magnet is positioned near a coil of wire as shown in Figure P20.23. What is the direction of the current in the resistor when the magnet is moved (a) to the left? (b) to the right? v S N 25. A rectangular coil with resistance R has N turns, each of length and width w as shown in Figure P20.25. The coil : moves into a uniform magnetic field B with constant v velocity : . What are the magnitude and direction of the total magnetic force on the coil (a) as it enters the magnetic field, (b) as it moves within the field, and (c) as it leaves the field? Bin v w Figure P20.25 26. In Figure P20.26, what is the direction of the current induced in the resistor at the instant the switch is closed? R S Figure P20.26 R Figure P20.23 27. A copper bar is moved to the right while its axis is maintained in a direction perpendicular to a magnetic field, as shown in Figure P20.27. If the top of the bar becomes + + 24. A conducting rectangular loop of mass M, resistance R, and dimensions w by falls from rest into a magnetic field : B as shown in Figure P20.24. During the time interval before the top edge of the loop reaches the field, the loop approaches a terminal speed v T . (a) Show that vT MgR B 2w 2 v Figure P20.27 (b) Why is v T proportional to R? (c) Why is it inversely proportional to B 2 ? 688 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance positive relative to the bottom, what is the direction of the magnetic field? 28. Find the direction of the current in the resistor shown in Figure P20.28 (a) at the instant the switch is closed, (b) after the switch has been closed for several minutes, and (c) at the instant the switch is opened. 32. 33. S R Figure P20.28 29. Find the direction of the current in the resistor R shown in Figure P20.29 after each of the following steps (taken in the order given): (a) The switch is closed. (b) The variable resistance in series with the battery is decreased. (c) The circuit containing resistor R is moved to the left. (d) The switch is opened. 34. S R 35. Figure P20.29 Section 20.5 Generators 30. A 100-turn square wire coil of area 0.040 m2 rotates about a vertical axis at 1 500 rev/min, as indicated in Figure P20.30. The horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field at the location of the loop is 2.0 10 5 T. Calculate the maximum emf induced in the coil by the Earth's field. v maximum emf that can be generated around the perimeter of the cell. A motor has coils with a resistance of 30 and operates from a voltage of 240 V. When the motor is operating at its maximum speed, the back emf is 145 V. Find the current in the coils (a) when the motor is first turned on and (b) when the motor has reached maximum speed. (c) If the current in the motor is 6.0 A at some instant, what is the back emf at that time? A coil of 10.0 turns is in the shape of an ellipse having a major axis of 10.0 cm and a minor axis of 4.00 cm. The coil rotates at 100 rpm in a region in which the magnitude of the Earth's magnetic field is 55 T. What is the maximum voltage induced in the coil if the axis of rotation of the coil is along its major axis and is aligned (a) perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field and (b) parallel to the Earth's magnetic field? (Note that the area of an ellipse is given by A ab, where a is the length of the semimajor axis and b is the length of the semiminor axis.) A flat coil enclosing an area of 0.10 m2 is rotating at 60 rev/s, with its axis of rotation perpendicular to a 0.20-T magnetic field. (a) If there are 1 000 turns on the coil, what is the maximum voltage induced in the coil? (b) When the maximum induced voltage occurs, what is the orientation of the coil with respect to the magnetic field? In a model AC generator, a 500-turn rectangular coil 8.0 cm by 20 cm rotates at 120 rev/min in a uniform magnetic field of 0.60 T. (a) What is the maximum emf induced in the coil? (b) What is the instantaneous value of the emf in the coil at t ( /32) s? Assume that the emf is zero at t 0. (c) What is the smallest value of t for which the emf will have its maximum value? Section 20.6 Self-Inductance 36. A coiled telephone cord forms a spiral with 70.0 turns, a diameter of 1.30 cm, and an unstretched length of 60.0 cm. Determine the self-inductance of one conductor in the unstretched cord. 37. A coil has an inductance of 3.0 mH, and the current in it changes from 0.20 A to 1.5 A in 0.20 s. Find the magnitude of the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the coil during this period. 38. Show that the two expressions for inductance given by L N I B 20 cm and L I/ t 20 cm Figure P20.30 31. Considerable scientific work is currently underway to determine whether weak oscillating magnetic fields such as those found near outdoor electric power lines can effect human health. One study indicated that a magnetic field of magnitude 1.0 10 3 T, oscillating at 60 Hz, might stimulate red blood cells to become cancerous. If the diameter of a red blood cell is 8.0 m, determine the have the same units. 39. A solenoid of radius 2.5 cm has 400 turns and a length of 20 cm. Find (a) its inductance and (b) the rate at which current must change through it to produce an emf of 75 mV. 40. An emf of 24.0 mV is induced in a 500-turn coil when the current is changing at a rate of 10.0 A/s. What is the magnetic flux through each turn of the coil at an instant when the current is 4.00 A? Section 20.7 RL Circuits 41. Show that the SI units for the inductive time constant L/ are seconds. R Problems 689 42. An RL circuit with L 3.00 H and an RC circuit with C 3.00 F have the same time constant. If the two circuits have the same resistance R, (a) what is the value of R and (b) what is this common time constant? 43. A 6.0-V battery is connected in series with a resistor and an inductor. The series circuit has a time constant of 600 s, and the maximum current is 300 mA. What is the value of the inductance? 44. A 25-mH inductor, an 8.0- resistor, and a 6.0-V battery are connected in series. The switch is closed at t 0. Find the voltage drop across the resistor (a) at t 0 and (b) after one time constant has passed. Also, find the voltage drop across the inductor (c) at t 0 and (d) after one time constant has elapsed. 45. Calculate the resistance in an RL circuit in which L 2.50 H and the current increases to 90.0% of its final value in 3.00 s. 46. Consider the circuit shown in Figure P20.46. Take 6.00 V, L 8.00 mH, and R 4.00 . (a) What is the inductive time constant of the circuit? (b) Calculate the current in the circuit 250 s after the switch is closed. (c) What is the value of the final steady-state current? (d) How long does it take the current to reach 80.0% of its maximum value? S 51. In Figure P20.51, the bar magnet is being moved toward the loop. Is (Va Vb) positive, negative, or zero during this motion? Explain. N S Motion toward the loop a R b Figure P20.51 L 52. Your physics teacher asks you to help her set up a demonstration of Faraday's law for the class. The apparatus consists of a strong permanent magnet that has a field of 0.10 T, a small 10-turn coil of radius 2.0 cm cemented on a wood frame with a handle, some flexible connecting wires, and an ammeter, as in Figure P20.52. The idea is to pull the coil out of the center of the magnetic field as quickly as possible and read the average current registered on the meter. The combined resistance of the coil, leads, and meter is 2.0 , and you must flip the coil out of the field in about 0.20 s. The ammeter you must use has a full-scale sensitivity of 1 000 A. Will this meter be sensitive enough to show the induced current clearly? R m Figure P20.46 m 20.8 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field 47. How much energy is stored in a 70.0-mH inductor at an instant when the current is 2.00 A? 48. A 300-turn solenoid has a radius of 5.00 cm and a length of 20.0 cm. Find (a) the inductance of the solenoid and (b) the energy stored in the solenoid when the current in its windings is 0.500 A. 49. A 24-V battery is connected in series with a resistor and an inductor, with R 8.0 and L 4.0 H, respectively. Find the energy stored in the inductor (a) when the current reaches its maximum value and (b) one time constant after the switch is closed. t = 0.20 S N r S B Coil Magnet poles Figure P20.52 ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS 50. What is the time constant for (a) the circuit shown in Figure P20.50a and (b) the circuit shown in Figure P20.50b? R R R L R L S (a) Figure P20.50 S (b) 53. An 820-turn wire coil of resistance 24.0 is placed on top of a 12 500-turn, 7.00-cm-long solenoid, as in Figure P20.53 (page 690). Both coil and solenoid have crosssectional areas of 1.00 10 4 m2. (a) How long does it take the solenoid current to reach 0.632 times its maximum value? (b) Determine the average back emf caused by the self-inductance of the solenoid during this interval. The magnetic field produced by the solenoid at the location of the coil is one-half as strong as the field at the center of the solenoid. (c) Determine the average rate of change in magnetic flux through each turn of the coil during the stated interval. (d) Find the magnitude of the average induced current in the coil. 690 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance 24.0 820 turns 14.0 60.0 V + 12 500 turns Figure P20.53 54. Figure P20.54 is a graph of <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> versus time for a coil of N turns rotating with angular speed in a uniform magnetic field directed perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the coil. Copy this sketch (increasing the scale), and, on the same set of axes, show the graph of emf versus t when (a) the number of turns in the coil is doubled, (b) the angular speed is doubled, and (c) the angular speed is doubled while the number of turns in the coil is halved. (mV) 10 5 t(ms) 1 5 10 2 3 1.00 km in diameter would be fabricated. It would carry a maximum current of 50.0 kA through each winding of a 150-turn Nb3Sn solenoid. (a) If the inductance of this huge coil were 50.0 H, what is the total stored energy? (b) What is the compressive force per meter acting between two adjacent windings 0.250 m apart? [Hint: Because the radius of the coil is so large, the magnetic field created by one winding and acting on an adjacent turn can be considered to be that of a long, straight wire.] 57. A conducting rod of length moves on two horizontal frictionless rails, as in Figure P20.18. A constant force of magnitude 1.00 N moves the bar at a uniform speed of : 2.00 m/s through a magnetic field B that is directed into the page. (a) What is the current in an 8.00- resistor R? (b) What is the rate of energy dissipation in the resistor? (c) What is the mechanical power delivered by the constant force? 58. The square loop in Figure P20.58 is made of wires with a total series resistance of 10.0 . It is placed in a uniform 0.100-T magnetic field directed perpendicular into the plane of the paper. The loop, which is hinged at each corner, is pulled as shown until the separation between points A and B is 3.00 m. If this process takes 0.100 s, what is the average current generated in the loop? What is the direction of the current? A 3.00 m 3.00 m 3.00 m B Figure P20.54 3.00 m Figure P20.58 55. The plane of a square loop of wire with edge length a 0.200 m is perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field at a point where B 15.0 T, as in Figure P20.55. The total resistance of the loop and the wires connecting it to the ammeter is 0.500 . If the loop is suddenly collapsed by horizontal forces as shown, what total charge passes through the ammeter? a F a 59. The bolt of lightning depicted in Figure P20.59 passes 200 m from a 100-turn coil oriented as shown. If the current in the lightning bolt falls from 6.02 106 A to zero in 10.5 s, what is the average voltage induced in the coil? Assume that the distance to the center of the coil determines the average magnetic field at the coil's position. Treat the lightning bolt as a long, vertical wire. 200 m Figure P20.59 Ammeter Figure P20.55 56. A novel method of storing electrical energy has been proposed. A huge underground superconducting coil 60. The wire shown in Figure P20.60 is bent in the shape of a &quot;tent&quot; with 60 and L 1.5 m, and is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.30 T directed perpendicular to the tabletop. The wire is &quot;hinged&quot; at points a and b. If the tent is flattened out on the table in 0.10 s, 0.8 00 m F Problems 691 what is the average <a href="/keyword/induced-emf/" >induced emf</a> in the wire during this time? b a B u L u L B 63. In Figure P20.63, the rolling axle, 1.50 m long, is pushed along horizontal rails at a constant speed v 3.00 m/s. A resistor R 0.400 is connected to the rails at points a and b, directly opposite each other. (The wheels make good electrical contact with the rails, so the axle, rails, and R form a closed-loop circuit. The only significant resistance in the circuit is R.) A uniform magnetic field B 0.800 T is directed vertically downwards. (a) Find the induced current I in the resistor. (b) What horizontal : force F is required to keep the axle rolling at constant speed? (c) Which end of the resistor,a or b, is at the higher electric potential? (d) After the axle rolls past the resistor, does the current in R reverse direction? B Figure P20.60 61. The magnetic field shown in Figure P20.61 has a uniform magnitude of 25.0 mT directed into the paper. The initial diameter of the kink is 2.00 cm. (a) The wire is quickly pulled taut, and the kink shrinks to a diameter of zero in 50.0 ms. Determine the average voltage induced between endpoints A and B. Include the polarity. (b) Suppose the kink is undisturbed, but the magnetic field increases to 100 mT in 4.00 10 3 s. Determine the average voltage across terminals A and B, including polarity, during this period. a R v b Figure P20.63 A B 64. In 1832, Faraday proposed that the apparatus shown in Figure P20.64 could be used to generate electric current from the water flowing in the Thames River.2 Two conducting plates of length a and width b are placed facing one another on opposite sides of the river, a distance w apart and immersed entirely. The flow velocity of the river is :, and the vertical component of Earth's magnetic field v is B. Show that the current in the load resistor R is I abvB abR /w 2.00 cm Figure P20.61 62. An aluminum ring of radius 5.00 cm and resistance 3.00 10 4 is placed around the top of a long air-core solenoid with 1 000 turns per meter and a smaller radius of 3.00 cm, as in Figure P20.62. If the current in the solenoid is increasing at a constant rate of 270 A/s, what is the induced current in the ring? Assume that the magnetic field produced by the solenoid over the area at the end of the solenoid is one-half as strong as the field at the center of the solenoid. Assume also that the solenoid produces a negligible field outside its cross- sectional area. 5.00 cm where is the resistivity of the water. (b) Calculate the short-circuit current (R 0) if a 100 m, b 5.00 m, v 3.00 m/s, B 50.0 T, and 100 m. R I B b a v w I Figure P20.64 I 65. A horizontal wire is free to slide on the vertical rails of a conducting frame, as in Figure P20.65 (page 692). The wire has mass m and length , and the resistance of the circuit is R. If a uniform magnetic field is directed perpendicular to 2The 3.00 cm Figure P20.62 idea for this problem and Figure P20.64 is from Oleg D. Jefimenko, Electricity and Magnetism: An Introduction to the Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Star City, WV, Electret Scientific Co., 1989). 692 Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance the frame, what is the terminal speed of the wire as it falls under the force of gravity? (Neglect friction.) Bout m R Figure P20.65 66. A one-turn coil of wire of area 0.20 m2 and resistance 0.25 is in a magnetic field that varies with time as shown in Figure P20.66a. The magnetic flux through the coil at t 0 is as shown in Figure P20.66b. (a) When is the induced current the largest? (b) When is it zero? (c) Is the induced current always in the same direction? (d) Find the direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) and magnitude of the current between times t 0 and t 2.0 s, between t 2.0 s and t 4.0 s, and between t 4.0 s and t 6.0 s. B(T ) 0.6 0.3 0 2 (a) Coil 4 6 t(s) Bin (b) Figure P20.66 ACTIVITIES 1. Experimenting with induced currents is not easy. For small magnets and small coils of wire, the resulting induced currents are so small that they are difficult to detect. Thus, you may have to try this exercise several times before you are satisfied with your results. Wind a coil of wire on a cardboard mailing tube. Use insulated wire with as small a diameter as possible, because you need as many turns as possible on the coil. Connect the coil to a flashlight bulb, and see if you can get it to light by moving a bar magnet into and out of the coil in rapid succession. Why does the speed of movement make a difference? If you are unsuccessful, place two magnets side by side and repeat the experiment. After you have finished experimenting with the bulb, ask your instructor to let you use a galvanometer as a current detector. These devices are capable of measuring very small currents, and they have the added advantage of detecting the direction of the current in a circuit. Use your equipment to observe or test the following: (a) Does the magnitude of the induced current depend on the speed of movement of the magnet? (b) Can you induce a current by holding the magnet still and moving the coil over it? (c) Does the direction of the current depend on whether the magnet is pushed in or pulled out of the coil? (d) Does the direction of the current depend on whether the inserted pole of the magnet is the north pole or the south pole? (e) Can you predict the direction of the current by using Lenz's law? (f) Replace your bar magnet with the electromagnet you constructed in the last chapter, and repeat the preceding observations. 2. As explained in the text, a cassette tape is made up of tiny particles of metal oxide attached to a long plastic strip. Pull a tape out of a cassette that you do not mind destroying, and see if it is repelled or attracted by a refrigerator magnet. Also, try this with an expendable floppy computer disk. 3. This experiment takes steady hands, a dime, and a strong magnet. After verifying that a dime is not attracted to the magnet, carefully balance the coin on its edge. (This will not work with other coins, because they require too much force to topple them.) Hold one pole of the magnet within a millimeter of the face of the dime, but do not make contact with it. Now very rapidly pull the magnet straight back away from the coin. Which way does the dime tip? Does the coin fall the same way most of the time? Explain what is going on in terms of Lenz's law. ... View Full Document

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