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20 Pages

### lecture11

Course: GTECH 201, Fall 2009
School: CUNY Baruch
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Word Count: 583

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and Organizing Presenting Data GTECH 201 Session 11 Terminology Classes Frequency Categories for grouping data Number of observations that fall in a class (frequency is a count) A listing of all classes along with their frequencies The ratio of the frequency of a class to the total number of observations A listing of all classes along with their relative frequencies The difference between the...

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and Organizing Presenting Data GTECH 201 Session 11 Terminology Classes Frequency Categories for grouping data Number of observations that fall in a class (frequency is a count) A listing of all classes along with their frequencies The ratio of the frequency of a class to the total number of observations A listing of all classes along with their relative frequencies The difference between the upper and lower cut points (breaks) of a class Frequency Distribution Relative Frequency Relative Frequency Distribution Width/Class Interval Organizing Data Classification Rules Aim is to create categories or classes Interval or Ratio Scale data only First step is to compute range Range = Largest Value Smallest Value Class Intervals Width of Class Interval Equal based on range Unequal based on range Quantile (Quartile or Quintile) Natural Classification Methods Natural breaks Equal interval Quantile Manual (on a classification scheme) How to Decide Rule of thumb: 3 7 classes Classification histogram (see later today) How to Decide, part II Classification method Natural breaks When to use When attributes are distributed unevenly across the overall range of values How many classes to have Look for natural groups Equal interval When you want all classes Easily understood interval, to have the same such as 2, 50, 1000, range etc. When attributes are distributed in a linear fashion Determined by purpose of the map Quantile Manual When you want classes to break at specific values Graphs 250 200 Line graph Bar graph 150 100 50 0 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 100.0 80.0 Scatterplots 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Creating a Line Graph The growth of the population of students at a Midwestern university is as follows Yea r 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Po p ula t io n Gro w t h 1500 5000 14670 18923 24000 Line Graph Population Growth 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1 2 3 4 5 Population Growth Bar Graphs Here are data on the percent of females among people earning doctoral degrees in 1990, in several different fields of study All s field Bio lo g ic a l S ienc es c Ed ua t io n Eng ineering Physic a l S ienc es c Psyc ho lo g y 29.5 26 44.2 3.8 12.5 41.7 Bar Graph 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 All fields Biological Sciences Eduation Engineering Physical Psychology Sciences Scatter Plots Graph bivariate data when both variables are measured in an interval/ratio or ordinal scale Units for one variable are marked on the horizontal axis Independent variable should always go on the horizontal, x axis Scatterplots Calories in Common Foods 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Survey of 3368 people asking them to estimate number of calories in common foods. Example 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 2 00 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 1 3 2 4 1 3 0 1 0 0 2 A city planner collected data on the number of school age children in each of 30 families. Construct a grouped data table using classes based on a single value Computing Frequency Num b er o f Freq uency Rela tive Freq uency Child ren 0 1 2 3 4 12 6 7 3 2 30 0.400 0.200 0.233 0.100 0.067 1.000 There are three ways you can create classes a < but not equal to b b < but not equal to c a b, c d, e f single value grouping Distributions Histograms Difference between histograms and bar graphs Bars in a h...

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CUNY Baruch - GTECH - 201
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Vanderbilt - PHY - 225
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Jan 27, 2004 Will build the circuits into soldered connection and muchneater packages and I used them for a test before starting the labs today.Set up with 17 1/2 inches between the two lab carts, trigger on power tolaser which is negative.