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61 Pages

Chapter18

Course: PHYS 131-133, Spring 2008
School: Cal Poly
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Word Count: 5689

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Solve: 18.1. We can use the ideal-gas law in the form pV = NkBT to determine the Loschmidt number (N/V): 1.013 10 5 Pa N p = 2.69 10 25 m -3 = = V kB T (1.38 10 -23 J K )(273 K ) ( ) 18.2. Solve: Nitrogen is a diatomic molecule, so r 1.0 10-10 m. We can use the ideal-gas law in the form pV = NkBT and Equation 18.3 for the mean free path to obtain p: = (1.38 10 -23 J k )(293 K) = 0.0228 Pa kB T kB T 1 =...

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Solve: 18.1. We can use the ideal-gas law in the form pV = NkBT to determine the Loschmidt number (N/V): 1.013 10 5 Pa N p = 2.69 10 25 m -3 = = V kB T (1.38 10 -23 J K )(273 K ) ( ) 18.2. Solve: Nitrogen is a diatomic molecule, so r 1.0 10-10 m. We can use the ideal-gas law in the form pV = NkBT and Equation 18.3 for the mean free path to obtain p: = (1.38 10 -23 J k )(293 K) = 0.0228 Pa kB T kB T 1 = p= = 2 4 2 ( N V )r 2 4 2pr 2 4 2r 2 4 2 (1.0 m )(1.0 10 -10 m ) Assess: In Example 18.1 = 225 nm at STP for nitrogen. = 1.0 m must therefore require a very small pressure. 18.3. Solve: (a) Air is primarily comprised of diatomic molecules, so r 1.0 10-10 m. Using the ideal-gas law in the form pV = NkBT, we get N p = = V kB T (b) The mean free path is 1.0 10 -10 mm of Hg (1.38 10 -23 1.013 10 5 Pa 760 mm of Hg = 3.30 1012 m -3 J K )(293 K ) = 1 1 6 = 2 = 1.71 10 m 4 2 ( N V )(r 2 ) 4 2 (3.30 1012 m -3 )(1.0 10 -10 m ) Assess: The pressure p in the vacuum chamber is 1.33 10-8 Pa = 1.32 10-13 atm. A mean free path of 1.71 106 m is large but not unreasonable. 18.4. Solve: (a) The mean free path of a molecule in a gas at temperature T1, volume V1, and pressure p1 is 1 = 300 nm. We also know that = 1 V 4 2 ( N V )r 2 Although T2 = 2T1, constant volume (V2 = V1) means that 2 = 1 = 300 nm. (b) For T2 = 2 T1 and p2 = p1, the ideal gas equation gives p1V1 pV p1V2 = 2 2 = V2 = 2V1 NkB T1 NkB T2 NkB (2T1 ) Because V , 2 = 21 = 2(300 nm) = 600 nm. 18.5. Solve: Neon is a monatomic gas and has a radius r 5.0 10-11 m. Using the ideal-gas equation, (150) 1.013 10 5 Pa N p = 3.695 10 27 m -3 = = V kB T (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(298 K ) Thus, the mean free path of a neon atom is ( ) = 1 1 -9 = m 2 = 6.09 10 2 -3 -11 27 4 2 ( N V )r 4 2 (3.695 10 m )(5.0 10 m ) 6.09 10 -9 m = 61 atomic diameters 1.0 10 -10 m Since the atomic diameter of neon is 2 (5.0 10-11 m) = 1.0 1010 m, = 18.6. Solve: The number density of the Ping-Pong balls inside the box is N 2000 = = 2000 m -3 V 1.0 m 3 With r = (3.0 cm)/2 = 1.5 cm, the mean free path of the balls is 1 = = 0.125 m = 12.5 cm 4 2 ( N V ) r 2 ( ) 18.7. Solve: (a) In tabular form we have Particle 1 2 3 4 5 6 Average vx (m/s) vy (m/s) 2 v x (m/s)2 2 v y (m/s)2 v2 (m/s)2 1300 6500 6500 4000 2500 2000 3800 v (m/s) 36.06 80.62 80.62 63.25 50.00 44.72 59.20 20 30 -40 70 -80 -10 60 -20 0 -50 40 -20 0 0 r r r ^ ^ The average velocity is vavg = 0 i + 0 j . (b) The average speed is vavg = 59.2 m / s . (c) The root-mean-square speed is vrms = 400 1600 6400 3600 0 1600 900 4900 100 400 2500 400 (v ) 2 avg = 3800 m 2 / s 2 = 61.6 m / s . 18.8. Solve: (a) The average speed is vavg = (b) The root-mean-square speed is 220 m / s 1 n=25 = 20.0 m / s n m / s = 11 11 n=15 1 vrms = (v ) 2 avg 1 n=25 2 4510 2 = n2 m / s = = 20.2 m / s 11 11 n=15 1 18.9. Solve: (a) The atomic mass number of argon is 40. This means the mass of an argon atom is m = 40 u = 40(1.661 10 -27 kg) = 6.64 10 -26 kg The pressure of the gas is N 2 p = 1 mvrms = 3 V 1 3 (2.0 10 ( 25 m -3 (6.64 10 -26 kg)( 455 m / s) = 9.16 104 Pa 2 ) (b) The temperature of the gas in the container can be obtained from the ideal-gas equation in the form pV = NkBT: T= 9.16 10 4 Pa pV = = 332 K NkB 2.0 10 25 m -3 (1.38 10 -23 J / K ) ) 18.10. Solve: The pressure on the wall with area A = 10 cm2 = 10 10-4 m2 is p= F ( mv) N = A At where N t is the number of N 2 molecules colliding with the wall every second and (mv) is the change in momentum for one collision. The mass of the nitrogen moleucle is m = 28 u = 28 (1.66 10-27 kg) = 4.648 10-26 kg and v = 400 m / s - ( -400 m / s) = 800 m / s . Thus, p= (4.648 10 -26 kg)(800 m / s)(5.0 10 23 s -1 ) 1.0 10 -3 m 2 = 1.86 10 4 Pa 18.11. Solve: The pressure on the wall with area A = 10 cm2 = 10 10-4 m2 is p= F ( mv) N = A At where N t is the number of N2 molecules colliding with the wall every second and (mv) is the change in momentum for one collision. Using the atomic mass number of oxygen, the number of collisions per second is 1.013 10 5 Pa (10 10 -4 m 2 ) N pA = = 1.91 10 24 s -1 = t ( mv) (32 1.66 10 -27 kg)(500 m / s - ( -500 m / s)) ( ) 18.12. Model: Pressure is due to random collisions of gas molecules with the walls. Solve: According to Eq. 18.8, the collision rate with one wall is rate of collisions = N coll F pA = net = t coll 2 mv x 2 mv x where Fnet = pA is the force exerted on area A by the gas pressure. However, this equation assumed that all molecules are moving in the x-direction with constant speed. The rms speed vrms is for motion in three dimensions at varying speeds. Consequently, we need to replace vx not with (vx)avg, which is zero, but with v x (v x2 ) avg = With this change, 2 vrms v = rms 3 3 rate of collisions = 3 pA = 2 mvrms 3 (2 101, 300 Pa)(0.10 m 0.10 m) = 6.55 10 25 s -1 2(28 1.661 10 -27 kg)(576 m / s) This collision rate can also be found by using the expression in Eq. 18.10, making the same change in vx, and using the ideal gas law to determine N/V. 18.13. Solve: The average translational kinetic energy per molecule in a gas is avg = The mass of a helium molecule is m = 4 u = 4(1.66 10-27 kg) = 6.64 10-27 kg 1 2 3 mvrms = kB T vrms = 2 2 3kB T m vrms = 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(1273 K ) 6.64 10 -27 kg = 2820 m / s For argon m = 40 u, so the root-means-square speed is vrms = 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(1273 K ) 40 1.66 10 -27 kg = 891 m / s 18.14. Solve: The average translational kinetic energy per molecule is avg = For nitrogen molecules m = 28 u, so 2 mvrms 1 2 3 mvrms = kB T T = 3kB 2 2 T= (28 1.66 10 kg)(30 m / s) 3(1.38 10 kg) -27 -23 2 = 1.0 K 18.15. Solve: Because the neon and argon atoms in the mixture are in thermal equilibrium, the temperature of each gas in the mixture must be the same. That is, using Equation 18.26, 2 2 mAr vrms Ar = mNe vrms Ne vrms Ar = vrms Ne mNe 20 u = 283 m / s = ( 400 m / s) mAr 40 u 18.16. Solve: The average translational kinetic energy per molecule is avg = 1 2 3 mvrms = kB T vrms = 2 2 3kB T m Since we want the vrms for H2 and N2 to be equal, 3kB TH2 mH 2 = mH 2 2u 3kB T TH2 = TN = (373 K) = 26.6 K mN 2 mN 2 2 28 u 18.17. Solve: The formula for the root-means-square speed as a function of temperature is (vrms )T = (a) For (vrms ) T = 1 2 3kB T m (vrms )STP , 3kB T = m 1 2 3kB (273 K ) 1 T = (273 K) = 68.3 K m 4 (b) For (vrms ) T = 2(vrms )STP , 3kB (273 K ) 3kB T =2 T = 4(273 K ) = 1090 K m m 18.18. Solve: The formula for the root-means-square speed as a function of temperature is (vrms )T = The ratio at 20C and at 100C is 3kB T m (vrms )100 (vrms )20 = 373 K = 1.13 293 K 18.19. Solve: Assuming ideal-gas behavior and ignoring relativistic effects, the root-mean-square speed of a molecule is The temperature where vrms 3kB T m is the speed of light (c) for a hydrogen molecule vrms = 2 -27 8 2 mvrms (2 u)c 2 2(1.66 10 kg)(3.0 10 m / s) T= = = 7.22 1012 K = 3kB 3kB 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K ) 18.20. Solve: (a) The average translational kinetic energy per molecule is 2 3 avg = 1 mvrms = 2 kB T 2 This means avg doubles if the temperature T doubles. (b) The root-mean-square speed vrms increases by a factor of 2 as the temperature doubles. (c) The mean free path is 1 = 4 2 ( N V )r 2 Because N/V and r do not depend on T, doubling temperature has no effect on . 3 3 18.21. Solve: (a) The total translational kinetic energy of a gas is K micro = 2 N A kBT = 2 nRT . For H2 gas at STP, K micro = (b) For He gas at STP, 3 2 (1.0 mol)(8.31 J / mol K)(273 K) = 3400 J (1.0 mol)(8.31 J / mol K)(273 K) = 3400 J K micro = 3 2 (c) For O2 gas at STP, K micro = 3400 J. Assess: The translational kinetic energy of a gas depends on the temperature and the number of molecules but not on the molecule's mass. 18.22. Solve: (a) The mean free path is = 1 4 2 ( N V )r 2 where r 0.5 10-10 m is the atomic radius for helium and N/V is the gas number density. From the ideal gas law, N p 0.10 atm 101,300 Pa / atm = 7.34 10 25 m -3 = = V kT (1.38 10 -23 J / K)(10 K) = 4 2 7.34 10 ( 1 25 m -3 )(0.5 10 -10 m) 2 = 3.07 10 -7 m = 307 nm (b) The root-mean-square speed is vrms = 3kB T = m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(10 K ) 4 (1.661 10 -27 kg) = 250 m / s where we used A = 4 u as the atomic mass of helium. 3 3 (c) The average energy per atom is avg = 2 kB T = 2 1.38 10 -23 J / K (10 K ) = 2.07 10 -22 J . ( ) 18.23. Solve: (a) The average kinetic energy of a proton at the center of the sun is 3 avg = 2 kB T 3 2 (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(2 10 7 K ) = 4 10 -16 J (b) The root-mean-square speed of the proton is vrms = 3kB T m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(2 10 7 K ) 1.67 10 -27 kg = 7 10 5 m / s 18.24. Solve: (a) Since the hydrogen in the sun's atmosphere is monatomic, the average translational kinetic energy per atom is 3 avg = 2 kB T = 3 2 (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(6000 K ) = 1.24 10 -19 J (b) The root-mean-square speed is vrms = 3kB T = mH 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(6000 K ) 1.67 10 -27 kg = 1.22 10 4 m / s 18.25. Solve: The volume of the air is V = 6.0 m 8.0 m 3.0 m = 144.0 m3, the pressure p = 1 atm = 1.013 105 Pa, and the temperature T = 20C = 293 K. The number of moles of the gas is n= This means the number of molecules is pV = 5991 mols RT N = nN A = (5991 mols)(6.022 10 23 mol -1 ) = 3.61 10 27 molecules. Since air is a diatomic gas, the room's thermal energy is 5 Eth = N avg = N ( 2 kB T ) = 3.65 10 7 J Assess: The room's thermal energy can also be obtained as follows: Eth = nCV T = (5991 mols)(20.8 J/mol K)(293 K) = 3.65 107 J 18.26. Solve: The thermal energy of a solid is Eth = 3 NkB T = 3nRT The volume of lead V = 100 cm3 = 10-4 m3 which means the mass is M = V = (11,300 kg/m3)(10-4 m3) = 1.13 kg Because the atomic mass number of Pb is 207, the number of moles is n= M 1.13 kg = = 5.459 mol Mmol 0.207 kg / mol Eth = 3(5.459 mols)(8.31 J / mol K )(293 K ) = 3.99 10 4 J 18.27. Solve: (a) For a monatomic gas, Eth = nCV T = 1.0 J = (1.0 mol)(12.5 J / mol K )T T = 0.0800C or 0.0800 K (b) For a diatomic gas, 1.0 J = (1.0 mol)(20.8 J/mol K)T T = 0.0481C or K (c) For a solid, 1.0 J = (1.0 mol)(25.0 J/mol K) T T = 0.0400C or K 18.28. Solve: The conservation of energy equation (Eth)gas + (Eth)solid = 0 J is ngas (CV ) gas (Tf - Ti ) gas + nsolid (CV )solid (Tf - Ti )solid = 0 J (1.0 mol)(12.5 J/mol K)(-50 K) + (1.0 mol)(25.0 J/mol K)(T)solid = 0 (T)solid = 25C The temperature of the solid increases by 25C. 3 Refer to Figure 18.13. At low temperatures, CV = 2 R = 12.5 J / mol K. At room temperature 7 5 and modestly hot temperatures, CV = 2 R = 20.8 J / mol K. At very hot temperatures, CV = 2 R = 29.1 J / mol K. Solve: (a) The number of moles of diatomic hydrogen gas in the rigid container is 18.29. Visualize: 0.20 g = 0.1 mol 2 g / mol The heat needed to change the temperature of the gas from 50 K to 100 K at constant volume is Q = Eth = nCV T = (0.1 mol)(12.5 J/mol K)(100 K 50 K) = 62.4 J (b) To raise the temperature from 250 K to 300 K, Q = Eth = (0.1 mol)(20.8 J/mol K)(300 K 250 K) = 104 J (c) To raise the temperature from 550 K to 600 K, Q = 104 J. (d) To raise the temperature from 2250 K to 2300 K, Q = Eth = nCVT = (0.10 mol)(29.1 J/mol K)(50 K) = 145 J. 18.30. Solve: (a) Nitrogen is a diatomic gas. The thermal energy of the gas at T = 20C = 293 K is Eth = = pV 5 5 R T nRT = RT 2 2 (1.013 10 7 (8.31 J / mol K)(293 K) Pa )(15, 000 10 -6 m 3 ) (20.8 J / mol K)(293 K) = 3.80 10 5 J (b) The number density of the gas is (1.013 10 7 Pa) = 2.51 1027 m-3 N p = = V kB T (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(293 K ) Since nitrogen is a diatomic molecule, the mean free path is = 1 1 -9 m = 2 = 2.25 10 4 2 ( N V )r 2 4 2 (2.51 10 27 m -3 )(1.0 10 -10 m ) (c) For an isothermal process, T = 0 K. Thus Eth = 0 J. 18.31. Solve: (a) The thermal energy of a monatomic gas is 3 3 E th = 2 NkB T = 2 nRT T = 2 Eth 1 3 n R 2 5000 J 1 TA = = 201 K 3 2.0 mol (8.31 J / mol K ) 2 8000 J 1 TB = = 214 K 3 3.0 mol (8.31 J / mol K ) Thus, gas B has the higher initial temperature. (b) The equilibrium condition is ( A )avg = ( B )avg = ( tot )avg . This means EAf E Etot = Bf = nA nB n A + nB EAf = nA 2 mols 5000 J + 8000 J = 5200 J Etot = ( ) 2 mols + 3 mols n A + nB EBf = nB 3 mols Etot = (13,000 J) = 7800 J 5 mols n A + nB 18.32. Solve: The equilibrium condition is (A)avg = (B)avg = (tot)avg Thus the final thermal energies are EAf E Etot = Bf = nA nB n A + nB nA 4.0 mols 9000 J + 5000 J = 8000 J EAf = ( ) Etot = 4.0 mols + 3.0 mols n A + nB nB 3.0 mols 14,000 J = 6000 J EBf = ( ) Etot = 7.0 mols n A + nB Because EAi = 9000 J and EAf = 8000 J, 1000 J of heat energy is transferred from gas A to gas B. 18.33. Solve: The mean free path for a monatomic gas is = 1 V = 4 2 r 2 2 N 4 2 ( N V )r For = 2r, meaning that the mean free path equals the atomic diameter, V/N 4 3 V = 4 2 (2r )(r 2 ) = r 6 2 4 3 = 6 2 = 8.48 3 N 3 r 18.34. Visualize: Solve: The average energy of an oxygen molecule at 300 K is avg = Eth 5 = 2 kB T = N 5 2 (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(300 K ) = 1.035 10 -20 J The energy conservation equation Ugf + Kf = Ugi + Ki with Kf = avg is mgyf + avg = mgyi + 0 J With yi = h and yf = 0 m, we have mgh = 1.035 10 -20 J h = 1.035 10 -20 J = 1.99 10 4 m (32 1.66 10 -27 kg)(9.8 m / s2 ) mass m of each atom or molecule. The mass density and the number density (N/V) are related by = m(N/V), so the mass is m = (V/N). From the ideal-gas law, the number density is 18.35. Solve: (a) To identify the gas, we need to determine its atomic mass number A or, equivalently, the N p 50,000 Pa = 1.208 10 25 m -3 = = V kT (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(300 K ) Thus, the mass of an atom is m= Converting to atomic mass units, V 8.02 10 -2 kg / m 3 = = 6.64 10 -27 kg N 1.208 10 25 m -3 1u = 4.00 u 1.661 10 -27 kg A = 6.64 10 -27 kg This is the atomic mass of helium. (b) Knowing the mass, we find vrms to be vrms = 3kB T = m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(300 K ) 6.64 10 -27 kg = 1367 m / s (c) A typical atomic radius is r 0.5 10-10 m. The mean free path is thus = 1 1 -6 m = 1.86 m = 2 = 1.86 10 2 25 4 2 ( N V )r 4 2 1.208 10 m -3 (0.5 10 -10 m ) ( ) 18.36. Solve: (a) The number density is N / V = 1 cm -3 = 10 6 m -3 . Using the ideal-gas equation, p= N kB T (1 10 6 m -3 )(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(3 K ) V 1 atm = 4 10 -17 Pa = 4 10 -22 atm 1.013 10 5 Pa (b) For a monatomic gas, vrms = 3kB T = m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(3 K ) 1.67 10 -27 kg = 270 m/s 3 (c) The thermal energy is Eth = 2 NkB T , where N = (10 6 m -3 )V . Thus Eth = 1.0 J = 3 2 (10 6 m -3 )V (1.38 10 -23 J / K )(3 K ) V = 1.6 1016 m 3 = L3 L = 2.5 10 5 m 18.37. Solve: Mass m of a dust particle is m = V = ( 4 r 3 ) = (2500 kg / m 3 ) 4 (5 10 -6 m ) = 1.3 10 -12 kg 3 3 3 [ ] The root-mean-square speed of the dust particles at 20C is vrms = 3kB T = m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(293 K ) 1.3 10 -12 kg = 9.6 10 -5 m / s 18.38. Solve: Fluorine has atomic mass number A = 19. Thus the root-mean-square speed of 238UF6 is vrms ( 238 UF6 ) = 3kB T = m 3kB T 238 u + 6 19 u The ratio of the root-mean-square speed for the molecules of this isotope and the 235UF6 molecules is vrms vrms ( ( 235 238 UF6 UF6 ) )= 352 (238 + 6 19) u = = 1.0043 349 (235 + 6 19) u 18.39. Solve: (a) If the electron can be thought of as a point particle with zero radius, then it will collide with any gas particle that is within r of its path. Hence, the number of collisions Ncoll is equal to the number of gas particles in a cylindrical volume of length L. The volume of a cylinder is Vcyl = AL = r 2 L . If the number density of the gas is (N/V) particles per m3, then the number of collisions along a trajectory of length L is ( ) N coll = Introducing a factor of N N L 1 Vcyl = r 2 L electron = = V V N coll ( N / V )r 2 ( ) 2 to account for the motion of all particles, L 1 electron = = N coll 2 ( N / V )r 2 (b) Assuming that most of the molecules in the accelerator are diatomic, 5.0 10 4 m = From the ideal-gas equation, 2 ( N / V )(1.0 10 1 -10 m) 2 N / V = 4.50 1014 m -3 p= N kB T = ( 4.50 1014 m -3 )(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(293 K ) = 1.82 10 -6 Pa = 1.80 10 -11 atm V 18.40. Visualize: Please refer to Figure P18.40 in the textbook. Solve: (a) The most probable speed is 4 m/s. (b) The average speed is vavg = 2 2 m / s + 4 4 m / s + 3 6 m / s +1 8 m / s = 4.6 m / s 2 + 4 + 3+1 2 2 2 2 (c) The root-mean-square speed is vrms = 2 (2 m / s) + 4 ( 4 m / s) + 3 (6 m / s) + 1 (8 m / s) = 4.94 m / s 2 + 4 + 3 +1 18.41. Solve: (a) The cylinder volume is V = r2L = 1.571 103 m3. Thus the number density is N 2.0 10 22 = = 1.273 10 25 m -3 V 1.571 10 -3 m 3 (b) The mass of an argon atom is m = 40 u = 40(1.661 10-27 kg) = 6.64 10-26 kg vrms = 3kB T = m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K )(323 K ) 6.64 10 -26 kg = 449 m / s (c) vrms is the square root of the average of v2. That is, 2 2 2 vrms = (v 2 )avg = (v x )avg + v y ( ) avg + (vz2 )avg 2 An atom is equally likely to move in the x, y, or z direction, so on average v x ( ) avg 2 = vy ( ) avg = (vz2 )avg . Hence, vrms = 259 m / s 3 (d) When we considered all the atoms to have the velocity, same we found the collision rate to be 1 ( N V ) Av x (see 2 Equation 18.10). Because the atoms move with different speeds, we need to replace vx with (vx)rms. The end of the cylinder has area A = r2 = 7.85 103 m2. Therefore, the number of collisions per second is 2 x avg 2 2 vrms = 3(v x )avg (v x ) rms = (v ) = 1 2 ( N / V ) A(v x ) rms = 1 (1.273 10 25 m -3 )(7.85 10 -3 m 2 )(259 m / s) = 1.296 1025 s-1 2 (e) From kinetic theory, the pressure is N N 2 p = 1 m v 2 avg = 1 mvrms = 3 3 V V ( ) 1 3 (1.273 10 25 m -3 (6.64 10 -26 kg)( 449 m / s) = 56,800 Pa 2 ) (f) From the ideal gas law, the pressure is 22 -23 NkB T (2.0 10 )(1.38 10 J / K )(323 K ) = 56,700 Pa = 1.571 10 -3 m 3 V Assess: The very slight difference with part (e) is due to rounding errors. p= 18.42. Model: Pressure is due to random collisions of gas molecules with the walls. Solve: According to Eq. 18.10, the collision rate with one wall is N 1N rate of collisions = coll = Av x t coll 2 V However, this equation assumed that all molecules are moving in the x-direction with constant speed. The rms speed vrms is for motion in three dimensions at varying speeds. Consequently, we need to replace vx not with (vx)avg, which is zero, but with v x (v x2 ) avg = With this change, 2 vrms v = rms 3 3 rate of collisions = 1 N Avrms 2 3 V The molecular mass of nitrogen is A = 28 u, thus the rms speed of the molecules at 20C is vrms = 3kB T = m 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K) (293 K) = 510 m / s 28(1.661 10 27 kg) With N = 0.10NA = 6.02 1022 molecules, the number density is N 6.02 10 22 = = 6.02 10 25 m -3 V 0.10 m 0.10 m 0.10 m Thus rate of collisions = 1 (6.02 10 25 m -3 )(0.10 m 0.10 m)(510 m / s) = 8.86 10 25 s -1 2 3 18.43. Solve: (a) The number of molecules of helium is N helium = 2.0 1.013 10 5 Pa (100 10 -6 m 3 ) pV = 3.936 10 21 = kB T (1.38 10 -23 J / K)(373 K) ( ) nhelium = The initial internal energy of helium is 3.936 10 21 = 6.536 10 -3 mol 6.022 10 23 mol -1 3 Ehelium i = 2 N helium kB T = 30.4 J The number of molecules of argon is N argon = 4.0 1.013 10 5 Pa (200 10 -6 m 3 ) pV = 8.726 10 21 = kB T (1.38 10 -23 J / K)(673 K) ( ) nargon = The initial thermal energy of argon is 8.726 10 21 = 1.449 10 -2 mol 6.022 10 23 mol -1 3 Eargon i = 2 N argon kB T = 121.6 J (b) The equilibrium condition for monatomic gases is (helium f)avg = (argon f)avg = (total)avg Ehelium f nhelium = Eargon f nargon = Ehelium f = (7228 J / mol)nhelium = (7228 J / mol)(6.54 10 -3 mol) = 47.3 J Eargon f = (7228 J / mol)nargon = (7228 J / mol)(1.449 10 -2 mol) = 104.7 J (c) The amount of heat transferred is Etot (30.4 + 121.6) J = = 7228 J / mol ntot (6.54 10 -3 + 1.449 10 -2 ) mol Ehelium f - Ehelium i = 47.3 J - 30.4 J = 16.9 J Eargon f - Eargon i = 104.7 J - 121.6 J = -16.9 J The helium gains 16.9 J of heat energy and the argon loses 16.9 J. Thus 16.9 J are transferred from the argon to the helium. (d) The equilibrium condition for monatomic gases is ( helium )avg = ( argon )avg Substituting the above values, Ehelium f N helium = Eargon f N argon 3 = 2 kB Tf 47.3 J 104.7 J = = 3.936 10 21 8.726 10 21 (e) The final pressure of the helium and argon are 3 2 (1.38 10 -23 J / K )Tf TF = 580 K phelium f = 21 -23 N helium kB T (3.936 10 )(1.38 10 J / K )(580 K ) = 3.15 105 Pa = 3.11 atm = 100 10 -6 m 3 Vhelium pargon f = N argon kB T Vargon = (8.726 10 )(1.38 10 21 -23 200 10 -6 J / K )(580 K ) 3 m = 3.49 105 Pa = 3.45 atm 18.44. Solve: (a) The number of moles of helium and oxygen are nhelium = 2.0 g = 0.50 mol 4.0 g / mol noxygen = 8.0 g = 0.25 mol 32.0 g / mol Since helium is a monoatomic gas, the initial thermal energy is 3 3 Ehelium i = nhelium ( 2 RThelium ) = (0.50 mol)( 2 )(8.31 J / mol K )(300 K ) = 1870 J Since oxygen is a diatomic gas, the initial thermal energy is Eoxygen i = noxygen ( 5 2 RToxygen ) 5 = (0.25 mol)( 2 )(8.31 J / mol K )(600 K ) = 3116 J (b) The total initial thermal energy is Etot = Ehelium i + Eoxygen i = 4986 J As the gases interact, they come to equilibrium at a common temperature Tf. This means 3 5 4986 J = nhelium ( 2 RTf ) + noxygen ( 2 RTf ) Tf = ( R)(3nhelium + 5noxygen ) 1 2 4986 J = 1 2 4986 J = 436.4 K = 436 K (8.31 J / mol K)(3 0.50 mol + 5 0.25 mol) The thermal energies at the final temperature Tf are 3 3 Ehelium f = nhelium ( 2 RTf ) = ( 2 )(0.50 mol)(8.31 J / mol K )( 436.4 K ) = 2720 J 5 5 Eoxygen f = noxygen ( 2 RTf ) = ( 2 )(0.25 mol)(8.31 J / mol K )( 436.4 K ) = 2266 J (c) The change in the thermal energies are Ehelium f - Ehelium i = 2720 J - 1870 J = 850 J The helium gains energy and the oxygen loses energy. (d) The final temperature can also be calculated as follows: Eoxygen f - Eoxygen i = 2266 J - 3116 J = -850 J 3 Ehelium f = (nhelium ) 2 RTf 2720 J = (0.50 mol)(1.5)(8.31 J/mol K)Tf Tf = 436.4 K = 436 K 18.45. Solve: The thermal energy of any ideal gas is related to the molar specific heat at constant volume by Eth = nCVT Since CP = CV + R , 20.8 J / mol K = CV + R CV = 12.5 J / mol K The number of moles of the gas is n= Thus 1.0 10 20 = 1.66 10 -4 mol 6.02 10 23 mol -1 T= (1.0 J) = 482 K (1.66 10 mols)(12.5 J / mol K) -4 18.46. Solve: For a system with n degrees of freedom, the molar specific heat is CV = nR/2. The specific heat ratio is CP CV + R R R R 7 = = 1+ = - 1 = 1.29 - 1 = 0.29 CV = = 3.5 R = 2 R CV CV CV CV 0.29 Thus, the system has 7 degrees of freedom. = 18.47. Solve: The molar specific heat at constant volume CV can in general be written as CV = 1 f R , where f 2 is the number of degrees of freedom. Using CP = CV + R , = CP CV + R R 2R f + 2 = = 1+ = 1+ = CV CV CV fR f For a monatomic gas = (3 + 2) 3 = 1.67 and for a diatomic gas = (5 + 2) 5 = 1.40 . 18.48. Solve: As the volume V1 of a gas increases to V2 = 2V1 at a constant pressure p1 = p2, the temperature of the gas changes from T1 to T2 as follows: p2 V2 pV V p = 1 1 T2 = T1 2 2 = 2T1 T2 T1 V1 p1 Since the process occurs at constant pressure the heat transferred is Q = nCP T = nCP (T2 - T1 ) = nCP (2T1 - T1 ) = nCP T1 For a monatomic gas, 3 5 CP = CV + R = 2 R + R = 2 R For the diatomic gas, 5 7 CP = CV + R = 2 R + R = 2 R Thus 7 n( 2 R)T1 Qdiatomic = 5 = 1.40 Qmonatomic n( 2 R)T1 18.49. Solve: Assuming that the systems are thermally isolated except from each other, the total energy for the two thermally interacting systems must remain the same. That is, E1i + E2i = E1f + E2f E1f - E1i = E2i - E2f = -( E2f - E1f ) E1 = - E2 No work is done on either system, so from the first law E = Q. Thus Q1 = -Q2 That is, the heat lost by one system is gained by the other system. 18.50. Solve: (a) From Equation 18.26 vrms = 3kBT m . For an adiabatic process Tf V -1 f = Ti Vi -1 V Tf = Ti i Vf -1 Tf = Ti (8) 3 5 -1 = 4Ti The root-mean-square speed increases by a factor of 2 with an increase in temperature. (b) From Equation 18.3 = 4 2 ( N / V )r 2 (c) For an adiabatic process, [ ] -1 . A decrease in volume decreases the mean free path by a factor of 1/8. -1 V Tf Vf -1 = Ti Vi -1 Tf = Ti i Vf = Ti (8) 3 5 -1 = 4Ti Because the decrease in volume increases Tf , the thermal energy increases by a factor of 4. 3 (d) The molar specific heat at constant volume is CV = 2 R, a constant. It does not change. 3 18.51. Solve: (a) The thermal energy of a monatomic gas of N molecules is Eth = N avg , where avg = 2 k BT . A monatomic gas molecule has 3 degrees of freedom. However, a two-dimensional monatomic gas molecule has only 2 degrees of freedom. Thus, Eth = N ( 2 kB T ) = NkB T = nRT 2 If the temperature changes by T, then the thermal energy changes by Eth = nRT . Comparing this form with Eth = nCV T , we have CV = R = 8.31 J/mol K. (b) A two-dimensional solid has 2 degrees of freedom associated with the kinetic energy and 2 degrees of freedom associated with the potential energy (or 2 spring directions), giving a total of 4 degrees of freedom. Thus, Eth = Navg 4 and avg = 2 kB T . Or Eth = 2NkBT = 2nRT. For a temperature change of T, Eth = 2nRT = nCVT CV = 2 R = 16.6 J / mol K. 18.52. Solve: (a) A polyatomic molecule can have 3 degrees of freedom associated with the translational kinetic energy and 3 degrees of freedom associated with rotations about three mutually perpendicular axes, giving a total of 6 degrees of freedom. Thus, Eth = N avg = N ( 6 kB T ) = 3 NkB T = 3nRT Eth = 3nRT = nCV T CV = 3 R = 25.0 J/mol K 2 (b) Since CP = CV + R, CP =3R + R = 4R. The specific heat ratio of a polyatomic molecule is predicted to be C 4R = P = = 1.33 CV 3 R The prediction of 1.33 is very close to water's value of 1.31. 18.53. Solve: (a) The rms speed is vrms = vrms hydrogen 3kB T = vrms oxygen m 32 u =4 2u 3 (b) The average translational energy is = 2 kB T . Thus avg hydrogen avg oxygen (c) The thermal energy is = Thydrogen Toxygen =1 5 Eth = 2 nRT Eth hydrogen Eth oxygen = nhydrogen noxygen = mhydrogen 2.0 g / mol 32.0 g / mol = 16 moxygen 18.54. Solve: The thermal energy of the neon (monatomic) gas is 3 Eneon = 2 nneon RT = 3 2 3 (1 mol) RT = 2 RT The thermal energy of the nitrogen (diatomic) gas is 5 Enitrogen = 2 nnitrogen RT = 5 2 (2 mol) RT = 5 RT 13 2 Thus the total thermal energy is 3 Eth = 2 RT + 5 RT = 13 2 RT Eth = RT = nCV T where n is the total number of moles equal to nneon + nnitrogen = 3 mol. Therefore, we have CV = 13 6 R = 18.0 J / mol K 3 18.55. Solve: The thermal energy of a monatomic gas of n1 moles is E1 = 2 n1 RT . The thermal energy of a 5 diatomic gas of n2 moles is E2 = 2 n2 RT . The total thermal energy of the mixture is Eth = E1 + E2 = Comparing this expression with 1 2 (3n1 + 5n2 ) RT Eth = 1 (3n1 + 5n2 ) RT 2 E th = ntotal CV T = (n1 + n2 )CV T we get (n1 + n2 )CV = = 1.50 = The above equation is then (3n1 + 5n2 ) R 2 The requirement that the ratio of specific heats is 1.50 means CP CV + R R = = 1+ CV = 2 R CV CV CV (n1 + n2 )(2 R) = (3n1 + 5n2 ) R 4n 2 1 + 4n2 = 3n1 + 5n2 n1 = n2 Thus, monatomic and diatomic molecules need to be mixed in the ratio 1:1. Or the fraction of the molecules that are monatomic needs to be 1 . 2 3 18.56. Solve: (a) The thermal energy of a monatomic gas of n1 moles is E1 = 2 n1 RT . The thermal energy of a 5 diatomic gas of n2 moles is E2 = 2 n2 RT . The total thermal energy of the mixture is Eth = Comparing this expression with 1 2 (3n1 + 5n2 ) RT Eth = 1 (3n1 + 5n2 ) RT 2 E th = ntotal CV T = (n1 + n2 )CV T we get CV = (3n1 + 5n2 ) R 2(n1 + n2 ) 3 5 (b) For a diatomic gas, n1 0, and CV = 2 R . For a monotomic gas, n2 0, and CV = 2 R . 18.57. Solve: (a) The thermal energy is 5 5 5 Eth = ( Eth ) N + ( Eth ) O = 2 N N 2 kB T + 2 N O2 kB T = 2 N total kB T 2 2 where Ntotal is the total number of molecules. The identity of the molecules makes no difference since both are diatomic. The number of molecules in the room is N total = The thermal energy is pV (101,300 Pa )(2 m 2 m 2 m ) = = 2.15 10 26 kB T 1.38 10 -23 J / K )(273 K ) ( 26 -23 Eth = 5 2 (2.15 10 )(1.38 10 J / K )(273 K ) = 2.03 10 6 J (b) A 1 kg ball at height y = 1 m has a potential energy U = mgy = 9.8 J. The ball would need 9.8 J of initial kinetic energy to reach this height. The fraction of thermal energy that would have to be conveyed to the ball is 9.8 J = 4.83 10 -6 2.03 10 6 J 5 (c) A temperature change T corresponds to a thermal energy change Eth = 2 N total kB T . 5 But 2 N total kB = Eth T . Using this, we can write Eth = Eth Eth -9.8 J T T = 273 K = -0.00132 K T= 2.03 10 6 J T Eth The room temperature would decrease by 0.00132 K or 0.00132C. (d) The situation with the ball at rest on the floor and in thermal equilibrium with the air is a very probable distribution of energy and thus a state with high entropy. Although energy would be conserved by removing energy from the air and transferring it to the ball, this would be a very improbable distribution of energy and thus a state of low entropy. The ball will not be spontaneously launched from the ground because this would require a decrease in entropy, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. As another way of thinking about the situation, the ball and the air are initially at the same temperature. Once even the slightest amount of energy is transferred from the air to the ball, the air's temperature will be less than that of the ball. Any further flow of energy from the air to the ball would be a situation in which heat energy is flowing from a colder object to a hotter object. This cannot happen because it would violate the second law of thermodynamics. 18.58. Solve: This is not a wise investment. Although an invention to move energy from the hot brakes to the forward motion of the car would not violate energy conservation, it would violate the second law of thermodynamics. The forward motion of the car is a very improbable distribution of energy. It happens only when a force accelerates the car and then sustains the motion against the retarding forces of friction and air resistance. The moving car is a state of low entropy. By contrast, the random motion of many atoms in the hot brakes is a state of high probability and high entropy. To convert the random motion of the atoms in the brakes back into the forward motion of the car would require a decrease of entropy and thus would violate the second law of thermodynamics. In other words, the increasing temperature of the brakes as the car stops is an irreversible process that cannot be undone. 18.59. Solve: (a) We are given that 3kB T 3kB Ti (vrms f ) = m f = 2(vrms i ) m This means that Tf = 4Ti. Using the ideal-gas law, it also means that pfVf = 4piVi. Since the pressure is directly proportional to the volume during the process, we have pi/Vi = pf/Vf. Combining these two equations gives pf = 2pi and Vf = 2Vi. (vrms i ) = (b) The change in thermal energy for any ideal gas process is related to the molar specific heat at constant volume by Eth = nCV (Tf - Ti ) . The work done on the gas is The first law of thermodynamics Eth = Q + W can be written 3 3 Q = Eth - W = nCV (Tf - Ti ) + 2 pi Vi = 3nCV Ti + 2 pi Vi 5 3 = 3n( 2 R)Ti + 2 pi Vi = 15 2 3 pi Vi + 2 pi Vi = 9 pi Vi 3 W = - pdV = - (area under the p-versus-V graph) = - 2 pi Vi 18.60. Solve: (a) The escape speed is the speed with which a mass m can leave the earth's surface and escape to infinity (rf = ) with no left over speed (vf = 0). The conservation of energy equation Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui is 2 0 + 0 = 1 mvesc - 2 GMe m vesc = Re 2GMe Re The rms speed of a gas molecule is vrms = (3kBT/m)1/2. Equating vesc and vrms, and squaring both sides, the temperature at which the rms speed equals the escape speed is 2GMe 3kB T 2GMe = T = m m Re 3kB Re For a nitrogen molecule, with m = 28 u, the temperature is 2(6.67 10 -11 N m 2 / kg 2 ) (5.98 10 24 kg) T = (28 1.661 10 -27 kg) = 141, 000 K 3(1.38 10 -23 J / K) (6.37 10 6 m) (b) For a hydrogen molecule, with m = 2 u, the temperature is less by a factor of 14, or T = 10,100 K. 3 (c) The average translational kinetic energy of a molecule is avg = 2 kB T = 6.1 1021 J at a typical atmosphere 2 temperature of 20C. The kinetic energy needed to escape is K esc = 1 mvesc . For nitrogen molecules, Kesc = 2 18 2.9 10 J. Thus avg/Kesc = 0.002 = 0.2%. Earth will retain nitrogen in its atmosphere because the molecules are moving too slowly to escape. But for hydrogen molecules, with Kesc = 2.1 1019 J, the ratio is avg/Kesc = 0.03 = 3%. Thus a large enough fraction of hydrogen molecules are moving at escape speed, or faster, to allow hydrogen to leak out of the atmosphere into space. Consequently, earth's atmosphere does not contain hydrogen. 18.61. Solve: (a) The thermal energy of a monatomic gas of n1 moles at an initial temperature T1i is E1i = 5 n1 RT1i . The thermal energy of a diatomic gas of n2 moles at an initial temperature T2i is E2i = 2 n2 RT2i . Consequently, the total initial energy is 3 2 Etot = E1i + E2 i = 3n1 RT1i + 5n2 RT2i (3n1T1i + 5n2 T2i ) R = 2 2 After the gases interact, they come to equilibrium with T1f = T2f = Tf. Then their total energy is Etot = (3n1 + 5n2 ) RTf 2 No energy is lost, so these two expressions for Etot must be equal. Thus, (3n1T1i + 5n2 T2i ) R = (3n1 + 5n2 ) RTf 2 2 Tf = 3n1T1i + 5n2 T2i 2 Etot 2 ( E1i + E2i ) = = 3n1 + 5n2 R(3n1 + 5n2 ) R (3n1 + 5n2 ) The thermal energies at the final temperature Tf are 3 3 E1f = 2 n1 RTf = 2 n1 R 3n1 2 E1i + E2i = ( E1i + E2i ) R (3n1 + 5n2 ) 3n1 + 5n2 2 E1i + E2i 5n2 = ( E1i + E2i ) R 3n1 + 5n2 3n1 + 5n2 3n1T1i + 5n2 T2i 3n1 + 5n2 5 5 E2f = 2 n2 RTf = 2 n2 R (b) In part (a) we found that Tf = (c) 2 g of He at T1i = 300 K are n1 = (2 g)/(4 g/mol) = 0.50 mol. Oxygen has an atomic mass of 16, so the molecular mass of oxygen gas (O2) is A = 32 g/mol. 8 g of O2 at T2i = 600 K are n2 = (8 g)/(32 g/mol) = 0.25 mol. The final temperature is Tf = 3(0.50 mol)(300 K ) + 5(0.25 mol)(600 K ) = 436 K 3(0.50 mol) + 5(0.25 mol) The heat flows to the two gases are found from Q = nCVT. For helium, Q = n1CV T = (0.50 mol)(12.5 J / mol K )( 436 K - 300 K ) = 850 J For O2, Q = n2 CV T = (0.25 mol)(20.8 J / mol K )( 436 K - 600 K ) = -850 J So 850 J of heat is transferred from the oxygen to the helium.
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Cal Poly - PHYS - 131-133
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Berkeley - ECON - 102
Notes on the Economics of Land UseSusan E. Stratton1Land RentThe key concept for land rent is tied to scarcity. Since land is scarce, the owner of the land can claim the economic value of that scarce resource. In our basic model, land is the o
Berkeley - ECON - 102
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Berkeley - MCB - 130
Berkeley - MCB - 130
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Berkeley - MCB - 130
Berkeley - MCB - 130
February 21, 2007 MCB130 Midterm Exam R. Schekman, InstructorNAME_ Student ID# _ (page 1 of 5 pages) GSI name _1. The sarcoplasmic reticulum acquires Ca2+ via an active transport process driven by an ATPase pump. You have reconstituted the Ca2+-A
Berkeley - MCB - 130
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Berkeley - MCB - 130
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MCB 130 Schedule, Spring 2008Date W, Jan 23 F, Jan 25 M, Jan 28 W, Jan 30 F, Feb 1 M, Feb 4 W, Feb 6 F, Feb 8 M, Feb 11 W, Feb 13 F, Feb 15 M, Feb 18 W, Feb 20 F, Feb 22 M, Feb 25 W, Feb 27 F, Feb. 29 M, Mar. 3 W, Mar. 5 F, Mar. 7 M, Mar. 10 W, Mar.
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB 130 R. Schekman Membrane Structure Membrane Variety and Molecular Constituents A. Cells have membrane-bounded compartmentsLectures 1, 21. Membranes revealed by electron microscopy and by isolation of specialized organelles 2. Membranes provi
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MCB 130 R. Schekman Membrane Structure Asymmetry, Protein Mobility A. Evaluation of protein and lipid orientation in bilayerLectures 2, 31. Lectin binding indicates glycoproteins are asymmetrically oriented. 2. Proteolytic mapping demonstrates a
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MCB130 R. Schekman Transport of Small Molecules A. Function and types of permeaseLectures 4, 51. Permeases govern: ionic composition of cells and organelles; membrane potential; nutrient (sugar, amino acid) concentration. 2. Some permeases act to
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MCB130 R. Schekman Membrane Transport: Nucleocytoplasmic Transport I. Nuclear envelope A. Nuclear membraneLectures 5, 61. Pores are large structures that span junction of inner and outer membrane. 2. Transport of particles bi-directionally throug
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MCB130 R. Schekman Membrane Assembly: Signal Hypothesis and Translocation Machinery A. Signal hypothesisLectures 6, 71. Proteins destined for secretion or assembly in plasma membrane originate on ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
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MCB130 R. SchekmanLectures 8, 9Membrane Vesicular TrafficI. Transport from the endoplasmic reticulum A. Sorting of secretory and resident proteins 1. Proteins destined for transport are packaged into transport vesicles by coat proteins called C
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MCB130 R. Schekman Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission and Membrane Fusion A. Action potentialLectures 11-141. Because of the Na+ , K+ ATPase, nerve cells have a high external [Na+ ] 440 mM relative to cytoplasmic concentration (50 mM) and c
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MCB130, Midterm 1 Fall `05 Signature: SID:Name: GSI:Use only the space provided below to answer each question. Do not write on the back. For maximal credit, leave out extraneous information. 100 points total. 1. (10pts) How are sister chromatids
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1) Rank these 3 phospholipids in order from most fluid (1) to least fluid (3), and explain your reasoning? a- palmitate (C16, saturated) is (2), because it has no double bonds and has van der Waals contacts (from the saturated carbons) that give rigi
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Berkeley - MCB - 130
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB130 week1 solutions 1. a) What does amphipathic mean? This term is used to describe molecules with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. b) Aside from phospholipids, name two other amphipathic molecules we have discussed in lecture? Sphingoli
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Michigan - ECON - 101
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Virginia Tech - HD - 2314
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Virginia Tech - HD - 2314
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Virginia Tech - HD - 2314
Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality Human Development Human Development: Stages Infancy (birth to age 2) Infancy (birth to age 2)TRUE OR FALSE? Male fetuses have erections in the uterus Females can have vaginal lubrication from birth Yo
Virginia Tech - HD - 2314
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Berkeley - MCB - 130
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB 130 Sections 101 and 102 Week 4 - ER and Golgi GSI: Jackie Chretien jacquelineann@berkeley.edu1. In the following protein: S = signal peptide, {} = hydrophobic region{S}1{2}3{4}5{6}7{8}9(a) Draw the predicted orientation o
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Berkeley - MCB - 130
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB 130 Sections 101 and 102 Week 6 - Imaging and Cytoskeleton intro GSI: Jackie Chretien jacquelineann@berkeley.edu1. Fill in this table about different types of imaging techniques (use + or - ) : GFP et al. live imaging high resolution labeling s
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB 130 Sections 101 and 102 Week 7 - The Actin Cytoskeleton GSI: Jackie Chretien jacquelineann@berkeley.edu1. Draw cartoons of the three phases of actin assembly. Include kinetics arrows, indicate whether the actin is ATP, ADP+Pi, or ADP bound, and
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB 102 Handout 9/6 CHAPTER 1: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOCHEMISTRY Three domains of life: Eukaryotes-nuclear envelope, includes animals, plants and fungi Eubacteria-no nuclear envelope, includes bacteria such as E. coli Archaebacteria-no nuclear envelope, in
Berkeley - MCB - 130
MCB102 Handout 8/30 The following is an amino acid in its fully protonated form: H H O HN+CCOH H H 1a. Circle the alpha carbon. Put a box around the R group. Which amino acid is this? What are its three letter and one letter abbreviations?1b.
Berkeley - MCB - 102
MCB102 Handout 9/13 Levels of protein structure and the most significant interactions stabilizing them Primary-sequence of amino acid residues from N terminus to C terminus, covalent bonds Secondary-regular structure formed locally among nearby amino
Berkeley - MCB - 102
1.Draw the approximate positions of these four proteins on a 2D gel. molecular weight = 16,700 Da pI = 7.0 molecular weight = 14,400 Da pI = 11.0 molecular weight = 34,000 Da pI &lt; 1.0 molecular weight = 480,000 Da pI = 5.0 Decreasing pIMCB102 Han
Berkeley - MCB - 102
MCB102 Handout 9/20 1. Draw the approximate positions of these four proteins on a 2D gel. molecular weight = 16,700 Da pI = 7.0 molecular weight = 14,400 Da pI = 11.0 molecular weight = 34,000 Da pI &lt; 1.0 molecular weight = 480,000 Da pI = 5.0Myogl
Berkeley - MCB - 102
Glucose 6-phosphate 6-phosphoglucono-lactone Lactonase 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase1 2G6PNADP OH H+NADPHH2OH+PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 of ribulose 5-phosphate C-5NADP+ NADPH + CO2 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenas
Berkeley - MCB - 102
For each of the following pairs of half-reactions, what the net reaction and the free energy change? Fumarate + 2H+ + 2eSuccinate E' = 0.03 V FAD + 2H+ + 2eFADH2 Fumarate + FADH2 FADH2 FAD + 2H+ + 2eFAD + succinate E' = -0.22 V E' = 0.22 V E' = 0.25
Berkeley - MCB - 102
REDOX REACTIONSElectrons ALWAYS flow towards the redox pair with the HIGHER standard reduction potential, E'. To solve a redox problem: 1. Determine which half-reaction has the higher E'. 2. Reverse the other reaction and the sign of its E' value. 3
Berkeley - MCB - 102
MCB 102 Handout 10/25FATTY ACID BREAKDOWN aka OXIDATIONTriacylglycerols are stored in adipocytes until a hormone-sensitive lipase hydrolyzes them to yield glycerol and three free fatty acids. STEP 1: Linkage to CoA STEP 2: Transport into the mito