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Course: PH 2710, Fall 2009
School: Mt. Marty
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Word Count: 146

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Advanced PH2710 Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 2b: Estimating average risk, worksheet Fall 2001 Assigned: 09-05-2001 Due: 09-12-2001 1. Estimating incidence and survival proportions using the exponential formula. Age category tk Ak P-time Ik Rk Sk Time interval Incidence rate Incidence proportion Survival proportion S Cum Survival proportion 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 5 5 5 5 5 5 45 93 128 170...

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Advanced PH2710 Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 2b: Estimating average risk, worksheet Fall 2001 Assigned: 09-05-2001 Due: 09-12-2001 1. Estimating incidence and survival proportions using the exponential formula. Age category tk Ak P-time Ik Rk Sk Time interval Incidence rate Incidence proportion Survival proportion S Cum Survival proportion 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 5 5 5 5 5 5 45 93 128 170 179 198 771,887 686,539 588,457 458,350 369,521 343,521 5.82987 e-05 0.000135462 0.000217518 0.000370896 0.000484411 0.000576384 0.00029 0.00068 0.00109 0.00185 0.00242 0.00288 0.99971 0.99932 0.99891 0.99815 0.99758 0.99712 0.99971 0.99903 0.99795 0.99610 0.99369 0.99083 2. Estimating incidence proportion at year 1, year 2, and year 3 using the actuarial formula. Interval Nk No. at at risk beginning of interval 15 10 6 Ak No. of cases during interval 3 3 3 Wk No. of withdrawals during interval 2 1 3 Rk Incidence proportion 0.21429 0.31579 0.66667 0-12 13-24 25-36 1 2. Estimating survival and cumulative survival proportions using the product-limit formula. Study ID tk Status Nk Ak Sk S Total No. follow- Lost, case, not persons at up time case risk Total no. events Survival proportion Cum Survival proportion 34 40 29 5 32 33 42 50 57 62 29 38 27 26 47 1 2...

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Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Theconne ction be e causeand e ct has no be twe n ffe ginning and can haveno e ndLe Tolstoy, War and Pe o ace absoluterisk e ss risk xce attributablerisk re lativerisk attributablefraction e tiologic fraction risk fraction ratefractionMe asure of
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710: Advanced Epidemiologic Methods Fall 2001 Attributable Fractions 1. 2000 women who worked in a watch factory in 1945 were followed through 1975 (with no losses to follow-up). 1000 of these women painted radium dials on watches. The remaining f
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 - Causal contrast study design examples Rocha V, Wagner JE, Sobocinski KA, et al. Graft-versus-host disease in children who have received a cord-blood or bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical sibling. N Engl J Med 2000;342(25):1846-54.
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
C ounte rfactual Me thods: Estim ating Causal Effe ctsonfounding C ct-m asurem odification Effe e Quantifying biasI f civilization is to survive wem cultivatethescie of hum re , ust nce an lationships -theability of all pe s, of all kinds, ople
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Study DesignWhere is the knowledge we have lost in information? .T.S. EliotStudy DesignMajor study designs in epidemiologyEcological Cross-sectional Case-control Cohort Experimental trialsStudy DesignMajor study designs differ based on:Numbe
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
C ausal-contrast de signBase on: d counte rfactual approach to causal re asoning Pre isethat all e m tiologic de signs should e atem asure of stim e s causal e ct (causal contrasts) ffeC ausal-contrast de signS p 1 - que te stion S cifie pe sTar
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Causal contrast study design - Exercise Bergmire-Sweat D, et al. Escherichia coli 0111:H8 outbreak among teenage campers Texas 1999. MMWR 2000;49:321-4.Introduction - In June 1999, the Tarrant County Health
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Accuracy: validity and pre cision A m obje ajor ctiveof e m pide iologic studie s:to e atem asure of association as accurate as possible stim e s ly A m obje ajor ctiveof m thods use to de studie e d sign s, colle data, analyzedata, and inte t
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 4: Stratified Analysis Part I Crude and stratified analysisFall 2001 Assigned: 09-26-2001 Due: 10-08-2001Background/ historical context. By the mid 1970's, epidemiologic studies had established s
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 4 Stratified Analysis - Answers Part I Crude and stratified analysis Note: For convenience, we obtained contingency tables, ORs &amp; Cornfield confidence intervals from STATA. Hand-calculated Taylor CI
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
C onfounding A confusion of e cts that occurs whe thee ct of an e ffe n ffe xtrane ous factor is m istake for or m d with theactual e n ixe xposuree ct ffe Occurs whe dise risk factors areune nly distribute across n ase ve d e xposuregroups, m aki
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH 2710 Fall 2001 Exam 1 Answer Key 1. Define the following (12 points total; 2 points for each): a. Incidence proportion: proportion of closed population at risk that becomes diseased within a given time period; a measure of average risk b. Incidenc
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Our aimis to discove and asce r rtain thenatureand substanceof thesoul, and, in thene place all theaccide be xt , nts longing to it. AristotleC onfoundingAssociate with outcom (m bea risk factor for dise ) d e ust ase Associate with e d xposureund
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 5B: StandardizationFall 2001 Assigned: 10-10-2001 Due: 10-15-2001The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has recently called for widespread use of a new population standard, based on the
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
FL Population Weight Age 0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ TX Population Weight Age 0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85+ 1580072 2934510 2799839 2936666 3023291 2122018 1398715 1093609 606684 204656 18700060 0.0
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
The glitter of the ttable diverts attention from the inadequacy of the fare.Sir Austin Bradford Hill, 1965Significance testing/estimationPvalue Point estimate Interval estimate Pvalue functionSignificance (hypothesis) testingpvalue: the pro
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epi Methods I (Fall 2001) Questions for Misclassification ExamplesDiscussion (in class): 10/22Dorn HF. Tobacco consumption and mortality from cancer and other diseases. Public Health Reports. 1959;74:581-93. 1. Identify study met
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
The association between head trauma and Alzheimer's diseaseGraves AB, White E, Koepsell TD, et al. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:491-501 Research question(s): Does history of prior head trauma severe enough to cause loss of consciousness or for the patie
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Dorn HF. Tobacco consumption and mortality from cancer and other diseases. Public Health Reports 74: 581-593 (1959). Study Objective Implied Study Question Study Design Person To examine the relative difference in mortality rate of smokers and non-sm
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Bias De finition: any syste atic e m rror that distorts thetruth and re sults in an incorre e ateof association (non-randome ct stim rror) always a pote ntial re gardle of how rigorously de ss signe the d inve stigation is Type of bias in e ating
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 7: Selection bias examplesFall 2001 Assigned: 10-24-2001 Due: 10-31-2001Example: 30,000 medical technologists in City X participated in a health examination at the beginning of their employment, i
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Exercise 7 Answers Part A - Selection bias examples Example: 30,000 medical technologists in City X participated in a health examination at the beginning of their employment, including screening for cataracts. One third of the techs were subsequentl
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Exercise 6: Answers You are asked to describe seasonal patterns in the monthly proportion of births conceived to women aged 30 years and older in Texas. 1. Implement data editing and report your findings. A. Do a simple frequency table of all variabl
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Discussion questions for selection bias examplesFall 2001 Discussion: 10/29/01References Smith DC, Prentice R, Thompson DJ, Herrmann WL. Association of exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. N Engl
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Discussion for selection bias examplesFall 2001 Discussion: 10/29/01References Smith DC, Prentice R, Thompson DJ, Herrmann WL. Association of exogenous estrogen and endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1975
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
&quot;There are many hypotheses in science which are wrong. That's perfectly all right; they're the aperture to finding out what's right. &quot;Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.&quot;Carl SaganCohort StudiesReview of relevant measures of
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH 2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Fall 2001 Exam 2 Answer Key Part I 1. A 2. D 3. D 4. E 5. D 6. A OR C 7. D 8. D 9. E 10. OMITTED ; EXTRA CREDIT FOR D 11. C 12. G 13. E 14. E 15. B 16. B 17. E OR C 18. B Part II 1. C A B D 2. Stratum specific
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Case ontrol S -C tudie sS ngths com d to cohort studie tre pare sWhe case n -control studie arene d in a de d sourcepopulation, the pre nt an s ste fine y se e fficie m ans of obtaining re nt e sults that arecom parablein validity to thoseof a coho
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
MatchingDe finitionThese ction of a re re se s (une le fe nce rie xpose in a cohort study; controls in a case d control study) that is ide ntical (or approxim ly ide ate ntical) to theinde se s x rie (e xpose in a cohort study; case in a case d s -
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 8: Designing a cohort studyFall 2001 Assigned: 11-07-2001 Due: 11-19-2001For this exercise you will develop the basic design for a cohort study of the relation between gun ownership and the freque
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Answers Parts B &amp; D Part B 1. From the Kaplan et al. paper, it appears that death rates from firearms are higher in the West South Central Region than they are in the US on average. For a hypothetical Texas t
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
Crosssectional StudiesDeborah del Junco06/15/09Cross-sectional studies 11-12-011IntroductionOur Purpose Today: Define, Describe, Compare and Contrast Cross-Sectional Studies with other study designs What is Deborah del Junco's backgrou
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Levels of analysis multilevel studies discussion Reference Dargent-Molina P, James SA, Strogatz DS, Savitz DA. Association between maternal education and infant diarrhea in different household and community e
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 9 Part I Proportional mortality 1. Of 125,019 deaths occurring in Texas in 1990, 28,483 were due to malignant neoplasms. The 1990 proportional mortality due to cancer in Texas = 28,483 / 125,019 = 22
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
ECOLOGIC STUDIES Called &quot;incomplete design&quot;. Why? Data at the individual level are missing on the joint distribution of at least two variables within in each group.Comparison made at what level? GroupConcepts Levels of Measurement Aggregate me
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Levels of analysis Ecologic studies discussionFall 2001 In class: 11/19/01Reference Bongaarts J, Reining P, Way P, Conant F. The relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection in African populat
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Ecologic studiesFall 2001 In class discussion: 11/19/01Reference Bongaarts J, Reining P, Way P, Conant F. The relationship between male circumcision and HIV infection in African populations. AIDS 1989;3:37
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Levels of analysis multilevel studies discussionFall 2001 In Class: 11/21/01Reference Dargent-Molina P, James SA, Strogatz DS, Savitz DA. Association between maternal education and infant diarrhea in diff
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Levels of analysis multilevel studiesFall 2001 Discussed in class 11/21/01Reference Dargent-Molina P, James SA, Strogatz DS, Savitz DA. Association between maternal education and infant diarrhea in differ
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Sensitivity analysis and External adjustment Reasons for quantifying sources of systematic error From R&amp;G To provide insight into the importance of various sources of error To improve assessments of the unc
Mt. Marty - PH - 2710
PH2710 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods I Exercise 10: Assessing Sources of Systematic ErrorFall 2001 Assigned: 11-21-2001 Due: 11-26-20011. Read the NEJM paper by Kernan et al., paying particular attention to how the authors dealt with sources of
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
How to Detect Bias in the News At one time or other we all complain about bias in the news. The fact is, despite the journalistic ideal of objectivity, every news story is influenced by the attitudes and background of its interviewers, writers, photo
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
MANNA Food Drive CommitteeNational Hunger Statisticso The USDA estimates 96 billion pounds of food are not used each year in the United States. o According to the USDA, an estimated 35.5 million Americans are food insecure; meaning their access to
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
History of Manna Foodbank Print Matt Byers &amp; James Bethune When she entered the basement of Eliada Home for Children in 1983, Carolyn Wallace was greeted by the stench of 100 pounds of rotting potatoes. &quot;It's not a happy smell,&quot; she said. The basemen
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Gabriel Isaac Sistare Food Assistance Programs What is the Farm Bill?Renewed every five years, the Farm Bill began as a program to assist depression-era farmers.The bill, which expired in 2002 and is in the process of reformation, includes subsi
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
For Immediate Release Manna Food Bank Back Pack Program May 7th. 2008 SHPlans to Feed All 16 Counties: Manna Food BanksFuture Plans For The Back Pack ProgramIn the next Year the backpack program hopes to extend into all 16 counties that manna ope
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Rachel Hoffman Writing for the Media John Bowers May 5, 2008 Short Vignettes on the various faces of hunger The immigrant: My name is Polina Kozintsev and I just came over from Russia. My English is not good yet and I am unable to find an adequate pa
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Alec Wiener WRI 142 5/14/08 Warren Wilson and Manna Food Bank Link Together to End Hunger &quot;It's great to be working with fresh face, eager eyes,&quot; said Josh Stack, communications and marketing coordinator at Manna Food Bank, about working with Warren
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
InterviewingFace to face, phone, group, email, chat, letter. Use the richest form possible given the situation. How do you know which one to use? Telephone interview is typical for new writers. Finding the right person to interview-takes time and ef
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Magazine Feature Writing Raw material Better to have too much than too little Leave 80% on the cutting room floor Voice Comes from taking ownership Interacting with the material Structure Has to make sense Not one set way Occasion for the story Why a
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
WRI 142 Manna Food Bank project list Spring 2008 For each of the projects below, students will create the following materials: 1. Press releases for local media 2. A feature story for the Manna Food Bank print newsletter 3. Appropriate copy for the M
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Quiz #1 Zinsser, part 1 &amp; p.100-115 1. According to Zinsser, what is the &quot;disease of American writing&quot;? 2. In the anecdote at the beginning of part 1, what are two differences between Dr. Brock and Zinsser? 3. Does Zinsser believe there are born writ
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Quiz 2 Zinsser, part 2 Clark, intro and part 1 1. What's the point of beginning a sentence with the subject and verb? 2. Edit this to two words: &quot;It was her observation that.&quot; 3. What is the effect of using present tense (say, as opposed to past tens
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Quiz 3 News release handout Attribution handout 1. When is it a good idea NOT to use &quot;said&quot; as you attributive verb? 2. Ideally, should the name of a source precede or follow the attributive verb? 3. What can you do to remedy bad grammar in a direct
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
WRI 142 Quiz 4 Clark, part 3 1. What are two advantages of using subtitles in a longer article? 2. Reports and stories - what's the difference? Give an example of each. 3. Think of something you've written or read recently. What was the engine, the k
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
Writing for the Swannanoa Journal Techniques *Use vivid (visual), descriptive language to help the listener see. *Show more than tell *Use present tense (if it makes sense) *Use active voice *Employ simple sentence structure (you'll use compound and
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
You might want to have an interactive session and ask the students which of the following examples (which you show them) are paid for, and which are free: - letter to the editor - news story - news story clearly based on a press release - op ed piece
Warren Wilson - WRI - 142
PR Scenarios Your group is the public relations department for Asheville College (AC), which is part of North Carolina's public university system. Eighty percent of the students at AC come from a 150-mile radius of Asheville. The college's president
Wayne State University - WEEK - 7550
Lecture 17Gaynor and Pauly - JPE 1990Effects of Compensation Arrangements - Review- Productivity-based arrangements (e.g. piece rates) are best when production is nonjoint across agents - Jointness calls for some kind of revenue sharing, and othe
Wayne State University - WEEK - 7550
Regulation1. General 2. Second Best 3. Industry CaptureTraditional View Departures from marginal cost. Key idea is that MC = MB Mathematically: Benefits = W(Q) = Willingness to pay for Q. Costs = C(Q) = Cost of producing Q. Maximize (Benefits
Wayne State University - WEEK - 7550
Overweight and obesity in ChinaYangfeng Wu professor and chief (yangfengwu@263.net) Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, [167, Beilishilu, Xicheng, Beijing 100037, People's Re