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Army The wants to see if going without food for 48 hours decreases physical performance. The DEPENDENT variable in this study is physical performance John is reading several articles on a particular topic that he found in the journal entitled Journal of Developmental Psychology. We could say that John is involved in _______ step in the scientific method process. First The biopsychosocial model takes into account which of the following perspectives? all of the above Which of the following research methods would allow you to make a statement about cause and effect? an experiment Alfredo is conducting an experiment on the effects of exercise on concentration. The independent variable is ________ and the dependent variable is ________. exercise; concentration A hypothesis: is a prediction about the characteristics of a behavior under investigation If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new memory drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the _____ would be the INDEPENDENT variable (IV), and the _____ would be the DEPENDENT variable (DV). exposure to the drug; quiz scores As you walk into your Introductory Psychology class, your teacher flips a coin to determine whether you should be in Group A or Group B for her in-class experiment. This procedure is called ____ random assignment. Which of the following are the goals of psychology? describe, explain, predict, and change behavior To study flirting patterns of young adults, researchers sat in clubs and bars and watched people interact. What research design did they use? naturalistic observation Informed consent involves: the participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect. In an experiment the researcher manipulates the: independent variable. In a drug-study to test the effectiveness of a new drug for treating the common cold, you are randomly assigned to a group that does NOT receive the drug. This means that you: are in the control group. Dee is a professor who will teach introductory psychology for the first time next semester. She has chosen some films to show her class of more than 200 students and is now preparing a questionnaire to give to her students after each film. Her purpose is to get her students' reactions to the films which she feels will be very helpful. This is an example of ______ research. Survey. While you are conducting research, you unintentionally provide subtle cues to the study's participants about the purpose of the research, which influences your results in the direction you expected. This is a demonstration of: experimenter bias. ____ is considered the founder of experimental psychology. Wundt. One disadvantage of survey research is that: the subjects may not always tell the truth. The explanation that a researcher provides to participants about the research process AFTER the study is finished is called a(n): debriefing. The definition of sample bias is the tendency for: the sample of participants in a research study not be representative of a larger population. Sam, an autistic boy, took part in Dr Tim's new therapy program. Dr Tim reported Sam's behavior and his thoughts in great detail. This represents: a case study. A researcher wants to test a new drug, NYT11, designed to increase the ability of teenagers with ADHD to take accurate notes. In this study the DEPENDENT variable is: taking accurate notes. Keeping personal information about research participants private is part of the ethical requirement of: confidentiality. Which of the following are required when conducting ethical research with human participants? All of the above. A researcher told subjects that he was studying ingredients in a new soft drink and fed them either MSG or a placbo in a drink. The same number of symptoms were reported in both the MSG and the placebo groups. This is a(n): experiment. In a drug-study to test the effectiveness of a new drug for treating the common cold, you are randomly assigned to a group that does NOT receive the drug. This means that you: are in the control group. Prof. Matsos wants to determine if rewards will increase recycling efforts on campus. The DV in this experiment is: the amount of recyling done on campus. If David was a researcher in the biological psychology, he would be interested in: our nervous system, hormones, and genetics. Nanette highlights the margin-definition of terms in her psychology text while Andrea thinks about how each term applies to her own life or to other concepts in the chapter. Andrea is MORE likely to recall the terms better on a test because: she used elaborative rehearsal techniques while Nanette did not. Short term memory is sometimes called: working memory. The following descriptions are characteristic of_____: information lasts for a few seconds or less, a large but NOT unlimited storage capacity, and transfers information from our environment via the process of attention. sensory memory. Opal rearranges the letters SE EDO GRU N into 'see dog run'. This is an example of: chunking. This is the process of recovering information from long-term memory storage: retrieval. Tony just met a woman he feels attracted to. He keeps saying her name over and over to himself to make sure he doesn't forget it. Tony is using _____ to keep this woman's name in: maintenance rehearsal; short-term memory. Of the three memory stages, ____ has the greatest capacity, and _____ has the longest duration. long term memory; long term memory. According to the serial position effect, to increase the chance that you will be remembered by your host when introduced at a crowded party, you should try to be introduced: either first or last. A visual image in sensory memory: lasts about 1/2 second. _____ allows us to store more information in _____ by grouping information into ___ units: Chunking; short-term memory; 7 +/- 2. Sensory memory has a ___ capacity and a ___ duration. large; short. Jane and Mary are in between classes. They are outside near the parking lot talking about what they plan to do this weekend. Jane suddenly shouts that she saw a purse snatching in the parking lot; Mary didn't see it even though she was looking at the same section of the parking lot as Jane. This is because: Jane saw and paid attention to the scene and then transferred this information to short term memory; Mary didn't. We tend to keep information in ______ about 20-30 seconds. short term memory. When you tie your shoes, you are using: procedural memory. Once you have learned your new address, you are likely to forget your old address because of_____ interference. Retroactive. If you know all the names of your high school teachers, their names are stored in your ___ memory but if you remember that your second grade teacher made you stay after school for chewing gum in class, this information is stored in your __ memory. semantic; episodic memory. Michelle has an AVERAGE SHORT TERM MEMORY CAPACITY. Which of the following is she MOST likely to FORGET? 123, 456, 789, 987, 654, 321, 135, 246, 579, 680, 427, 547 According to the three-stage memory model, information must first enter _____ memory, and transfer to _____ memory, and then to _____ memory to be retained in our memory systems. sensory, short-term, long-term. The 3 steps in memory processing that are somewhat similar to those of a computer are: encoding, storage, retrieval. Maintenance rehearsal allows us to keep information in ___ memory longer than the typical 30 seconds. short term. If you believe that memory like any other biological process deteriorates over time, you believe in the ___ theory of forgetting. Decay. Generating personal examples of a concept, expanding on information, actively questioning new information and looking for meaningfulness are all examples of ____ rehearsal. Elaborative. Which of the following is TRUE regarding short term memory? It contains things you are presently thinking about. Of the three memory stages, ____ has the SMALLEST CAPACITY and ____ has the SHORTEST DURATION. short term memory; sensory memory. You dreamed about riding a train in a tunnel. According to the activation-synthesis view, your dream is: your brain's interpretation of the random neural activity generated during sleep. While sleeping, Galen's brain waves are similar to when she is awake, and her eyes move rapidly back and forth under closed lids. Galen is: in the REM stage of sleep. Sleep spindles are found in the _____stage of sleep. Second. You are in a sleep study and are hooked up to an EOG. This means your ____ is/are being measured. Eye movements. Each cycle of sleep lasts approximately ____ minutes. 90. Delta Waves are: high amplitude, slow frequency waves. Individuals who are deprived of _____ sleep show a rebound effect when allowed to sleep normally. REM. Sleep walking, bed wetting, and talking in your sleep take place during: stage 4. Scientists study sleep by using _____ which show them the brain waves that occur while we sleep. EEG machine. Which of the following statements regarding a typical night's sleep is INCORRECT? There are 7 distinct stages of sleep. REM sleep is also called _____ because the brain is aroused and active while the person remains non-responsive and asleep. paradoxical sleep. The cognitive view of dreaming suggests that dreams: all of these options. You are in a sleep lab and have just been hooked up to an EEG, and EMG and an EOG. This means the sleep researcher is interested in your: brains waves, facial muscle movements and eye movements. ___ is (are) BEST defined as our awareness of our environments and ourselves. Consciousness. People with a ____ locus of control are better able to cope with stress. Internal. Which of the following is a factor in the development of cancer? All of the above. The most stressful type of conflict is: avoidance-avoidance. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale measures the stress situation in a person's life on the basis of: life changes. According to our text, a primary reason that young people begin smoking is: social pressure from peers. Jane needs to wash the dishes but the dishwasher is broken and she can't find the dishwashing soap. She may experience a negative emotion called: frustration. Sherry has been battling the rising flood waters around her home for more than 4 days. It seems that no matter how many sandbags she stacks, it isn't enough. She has tried other options but nothing has worked. At this point she just feels that there is nothing left that she can do. Her overall energy reserves are totally depleted and her body just wants to give up. According the Selye's model, Sherry is probably now experiencing: an exhaustion reaction. Money is an important copying resource because: it increases your options for eliminating stressors or reducing stress. A small plane just crashed in your neighborhood. You take a fire extinguisher and blankets to the scene and then stand back and pray when you realize that there is nothing that you can do to help. Which behavior is an example of PROBLEM-FOCUSED forms of coping? taking the fire extinguisher and blankets to the scene. Insignificant and small daily problems that can accumulate to become a major source of stress are called: hassles. The study of the relationship between psychological behavior and physical health/illness with a larger emphasis on wellness and the prevention of illness is the definition of: health psychology. The three stages of the GAS are, in the correct order: alarm, resistance, exhaustion. Trying to decide which of two equally good concerts to attend Friday on night is a(n): approach-approach conflict. One of the greatest threats to well being occurs when people: have an external locus of control and believe they have no control over their circumstances. The degree of frustration you feel is related to: your level of motivation to achieve the blocked goal. Tanner wants to make his mother's favorite dish but has no cinnamon, an essential ingredient. He tries unsuccessfully to borrow some from 3 neighbors. He drives to several stores; none have it. The negative emotion Tanner begins to experience is: frustration. If you are dumped by your girl/boy friend, you could reappraise the situation and decide that he or she wasn't the right match for you or you weren't ready for a serious relationship. This is an example of: emotion focused form of coping. Rosa has multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disorder that causes myelin to disintegrate. What effect is this going to have on Rosa"s nerve impulses? They will slow down. Roadside tests for drunk driving primarily test the responsiveness of the: cerebellum. The central nervous system is made up of the: spinal cord and the brain. An impulse travels through the structures of the neuron in the following order: dendrites, cell body, axon. With regard to the all-or-none law: an axon either fires an action potential or does not. Biopsychology or Neuroscience is the study of: the biological processes in the nervous system that relate to behavior. Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes make up the: cerebral cortex. The electrical signal that travels along the axon of a neuron is called ___ and is responsible for ____. an action potential; transmitting information within a neuron. Ann had a stroke that has left her with a speech pattern that is laborious and halting even though she can read, write and understand what others say to her. This suggests that her _____ was damaged. Broca's area. If your neighbor was abducted by aliens and they removed his right parietal lobe, he would be unable to: feel sensations from the left side of his body. Neurotransmitters are stored in the ______ and transmit information _____. synaptic vesicles; across the synapse to dendritres of other neurons. Which brain area is responsible for your ability to place your left foot on the brake pedal and stop at a red light? right frontal lobe. This brain structure is responsible for regulating emotions and drives such as hunger, thirst, sexual and aggression. It also is involved with process of homeostasis. Hypothalamus. Jill's smooth, coordinated gymnastic movements are primarily the result of her well functioning: cerebellum. Sean was walking along a dark street when he noticed someone following him. His heart started to race and he found himself perspiring. These physical reactions were triggered by activities within Sean's: sympathetic nervous system. When a neuron is "at rest," the electrical charge of the fluid outside of the axon is more ______ than the electrical charge inside the axon. Positive. The structures that are thought to be critically involved in the formation of memories are the: hippocampus and thalamus. While reading your newspaper in the morning, you notice two cars crashing in the street outside. The part of your brain that refocused your attention from the paper to the crash and aroused your cortex is the: reticular formation. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for: all these options. Your left brain doesn't know what your right brain is doing. It is MOST likely that your ___ has been severed. corpus callosum. What is the usual direction and path of neuron impulses: dendrite to cell body to axon. Transmission of an impulse (information) from one neuron to another takes place: chemically via neurotransmitters. If Riva has brain damage that is interfering with her ability to use her right hand and right arm, where is the damage MOST likely located? the motor cortex in her left frontal lobe. The _____ lobes of your brain are MOST involved in thinking about and planning your answers to the questions on this exam. Frontal. Neurotransmitters are stored in the ______ and transmit information ______: synaptic vesicles; across the synapse to dendritres of other neurons. The electrical signal that travels along the axon of a neuron is called ___ and is responsible for ____: an action potential; transmitting information within a neuron. The branches of the neuron that receive neural impulses from other neurons are called ___; the tube-like structure that conveys impulses towards other neurons is called the ____: dendrites; axon. One of the key functions associated with the temporal lobes is: processing of auditory (sound) information. Grandpa suffered a stroke and now has difficulty seeing. His stroke probably damaged the: occipital lobe. Support for a biological contribution to personality development can be found in brain research which suggests that introversion is seen with increased activity in the: right frontal lobe. The ___ operates on the Pleasure Principle while the ___ operates on the Reality Principle and the ____ contains the conscience. Id; ego; superego. Which of the following is the correct sequence of Freud's psychosexual stages of development? oral- anal- phalliclatency- genital. An individual's relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions are known as: personality. The belief that your personality is the result of your unique history of interactions with the environment and your interpretations about those interactions is called the ____ approach to personality. Social-cognitive. According to Rogers, if your self-concept is congruent with your life experiences, you are likely to: produce a well adjusted personality. Brandon constantly wants to be near his mother, receiving her affectionate touches and kisses. He wants nothing to do with his father and actively stands between his parents to keep them from hugging each other. According to Freud, it is likely that Brandon is: experiencing the Oedipus complex. Support for a biological contribution to personality development can be found in brain research which suggests that introversion is seen with increased activity in the: right frontal lobe. The following conversation is going on in someone's head. X: I am so mad that I could bash Jeff's skull in. I can't believe he did that. Y: You know you are not supposed to hurt other people. Z: Why not tell Jeff to behave in some other way so that this incident will not happen again. X is the ___; Y is the __________; Z is the _______. id; superego; ego. "I enjoy meeting new people and having a fun time." According to the Trait theory, this person would be rated: high in extraversion. Which of the following is NOT one of the ideas central to the PSYCHOANALYTIC theory of personality? conditional positive regard. Bessie is trusting, good-natured and lenient; Oddie is calm, emotionally stable and even tempered. According to the Five Factor Model, it is likely that Bessie scores ___ on ___ while Oddie scores ___ on ___: high; agreeableness; low; neuroticism. Mr. Jones listens without judgment to his daughter's reasons for being late, then informs her that while he still loves her, he disapproves of her behavior and provides consequences for her tardiness. This is an example of: unconditional positive regard. Cece believes that she can become the top salesperson in her company. Consequently, she comes in early and stays late which puts her in contact with more customers. Additionally, her enthusiasm inspires customers to pay attention to the benefits of her product and every sale Cece makes inspires her to make another. This is an example of Bandura's theory of: reciprocal determinism. A man is sexually attracted to his neighbor but perceives the neighbor as being sexually attracted to him. This is an example of: projection. .In the iceberg analogy of Freud's three levels of consciousness, the_____ is the largest part and is ____: unconscious; completely hidden beneath the surface. Of the biological theories of personality, theories focusing on ______ offer the strongest proof that biology does indeed contribute to personality development. Genetics. The humanistic theory of personality development states that people basically strive for: self-fulfillment. ____ theories emphasize the importance of genetics in the development of personality: biological. The belief that your personality is the result of your unique history of interactions with the environment and your interpretations about those interactions is called the ____ approach to personality: social-cognitive. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence for the Maslow's theory? physiological needs -> safety needs -> belonging needs -> esteem needs -> self-actualization needs. You see a bear in the woods. Your thalamus takes in this information and simultaneously sends information to your sympathetic nervous system and to your cortex such that you know you are frightened. These statements illustrate the ____ theory of emotion: Cannon-Bard. As part of a research study Jim had to hold his mouth in a smile for about 15 minutes. As Jim left the experiment he finds that he is feeling somewhat happy and cheerful but he is not sure why. The type of reaction is consistent with the: facial feedback hypothesis. On the Thematic Apperception Test, people are asked to look at a(n) ______ scene and ______: ambiguous; tell a story about what has, is and will happen in the scene. Someone who needs to succeed, do better than others, master challenges, and excel in competition with others has: a high need for achievement. The set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behavior towards a goal is defined as: motivations. Bianca is suddenly confronted by a snarling dog. Based on the two factor theory of emotion, Bianca should report: Because I interpret this as a dangerous situation, my pounding heart means I am afraid. Achievement, arousal and affiliation are three basic: secondary needs. The ______ theory of motivation is seen in our searching for food when we are hungry and for something to drink when we are thirsty. Drive reduction. Jim is startled awake by an earthquake. He breaks out in a cold sweat, his heart beat and his breathing increases and he jumps out of bed. He then is frightened. This supports the ________ theory of emotion. James Lange. The hierarchy of needs theory was developed by: Maslow. Which of the following is positively correlated with a person's achievement motivation? parental encouragment of independence. The ___ component of emotions comprises our thoughts, beliefs, and expectations which often differ from others individuals. Cognitive. Assume that you want to do well on this test, but you feel anxious about your ability to do so and you are probably perspiring, rubbing your hands together, nervous and maybe you are pacing. In this case, your desire to perform well is related to your _____ state, while your anxiety,perspiring, pacing and nervousness are related to your ____ state. motivational; emotional. According to Maslow, if you haven't eaten all day, your thoughts will be MOST focused on your: psychological needs. Tom just saw a very attractive woman in the student lounge. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, what would be MOST likely to happen next? Tom might notice an increase in his heart rate and breathing. Which of the following would we say is an example of the COGNITIVE component of our emotions? This roller coaster could go off the tracks. ... View Full Document

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