BC_MC_Test_10_ans
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BC_MC_Test_10_ans

Course Number: BUS BAM316, Spring 2009

College/University: 東京大学

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Chapter 10 WRITING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES Multiple Choice 1. When compared to routine positive messages, persuasive messages aim to influence audiences who are likely to a. agree with you right away. b. know more than you do about the topic of your message. c. resist at first. d. be easily offended. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 2. If a supervisor approaches a worker who consistently...

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10 Chapter WRITING PERSUASIVE MESSAGES Multiple Choice 1. When compared to routine positive messages, persuasive messages aim to influence audiences who are likely to a. agree with you right away. b. know more than you do about the topic of your message. c. resist at first. d. be easily offended. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 2. If a supervisor approaches a worker who consistently arrives late by saying, "I know your job is important to you," the supervisor is addressing the worker's need for a. safety and security. b. acceptance. c. status and esteem. d. self-actualization. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: application 3. The best persuasive messages are closely connected to your audience's a. desires and interests. b. motivations. c. potential concerns and objections. d. all of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: application 4. Which of the following is not an example of demographic information? a. Age b. Occupation c. Lifestyle d. Income Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 153 5. Personality, lifestyle, and attitudes are assessed through a. demographic surveys. b. psychographic studies. c. inkblot tests. d. examinations of census data. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 6. Most persuasive messages combine a. truth and falsehood. b. current and very old evidence. c. logical and emotional factors. d. many major points all at once. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 7. When it comes to persuasive messages, the direct approach a. is rarely used. b. is often preferable when you know your audience is likely to agree with you. c. is used only by top management. d. does not require inclusion of justifications or explanations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 8. AIDA stands for a. appeal, indirect, direct, action. b. anticipate inquiry in doing adjustments. c. assume, insist, describe, act. d. attention, interest, desire, action. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 9. When using the AIDA approach to persuasion, the opening should a. build common ground with your audience. b. build your audience's interest in your idea. c. capture the audience's attention. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 154 10. The purpose of the interest section of a persuasive message is to a. capture attention. b. explain the relevance of your message to your audience. c. increase the audience's desire to take the action recommended in the message. d. get the reader to act immediately. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 11. The purpose of the desire section of a persuasive message is to a. introduce the main idea. b. create interest in the main idea. c. help the audience embrace your idea by explaining how the change will benefit them. d. suggest the action your audience should take. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 12. When using the AIDA approach to persuasion, the closing should a. urge the audience to take the action you are requesting. b. provide additional evidence and detail not covered in the desire section. c. explain the steps needed to implement your ideas. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 13. An effective ending for a persuasive message would be a. Simply return the enclosed coupon by June 15 for your free oil and filter change. b. Please respond as soon as possible. c. Wouldn't you like to save some money? d. Be sure to tell all your friends about this exciting offer. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: application 14. The secret to a successful action phase in the AIDA model is a. getting readers to change their minds. b. increasing the audience's awareness of your product or service. c. convincing readers that the action you propose is easy. d. creating a win-lose situation, with you as the winner. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 155 15. The AIDA approach for persuasive messages should be used with a. a direct approach only. b. an indirect approach only. c. either a direct or an indirect approach. d. neither a direct nor an indirect approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 16. An advertisement stating that a new resort offers "freedom and comfort along with great value" is using a. an emotional appeal. b. an analogy. c. an inductive appeal. d. both logical and emotional appeals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 17. An analogy lets you a. reason from one specific piece of evidence to another specific piece of evidence. b. reason from specific evidence to a general conclusion. c. reason from a generalization to a specific conclusion. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 18. Which of the following uses a deductive approach to persuasion? a. Because the stock market is expected to fall next month, shares of our company stock will probably also decline. b. It is important for our sales force to operate like a well-oiled machine. c. Our stock price is like a marathon runner, slowly making progress towards our goal. d. None of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 19. When writing persuasive messages, one way to avoid faulty logic is to a. avoid induction. b. avoid deduction. c. avoid praising your opponent. d. avoid hasty generalizations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 156 20. To overcome audience resistance to your message a. use the hard-sell approach. b. present all sides of the issue before making the case for your position. c. emphasize your impeccable logic. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 21. When preparing a persuasive request, it is vital to a. remain open to compromise. b. emphasize how you will benefit if the request is fulfilled. c. emphasize the negative consequences of not complying with the request. d. make yourself look good in the reader's eyes. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 22. When writing a persuasive request for action, you should a. use the direct approach. b. demonstrate that helping you will indeed solve a significant problem. c. ask for more than you actually want so that you'll have a cushion for negotiation. d. avoid flattery. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 305; TYPE: concept 23. When writing a persuasive claim letter, you should a. assume that the other person is trying to cheat you. b. use a confident and positive tone. c. mention as many additional complaints as possible about the company. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 24. In marketing and sales messages, what is the primary difference between selling points and benefits? a. Selling points are positive whereas benefits are not. b. Selling points focus on the user rather than the product. c. Selling points focus on the product rather than the user. d. None of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 308; TYPE: application 157 25. As you consider the benefits of your product, in your marketing or sales messages you will ultimately want to a. pick out three or four to call attention to. b. single out one benefit that corresponds to your readers' primary needs or emotional concerns. c. mention as many benefits as possible. d. choose one direct benefit and one indirect benefit. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 26. If the audience for your marketing or sales message promoting a new security system is made up of wealthy suburbanites, the consumer benefit you would most want to emphasize is a. the reliability of the system when protecting the consumer's property. b. the low cost. c. the attractive appearance of the device. d. easy, do-it-yourself installation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308-09; TYPE: application 27. In marketing and sales messages, the best way to handle potential objections is to a. avoid mentioning them. b. identify them up front and try to address as many as you can. c. explain why the objections aren't really important. d. do none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 309; TYPE: concept 28. In marketing and sales messages, you can deemphasize the price of your product by a. mentioning it in the middle of a paragraph after you've presented benefits and selling points. b. stating it right at the beginning. c. commenting on how wealthy your readers probably are. d. doing all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310; TYPE: concept 158 29. If price is one of your strong selling points, you should a. mention special offers, such as volume discounts, before actually stating the price. b. compare the price to the cost of some other product or activity ("This exercise equipment costs less than a health club membership"). c. break the total price into smaller units ("Just six easy payments of $19.95 each will bring you this lovely collector's item"). d. give it a position of prominence, such as in the headline or as the last item in a paragraph. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310; TYPE: concept 30. Which of the following is not an effective technique for gaining audience attention in sales messages? a. Stating your product's strongest benefit. b. Emphasizing how close your company is to going out of business. c. Explaining how your product offers a solution to a problem. d. Promising savings. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310-11; TYPE: concept 31. The interest phase of a sales message should a. flatter your audience. b. distract the audience with loads of complex data on your product. c. provide support for whatever claims or promises you made in the attention section. d. avoid any attempts at answering potential objections. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 311; TYPE: concept 32. Which of the following would be the best wording in a marketing or sales message? a. The Never-Off whole-house generator requires professional installation. b. The Never-Off whole-house generator is designed to turn on automatically when it detects a general service interruption. c. The Never-Off whole-house generator provides the power you and your family need during electrical outages. d. The Never-Off whole-house generator is compact and unobtrusive, so it will not present an unattractive appearance. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 311; TYPE: application 159 33. In a marketing or sales letter, product claims are supported a. primarily by testimonials from satisfied customers. b. primarily by statistics from scientific studies of the product. c. primarily by background information on the company selling the product. d. by as much information as possible, of many different types. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 313; TYPE: concept 34. In sales letters, a postscript (P.S.) below your signature is a. not likely to draw the reader's attention. b. often one of the first and last parts people will read. c. almost always inappropriate. d. expected by most consumers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept 35. An ethical persuasive argument a. is a contradiction in terms. b. focuses on how the audience's actions will benefit the sender. c. includes any evidence the sender can come up with, whether or not it's relevant. d. influences audience members by providing information that allows them freedom to choose. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept True or False 36. Successful professionals understand that persuasion is the attempt to get your audience to make the choices you want them to make--even if those choices are not in their best interest. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 37. To devise an effective persuasive message, you need to analyze audience members and then appeal to their desires and interests. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 38. According to psychologist Abraham Maslow, people's higher-level needs must be met before they will seek to fill lower-level needs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 160 39. Demographic information includes people's psychological characteristics, such as personality, attitudes, and lifestyle. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 40. Most persuasive messages combine logical and emotional appeals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 41. When writing persuasive messages, one should be careful not to mix emotional and logical appeals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 42. Most persuasive messages take the direct organizational approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 43. The direct approach is not useful for persuasive messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 44. An important factor to take into account when deciding on the approach for persuasive messages is your corporate culture. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 297; TYPE: concept 45. When aiming persuasive messages at a French audience, you will be most successful if you use an aggressive, hard-sell approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 46. Using simple language in persuasive messages usually decreases your credibility. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 47. One of the best ways to gain credibility for your message is to support it with objective evidence. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 48. The term AIDA refers to computer software used to compose persuasive messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 161 49. In the attention phase of persuasive a letter, you make the audience want to hear about your problem or idea. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 50. The interest section of a persuasive letter provides details on how the message is relevant to the audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 51. The AIDA model can be used with both the direct and indirect approaches for persuasive messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 52. The primary purpose of the desire section of a persuasive letter is to get the audience to keep reading. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 53. When it comes to persuasive messages, an up-front hard-sell approach is usually the most successful. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 54. The AIDA model for persuasive messages works only with the indirect approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 55. Deductive reasoning moves from specific evidence to a general conclusion. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 56. Induction refers to reasoning from a generalization to a specific conclusion. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 57. An example of faulty logic is to assume that one event caused another just because it happened first. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 162 58. In developing persuasive messages, you should avoid the use of metaphors, as they will only confuse the reader. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 59. If you expect a hostile audience, you should be careful to present all sides of an issue before making the case for your own argument. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 60. If you anticipate objections to your message, it is best not to bring them up. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 61. Most persuasive business messages involve requests for action. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 62. A persuasive message should always do more than simply convince audiences to change their attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 63. Most persuasive claim letters and requests for adjustment use the direct approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 306; TYPE: concept 64. When writing a persuasive claim or request for adjustment, you should appeal to your audience's sense of fair play, goodwill, or moral responsibility. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 65. When it comes to promotional messages, selling points and benefits are basically the same things. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 66. Successful marketing and sales messages match the product's distinguishing benefit to the audience's primary needs or emotional concerns. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308-09; TYPE: concept 163 67. A good way to open a marketing or sales message would be "We here at Colbert Corporation are proud to announce our new, improved all-weather tent." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310-11; TYPE: application 68. In the action section of a marketing or sales message, you try to persuade the reader to act immediately. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 313-14; TYPE: concept 69. Since promotional messages are not legally binding contracts in most states, it is usually acceptable to imply offers or promises you cannot deliver. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept 70. You usually do not need permission to use a person's name or photograph in a marketing or sales message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 315; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. ____________________ is the process of changing an audience's attitudes, beliefs, or actions. ANSWER: Persuasion; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 72. ____________________ information includes age, gender, occupation, income, and education. ANSWER: Demographic; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 73. ____________________ include information about an individual's personality, attitudes, lifestyle, and other psychological characteristics. ANSWER: Psychographics; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 74. It is particularly important to establish ____________________ with a skeptical or hostile audience--to convince them that you know what you're talking about and that you're not trying to mislead them. ANSWER: credibility; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 164 75. Persuasive messages often follow a specialized four-phase format called the ____________________ model. ANSWER: AIDA; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 76. A (An) ____________________ appeal bases an argument on the audience's needs or sympathies. ANSWER: emotional; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 77. ____________________ is reasoning from specific evidence to a general conclusion. ANSWER: Induction; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 78. ____________________ is reasoning from a generalization to a specific conclusion. ANSWER: Deduction; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 79. ____________________ ____________________ is a logical fallacy in which you try to support your claim by restating it in different words. ANSWER: Circular reasoning; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 80. Marketing and ____________________ messages are designed to motivate audiences to participate in a commercial transaction. ANSWER: sales; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 81. In part, writing promotional messages involves assessing customer ____________________, analyzing your ____________________, and determining key selling points and benefits. ANSWER: needs, competition; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 82. ____________________ ____________________ are the most attractive features of an idea or product. ANSWER: Selling points; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 165 83. _________________________ are the particular advantages that readers will realize from the features of a product or idea. ANSWER: Benefits; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 84. A marketing or sales message begins with some sort of ____________________-____________________ device. ANSWER: attention-getting; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310; TYPE: concept 85. In many states, marketing and sales messages are considered binding ____________________. ANSWER: contracts; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. In preparing to write persuasive messages, what two types of information are vital to assess the needs of your audience? ANSWER: Demographics (the age, gender, occupation, income, education, and other quantifiable characteristics of your audience) are very important. Psychographics (the personality, attitudes, lifestyle, and other psychological characteristics of your audience) are also helpful. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 87. When is it a good idea to use the direct approach for persuasive messages? ANSWER: Using the direct approach for persuasive messages can be effective when your audience is ready to hear your proposal or when you've been building your case through several indirect messages and now it's time to make your request. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 88. What does AIDA stand for? ANSWER: Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 166 89. When your AIDA message uses an indirect approach and is delivered by memo or e-mail, what are two goals to keep in mind as you write the subject line? ANSWER: One challenge in this situation is to make the subject line interesting and relevant enough to capture reader attention. At the same time, however, you have to do so without revealing your main idea. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 300-02; TYPE: concept 90. Rewrite the following e-mail subject line to make it more interesting without revealing the main idea: "Proposal to switch to new medical insurance provider." Register to View Answermore effective subject line would be something such as "Instant savings on medical insurance premiums." DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 91. What are three methods of reasoning you can use when making a logical appeal? ANSWER: Logical appeals can take place through analogy, induction, or deduction. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 92. List three categories of common persuasive business messages. ANSWER: Most persuasive business messages fall into one of three categories: (1) persuasive requests for action, (2) persuasive presentation of ideas, and (3) persuasive claims and requests for adjustment. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 93. What three elements make up an effective persuasive claim letter? Register to View Answerpersuasive claim letter should begin by stating the problem or reviewing what has been done about the problem so far. It should then specifically state what you want to happen next, along with a good reason to grant your claim. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 94. Briefly explain the difference between selling points and benefits, and then give an example of each. ANSWER: Selling points are the most attractive features of an idea or product. Benefits are the particular advantages that readers will realize from those features. The fact that a television comes with a remote control is a selling point, but the convenience the buyer will enjoy because of the remote control is a benefit. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept/application 167 95. Why is it important in marketing and sales messages to avoid implying offers or promises you cannot fulfill? ANSWER: In many states, marketing and sales messages are binding contracts. Therefore, dishonesty in a sales letter can lead to unfavorable legal action. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept Essay 96. Describe at least five strategies for establishing credibility when preparing persuasive messages. ANSWER: (1) Use simple language. Your audience is likely to be cautious, watching for fantastic claims, insupportable descriptions, and emotional manipulation. (2) Support your message with facts. The more specific and relevant your evidence, the better. (3) Identify your sources. Tell your audience where your information comes from and who agrees with you. (4) Be an expert. Know your subject area thoroughly. (5) Establish common ground--help your audience identify with you by appealing to shared beliefs, attitudes, and background experiences. (6) Be objective. Your ability to acknowledge all sides of an issue will help you present fair and logical arguments. (7) Display your good intentions. Your willingness to keep your audience's best interests at heart will help you create ethical persuasive messages. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 97. Describe each of the four phases of the AIDA model for persuasive messages. ANSWER: (1) Attention: Make your audience want to hear about your idea. Find some common ground on which to build your case. (2) Interest: Explain the relevance of your message to your audience. (3) Desire: Make readers want to change by explaining how the change will benefit them. Answer in advance questions that your audience might have, and back up your claims with relevant evidence. (4) Action: Ask your audience to take the specific action you suggest. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 168 98. Explain how to balance emotional appeals and logical appeals to persuade an audience. ANSWER: Generally speaking, persuasive business messages rely more heavily on logical appeals than emotional appeals, since the main idea is to save money, improve quality, and so on. It is important, however, to avoid the assumption that business decisions are purely logical and therefore ignore the emotional component. For example, you might be able to build a strong logical case for acquiring another company, based on projected financial return and other objective factors. However, the managers making the decision will experience a range of emotions, such as fear of making a wrong move that could be careerthreatening. To find the optimum balance between emotional appeals and logical appeals, consider four factors: (1) the actions you hope to motivate, (2) your reader's expectations, (3) the degree of resistance you need to overcome, and (4) how far you feel empowered to go to sell your point of view. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 99. Describe several ways you can de-emphasize price in sales letters. ANSWER: You can leave out any mention of price or include it in an accompanying brochure. You can place it in a less important location in the letter, near the end or middle paragraph after you have described the benefits and selling points. You can compare the cost to some other product or activity in an attempt to make the price of your product seem small and affordable in comparison. You can break a large price down into units--instead of noting the price of the whole unit, report the price of each individual element. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 310; TYPE: application 100. What are some common techniques for attracting an audience's attention at the beginning of a marketing or sales message? ANSWER: Effective strategies for grabbing the audience's attention include (1) outlining your product's strongest benefit, (2) sharing a piece of genuine news, (3) establishing a point of common ground with the audience, (4) making a personal appeal to the reader's emotions and values, (5) promising inside information, (6) promising savings, (7) providing a sample or demonstration of the product, and (8) offering a solution to a problem. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 310-11; TYPE: concept 169

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東京大学 - BUS - BAM316
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Practical Revie^ws The Power of a Balanced Diet and Lifestyle in Preventing Cardiovascular DiseaseRachel Herder, B.A., and Barbara Demmig-Adams, Dr. rer. nat. ABSTRACTWe examine the physiologic changes involved in the onset of cardiovascuiar dis
Colorado - EBIO - 1210
Dr. Diana R. Nemergut General Biology, Final Exam Study Guide You are responsible for all material presented in class (found on notes from each lecture). I highly recommend reading the relevant chapters and the two other posted readings to help reinf
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Chapter 21 Notes What is a Nation? Territories, States, and Citizens, 1848-1871 1. Introduction 1. 1848 1. US acquired 500,000 square miles of western territory for $15 million 1. Nearly completed US expansion 2. Ushered in conflicts that lead to the
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Chapter 20 Notes From Restoration to Revolution, 1815-1848 I) Introduction A) Many considered revolution to be a bad thing B) Waves of revolution occurred in the 1820s, 1830s, and in 1848 many failed or were repressed C) The citizen 1) People partic
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Chapter 19 Notes The Industrial Revolution and Nineteenth-Century Society I) Introduction A) Term "industrial revolution" begins to be used in the 1830s and 40s B) Spanned 100 years from 1780 C) First breakthrough from agriculture to larger-scale man
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Ch. 18 Notes The French Revolution I) Introduction A) 1789 One out of five Europeans live in France B) Aristocrats throughout Europe and colonies resented the revoking of their privileges C) American Revolution 1) One of the last matters in the cont
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Chapter 17: The EnlightenmentI) Introduction A) The case of Jean Calas 1) Convicted of murder by the Parliament of Toulouse in France 2) Brutally tortured twice (a) First to get him to confess (b) Second to force him to name his alleged accomplices
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Expansion and War and the Final Solution 1. Hitler's plan 1. The Reichs 1. 1st 800-1815 the Holy Roman Empire 2. 2nd 1870 Kaiser Wilhelm I and Kaiser Wilhelm II 3. 3rd 1933 Hitler 2. 1937 Hitler announces his plans to control Europe 1. Sudetenlan
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Hi t ler Comes to Power 1. H i tler's Program 1. World Domination Realpolitik 1. 1930s H i tler promises greatness for Germany 1. Win back the pride lost at Versailles 2. 1932 Nazis form a powerful block within the Reichstag and gain populari ty w
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Fascism 1. Consequences of the Depression 1. Polarization 1. On the basis of class 2. Worker revolts 1. The working class wanted change 2. Looked to other classes like the precursors to a communist revolution 3. Made the middle classes uncomfortable,
Colorado - HIST - 1020
European Revolution 1. Russian Revolution 1. Revolutions 1. March 1917 Overthrow of the Tsar 1. Petrograd soviet 2. Provisional government 1. Controlled by conservative members of the Duma 2. Kerensky = leader 2. November 1917 Bolshevik Revolution
Colorado - HIST - 1020
World War I 1. Bismarck's System, 1871-1890 1. Peace 1. Germany is satiated 2. Bismarck wants Germany to be able to enjoy all that they have gained no more war! 3. This means: 1. Consolidating German gains 2. Isolating France 1. French want revenge
Colorado - HIST - 1020
The Second Industrial Revolution 1. Compared to the first 1. Far more revolutionary 2. The first 1. Got down the basics 2. Did not int roduce dramatically revolutionary goods and services 3. Coal and iron 3. The Second 1. Effected the whole world muc
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Imperialism 1. Definition 1. Not just one country expanding into other parts of the world 2. Involves the imposition of rule over people who consider themselves their own sovereign nation 1. Force 2. Imposing one country's will over other people and
Colorado - HIST - 1020
German Unification, 1862-1871 1. Factors that make it hard to unify 1. Geographic 1. Large set of sovereign states in central Europe 2. Easily dominated by the major European powers 3. Has no permanent boundaries/barriers 1. No mountain ranges or oce
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Nationalism 1. Nationalism 1. Unification of people with the same language, ethnicity, and/or heritage 1. I taly Comprised of many units that do not work together 2. Germany Broken up into many k ingdoms, principalities, and cities 3. Colonialism 1
Colorado - HIST - 1020
The French Revolution I) A political collapse in France II) Causes A) Aristocratic Revolution 1788 1) They want a way to curb the power of the monarch a system of checks 2) Louis cannot tax the nobility or the clergy on their land they own 45% of
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Ancien Regime Old Regime (1660-1789) A) Political 1) Absolutism France, Austria, Russia, Prussia (a) Characterized as a struggle between nobility and the monarch (b) France (i) 1660 Louis XIV comes of age to rule (ii) Louis declares he will be the
Colorado - HIST - 1020
Industrialization of Britain I) Economic Revolutions A) Commercial Revolution: increase in trade and commerce both domestically and internationally B) Slave trade 1) British goods shipped down to west Africa 2) Slaves taken and shipped to the America
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 8Chemical BondingQuestions for consideration1. How can we classify the types of bonding of different compounds? 2. What is the nature of bonding in ionic compounds?3. What is the nature of bonding in molecular compounds?4. How can we
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 7Electron Structure of the AtomQuestions for consideration1. What is light and how can we describe it? 2. How can we describe the behavior of the electron in a hydrogen atom?3. How can we describe electrons in all atoms?4. How does th
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 6Quantities in Chemical ReactionsQuestions for consideration1. What do coefficients in balanced equations represent? 2. How can we use a balanced equation to relate the number of moles of reactants and products in a chemical reaction? 3.
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 5Chemical Reactions and EquationsQuestions for consideration1. What happens in a chemical reaction? 2. How do when know whether a chemical reaction takes place? 3. How do we represent a chemical reaction with a chemical equation?4. How
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 4Chemical CompositionQuestions for consideration1. How can we count the number of atoms in a sample of a material? The number of molecules? The number of formula units? 2. How can we know the number of molecules in a sample of a material
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 3Chemical CompoundsQuestions for consideration1. How do ionic compounds differ from molecular compounds? 2. What kinds of ions are in ionic compounds? 3. What do formulas of ionic compounds represent? 4. How are ionic compounds named? 5.
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 2Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic TableQuestions for consideration1. What evidence suggests that matter is composed of atoms? 2. How does the composition of different atoms differ? 3. How do ions differ from the atoms of an element? 4. How
Colorado - CHEM - 1021
Chapter 1Matter and EnergyQuestions for consideration1. What characteristics distinguish different types of matter? 2. What are some properties of matter? 3. What is energy and how does it differ from matter? 4. What approaches do scientists use
UC Riverside - ECONOMICS - 102A
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS ECON 102A: MICROECONOMIC THEORY MWF 2:10 3:00 PM, BRNHL B118 SPRING 2009 Instructor: Victoria Umanskaya Office: Sproul Hall 3128 Office hours: MF 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM or by appointment Email
UC Riverside - ECON - 102A
Supply-and-Demand Model: The Market Mechanism Reading: Chapter 21DemandQuantity demanded is the amount of a good that consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price (holding constant other factors that affect demand)Refers to the poin
UC Riverside - ECON - 102A
Supply-and-Demand Model: ElasticityReading: Chapter 21Elasticities of Supply and DemandNot only are we concerned with what direction price and quantity will move when the market changes, but we are concerned about how much they change Elasticit
UC Riverside - ECON - 102
Consumer Behavior: Consumer PreferencesReading: Chapter 3I have forced myself to contradict myself in order to avoid conforming to my own taste. - Marcel Duchamp, Dada artistTheory of Consumer Choice Three steps involved in the study of consumer
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Consumer Behavior: Budget ConstraintReading: Chapter 3You can't have everything. Where would you put it?- Steven WrightBudget ConstraintsThe Budget Line (or budget constraint)Shows all combinations of goods that can be bought at given prices a
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Consumer Behavior: Consumer ChoiceReading: Chapter 3My problem lies in reconciling my gross habits with my net income.- Errol FlynnConsumer Choice Given preferences and budget constraints, how do consumers choose what to buy?"Utility Maximizat
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Applying Consumer Theory: Individual DemandReading: Chapter 41Individual Demand: Price ChangesFor each price change, we can determine how much of the good consumer would purchase given her budget constraint and preferences We can trace out
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Applying Consumer Theory: Income and Substitution Effects and Market DemandReading: Chapter 41As price of one good changes (all else the same), there are two effects:Substitution Effect Consumers will tend to buy more of the good Incom
UC Riverside - ECON - 102q
Applying Consumer Theory: Network ExternalititesReading: Chapter 41Network ExternalitiesUp to this point we have assumed that people's demands for a good are independent of one another For some goods, one person's demand also depends on
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Production: Production Technology Short-Run ProductionReading: Chapter 61Production Decisions of a Firm1. Production Technology: describes how factors of production can be transformed into outputs 1. Cost Constraints: firms must consider prices
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Production: Production in the Long-Run Returns to ScaleReading: Chapter 61Long-Run Production Both capital and labor are variable Firms can substitute freely between L and K Many combinations of L and K can produce a given level of output Th
UC Riverside - ECON - 102q
The Cost of Production: Costs in the Short RunReading: Chapter 71Decision of how to produce1. Choose all technologically efficient production processes 2. From them, pick the one that is also economically efficient (minimizes cost) Relationship
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
The Cost of Production: Costs in the Long RunReading: Chapter 71Cost in the Long Run All inputs can be adjusted to minimize the cost If capital and other inputs can be varied, no fixed costs in the LR (FC = 0) Then LR total cost = LR variabl
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Profit Maximization: A Competitive FirmReading: Chapter 81How Much Output to Produce?To pick profit-maximizing level of output, a firm must consider: its cost function how much it can sell at a given price: depends on market demand and market