business communications exam quaetions and answers
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business communications exam quaetions and answers

Course Number: BUS BAM316, Spring 2009

College/University: 東京大学

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Chapter 1 ACHIEVING SUCCESS THROUGH EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Multiple Choice ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 4; TYPE: application 1 6. An example of downward communication flow is a. a junior staff person giving information to a staff supervisor. b. a sales manager giving instructions to a salesperson. c. an e-mail message about sick leave from one staff secretary to another. d. a company...

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1 Chapter ACHIEVING SUCCESS THROUGH EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Multiple Choice Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 4; TYPE: application 1 6. An example of downward communication flow is a. a junior staff person giving information to a staff supervisor. b. a sales manager giving instructions to a salesperson. c. an e-mail message about sick leave from one staff secretary to another. d. a company briefing held on the organization's top floor. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 5; TYPE: application 2 11. When it comes to the informal communication network, savvy managers a. work hard to shut it down. b. tap into it to spread and receive informal messages. c. ignore most of the information it contains. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 5; TYPE: concept 12. Which of the following is not a characteristic of effective business messages? a. They provide practical information. b. They present the writer's opinions as facts. c. They state precise audience responsibilities. d. They clarify and condense information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 6; TYPE: concept 3 4 22. Business communication is often more demanding than social communication because communication on the job is affected by a. advances in technology. b. the growing reliance on teamwork in business. c. the globalization of business. d. all of the above 23. Bad connections, poor acoustics, and illegible text are all examples of a. problems with feedback. b. distractions. c. problems with background differences. d. overload problems. 5 Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 17; TYPE: concept 6 30. Which of the following is not a characteristic of ethical communication? a. It includes all relevant information. b. It is designed to hide some negative information. c. It is true in every sense. d. It is not deceptive in any way. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 24; TYPE: concept 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ANSWER: The audience decodes your message by extracting your ideas from it. Decoding is the sixth step in the communication process. 14 15 16 17 Chapter 2 COMMUNICATING IN TEAMS AND MASTERING LISTENING AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS Multiple Choice 1. In participative management a. employees are involved in the company's decision making. b. all top-level managers participate in profit sharing. c. teams are discouraged in favor of individual achievement. d. an authoritarian management model is used. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 36; TYPE: concept 2. Which of the following is not a way teams help organizations to succeed? a. Increase information and knowledge b. Increase groupthink among members c. Increase performance levels d. Increase diversity of views Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 37; TYPE: concept 3. Groupthink refers to a. the willingness of individual group members to withhold contrary or unpopular opinions, even when those objections are legitimate, and to favor majority opinion. b. the four-step decision-making process in groups. c. software programs that help groups make decisions. d. the basic rules that underlie a group's behavior. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 37; TYPE: concept 4. A hidden agenda refers to a. a meeting agenda that is not revealed to others outside the meeting group. b. individuals' private motives that affect a group's interaction. c. an agenda that members must look for before they can attend a meeting. d. an approach to group dynamics that helps facilitate group functioning. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 37; TYPE: concept 18 5. To collaborate effectively on team messages, you should concentrate on a. pointing out as many typos, misspellings, and grammatical errors as possible. b. achieving team objectives rather than individual preferences and priorities. c. making other team members feel good. d. doing all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 38; TYPE: concept 6. When composing collaborative messages, it is a good idea to a. avoid writing as a group. b. begin by letting all members "do their own thing" and then seeing what they all produce. c. let all members use their own preferred software. d. make the team as large as possible so that every possible area of expertise will be covered. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 38; TYPE: concept 7. ____________ are informal standards of conduct that team members share. a. Group maintenance roles b. Rules of Parliamentary procedure c. Group norms d. Robert's Rules Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 40; TYPE: concept 8. Group members who are motivated mainly to fulfill personal needs play a a. team-maintenance role. b. task-facilitating role. c. self-oriented role. d. coordinating role. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 40; TYPE: concept 9. Group members who try to help people work well together are able to fill a a. team-maintenance role. b. task-facilitating role. c. self-oriented role. d. coordinating role. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 40; TYPE: concept 19 10. The first phase that a team typically goes through is a. conflict. b. reinforcement. c. orientation. d. brainstorming. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 40; TYPE: concept 11. Only one sales representative can go to the conference in Hawaii, but both Susan and Sean want to go. After much discussion and arguing, they draw straws and Susan gets the trip. This is an example of a. a win-lose situation. b. the five-step decision-making process. c. the best way to deal with a conflict. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 42; TYPE: application 12. When it comes to overcoming resistance in groups, it is a good idea to a. avoid all conflict in the first place. b. hold off dealing with minor problems until the conflict becomes major. c. deal directly with resistance. d. encourage participants to repress their emotions about the situation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 43; TYPE: concept 13. Which of the following is a valid claim when it comes to using the telephone to conduct business? a. When using the telephone and voice mail, you lose a great deal of the visual richness that accompanies face-to-face conversation. b. Your attitude and tone of voice can effectively convey your confidence and professionalism. c. When you place phone calls, plan ahead so you'll be ready with relevant questions or information. d. All of the above are valid. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 45; TYPE: concept 20 14. When receiving business-related phone calls, a. use frequent verbal responses (such as, "I see") to show that you are listening. b. it is best to remain completely silent while the caller is speaking. c. it is perfectly acceptable to put the caller on hold without explanation. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 45; TYPE: concept 15. Using a cell phone during meetings is a. routine in today's high-tech workplace. b. frowned upon by many executives. c. an effective way to show your professionalism. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 45; TYPE: concept 16. In North American business contexts a. women are expected to shake hands differently than men. b. it is not necessary to stand up before shaking hands if you are already seated. c. shaking hands is now widely regarded as an outdated custom. d. a firm handshake is expected when two people meet. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 45; TYPE: concept 17. When introducing yourself to someone in a business context, you should always include a brief description of a. one of your personal interests or hobbies. b. your role in the company. c. your company's history. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 45; TYPE: concept 18. A common mistake in holding meetings is a. sticking too closely to the agenda. b. not inviting enough participants. c. circulating the agenda too far in advance. d. not having an agenda. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46; TYPE: concept 21 19. The key to productive meetings is careful planning that addresses a. purpose. b. participants. c. location and agenda. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46-47; TYPE: concept 20. A meeting agenda a. is a formality that most groups skip these days. b. should be circulated before the meeting, providing participants with enough time to prepare. c. should be general rather than specific. d. is only a guideline, and deviations are common and expected. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 47; TYPE: concept 21. Use of parliamentary procedure a. tends to slow meetings down. b. contributes to dissent among participants. c. helps meetings run more smoothly. d. is only useful for highly formalized, important meetings with more than a dozen participants. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 47; TYPE: concept 22. The best-known guide to parliamentary procedure is the same as a. SEC Standards of Ethics. b. Roberts Rules of Order. c. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. d. mediation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 47; TYPE: concept 23. When conducting a meeting a. if some people are too quiet, leave them alone; they probably have nothing to contribute. b. if some people dominate the conversation, let them do so, since they are probably the most knowledgeable attendees. c. try to simply act as an observer, and let the meeting "run itself." d. do none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 47; TYPE: concept 22 24. Meeting minutes should generally include a. a list of those present for the meeting. b. the times the meeting started and ended. c. descriptions of all major decisions reached at the meeting. d. all of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 48; TYPE: concept 25. "Virtual offices" that give everyone on a team access to the same set of resources and information are called a. instant messaging software. b. videoconferencing systems. c. shared workspaces. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 49; TYPE: concept 26. If you are listening mainly to understand the speaker's message, you are engaging in a. content listening. b. critical listening. c. empathic listening. d. active listening. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 27. If you are engaging in critical listening, your goal is to a. understand and retain information. b. understand the speaker's feelings, needs, and wants. c. evaluate the logic and validity of the message. d. appreciate the speaker's point of view. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 28. If you are listening mainly to understand the speaker's feelings and needs, you are engaging in a. content listening. b. empathic or active listening. c. critical listening. d. sustained listening. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 23 29. Within 48 hours, people tend to forget approximately _______ percent of what was said in a 10-minute conversation. a. 1 b. 10 c. 50 d. 90 Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 52; TYPE: concept 30. The first step in the basic listening process is a. physically receiving the message. b. interpreting the message. c. evaluating the message. d. encoding the message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 52; TYPE: concept 31. Selective listening refers to a. a highly focused form of listening. b. letting one's mind wander until something relevant is said. c. a form of defensive listening. d. listening only long enough to get a word in edgewise. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 52; TYPE: concept 32. In part, poor listening occurs because listeners a. can think faster than speakers can speak. b. concentrate on each word the speaker says, rather than the overall point. c. are unable to think originally. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 53; TYPE: concept 33. If a person says one thing but sends a conflicting message nonverbally a. people are more likely to believe the verbal message. b. people are more likely to believe the nonverbal message. c. people are more likely to just stop listening. d. people are likely not to notice. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 54; TYPE: concept 24 34. Nonverbal communication can a. complement verbal language. b. reveal truth. c. convey a great deal of informNSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46; TYPE: concept 57. Unproductive meetings are rare in today's business environment. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46; TYPE: concept 58. If you are trying to solve a problem or make a decision, the more people in your group the better. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46; TYPE: concept 59. The main role of the meeting leader is to be passive and let others speak without interference. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 47; TYPE: concept 27 60. Action-oriented listeners tend to focus on the personal characteristics of the speaker. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 61. The goal of content listening is to evaluate the logic, validity, and implications of a message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 62. Good listeners specialize in one of the three types of listening and apply it to nearly all situations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 63. The primary goal of empathic listening is to solve the speaker's problem. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51; TYPE: concept 64. Most people need to improve their listening skills. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 52; TYPE: concept 65. Selective listening is an important skill for professionals, since it helps them filter out information that is not relevant to their jobs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 52; TYPE: concept 66. Most people are unable to process information as quickly as a speaker talks, so they get behind in comprehending what the speaker is saying. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 53; TYPE: concept 67. One important characteristic of nonverbal communication is that it can convey lots of information in an instant. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 54; TYPE: concept 68. Unlike with verbal language, the meanings of nonverbal signals are consistent across cultures. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 54; TYPE: concept 28 69. When it comes to personal appearance in the workplace, it's best to adopt the style of the people you want to impress. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 55; TYPE: concept 70. The use of time and space can send powerful nonverbal signals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 56; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. A ____________________ is a unit of two or more people who work together to achieve a goal. ANSWER: team; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 36; TYPE: concept 72. ____________________ management is a way of involving employees in the company's decision making. ANSWER: Participative; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 36; TYPE: concept 73. Group loyalty can lead members into ____________________, a willingness to set aside personal opinions and go along with everyone else, even if everyone else is wrong. ANSWER: groupthink; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 37; TYPE: concept 74. Some group members have ____________________ _____________________ made up of private motives that affect the group's interaction. ANSWER: hidden agendas; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 37; TYPE: concept 75. Group _____________________ are the interactions and processes that take place in a meeting. ANSWER: dynamics; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 40; TYPE: concept 76. Group ____________________ are informal standards of conduct that members share and that guide member behavior. ANSWER: norms; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 40; TYPE: concept 29 77. In the ____________________ phase of team evolution, team members reach a decision and find a solution that is acceptable enough for all members to support (even if they have reservations). ANSWER: emergence; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 41; TYPE: concept 78. Teams need to learn how to handle ____________________ --clashes over differences in ideas, opinions, goals, or procedures. ANSWER: conflict(s); DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 42; TYPE: concept 79. When introducing yourself in a business context, it is a good idea to provide a brief description of your _____________________ in the company. ANSWER: role; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 45; TYPE: concept 80. When planning a meeting, the group leader prepapers under your chair or under the table until then. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46; TYPE: application 93. List at least three benefits of effective listening in business. ANSWER: Effective listening strengthens organizational relationships, enhances product delivery, alerts the organization to opportunities for innovation, and allows the organization to manage growing diversity both in the workforce and in the customers it serves. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 51; TYPE: application 94. List at least three strategies for keeping one's mind from wandering while listening to a speaker. ANSWER: Although we can think faster than we (and others) can speak, there are several techniques that can help. They include focusing on the speaker, analyzing the message, and formulating questions we need to ask. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 53; TYPE: application 32 95. List at least three general categories of nonverbal communication. ANSWER: The general categories of nonverbal communication include (1) facial expression, (2) gesture and posture, (3) vocal characteristics, (4) personal appearance, (5) touch, and (6) use of time and space. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 54-56; TYPE: concept Essay 96. Describe at least three common types of teams companies often create. ANSWER: Teams can be formal or informal, depending on whether they are part of the organization's structure. Problem-solving teams or task forces are temporary teams created to solve temporary problems. A committee, on the other hand, is usually more permanent and can become a permanent part of the organization. Finally, virtual teams bring together employees in different geographic areas to interact, share information, and accomplish goals. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 36; TYPE: concept 97. Discuss four strategies to use when planning an effective meeting. ANSWER: The first task is to decide whether the meeting will serve mostly informational or decision-making purposes, or whether it will be geared toward both. Next, meeting participants should be chosen carefully, limiting selections to those whose presence is absolutely essential. Then the location must be selected and reserved. Finally, the meeting planner should develop a suitable agenda and distribute it among the participants several days before the meeting. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 46-47; TYPE: concept 98. Briefly describe at least three meeting-related technologies that make it easy for virtual teams to interact. ANSWER: One of the newest virtual tools is online brainstorming, in which companies conduct "idea campaigns" to generate ideas from people across the organization. Another example is groupware, an umbrella term for systems that let people communicate, share files, present materials, and work on documents simultaneously. Shared workspaces are "virtual offices" that give everyone on a team access to a variety of materials. Videoconferencing combines audio communication with live video, enabling team members see each other, demonstrate products, and transmit other visual information. Web-based meeting systems allow teams to collaborate in real time simply by logging on from any desktop or laptop PC, a PDA, or even a web-enabled cell phone from almost anywhere in the world. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 48-50; TYPE: concept 33 99. Differentiate among the three primary types of listening. ANSWER: Content listening focuses on understanding and retaining what the speaker is saying. Critical listening, in contrast, is often more useful when the speaker is presenting an argument. In this type of listening, the listener's goal is to evaluate the message on various levels. Finally, empathic listening is most useful when a speaker is primarily interested in sharing feelings. In this case, the listener's goal is to appreciate the speaker's point of view (whether or not the listener agrees with it). DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 51-52; TYPE: concept 100. List and briefly explain the three roles nonverbal communication plays in communication. ANSWER: The first role of nonverbal communication is complementing verbal language. Nonverbal signals can strengthen, weaken, or even replace verbal messages. The second role is revealing truth. It is much more difficult to deceive others with nonverbal signals than with verbal ones. Finally, nonverbal communication conveys information efficiently, since nonverbal signals can convey both nuance and rich amounts of information in an instant. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 54; TYPE: concept 34 Chapter 3 COMMUNICATING IN A WORLD OF DIVERSITY Multiple Choice 1. "All the characteristics and experiences that define each of us as individuals" is the definition of a. ethnicity. b. diversity. c. culture. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 64; TYPE: concept 2. Diversity in the workplace can be based on differences in a. ethnic heritage. b. religion. c. geography. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 64-65; TYPE: concept 3. By 2010, recent immigrants will account for ______ percent of all new U.S. workers. a. 10 b. 25 c. 50 d. 75 Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 65; TYPE: concept 4. Culture influences a person's understanding of a. words. b. nonverbal signals. c. use of time and space. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 66; TYPE: application 35 5. Many difficulties in intercultural communication occur because people in different cultures have different a. genetics. b. assumptions about how people should think, behave, and communicate. c. environments. d. media. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 66-67; TYPE: concept 6. When you react ethnocentrically, you a. assume that your culture is superior to others. b. recognize the differences that exist between your culture and other cultures. c. focus on the possibility that your words and actions will be misunderstood. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 7. Xenophobia is the fear of a. crises. b. working in unfamiliar environments. c. strangers and foreigners. d. change. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 8. The practice of accepting multiple cultures on their own terms is known as a. ethnocentrism. b. cultural pluralism. c. ethnography. d. stereotyping. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 9. Ethnocentrism can be overcome by a. avoiding assumptions. b. judging other groups according to your own standards. c. ignoring the distinctions among cultures. d. remembering that people from other cultures communicate in ways that are inferior to your own. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 36 10. Cultural differences appear in a number of important areas, including a. nonverbal signals. b. gender. c. religion. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 11. In high-context cultures a. people rely more on nonverbal circumstances and cues to convey meaning. b. people rely less on the environmental setting to convey meaning. c. the rules of everyday life are highly explicit. d. all of the above occur. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 12. To convey meaning in a low-context culture such as the one existing in Germany, people rely more on a. gestures and vocal inflection. b. indirectness and metaphors. c. situational cues. d. explicit verbal communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 13. When it comes to decision-making customs, executives from low-context cultures a. tend to focus on the results of the decisions they face. b. prefer to make their deals slowly, after much discussion. c. spend a lot of time on each little point to display their good faith. d. arrive at decisions through consensus, after an elaborate and timeconsuming process. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 14. If a U.S.-based official pays a bribe to government officials in another country, it is a. always considered a normal part of doing business. b. considered unethical but not illegal to do so. c. illegal, under U.S. law. d. only unethical if the bribe is over $1,000. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70; TYPE: application 37 15. People in the United States generally a. view hard-earned material comfort as a worthy goal. b. believe that people who work hard are no better than those who don't work hard. c. condemn materialism and prize a carefree lifestyle. d. spend far less time on the job than German workers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70-71; TYPE: concept 16. Social rules vary from culture to culture in terms of a. attitudes toward work and success. b. roles and status. c. use of manners. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 70-71; TYPE: concept 17. Asking a colleague "How was your weekend?" is a. an effective greeting in any culture. b. accepted in the U.S., but considered intrusive in some cultures. c. never acceptable in a business environment. d. grounds for a lawsuit. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 71; TYPE: concept 18. Meeting a deadline is generally less important than building a relationship for businesspeople from a. the United States. b. Scandinavia. c. Taiwan. d. Germany. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 71; TYPE: application 19. Cultural differences in nonverbal communication can influence a. greetings. b. attitudes toward personal space. c. attitudes toward touching. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 72; TYPE: concept 38 20. To learn as much as you can about a culture a. read books and articles about the culture. b. sample newspapers, magazines, music, and movies of that culture. c. study the languages of the culture. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 75-76; TYPE: concept 21. If you will be living in another country where English is not the official language but you will be doing business in English, you a. will not need to learn that country's language. b. should learn only those words that are absolutely necessary for getting around. c. will show respect by making every effort to learn the language. d. should only deal with natives who can speak English. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 22. Letters from Japanese businesspeople tend to be ____________ than those written in the United States. a. more direct b. less direct c. less interesting d. shorter Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 23. When writing for multicultural audiences, it's important to a. be brief. b. be clear. c. address international correspondence properly. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 77-78; TYPE: concept 24. German business letters often close with a. a joke. b. a compliment to the recipient. c. a question. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 78; TYPE: application 39 25. When writing letters to businesspeople in other countries, you should a. use an informal, friendly tone. b. keep your sentences and paragraphs long. c. be vague and general in your wording. d. make generous use of transitional words and phrases. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 78; TYPE: concept 26. When preparing a message to someone from another culture, you should a. write the letter in English and then translate it into the target language. b. assume that the audience is familiar with common U.S. phrases and references. c. be sure to remove all graphics, in case they might offend someone. d. be careful to express numbers and dates in the format used in that person's culture. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 78; TYPE: concept 27. Which of the following sentences contains an idiomatic expression? a. Our monthly sales quota is unrealistic. b. We don't expect to meet our monthly sales quota. c. Making our monthly sales quota will be a piece of cake. d. The sales quota is very reasonable. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 78-79; TYPE: application 28. When speaking in English to people who use English as a second language, you should a. forget about feedback; just make sure you get your message across. b. repeat your sentences often, a little louder each time. c. speak slowly and clearly. d. use plenty of adjectives such as fantastic and fabulous. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 80; TYPE: concept 29. During conversations with non-native English speakers, you should a. immediately rephrase statements they don't seem to understand. b. avoid paying too much attention to nonverbal feedback. c. avoid including any words or phrases from their native language. d. do none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 80; TYPE: concept 40 30. When speaking with someone from another culture, avoid a. talking down to the other person. b. using any foreign phrases. c. paying any attention to the person's body language. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 80; TYPE: concept 31. To English-speaking U.S. listeners, Arabic speech may sound a. excited or angry. b. disinterested. c. timid. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 81; TYPE: concept 32. When you deal with people who don't speak your language at all, you have three appropriate options, including a. using an interpreter or a translator. b. using gestures and sign language. c. speaking loudly and enunciating clearly. d. using an English-only policy. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 81; TYPE: concept 33. If you have a business message translated from English into another language, it is a good idea to a. have it translated word for word. b. have it back-translated. c. use several translators. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 81; TYPE: concept 34. Machine translations are usually ____________ those produced by human translators. a. more accurate than b. less accurate than c. just as accurate as d. more costly than Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 81; TYPE: concept 41 35. In general, international correspondence tends to be ____________ than that of the United States. a. more direct b. less formal c. more formal d. much shorter True or False 36. Intercultural communication is the process of sending and receiving messages within a specific culture. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 64; TYPE: concept 37. International business communication has been hampered by tightening trade barriers throughout the world. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 64; TYPE: concept 38. Although U.S. business is becoming more international and more culturally diverse, intercultural skills are still low on the list of companies' employee requirements. 39. A group of men and women of various ages working together is an example of cultural diversity. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 64; TYPE: concept 40. By 2010, recent immigrants will account for half of all new U.S. workers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 65; TYPE: concept 41. People within a particular culture tend to differ greatly in their basic assumptions about how people should think, behave, and communicate. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 42. Culture is inborn. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 42 43. Members of a well-established culture tend to view their culture as complete, which can dull or even suppress curiosity about other cultures. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 44. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to have an equally unbiased view of all ethnic groups. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 45. When ethnocentric people stereotype an entire group of people, they are usually justified in doing so. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 46. To overcome ethnocentrism, you should ignore the differences between another person's culture and your own. 47. Studies have shown that people often have cultural biases of which they're not even consciously aware. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67-68; TYPE: concept 48. Cultural context refers to the pattern of physical cues, environmental stimuli, and implicit understanding that conveys meaning between members of the same culture. 49. Because the United States and Germany have such high-context cultures, they rely heavily on verbal communication and less on implied meaning. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 50. For Chinese businesspersons, the primary role of communication is building relationships, not exchanging information. 51. In low-context cultures, businesspeople tend to focus on the results of the decisions they face. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 43 52. Regardless of the country in which you're doing business, a person suspected of a crime is considered innocent until proven guilty. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70; TYPE: concept 53. All the industrialized nations have signed a treaty that makes payoffs to foreign officials a criminal offense. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70; TYPE: concept 54. In every culture, it's safe to assume that people view material comforts earned by individual effort as a sign of superiority. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70-71; TYPE: concept 55. In Arab countries, it is impolite to take gifts to a man's wife, but it is acceptable to take gifts to his children. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 71; TYPE: concept 56. On average, U.S. employees work many more hours per year than their counterparts in France and Germany. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 71; TYPE: concept 57. Differences in nonverbal communication are often a major source of misunderstanding in intercultural communication. 58. In any culture, frequent eye contact is regarded as a sign of honesty and openness. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 72; TYPE: concept 59. Studies show that in all cultures, men and women tend to have different communication styles. 60. When you're preparing to do business in another culture, even studying that culture in advance won't help you communicate more effectively. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 74; TYPE: concept 44 61. When communicating with people from other cultures, it is best to apologize when you make a mistake. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 75; TYPE: concept 62. Many companies now routinely provide employees with training in languages other than English. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 63. There are few significant differences between English as it is spoken in the U.S. and English as it is spoken in the United Kingdom. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 64. Swedish business culture values direct communication as a sign of efficiency, but discourages heated debates and confrontations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 65. Unlike most Asian professionals, French executives do not soften up their colleagues with praise before they criticize. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 66. American and German businesspeople use the same level of formality in writing business messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 67. In general, when writing to someone in another country, U.S. businesspeople should be a bit more formal than they would be otherwise. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 68. When writing to someone for whom English is a second language, you should avoid using slang and idioms. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 78-79; TYPE: concept 69. In intercultural conversations, speaking slowly is usually regarded as a sign of disrespect. 45 70. Machine translation software is generally far more effective than human translators. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 81; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. The process of sending and receiving messages between people of different cultures is called ____________________ ____________________. ANSWER: intercultural communication; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 64; TYPE: concept 72. As businesses become more global, the workforce is increasingly ____________________, made up of employees with different national, religious, and ethnic backgrounds. ANSWER: diverse; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 65; TYPE: concept 73. By 2010, recent____________________ will account for half of all new U.S. workers. ANSWER: immigrants; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 65; TYPE: concept 74. ____________________ is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms for behavior. ANSWER: Culture; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 66; TYPE: concept 75. ____________________ is the tendency to judge all other groups according to your own group's standards, behaviors, and customs. ANSWER: Ethnocentrism; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 76. ____________________ is a fear of strangers and foreigners. ANSWER: Xenophobia; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 77. Cultural ____________________ is the pattern of physical cues, environmental stimuli, and implicit understanding that convey meaning between two members of the same culture. ANSWER: context; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 46 78. In a ____________________ culture such as exists in Taiwan, people rely less on verbal communication and more on the context of nonverbal actions and environmental setting to convey meaning. ANSWER: high-context; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 79. In a ____________________ culture such as exists in Germany, people rely more on verbal communication and less on circumstances and implied meaning. ANSWER: low-context; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 80. Whether called a huilu (China), vzyatka (Russia), or una mordida (Mexico), money paid to get favors from officials is still a ____________________. ANSWER: bribe; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70; TYPE: concept 81. Rules that teach members of a culture how to behave in common social situations (such as table manners at meals) are considered ____________________ rules. ANSWER: formal; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70; TYPE: concept 82. Cultural rules learned over time by watching how people behave and then imitating that behavior are called ____________________ rules. ANSWER: informal; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 70; TYPE: concept 83. Differences in ____________________ ____________________, such as gestures and eye contact, are a major source of misunderstanding during intercultural communications. ANSWER: nonverbal communication; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 71-72; TYPE: concept 84. When preparing messages for multicultural audiences, it is best to avoid slang and ____________________ phrases such as "Off the top of my head." ANSWER: idiomatic; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 78-79; TYPE: concept 85. ____________________ ____________________ refers to any form of computerized intelligence used to translate one language to another. ANSWER: Machine translation; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 81; TYPE: concept 47 Short Answer 86. Briefly describe at least three advantages of a multicultural workforce. Register to View Answerculturally diverse workforce yields a broader spectrum of viewpoints and ideas. It also helps companies understand and identify with diverse markets and enables organizations to benefit from a wider range of employee talents. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 65; TYPE: concept 87. What is a culture? Register to View Answerculture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms for behavior. DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 66; TYPE: concept 88. What is ethnocentrism, and how can it be overcome? ANSWER: Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge all other groups according to one's own group's standards, behaviors, and customs and to see all other groups as inferior by comparison. You can overcome ethnocentrism by acknowledging distinctions and by avoiding assumptions and judgments. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 67; TYPE: concept 89. Explain the difference between a high-context culture and a low-context culture, and provide at least one example of each. ANSWER: In high-context cultures such as South Korea or Taiwan, people rely less on verbal communication and more on the context of nonverbal actions and environmental setting to convey meaning. In low-context cultures such as the United States and Germany, people rely more on verbal communication and less on circumstances and cues to convey meaning. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 90. Describe at least three common business activities affected by contextual differences across cultures. ANSWER: Contextual differences across cultures can profoundly affect the way people engage in decision making, problem solving, and negotiating. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 69; TYPE: concept 48 91. Distinguish between "formal" and "informal" cultural rules, then briefly describe three areas in which differing informal rules can become evident during intercultural communication. ANSWER: Formal rules (such as table manners) are specifically articulated. Informal rules are learned over time by watching others' behavior and imitating it. Differences in informal rules can affect a number of areas, including attitudes toward work and success, social roles, status, manners, and time. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 70-71; TYPE: application 92. List at least three areas of nonverbal communication that can differ widely among cultures. ANSWER: Greetings, the use of personal space, touching behavior, facial expressions, eye contact, posture and formality can all differ widely among various cultures. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 72; TYPE: concept 93. Before conducting business in a foreign country, why is it worthwhile to learn common phrases in the native language even if your clients there will speak English? ANSWER: Learning basic phrases not only helps you get through everyday business and social situations but also demonstrates your commitment to the business relationship. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 94. Briefly describe at least three strategies for writing effective multicultural messages. ANSWER: Strategies for writing multicultural messages include using simple, clear English; being brief; using transitional elements; addressing international correspondence properly; and citing numbers and dates carefully are all helpful when writing to a multicultural audience. It is also important to avoid slang, idioms, and humor. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77-79; TYPE: application 95. A new employee who speaks English as a second language has just joined the design team you lead. You notice that she often looks confused during conversations. Describe at least three useful strategies for this situation. ANSWER: Strategies you can use include speaking slowly and clearly, seeking feedback, and verifying what has been said and agreed on would all be useful in this situation. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 80; TYPE: application 49 Essay 96. Since cultures do not always share the same ideas on ethical issues, how can you keep messages ethical when communicating interculturally? ANSWER: Not all cultures share the same perspective on ethical issues. When communicating interculturally, it's important to actively seek mutual ground by being flexible and not insisting that everything happen in terms of one culture or another. Sending and receiving messages without judgment is also vital: Both parties must recognize that values vary among cultures and that trust is essential. In addition, messages should be honest. Both parties have to recognize their own cultural biases. Finally, for ethical intercultural communication to occur, the stakeholders must show respect for cultural differences. Avoiding ethnocentrism allows both parties to understand and acknowledge the other's needs and preserve mutual dignity. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 70; TYPE: concept 97. While working in Mexico, you schedule a meeting with a vendor who lives there. When he shows up 20 minutes after the meeting was supposed to begin, should you take it as a sign of incompetence or disrespect? Explain. ANSWER: This behavior should not be regarded as a sign of incompetence or disrespect. It simply reflects cultural differences in the treatment of time. Executives in countries such as the United States and Germany view time as limited and tend to focus on one task during each scheduled period of the day. In Asian and Latin American cultures, however, time is treated with more flexibility. In these cultures, building business relationships is more important than meeting deadlines and being punctual: The work day is not expected to follow a rigid, preset schedule. If you respond with frustration or anger to the vendor's late arrival, it could unnecessarily erode your relationship. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 71; TYPE: application 98. List at least three types of nonverbal differences might you encounter when working with businesspeople from other cultures. Provide at least one example of how these differences might cause misunderstandings in communication. ANSWER: Nonverbal differences among cultures are particularly evident in terms of greetings, personal space, touching and how body language is interpreted. For example, the gesture regarded as the "OK" sign in the U.S. is considered highly offensive in Germany, Brazil, and some other countries. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 72; TYPE: concept 50 99. When doing business abroad, what are three strategies can you use to promote effective intercultural communication? ANSWER: One strategy is to understand social customs regarding issues such as common ways of greeting others: Should you bow? Nod? Shake hands? It is also helpful to learn about clothing and food preferences that characterize the culture in which you'll work. Doing so requires finding out (among other things) which occasions require special clothing, how many times a day people eat, and so forth. Other strategies include assessing political patterns, understanding religious and folk beliefs, learning about business institutions, and appraising the nature of ethics, values, and laws. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 75-76; TYPE: concept 100. How can cultural differences affect communication styles? What general rule approach should Americans take when writing intercultural correspondence? ANSWER: Audiences in various cultures often have widely differing ideas of appropriate communication styles. These expectations dictate factors such as how direct one can be, whether heated debates and confrontations are acceptable, and whether written or oral communication is generally preferred. In general, American businesspeople need to be more formal in their international correspondence than they are when writing to people in their own country. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 77; TYPE: concept 51 Chapter 4 PLANNING BUSINESS MESSAGES Multiple Choice 1. The three primary steps involved in preparing a business message are a. planning, writing, and completing. b. informing, persuading, and collaborating. c. defining the purpose, the main idea, and the topic. d. satisfying the audience's informational, motivational, and practical needs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 90; TYPE: concept 2. In developing business messages, the stage during which you step back to see whether you have expressed your ideas clearly is the a. planning stage. b. writing stage. c. completing stage. d. feedback stage. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 91; TYPE: concept 3. In preparing business messages, you should devote about ______ percent of your time to planning. a. 10 b. 20 c. 50 d. 70 Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 91; TYPE: concept 4. Which of the following is not a general purpose common to business communication? a. To inform b. To persuade c. To negotiate d. To collaborate Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 5. An example of a specific purpose for a business message would be a. to impart information to the audience. b. to inform employees about the new vacation policy. c. to persuade readers to take an action. d. to obtain audience participation and collaboration. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: application 6. Most messages should not be sent unless they will a. bring about a change. b. increase your chances of being promoted. c. please your boss. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 7. A message should be deferred or canceled if a. your news is bad. b. someone else wants to deliver it. c. your audience is highly receptive. d. the timing is wrong. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 8. Audience analysis is relatively easy when you are communicating with a. strangers. b. co-workers. c. large groups of people. d. customers on a mailing list. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 9. The primary audience for your message is made up of a. all who receive it. b. the key decision makers in the audience. c. those people with the highest status. d. those people who represent the opinions and attitudes of the majority. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 10. Messages should be especially detailed if a. you expect a favorable response. b. you are unsure about the audience's level of understanding. c. you and your audience share the same general background. d. all of the above are the case. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 11. Educating your audience requires a. providing as much information as possible. b. giving only enough information to accomplish the purpose of the message. c. providing little information, as long as you indicate that you're open to any questions that may arise. d. gearing your message to the least informed segment of the audience, even if they are not the key decision makers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 12. If you face a skeptical audience, try to a. be as straightforward as possible about stating your conclusions and recommendations. b. avoid stating your conclusions and recommendations. c. use less evidence in support of your points. d. introduce your conclusions and recommendations gradually with more proof. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 94; TYPE: concept 13. Which of the following is not an informal method of gathering information to meet your audience's needs? a. Reading reports and other company documents b. Chatting with supervisors and colleagues c. Conducting library research d. Asking your audience for input Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 94; TYPE: concept 14. When meeting your audience's informational needs, you emphasize ideas a. of greatest interest to the audience. b. that are uncontroversial. c. that will have the least impact on the audience. d. that don't need supporting evidence. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 15. A good way to test the thoroughness of your business message is to check it for a. a main idea. b. a purpose. c. the who, what, when, where, why, and how. d. accuracy. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 16. If you make an honest mistake, such as giving incorrect information, the best thing to do is a. take no action. b. blame someone else. c. contact the primary audience immediately and correct the error. d. start looking for a new job. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 96; TYPE: concept 17. When choosing the appropriate medium for your message, your choices include a. oral media. b. written media. c. electronic media. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 98; TYPE: concept 18. When you must reach a dispersed audience quickly, which media are most effective? a. Written media b. Oral media c. Electronic media d. Presentations Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 99; TYPE: concept 19. Telephone calls are a. considered an outdated medium by many businesspeople. b. now acceptable only for external communication. c. still a vital communication link for many organizations. d. no longer practical when compared to e-mail. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 20. Which of the following electronic media would be best for sending a brief, unambiguous message that does not require an immediate response? a. videoconferencing b. voice mail c. videotape d. CD-ROM Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 21. PDF is a a. widely used format for sending documents electronically. b. popular telephone connectivity service. c. highly technical videoconferencing program. d. type of voice-to-text translation software. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 22. In part, media richness refers to a. the cost of sending a message through a particular medium. b. the popularity of a specific medium. c. a medium's ability to facilitate feedback. d. the difficulties involved with using a particular medium. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 23. The richest communication medium is a. a phone call. b. a memo. c. an e-mail. d. a face-to-face conversation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 24. As a new supervisor, you need to introduce yourself to your team of ten employees. The best medium for this type of nonroutine message would be a. a face-to-face meeting. b. an e-mail. c. a memo. d. a conference call. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: application 25. Leaner media are best used for messages that a. are routine. b. are highly emotional. c. are nonroutine. d. require feedback. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 26. A key advantage of oral communication is a. the ability to plan and control the message. b. the opportunity to meet an audience's information needs. c. the ability to transmit highly complex messages. d. the opportunity to get immediate feedback. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 27. A written message is preferable to an oral one when a. immediate feedback is desired. b. the audience is large and geographically dispersed. c. the message is relatively simple. d. the information is controversial. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 28. One of the drawbacks of using e-mail is a. its high cost. b. its slow speed. c. its lack of privacy. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 29. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of electronic media? a. High cost b. Potential for inadvertently creating tension and conflict c. Tendency for employees to overuse them d. All of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 30. In high-context cultures, _________________ media are often more effective than _________________ ones. a. leaner, richer b. oral, written c. foreign, domestic d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 31. Which of the following formats is most formal? a. E-mail b. Memo c. Blog d. All are equal in formality Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 32. Which of the following is not an important factor to consider when choosing a medium for your message? a. Urgency b. Cost c. Gender of the audience d. Confidentiality Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 33. Which of the following is an example of a message topic? a. "To get the board of directors to increase the research and development budget" b. "Competitors spend more than our company does on research and development" c. "Funding for research and development" d. "The research and development budget is inadequate in our competitive marketplace" Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 104-05; TYPE: application 34. When you know your audience will be receptive to your message, it is generally best to organize it using a(n) a. complex approach. b. indirect approach. c. direct approach. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 106; TYPE: concept True or False 36. When allocating your time among the three stages of the writing process, you should use about a fourth of the time for planning, half the time for writing, and a quarter of the time for completing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 91; TYPE: concept 37. The three general purposes of business messages are to inform, to persuade, and to collaborate. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 38. If your message is intended strictly to inform, you control the message and need little interaction with your audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 39. If the general purpose of your message is to persuade, you will have little control over your message but will have a maximum of audience interaction. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 40. Collaborative messages are high in audience participation but low in communicator control. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 41. There is no point in sending a message if its purpose is not realistic. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 42. Once you have established your purpose, it's best to consider whether it is worth pursuing at this time. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 43. No matter how you feel personally about a situation, your communication should reflect your organization's objectives. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 44. When analyzing your audience, you should focus on the key decision makers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 45. As long as your message is clear, the size of your audience should not affect your approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 46. If you don't know who your audience will be, there's no point in trying to guess what would be of interest to them. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 47. If you expect your audience to be skeptical, you will need to provide more proof and introduce your conclusions and recommendations more gradually. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 94; TYPE: concept 48. One informal method for learning more about your audience's information needs is to ask them directly for input. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 94; TYPE: concept 49. When you get a vague request for information, the best way to handle it is to provide all the information you can and allow the audience to pick and choose what is useful to them. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 50. Good communicators include only the information that their audience has specifically requested. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 51. A helpful way to test the thoroughness of your message is to use the journalistic approach: asking yourself whether you have covered the who, what, where, when, why, and how. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 52. Accuracy of information is less important in business communication than in other types of communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 53. Online sources generally require more careful evaluation than other media. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 54. Messages can be unethical simply because certain details have not been included. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 96; TYPE: concept 55. If you provide inaccurate information in a business message, the best course of action is to say nothing and hope that no one notices. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 96; TYPE: concept 56. As long as your message is clear, the medium you choose won't really matter. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 98; TYPE: concept 57. If you want to emphasize the confidentiality of a message, the preferred medium would be a fax or a memo. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 98; TYPE: concept 58. In today's fast-paced environment, traditional business messages rely primarily on visual images, with occasional support from text. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 99; TYPE: concept 59. Media richness refers to the relative costs of advertising in the various mass media. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 60. Face-to-face communication is the richest medium. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 61. Voice mail is a particularly effective medium for lengthy messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 62. The main advantage of written communication is that the writer has an opportunity to plan and control the message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 63. The biggest drawback to e-mail is that it is underutilized. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 64. One advantage of e-mail is its high level of privacy. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 65. Instant messaging has quickly become the best medium for sending complex business messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 66. The urgency of your message should help you decide what medium to use. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 67. The best time to organize a message is after you've put a draft of it on paper-- that way you know exactly what you're working with. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102-03; TYPE: concept 68. The topic and main idea of a message are basically the same thing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 104; TYPE: concept 69. Brainstorming is helpful when working alone but is not an effective way to generate ideas if you are working with others. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 105; TYPE: concept 70. In most cases, routine messages should be organized using the indirect approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 107; TYPE: concept 71. Step one of the writing process is ____________________, in which you analyze the situation, gather information, select the right medium for the message, and organize the information. ANSWER: planning; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 90; TYPE: concept 72. The final step in the writing process is ____________________ your message, which involves revising, producing, and distributing it. ANSWER: completing; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 91; TYPE: concept 73. The three general purposes of business messages are to inform, to persuade, or to ____________________ with the audience. ANSWER: collaborate; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 74. In addition to having a general purpose, each business message has a (an) ____________________ purpose. ANSWER: specific; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 92; TYPE: concept 75. During the planning step you need to analyze your ____________________, including its size and composition, existing knowledge about the subject, and probable reaction to your message. ANSWER: audience; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 76. A good way to test the thoroughness of your message is to use the ____________________ approach and ask whether the message answers who, what, when, where, why, and how. ANSWER: journalistic; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 77. Speeches, presentations, and meetings are all examples of ____________________ media. ANSWER: oral; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 98; TYPE: concept 78. Media ____________________ is the ability of a medium to . ANSWER: richness; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 79. Every medium has ____________________ that make it inappropriate for certain messages. ANSWER: limitations OR drawbacks; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 80. Factors you should consider in choosing a communication ____________________ include formality, confidentiality, feedback, time, and cost. ANSWER: medium; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 81. Including ____________________ material is an organization problem that frustrates your audience. ANSWER: irrelevant; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 102; TYPE: concept 82. ____________________ ____________________ --a specific statement about the topic of your message. ANSWER: main idea; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 104; TYPE: concept 83. ____________________ . ANSWER: scope; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 105; TYPE: concept 84. No matter how long your message is, you should limit the number of major support points to roughly ____________________. ANSWER: six; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 106; TYPE: concept 85. An alternative to creating an outline of your message is to use a(n) ____________________ ____________________ similar to those used to show a company's management structure. ANSWER: organization chart; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 109; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. Describe at least three of the tasks involved in developing an audience profile. ANSWER: Developing an audience profile involves identifying your primary audience and determining its size, geographic distribution, and composition. It also requires gauging your audience's level of understanding, considering their expectations and preferences, and forecasting their probable reaction to your message. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93-94; TYPE: concept 87. List at least four methods of gathering information to include in your message. ANSWER: Strategies for gathering information include (1) considering other viewpoints; (2) reading reports and other company documents; (3) talking with supervisors, colleagues, or customers; and (4) asking your audience for input. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 94; TYPE: concept 88. How can the journalistic approach help you include all required information in you business messages? ANSWER: The journalistic approach enables you to check the thoroughness of your message by seeing whether your message answers who, what, when, where, why, and how. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 89. List at least three strategies to help ensure the accuracy of information you in include in business messages. ANSWER: DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 95; TYPE: concept 90. Briefly describe how to meet an unfamiliar audience's informational needs. ANSWER: When you don't know your audience, use common sense to identify points of particular interest. Audience factors such as age, job, location, income, and education can give you a clue. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 96; TYPE: concept 91. Briefly define media richness, and provide at least one example of a rich medium and a lean medium. ANSWER: Media richness is the value of a communication medium in a given situation. It is determined by a medium's ability to convey a message by means of more than one informational cue, facilitate feedback, and establish personal focus. Face-to-face conversation is the richest medium, while unaddressed documents such as posters and signs are the leanest. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100; TYPE: concept 92. Describe at least two disadvantages of using electronic media for business messages. ANSWER: Despite the speed convenience of electronic media, they are not without problems. These media help companies get input from a wider variety of people but people also tend to overuse them, leading to message overload. They can also lack privacy, and their use is so popular that it can diminish employees' productivity. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 101; TYPE: concept 93. Briefly explain the difference between the topic of a message and the main idea. ANSWER: The topic of a message is its broad subject, condensed to one idea. In contrast, the main idea is a specific statement about the topic. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 104; TYPE: concept 94. In preparing a letter to a vendor regarding a missing part of your order, would the direct or indirect approach be preferable? Briefly explain your choice. ANSWER: In this case, the direct approach would be best because the audience is likely to be receptive to the message. The indirect approach should be used when the audience will probably react with skepticism or resistance. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 106-07; TYPE: application 95. Briefly distinguish between the deductive and inductive approaches to organizing business messages. ANSWER: The deductive, or direct, approach starts with the main idea and then provides supporting evidence. The inductive approach builds a case with supporting evidence before presenting the main idea. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 106-07; TYPE: concept Essay 96. What are the four tasks involved in planning business messages? ANSWER: Planning business messages involves (1) , (2) DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 90; TYPE: concept 97. Explain each phase of the three-step writing process. ANSWER: The three-step writing process includes planning, writing, and completing the business message. Planning involves analyzing the situation, gathering information, selecting the right medium for your message, and organizing the information. Writing the message involves adapting to your audience and composing your message. Completing a business message includes revising, producing, proofreading, and distributing it. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 90-91; TYPE: concept 98. List at least three helpful questions to ask in evaluating the purpose of a message. ANSWER: Once you have determined the specific purpose of a business message, you can decide whether that purpose merits the time and effort required for you to prepare and send the message. In order to test the purpose of a message, one should ask (1) DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 99. How can your audience's level of understanding help you determine the appropriate amount of information to include in a business message? ANSWER: If audience members do not share your general background, your message will likely need to include an element of education. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 93; TYPE: concept 100. Briefly describe at least three factors to consider when choosing media for business messages. ANSWER: DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 100-01; TYPE: concept Chapter 5 WRITING BUSINESS MESSAGES Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following statements best reflects the "you" attitude? a. You failed to enclose a check for $25. b. We need a check from you for $25 so that we can send the merchandise by May 15. c. We will send you the merchandise as soon as we receive your check for $25. d. You will have your merchandise by July 15 if you send us your check for $25 today. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 121; TYPE: application 2. Select the sentence with the best "you" attitude: a. Because your report was poorly written, we cannot accept it. b. Your report failed to meet company requirements. c. When we receive a report that is professional, we can act on your recommendations. d. Once the project includes the necessary estimates, we can proceed with it. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 121; TYPE: application 3. It is best to limit your use of the word "you" in business messages if a. you know your audience well. b. your organization prefers a more formal, impersonal style. c. you are filling your audience's informational needs. d. you are preparing a persuasive message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 121; TYPE: concept 4. You earn respect from your audience by a. being brutally frank in your criticisms. b. flattering them as much as possible. c. being polite and diplomatic. d. doing all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 121-22; TYPE: concept 5. Select the sentence with the best positive emphasis: a. We failed to complete the process audit on time. b. We will complete the process audit by Friday. c. We haven't completed the process audit. d. Because of Joan's inaccurate figures on the Haymen project, we are not finished with the process audit. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 122; TYPE: concept 6. When you are criticizing or correcting, it is best to a. focus on what the person can do to improve. b. emphasize a person's mistakes so that he or she will not make the same ones again. c. be honest and call attention to the person's failures or shortcomings. d. make the person an example for everyone else to learn from. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 7. For persuasive messages, the best approach is to a. avoid the "you" attitude. b. get straight to the point. c. emphasize how your audience will benefit. d. open with the main idea and then provide supporting points. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 8. The best approach for getting someone to buy a magazine subscription from your charity group would be to say a. Please buy a subscription; our group really needs the money. b. If you buy a subscription from me I'll make my quota. c. This magazine will keep you informed on issues that affect your daily life. d. Our group doesn't get any assistance from government agencies, so these magazine sales are our main source of funding. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: application 9. A euphemism is a word or phrase that is a. possibly offensive. b. general or abstract in meaning. c. highly technical. d. a milder term for one with negative connotations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 10. To establish credibility with your audience, you should a. impress them with a long list of your accomplishments. b. be modest and deferential. c. show that you are confident and that you believe in yourself and in your message. d. use hedge words ("maybe," "perhaps") to demonstrate your knowledge that no issue is fully cut and dried. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 126; TYPE: concept 11. In business messages, using terms such as "if," "hope," and "trust" is a. usually a bad idea since it takes away from the writer's credibility. b. a good way to show your modesty. c. common courtesy. d. acceptable for very formal contexts. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 127; TYPE: concept 12. The tone of business messages a. can range from informal to conversational to formal. b. should always be formal. c. should always be fairly informal. d. is governed by strict, unwritten rules that do not allow for humor. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 128; TYPE: concept 13. Generally speaking, business language used to be ____________ it is today. a. less formal than b. more formal than c. about as formal as d. simpler than Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 128; TYPE: concept 14. Plain English is a style of writing a. used only for casual correspondence. b. designed to make complex materials more understandable to the audience. c. aimed primarily at readers for whom English is a second language. d. inappropriate for business communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 129; TYPE: concept 15. Which of the following is not an example of obsolete language? a. We are in receipt of b. Please be advised that c. Please let us know d. We wish to inform you Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 129; TYPE: application 16. Which of the following sentences contains the strongest and most effective wording? a. Given the parameters of the situation, the most propitious choice would be to make adjustments in certain budget areas. b. We need to cut the operating budget by 12 percent or profits will plummet. c. Someone's going to need to do some budget cutting around here or heads will roll. d. Perusal of budgetary figures reveals that a 12 percent reduction in operations is called for if we are to stave off a negative impact on profits. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 129; TYPE: application 17. Identify the voice in the following sentence: "The report was changed by the marketing manager." a. Active b. Passive c. Vocative d. State of being Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 130-31; TYPE: application 18. Using the passive voice makes sense when a. you want to be diplomatic in pointing out a problem or error. b. you want your sentence to be easier to understand. c. you need to make your sentences shorter. d. you want to emphasize the subject. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 131; TYPE: concept 19. Which of the following is a content word? a. around b. she c. jump d. the Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 132; TYPE: application 20. The connotative meaning of a word is a. its dictionary meaning. b. its literal meaning. c. all the associations and feelings the word evokes. d. its objective meaning. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 133; TYPE: concept 21. Which of the following words are the most abstract? a. kiss, rose, house b. red, sharp, piercing c. kick, move, walk d. love, beauty, innocence Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 133-34; TYPE: application 22. "While you may not agree with Joan's recommendations, you must admit that her suggestions would save the company money" is a a. simple sentence. b. compound sentence. c. complex sentence. d. compound-complex sentence. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 136; TYPE: application 23. "Stock prices have fallen, and foreign investments are far below normal levels" is a a. simple sentence. b. compound sentence. c. complex sentence. d. compound-complex sentence. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 136; TYPE: application 24. Which of the following is a compound sentence? a. David is a good worker, and he deserves a raise. b. Because David is a good worker, he deserves a raise. c. David, a good worker, deserves a raise. d. Having been a good worker, David will no doubt receive a raise. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 136; TYPE: application 25. A complex sentence is one characterized by a. two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. b. a single subject and a single predicate plus any modifying phrases. c. two or more independent clauses along with all modifying phrases. d. an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses related to it. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 136; TYPE: concept 26. You can emphasize key points by a. using extra words to describe them. b. making important ideas the subject of the sentence. c. placing them at the beginning or end of a sentence. d. doing all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 136-37; TYPE: concept 27. To downplay a dependent clause in a complex sentence, you a. place it at the beginning of the sentence. b. place it at the end of the sentence. c. bury it in the middle of the sentence. d. set it off with a semicolon. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 137; TYPE: concept 28. A typical paragraph contains the three basic elements of a. a topic sentence, related sentences, and transitional elements. b. simple, compound, and complex sentences. c. the main idea, supporting ideas, and evidence. d. a problem, discussion, and a solution. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 137; TYPE: concept 29. Words such as "nevertheless," "however," "but," and "therefore" a. are called pointer words. b. introduce modifiers. c. occur only in complex sentences. d. are useful for making transitions. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 139; TYPE: concept 30. A paragraph that focuses on the reasons for something is developed according to which method? a. Illustration b. Comparison and contrast c. Cause and effect d. Problem and solution Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 140; TYPE: concept 31. When you want to develop a paragraph by showing how a general idea is broken into specific categories, which of these methods would you use? a. Illustration b. Comparison and contrast c. Cause and effect d. Classification Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 140; TYPE: concept 32. To ensure a consistent look for all company documents, many organizations provide employees with approved a. autocompletion software. b. spreadsheets. c. macros. d. style sheets. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 141; TYPE: concept 33. The _____________ feature in software enables you to personalize form letters by inserting names and addresses from a database. a. File merge b. Mail merge c. Autocorrection d. Boilerplate Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 141; TYPE: concept 34. Which type of software feature inserts a ready-made block of text when you type the first few characters? a. Machine translation b. Mail merge c. Autocompletion d. Autocorrection Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 141; TYPE: concept 35. Boilerplate is a. a piece of computer hardware used to increase modem speed. b. a standard block of text used in various documents without being changed. c. a list of most-used e-mail addresses. d. a machine used in professional printing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 141; TYPE: concept True or False 36. Adopting a "you" attitude in business writing is simply a matter of using the pronoun "you" as much as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 121; TYPE: concept 37. In general, the word "you" should be avoided when you are assigning blame for a problem. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 121; TYPE: concept 38. When delivering negative news, it is misleading to emphasize any positive aspects of the situation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 122; TYPE: concept 39. Always avoid using euphemisms, because they are inherently dishonest. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 40. Using the word "young" to describe an employee can have negative implications. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 126; TYPE: concept 41. Being too modest can reduce your credibility with your audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 126; TYPE: concept 42. A conversational tone is not appropriate for most business messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 128; TYPE: concept 43. Bragging about your company': concept 70. Templates and style sheets can both help to ensure a consistent look for all company documents. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 141; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. Using the ____________________ attitude allows you to establish empathy with your audience. ANSWER: "you"; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 121; TYPE: concept 72. Even in messages detailing negative situations, it is best to emphasize the ____________________ aspects of your topic. ANSWER: positive; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 122; TYPE: concept 73. Instead of using harsh, unpleasant terms, use mild words, or ____________________. ANSWER: euphemisms; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 74. To avoid embarrassing blunders in language related to gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, use ____________________ language. ANSWER: bias-free; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 75. Terms such as "handicapped," "crippled," and "retarded" are examples of ____________________ bias. ANSWER: disability; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 125; TYPE: application 76. If your audience is unfamiliar with you, you need to devote the initial part of your message to establishing ____________________. ANSWER: credibility; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 126; TYPE: concept 77. Style is the way you use words to achieve a certain ____________________, or overall impression. ANSWER: tone; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 127; TYPE: concept 78. A sentence is in the ____________________ voice when the subject performs the action and the object receives the action. ANSWER: active; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 130; TYPE: concept 79. ____________________ words express relationships and have only one unchanging meaning in any given context; ____________________ words, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, carry the meaning of the sentence. ANSWER: Functional, content; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 132; TYPE: concept 80. The ____________________ meaning of a word is its literal, dictionary meaning, whereas the ____________________ meaning includes all the associations and feelings it evokes. ANSWER: denotative, connotative; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 133; TYPE: concept 81. ____________________ words express a concept or quality, not a tangible object. ANSWER: abstract; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 133; TYPE: concept 82. ____________________ sentences express two or more independent but related thoughts of equal importance. ANSWER: Compound; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 136; TYPE: concept 83. ____________________ sentences express one main thought and one or more subordinate thoughts related to it. ANSWER: Complex; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 136; TYPE: concept 84. A (An) ____________________ is a cluster of sentences related to the same general topic. ANSWER: paragraph; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 137; TYPE: concept 85. A standard block of text used in various documents without being changed is called ____________________. ANSWER: boilerplate; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 141; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. List three strategies to become more sensitive to your audience's needs. ANSWER: You should adopt the "you" attitude, maintain good standards of etiquette, emphasize the positive, and use bias-free language. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 120; TYPE: concept 87. You are scheduled to discuss a negative performance evaluation with one of your employees. How can you use the "you" attitude during your conversation? ANSWER: In cases like this, using the "you" attitude requires emphasizing what the person can do to improve, rather than dwelling on his or her mistakes and shortcomings. Emphasizing the positive is more likely to yield the results you want. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 122; TYPE: application 88. Define bias-free language. ANSWER: Bias-free language avoids words and phrases that unfairly and even unethically categorize or stigmatize people in ways related to gender, race, ethnicity, age and disability. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 124; TYPE: concept 89. List at least two types of biased language and explain how to avoid each type. ANSWER: (1) Gender bias: Avoid sexist language by using the same label for everyone--police officer instead of policeman. (2) Racial and ethnic bias: Avoid language that suggests that members of a racial or ethnic group have stereotypical characteristics. (3) Age bias: Mention the age of a person only when it is relevant. (4) Disability bias: Avoid mentioning a disability unless it is pertinent. Put the person first. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 125; TYPE: concept 90. List at least three characteristics that can help establish credibility with your audience. ANSWER: Audiences assign credibility to individuals who display (1) honesty, (2) objectivity, (3) awareness of audience needs, (4) credentials, knowledge, and expertise, (5) endorsements, (6) performance, (7) confidence, (8) evidence-based communication, and (8) sincerity. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 126-27; TYPE: concept 91. Briefly explain the difference between tone and style in business writing. ANSWER: Tone is the overall impression you achieve with a message. Style is the way you use words to achieve a specific tone. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 127; TYPE: concept 92. List at least three guidelines to follow if you want to achieve a conversational tone in business messages. ANSWER: (1) Avoid obsolete and pompous language such as "in due course" or "we are in receipt of"; (2) avoid preaching and bragging; (3) be careful with intimacy--don't be overly friendly or chatty; and (4) be careful with humor. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 128-29; TYPE: concept 93. Briefly explain the difference between the active voice and the passive voice. ANSWER: You are using the active voice when the subject performs the action, and the object receives the action: "John rented the office." You are using the passive voice when the subject receives the action: "The office was rented by John." DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 130-31; TYPE: concept 94. How is the denotative meaning of a word different from its connotative meaning? ANSWER: The denotative meaning is the literal, or dictionary, meaning of a word. The connotative meaning includes all the associations and feelings evoked by the word. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 133; TYPE: concept 95. Give the definition of a complex sentence, then provide an example of one. Register to View Answercomplex sentence expresses one main thought (the independent clause) and one or more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses). An example is, "Although we met our production quota, our repair costs this month were far higher than expected." (Answers will vary.) DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 136; TYPE: concept/application Essay 96. Explain what it means to "emphasize the positive" in business messages, and describe at least three techniques for doing so. ANSWER: Emphasizing the positive in business communication means recognizing the difference between delivering negative news and being negative. When the tone of your message is negative, you put unnecessary strain on business relationships, which can cause people to distance themselves from you and your ideas. One strategy for maintaining a positive tone in a potentially negative situation is to highlight any positive points that will foster a good relationship with your audience. Another strategy involves situations in which you find it necessary to criticize or correct: don't dwell on the other person's mistakes, and avoid referring to failures, problems, or shortcomings. Instead, focus on what the person can do to improve. Other strategies include persuading the audience to do something by emphasizing what's in it for them, and using euphemisms instead of words that might hurt or offend your audience. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 122-24; TYPE: application 97. List three situations in which the passive voice can help you demonstrate the "you" attitude. ANSWER: The passive voice can be helpful when you need to shift emphasis away from the person who is the subject of your message. These situations include (1) when you need to be diplomatic in pointing out a problem or error, (2) when you want to point out what's being done wi used. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 21. The "replace all" feature in word-processing programs a. tracks down words or phrases and automatically changes them all. b. can save you time when revising messages. c. must be used with care, since it can make undesirable changes. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 161-62; TYPE: concept 22. A spell checker a. cannot automatically correct misspelled words as you type. b. highlights words it doesn't recognize. c. suggests synonyms. d. does all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 162; TYPE: concept 23. A computer thesaurus a. catches punctuation as well as grammar errors. b. highlights phrases in passive voice. c. suggests correct spelling. d. can help you find just the right word for a given situation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 162; TYPE: concept 24. Clip art a. is unprofessional and should not be used in business documents. b. is not copyrighted. c. is costly and difficult to use. d. makes it impossible to attach your document to an e-mail message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 164; TYPE: concept 25. Inserting hypertext into documents a. involves using HTML language to create hyperlinks. b. is not possible yet, given current technology. c. allows you to hear sounds over the Internet. d. requires an expert to handle the programming. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 164; TYPE: concept 26. For effective document design, you should a. fit as much material as possible on each page. b. use a mix of several typefaces and type sizes and include a variety of decorative touches to make the pages look more interesting. c. balance the space devoted to text, artwork, and white space. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 27. Using white space in a document a. is considered "cheating." b. is only an option when you can't use color. c. makes your document look unappealing. d. provides contrast. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 28. Justified type is type that is a. set flush on the left and flush on the right. b. centered. c. set flush left and ragged on the right. d. set flush right and ragged on the left. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 29. Justified margins are not preferred for business documents because they a. make the document harder to read. b. darken the message's appearance because there is less white space. c. make messages look less personalized. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 30. Centered type in business documents is a. never appropriate. b. rarely used for text but commonly used for headings. c. acceptable for long sections of text but not for headings. d. always preferred for exceptionally long paragraphs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 167; TYPE: concept 31. Serif typefaces are generally preferable to sans serif faces for a. display treatments. b. headings and captions. c. text. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 167; TYPE: concept 32. When selecting typefaces for most business documents, you should a. generally avoid using more than two typefaces on a page. b. make generous use of such styles as all caps, underlines, and boldface. c. choose a nice sans serif face for your main body text. d. use a large type size (at least 14 points) for your basic text if you need to fill up space. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 167; TYPE: concept 33. Desktop publishing software a. includes specialized tools for formatting, layout, and design. b. allows you to add color, photographs, and clip art to documents c. provides "style sheets" that help ensure a consistent look to your documents. d. does all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 168; TYPE: concept 34. Which of the following lists contains the elements of a business letter in the proper order? a. letterhead, date, inside address, salutation, message, complimentary close b. letterhead, inside address, date, salutation, message, complimentary close c. date, letterhead, inside address, salutation, message, complimentary close d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 169; TYPE: concept 35. If you're sending extremely large files, you should a. use overnight delivery to send a hard copy rather than sending them electronically. b. see whether your audience would prefer to receive them on a CD instead of as an e-mail attachment. c. always send them as MS Word attachments. d. send them through the mail to avoid excessive costs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 171; TYPE: concept True or False 36. After you have completed the first draft of your business message, the next step is to make a final, quick pass through it to check for typos and spelling errors. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 150; TYPE: concept 37. With practice, most writers can create first drafts that do not need to be revised. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 150; TYPE: concept 38. The best approach to completing your business message is to focus on the details first before addressing the document as a whole. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 39. It is a good idea to set aside a first draft for a day or two before beginning the revision process. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 40. At the beginning of the revision process, you should evaluate the content of your message, then review the effectiveness of its organization. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 41. The middle section of a message has the greatest impact on the audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 42. You should strive for a sixth-grade reading level for most business messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 153; TYPE: concept 43. Although readability formulas are easy to apply, they ignore some factors that contribute to reading ease. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 153; TYPE: concept 44. Skilled business writers keep all their sentences as short as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 154; TYPE: concept 45. Although you should vary the length of paragraphs in your business messages, in general you should strive for short paragraphs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 154; TYPE: concept 46. It is inappropriate to use lists in formal business writing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 155; TYPE: concept 47. To create a list, you can use numbers, letters, or bullets (graphic elements) to separate the items. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 155; TYPE: concept 48. Items in a list do not need to have parallel construction. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 155; TYPE: concept 49. Headings have one function, which is to break up long blocks of type. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 156; TYPE: concept 50. An example of an informative heading would be "Business Travel." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 156; TYPE: application 51. Readers can understand informative headings without reading the rest of the document. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 156; TYPE: concept 52. One way to make your messages clearer is to break up overly long sentences into shorter sentences. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: concept 53. To avoid legal problems in your business messages, you should use as many hedging words (such as may or seems) as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: concept 54. Dangling modifiers are often the result of passive constructions. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: concept 55. A camouflaged verb is a verb that has been turned into a noun or an adjective. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 56. The subject and predicate of a sentence should be kept as close together as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 57. To save words, make liberal use of references such as "the latter," "the former," "the aforementioned," and "as mentioned above." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 58. After editing for conciseness and clarity, you'll find that most first drafts can be cut by as much as 50 percent. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 59. The word very is usually unnecessary and contributes to sentence clutter. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 60. Short words are more vivid and easier to read than long words. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 61. Redundancies are useful to readers because repetition leads to better recall of information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 62. If a sentence starts with an indefinite pronoun such as "it" or "there," chances are the sentence can be shortened. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 63. Using a spell checker guarantees that your documents will be free of spelling errors. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 162; TYPE: concept 64. Today's powerful grammar checkers can easily determine whether your document states your message correctly and communicates it clearly. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 163; TYPE: concept 65. Because the first thing that readers will notice about your message is its appearance, you should pay special attention to design and page layout. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 164; TYPE: concept 66. To make your message more interesting and accessible, you should use as many design elements and decorative touches as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 67. One advantage of justified type is that it makes a message look more personalized and less like a form letter. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 68. Using many different fonts in the same document will make it more appealing to your audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 167; TYPE: concept 69. The best way to draw attention to important points or terms is to underline them or type them in all capital letters. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 167-68; TYPE: concept 70. Proofreading is rarely necessary since today's professionals use wordprocessing software to prepare documents. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 170; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. Using a ____________________ ____________________ will give you a rough idea of how educated your audience must be to read and comprehend your message. ANSWER: readability formula; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 153; TYPE: concept 72. An effective alternative to using conventional sentences is to set off important ideas in a(an) ____________________ --a series of words, names, or other items. ANSWER: list; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 155; TYPE: concept 73. ____________________ headings identify a topic but do little more; ____________________ headings guide readers to think in certain ways about a topic. ANSWER: Descriptive, informative; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 156; TYPE: concept 74. A ____________________ sentence uses words such as may and seems to avoid stating a judgment or fact. ANSWER: hedging; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: concept 75. With ____________________ construction, two or more similar ideas are expressed with the same grammatical pattern. ANSWER: parallel; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 157; TYPE: concept 76. A modifier is said to be ____________________ when it has no real connection to the subject of the sentence. ANSWER: dangling; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: concept 77. ____________________ verbs are those that have been changed into nouns or adjectives. ANSWER: Camouflaged; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 78. Word combinations that are needlessly repetitive are called ____________________. ANSWER: redundancies; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 79. A(An) ____________________ compares your document with an electronic dictionary, highlights unrecognized words, and suggests correct spelling. ANSWER: spell checker; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 162; TYPE: concept 80. An electronic ____________________ gives you alternative words and helps you find synonyms. ANSWER: thesaurus; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 162; TYPE: concept 81. ____________________ markup language (HTML) is used to insert hyperlinks, images, and other elements into your messages. ANSWER: Hypertext; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 164; TYPE: concept 82. ____________________ ____________________ provides visual contrast for your readers and gives them a resting point. ANSWER: White space; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept 83. ____________________ typefaces have small crosslines at the ends of each letter stroke. ANSWER: Serif; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 167; TYPE: concept 84. You can use ____________________ ____________________ software such as Quark XPress or Adobe InDesign to produce professional-looking formats and layouts for your documents. ANSWER: desktop publishing; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 168; TYPE: concept 85. One of the final stages in producing a document is ____________________ it to make sure that it contains no errors in grammar, usage, and punctuation. ANSWER: proofreading; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 170; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. Briefly explain what the opening of a document should accomplish. ANSWER: The opening of a shorter document should be relevant, interesting, and geared to the reader's probable reaction. For longer messages, the first few paragraphs should establish the subject, purpose, and organization of the material. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 87. Conclusions should accomplish what two tasks? ANSWER: Conclusions should (1) summarize the main idea and (2) leave the audience with a positive impression. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 88. Briefly describe at least three advantages of using lists in business documents. ANSWER: Lists can show the sequence of your ideas, heighten their impact visually, and help readers find your key points. They also provide readers with clues, simplify complex subjects, highlight the main point, break up the page visually, ease the skimming process, and give readers a breather. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 155; TYPE: concept 89. Rewrite the following sentence to remove the dangling modifier: "Lying next to the filing cabinet, the office manager found the financial report." ANSWER: The office manager found the financial report next to the filing cabinet. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: application 90. Rewrite the following sentence to improve clarity and avoid the long noun sequence: "The financial estimates and accounting consulting firm will be closed next week." ANSWER: The consulting firm that provides financial estimates and accounting services will be closed next week. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 157; TYPE: application 91. Rewrite the following sentence to avoid camouflaged verbs: "The customer will ultimately make a determination about whether or not a purchase will occur." ANSWER: The customer will ultimately determine whether or not to make a purchase. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: application 92. Rewrite the following sentence to eliminate the unnecessary phrases: "In view of the fact that the customer service department is closed, we do not have the capability of offering refunds until such a time as they reopen." ANSWER: We cannot offer refunds until the customer service department opens. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: application 93. Rewrite the following sentence to eliminate redundancies: "The engineers collaborated together in order to produce the uniquely original final outcomes of their research." ANSWER: The engineers collaborated produce to their original research outcomes. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: application 94. Rewrite the following sentence to be more concise by using short, simple words: "Effective immediately, all employees need to terminate their excessive utilization of the office duplication machine for personal affairs and activities." ANSWER: The office copier is not for personal use. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 159; TYPE: application 95. List four characteristics of effective document design. ANSWER: Effectively designed business documents exhibit (1) consistency, (2) balance, (3) restraint, and (4) attention to detail. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 166; TYPE: concept Essay 96. What three functions do effective headings serve in business documents? Explain each one. ANSWER: Headings contribute to the document's organization by showing the reader at a glance how the document is organized. They act as labels to group related paragraphs and organize material into short sections. Headings also control the reader's attention, making the text easier to read and helping the audience find the parts they need to read--or skip. Finally, headings help readers make connections between subordinate ideas and main ones. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 156; TYPE: concept 97. Explain at least three of the steps involved in editing documents for clarity. ANSWER: Editing for clarity involves breaking up overly long sentences and rewriting sentences that contain hedging (words like may and seems). It also requires imposing parallelism, or using the same grammatical pattern to express two or more similar ideas. Correcting dangling modifiers is another necessary step, along with rewording long noun sequences. Improving the clarity of a document also involves eliminating camouflaged verbs, clarifying sentence structure and awkward sentences, and moderating your enthusiasm. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 157-59; TYPE: concept 98. Explain why editing for conciseness is important, then list the four steps it involves. ANSWER: Editing business documents for conciseness is important because many drafts are twice as long as they need to be. Eliminating unnecessary material helps you get your point across more efficiently. Improving the conciseness of a message involves removing unnecessary words and phrases, shortening long words and phrases, and eliminating redundancies. It also requires shortening sentences that begin with indefinite pronouns such as it and there. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 159; TYPE: concept 99. Describe at least three types of software that can help you revise and polish a document. ANSWER: Software tools such as revision marks and commenting keep track of proposed editing changes electronically and provide a history of a document's revisions. A spell checker compares your document with an electronic dictionary, highlights unrecognized words, and suggests correct spellings. A computer thesaurus gives you alternative words much more quickly than a printed thesaurus does. A grammar checker provides limited help with issues such as noun-verb agreement problems and items you should consider changing (such as passive voice, long sentences, or words that tend to be misused or overused). Finally, a style checker monitors your word choice and sentence structure and suggests alternatives that might produce more effective meaning. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 161-62; TYPE: concept 100. Explain the importance and process of proofreading. Why does it matter and what should you look for? ANSWER: Proofreading is important because it is your last chance to make sure that your document is ready to carry your message--and your reputation--to the intended audience. When proofreading, you should check the document for errors from the writing, design, and layout stages, and mistakes that crept in during production. More specifically, you should be on the lookout for writing errors (such as typographical mistakes and misspelled words), missing elements (text sections and visual aids), and design and formatting errors (such as incorrect font selections and page numbers). DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 170; TYPE: concept Chapter 7 CRAFTING MESSAGES FOR ELECTRONIC MEDIA Multiple Choice 1. Of the media listed below, which is generally not used for routine, internal communication? a. memo b. e-mail c. letter d. telephone call Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 180; TYPE: application 2. When it comes to writing messages in todays business environment, a. printed letters are obsolete. b. printed letters are still used often for external communication. c. e-mail has completely replaced printed memos for all internal communication. d. printed letters are used primarily for negative messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 3. E-mail can be used for external communication a. regularly--it is now a primary medium for most companies. b. only for formal documents that you need to keep a record of. c. in response to letters your customers have sent. d. all of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 4. Compared to e-mail, instant messaging a. is slower and more complicated to use. b. has not caught on in the business community. c. is much faster, but more costly as well. d. offers greater speed and is less susceptible to privacy problems. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 180; TYPE: application 103 5. Which of the following are benefits of instant messaging? a. It allows a rapid response to urgent messages. b. It is less susceptible to security and privacy problems. c. It costs less than phone calls or e-mail. d. All of the above are benefits. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 6. Many businesses are now using podcasts to replace or supplement a. letters. b. memos. c. conference calls. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 7. When you want your message to stand out amidst the flood of e-mail your audience receives, you should a. consider sending a printed message. b. flag your e-mail messages as ,,high priority or ,,urgent. c. send multiple copies of the same e-mail message. d. do none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181 TYPE: concept 8. The most formal type of written communication is: a. instant messaging b. e-mail c. blogging d. letters Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 9. Using e-mail in the workplace a. requires no more formality than using it for personal correspondence. b. is frowned upon by most executives. c. has dramatically different demands than using it for personal messages. d. is a good idea only in technological fields. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181-82; TYPE: concept 104 10. To minimize the potential problems associated with e-mail, many companies have a. abandoned the use of e-mail altogether. b. adopted formal e-mail policies governing appropriate usage. c. stopped monitoring the messages employees send and receive. d. limited the number of messages each employee can send. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 11. Roughly ___ percent of U.S. employers have terminated employees for misuse of company e-mail systems. a. 1 b. 10 c. 25 d. 80 Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: application 12. E-mail hygiene refers to a. the absence of slang and informal language in e-mail messages. b. a nationwide movement to do away with information overload. c. all the efforts companies make to keep e-mail clean and safe. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 13. E-mails should include all of the following except: a. information about attachments b. inside address c. e-mail addresses of sender and receiver d. contact information Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 14. When it comes to monitoring incoming and outgoing e-mail, a. most companies do not make the effort. b. only about 10 percent of U.S. employers do it. c. most employers view it as an invasion of employee privacy. d. about 50 percent of U.S. employers regularly do so. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 105 15. When it comes to legal issues, a. e-mails mean nothing--only printed documents can be used in court. b. e-mail and other electronic documents have the same weight as printed ones. c. your e-mail messages are off limits--using them in court would violate your privacy. d. none of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 16. According to a recent study, workers exposed to a constant barrage of e-mail, IM, and phone calls a. increased their productivity by 20 percent. b. were 50 percent more likely than their peers to be promoted. c. experienced an average 10-point drop in their functioning IQ. d. experienced none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 183-84; TYPE: concept 17. One important element of basic e-mail etiquette is to a. be careful about using the "cc" function. b. use bullets and lists. c. include headings on all e-mails. d. capture your readers attention. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 184; TYPE: concept 18. E-mail etiquette requires that writers be all of the following except a. sure every e-mail they send is absolutely necessary b. respectful of the chain of command c. careful to keep their emotions in check when composing messages d. careful to mark all e-mails as "urgent" to make sure they are read. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 184-85; TYPE: concept 19. The subject line of an e-mail message a. is one of the most important parts. b. helps recipients decide whether or not to read the message. c. should do more than simply describe the general topic of the message. d. does all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 106 20. Which of the following is an example of an effective e-mail subject line? a. Website redesign is on schedule b. Status Report c. Employee Parking d. All of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: application 21. E-mail a. should follow the convention of other business writing in formal situations. b. should never be longer than one screen. c. does not need to be proofread. d. involves all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 22. When exchanging multiple e-mails with someone on the same topic, a. use the same subject line to avoid confusion. b. write a descriptive kind of subject line. c. modify the subject line with each response. d. change the topic whenever the date changes but not before. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: application 23. To make e-mail more readable, you should do all of the following except: a. limit subject lines to describing the general topic of your message. b. make your message easy to follow. c. personalize your message. d. observe e-mail etiquette. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 24. Which of the following is an example of an effective subject line for an e-mail requesting information about the August inventory for bananas? a. Information needed b. Banana inventories c. Banana information needed d. Please send August banana inventory Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: application 107 25. Drawbacks of IM include a. the challenge of logging messages for later review and archiving. b. the need for users to learn complicated software. c. the ability to use it only on expensive, highly specialized devices. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 26. Advantages of using IM rather than e-mail include a. its lower cost than phone calls and e-mail b. its availability on a wide range of devices c. its ability to mimic conversation more closely d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 187; TYPE: concept 27. "Spim" refers to a. unwanted e-mail from unknown sources. b. e-mail that contains computer viruses. c. the IM version of e-mail spam. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 189; TYPE: application 28. If you do not have a constant supply of new information to post on a business blog, a. your audience will appreciate not having to process information that changes constantly. b. re-post old material so your audience will not lose interest. c. online audiences are likely to ignore your material. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 191; TYPE: concept 29. If you receive criticism based on a business blog, a. you should respond to it promptly and honestly. b. ignore it unless the critic is incorrect. c. post it, and follow with a blog entry to show your audience that it will not be tolerated. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 191; TYPE: concept 108 30. Many businesses now use blogs to a. keep project teams up to date. b. replace e-mail in many cases. c. inform employees about general business matters. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 192; TYPE: concept 31. "Viral marketing" is a. the unethical practice of marketing products through computer viruses. b. advertising products and services related to the health-care industry. c. spreading the word about your company and products in much the same way that biological viruses are spread from person to person. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 192; TYPE: concept 32. When it comes to blogging for business, a. dont worry about proofreading--your audience doesnt expect it. b. you should apply the three-step writing process as you would for any other business message. c. dont spend a lot of time trying to define your audience: youre writing for everyone. d. all of the above are true. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 193; TYPE: concept 33. Podcasts are a. great for entertainment, but not useful in business. b. helpful for training in business, but not much else. c. too technical to be practical for business use. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 195; TYPE: application 34. Compared to blogs, podcasts are a. much easier to edit. b. more difficult to edit. c. equally challenging when it comes to editing. d. used only by high-tech companies. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 195; TYPE: concept 109 35. One of the greatest drawbacks to using podcasts in business is a. they require costly, specialized equipment youll need to purchase regardless of the production quality you want. b. the difficulty of finding people with good speaking voices. c. the challenge of scanning back and forth to find specific parts of the message. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 195; TYPE: concept True or False 36. _____ Printed letters are the still the most common medium for formal internal business communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 37. _____ Formal business letters are generally best for written, internal communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 180; TYPE: application 38. _____ E-mail should never be used for external communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 39. _____ E-mail is now a primary communication medium for most companies. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate: PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 40. ______ There are no important differences between instant messaging and text messaging. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 41. _____ One advantage of blogging for business is that it makes it so easy to stand out from the crowd. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 42. _____ One limitation of podcasts is that they can be played only on Apple iPods. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 110 43. _____ Compared to blogs, podcasts require more work to create. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 44. _____ It is safe to assume that the usual standards and expectations of business communication do not apply to e-mail. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 45. _____ Podcasts that contain video are known as vidcasts or vodcasts. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 46. _____ In a court of law, e-mail messages can have the same weight as more traditional printed documents. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 47. _____ Only about 10 percent of all employers monitor incoming and outgoing email. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 48. _____ It is illegal for your company to open and read e-mail you send and receive at work. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 49. _____ In e-mail, "cc" stands for "confidential copy." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 184; TYPE: concept 50. _____ In e-mails it is a good idea to make frequent use of background colors and colored type to add visual appeal to the text. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 184; TYPE: concept 51. _____ E-mail etiquette requires that you respect the chain of command. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 52. _____ If you and someone else are replying back and forth based on the same original e-mail, you should always use the exact same subject line with each new e-mail response. 111 Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 53. _____ Leaving the subject line out on important e-mail messages will spark your audiences curiosity and increase their desire to read your e-mail. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 54. _____ An effective e-mail subject line is very short and describes only the general topic of the message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 55. _____ Spelling, punctuation, and grammar do not matter in e-mail; getting your message out quickly should be your only concern. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 56. _____ If you write an emotionally charged e-mail message, let it sit for at least one day before sending it. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 57. _____ Set the message priority to "High" for all the e-mails you send--it is the only way to make sure everyone will read them. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 58. _____ Instant messaging is a faster communication tool than e-mail. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 187; TYPE: concept 59. _____ Compared to e-mail and phone calls, IM is less costly. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 187; TYPE: concept 60. _____ "Spim" is the term used to describe the IM version of e-mail spam. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 189; TYPE: concept 61. _____ Blogs are useful in business for communicating in the midst of a company crisis. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 189; TYPE: concept 112 62. _____ One drawback of current blogging software is that it takes a great deal of time to post new material. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 189; TYPE: concept 63. _____ Blogging is a great way to promote your companys products, but blatant product promotion should be reserved for other media. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 191; TYPE: concept 64. _____ If you do not frequently have new information to post, a traditional website will be more effective than a blog for your business. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 191; TYPE: concept 65. _____ To avoid mistakes, it is best to read a script when creating podcasts for business. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 195; TYPE: concept 66. _____ To create the most basic podcasts, inexpensive equipment is all youll need. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 196; TYPE: concept 67. _____ Although RSS is the most common format for publishing blogs and podcasts, it is complicated to use and requires special training. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 197; TYPE: concept 68. _____ Unlike other business presentations, podcasts require little planning and are most effective when delivered impromptu. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 195; TYPE: concept 69. _____ One way to make your podcast more effective in business is to create a blog that contains similar content. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 196; TYPE: concept 70. _____ Tagging the contents of your blog makes it easy for audiences to read everything youve written on a specific subject. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 198; TYPE: concept 113 Fill-in-the-Blank 71. For many companies, e-mail has replaced the more traditional _______________ as the primary means of internal communication. ANSWER: memo; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 180; TYPE: concept 72. A video podcast is often called a _______________ or _______________. ANSWER: vidcast; vodcast; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 73. A ___________ is the online equivalent of recorded audio or video broadcasts. ANSWER: podcast; DIFFICULTY: moderate: PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 74. E-mail ________ refers to all the efforts companies are making to keep e-mail clean and safe from spam blocking and virus protection to content filtering. ANSWER: hygiene; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 75. The ________ ________ of an e-mail is important because it helps readers decide whether to read the message or delete it. ANSWER: subject line; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 76. In an e-mail message, "cc" refers to __________ ________. ANSWER: courtesy copy; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 77. An e-mail message that contains insensitive, insulting, or critical comments is called a(an) _______________. ANSWER: flame; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 78. One feature of instant messaging software is ________________ awareness, which enables users to see which people are at their desks and available to IM. ANSWER: presence; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 187; TYPE: concept 79. Benefits of IM include its rapid response to urgent messages and its ___________ cost when compared to phone calls and e-mail. ANSWER: lower; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 187; TYPE: concept 114 80. The IM version of e-mail spam is known as _______________. ANSWER: spim; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 189; TYPE: concept 81. Another term for a video blog is ____________. ANSWER: vlog; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 189; TYPE: concept 82. Blogs have also become a popular medium for __________ support--enabling employees to answer questions and offer tips and advice. ANSWER: customer or client; DIFFICULTY: moderate: PAGE: 192; TYPE: concept 83. Viral _____________ refers to spreading the word about your company and its products in much the same way that biological viruses are transmitted from person to person. ANSWER: marketing; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 192; TYPE: concept 84. The __________ feature enables readers of your blog to receive headlines of new posts. ANSWER: newsfeed; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 194; TYPE: concept 85. When creating a basic ____________ for clients to download and listen to, a microphone, a sound card, and free recording software are all you need. ANSWER: podcast; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 196; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. List at least five media that are popular for sending short business messages. ANSWER: Popular media for sending short business messages include: (1) memos and letters, (2) e-mail, 3) instant messaging (IM), (4) text messaging, (5) blogs, and (6) podcasts. DIFFICULTY: moderate PAGE: 180-81; TYPE: concept 87. Give at least three reasons to send a hard copy of a business message instead of using an electronic medium. ANSWER: Instances when you would want to send a printed message include (1) when you want to make a formal impression, (2) when you need to accompany products with other physical materials, (3) when you want to stand out from the flood of electronic messages your audience receives, and (4) when you are legally required to provide information in printed form. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 181; TYPE: concept 115 88. Define "e-mail hygiene." ANSWER: E-mail hygiene refers to all the efforts companies are making to keep e-mail clean and safe--from spam blocking and virus protection to content filtering. DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 182; TYPE: concept 89. Briefly describe the characteristics of an effective e-mail subject line. ANSWER: An effective subject line is both informative and compelling, and captures the audiences attention. It does more than just describe or classify message content, and it builds interest with key words, quotations, directions, or questions. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 90. Write an informative subject line for the following e-mail. From July 6-9 the employee cafeteria will be closed in order to update the electrical system in the kitchen. Employees may bring their own food and eat in the cafeteria, but no food will be served on those dates. (Answers will vary.) DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 185; TYPE: application 91. List at least three drawbacks of using instant messaging in business. ANSWER: Potential disadvantages of using IM in business include (1) security problems such as computer viruses and intercepted messages, (2) the need for user authentication, (3) the challenge of logging messages for later review and archiving, and (4) incompatibility between competing IM systems. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 187; TYPE: application 92. List at least three advantages of using blogs in business. ANSWER: Effective blogs enable companies to 1) communicate with personal style and an authentic voice (rather than an impersonal "corporate voice"), 2) deliver new information quickly during crises and at other times, 3) Choose topics of peak interest to audiences, and 4) encourage audiences to join the conversation (which can provide companies with important news, information, and insights). DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 189-90; TYPE: concept 93. Give at least three examples of how podcasts could replace more traditional message formats in business. ANSWER: (Answers may vary.) Real estate agents could record audio podcasts that potential homebuyers could listen to while walking through homes. Marketing departments could replace expensive printed brochures with video podcasts that demonstrate new products in action. Human resource departments could use podcasts to offer video tours of their companies to entice new recruits. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 195; TYPE: application 116 94. When creating podcasts for business, should you script them entirely and read them word-for-word? Briefly explain your answer. ANSWER: In podcasts, it is generally best to speak from an outline and notes rather than from a script. One of the attractions of podcasting is the conversational, person-to-person feel of the recordings, and a scripted performance can reduce or eliminate these characteristics. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 195; TYPE: application 95. Define "RSS" and briefly describe its function. ANSWER: "RSS" is short for really simple syndication, a process for publishing blogs and podcasts. It enables audiences to subscribe to blogs and podcasts of interest and easily receive updated content. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 197; TYPE: concept. Essay 96. Explain how inappropriate use of e-mail at work can lead to legal problems. ANSWER: The consequences of bad writing or poor judgment in e-mail can be even more serious than those associated with printed messages. In numerous instances in recent years, e-mail and other electronic message forms have been used as evidence in lawsuits and criminal investigations involving everything from sexual harassment to financial fraud. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 181-82; TYPE: concept 97. Briefly explain why it is so important to avoid sending unnecessary e-mail messages at work. ANSWER: Many business professionals now struggle to keep up with the flow of e-mail messages--some report receiving as many as 50 messages an hour from colleagues and clients. The flood of messages from an expanding array of electronic sources can significantly affect employees ability to focus on their work. One study has even shown that workers exposed to a constant barrage of e-mail, IM, and phone calls experienced an average 10-point drop in their functioning IQ. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 183-84; TYPE: concept 98. Briefly explain why it is important to pay attention to issues such as spelling, punctuation, and grammar when composing e-mail messages in business. ANSWER: As a general rule, the time you might save with careless e-mail writing wont make up for the damage it can do to your career. First, sloppy writing may require less time for writers, but it usually demands more time from readers who are forced to dig the meaning out of poorly written messages. Second, people who care about effective communication often judge the quality of your work by the quality of your writing. Third, it is easy for e-mail messages to end up in places you never expected, so it is important for them to make a good impression. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 185; TYPE: concept 117 99. Define "flames" and explain how to avoid them in business. ANSWER: Flames are e-mail messages that contain insensitive, insulting, or critical comments. To avoid sending them, do not allow your emotions to dictate what you include in e-mail messages. If you do write an emotionally-charged message, let it sit for at least a day and ask yourself, "Would I say this to my audience face to face?" DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 186; TYPE: concept 100. Explain how to apply the three-step writing process to instant messages. ANSWER: Although instant messages are often conceived, written, and sent within a matter of seconds, the principles of the three-step process still apply. In planning instant messages, view every IM exchange as a conversation and take a moment to plan the overall exchange. Think through the specific needs of your audience and try to deliver information in a coherent, complete way that minimizes the number of individual messages required. When writing instant messages, remember that the appropriate writing style for business IM is more formal than the style you may be accustomed to with personal IM or text messaging. Avoid IM acronyms except when communicating with close colleagues. The completing phase is easy when it comes to IM. Once youve selected some basic font settings that apply to all your messages, you generally dont need to do anything in terms of producing each message, and distributing is as simple as clicking the "send" button. However, dont skip over the revising and proofreading tasks and make sure your message contains all the necessary information. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 187-88; TYPE: concept 118 Chapter 8 WRITING ROUTINE AND POSITIVE MESSAGES Multiple Choice 1. When making a routine request, you begin with a. an indication of the importance of your request. b. a statement of who you are. c. a clear statement of the main idea or request. d. a question. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 2. When making a request, you should a. use the inductive plan. b. assume the reader will comply with your request. c. demand immediate action. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 3. An effective opening for a routine request would be a. Please send me a summary of last month's east region sales data. b. As soon as you get this, send me last month's sales data. c. I know you may not want to, but send me last month's sales data. d. any of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: application 4. In the body of a request message, you a. beg the reader to grant your request. b. give details and justify your request. c. give your sales pitch. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 5. When asking questions in a request message a. begin with the least important question and work your way up to the most important. b. avoid any open-ended questions. c. begin with the most important question. d. weave your questions into the rest of the content of your message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 6. When closing a direct request, you a. thank the reader in advance for helping you. b. mention your own qualifications or status. c. request a specific response and mention the time limits. d. indicate the consequences of a failure to reply. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 7. When requesting information or action from a fellow employee, you should generally a. use the indirect approach. b. get straight to the point. c. maintain a formal style and tone. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 217; TYPE: concept 8. Before volunteering someone's name as a reference, always a. assume you have permission to do so. b. ask that person's permission. c. describe your relationship with that person. d. list that person's address and phone number for ease of contact. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 9. If you request a recommendation from a person you haven't had contact with recently, you should a. use the opening of your letter to refresh the person's memory. b. enclose a stamped, preaddressed envelope. c. use the persuasive approach. d. use the bad-news approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 10. The opening of a request for a recommendation should include a. the direct request for a recommendation. b. a clear statement that you're applying for a position. c. a reminder of who you are. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 11. In closing a request for a recommendation, you should include a. an expression of appreciation. b. an indication that you've enclosed a stamped, preaddressed envelope. c. the full name and address of the person to whom the letter should be sent. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 12. When writing a claim letter, the best way to begin is by a. complimenting the company for past service. b. providing a detailed description of the faulty merchandise. c. providing a straightforward statement of the problem. d. threatening legal action if you do not receive a favorable adjustment. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 13. When making a claim or requesting an adjustment, your closing should usually a. clearly state how angry and disappointed you are. b. explain the specific details of the problem. c. request a specific action or express your desire to find a solution. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 14. Routine, positive messages should do all of the following except a. leave your reader with a good impression. b. use an indirect approach. c. provide all required details. d. communicate the information or good news. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 221; TYPE: concept 15. In a positive message, the main idea is presented a. in the first sentence of the middle paragraph. b. at the end of the middle paragraph. c. right at the beginning of the letter. d. in the last sentence of the letter. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 221; TYPE: concept 16. The longest part of a positive message is typically the a. introduction. b. body. c. close. d. None--all parts are usually the same length. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 222; TYPE: concept 17. If you have mildly negative information to deliver as part of a positive message, you should a. put the negative information in a favorable context. b. just leave it out. c. put the negative information first. d. put the negative information last. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 18. If you have strongly negative information to deliver as part of a positive message, you should a. open with the negative information. b. use an indirect approach. c. put the negative information in a separate message. d. apologize for having to spoil the moment. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 19. Assuring the customer that he or she has made a wise purchase is a. to be avoided in routine positive messages. b. a good way to build customer relationships. c. an important part of all negative responses to claim letters. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 20. The closing of a routine reply or positive message should a. clearly state who will do what next. b. explain the reasons for any negative information you have included. c. offer an explanation for why this decision was made. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 21. The closing section of a positive message a. highlights a benefit to the audience or expresses goodwill. b. states the main idea. c. is the longest part. d. provides resale information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 22. The categories of routine replies and positive messages include all of the following except a. answering requests for information and action. b. granting claims and adjustments. c. refusing requests. d. sending goodwill messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 23. A human resources department that receives a lot of inquiries about job openings would best deal with this repetitive task by a. using a carefully crafted form letter. b. answering each one personally. c. not responding if there are no job openings. d. making most responses by phone. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 224-25; TYPE: concept 24. When responding to a customer request for an adjustment, it is usually sensible to assume that a. the customer's account of the situation is truthful. b. the customer's account of the situation is exaggerated. c. the customer is hostile. d. the customer is trying to pull a fast one. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 226; TYPE: concept 25. When responding to a customer complaint about one of your company's services, you should a. soften the situation with excuses such as "Nobody's perfect" or "Mistakes will happen." b. use a generous, grudging tone. c. use a standard form letter, with blanks left for filling in unique information in neat handwriting. d. avoid blaming anyone in your organization by name. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 226; TYPE: concept 26. Successful companies that receive large numbers of customer claims per year often develop a. a policy of rejecting all claims, even when they are legitimate. b. a policy of nonresponse to all customer inquiries. c. customized form letters to speed the response to customers' claims. d. none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 227; TYPE: concept 27. If a customer requesting an adjustment is at fault for the problem, the best response is to a. refuse the claim without any explanation. b. refuse the claim and point out the customer's mistake. c. honor the claim but do so grudgingly. d. honor the claim but tactfully point out that your firm was not at fault. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 227; TYPE: concept 28. When responding to a request for adjustment when a third party is at fault, the best approach is to a. refuse the claim and suggest that the customer sue the third party. b. refuse the claim but forward the paperwork to the third party. c. respond promptly, explaining how the problem will be solved. d. honor the claim but explain that your company was not at fault. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 29. When writing a letter of recommendation, you should a. illustrate your general points with specific examples. b. show it to the job candidate before sending it to the person who requested it. c. overstate the candidate's abilities if he or she is a good friend and really wants the job. d. make sure to include any negative stories you've heard about the candidate. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 30. If you have negative comments to express regarding the qualifications of a job candidate, it is best to a. keep them to yourself. b. include others' criticisms to support your statements. c. list the shortcomings as areas for improvement. d. state your opinion strongly, since it is protected by the First Amendment. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 31. Your comments about a job candidate could be considered libelous if a. in a phone conversation you tell the applicant's potential employer that the applicant is an alcoholic. b. you omit important negative information about the candidate in a recommendation letter. c. you decline to provide a recommendation because of "company policy." d. you mention in a recommendation letter that your other employees seemed pleased that the candidate left your company. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 32. It may be unethical to omit negative information from a recommendation if the a. information is well-known in the workplace. b. information is true and relevant. c. applicant asks you to do so. d. position is a high-ranking one. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230-31; TYPE: concept 33. If you are sending an informative memo to employees about policy statements or procedural changes, you should a. assume that employees will have a neutral response. b. use the indirect approach. c. use the body of the message to provide all the necessary details. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 231; TYPE: concept 34. When offering compliments in a goodwill message, you should a. feel free to exaggerate. b. always use the strongest words you can think of. c. be sure to back them up with specific points. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 35. Condolence messages should a. be as long as possible. b. make as little reference to the deceased as possible. c. avoid phrases such as "passing away" or "departing." d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 236; TYPE: concept True or False 36. For routine messages, the planning stage tends to be very short. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 214; TYPE: concept 37. When making a direct request, you should state what you want in the first sentence or two and then follow with an explanation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 38. In preparing routine requests, you should not assume your audience will comply. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 39. When making direct requests, you should avoid such polite words and phrases as "please" and "I would appreciate." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 40. As you explain and justify your request, you should try to point out how complying with the request could benefit the reader. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 41. If the middle section of your request letter contains a series of questions, the most important question should be saved for last. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 42. In the final section of a request message, you should thank the reader in advance for cooperating. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 43. There is no reason to put requests to fellow employees in writing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 217; TYPE: concept 44. Requests sent to individuals outside your organization should be more formal than those sent internally. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 217; TYPE: concept 45. When making complex routine requests to company outsiders, you rarely need to explain how responding to the request will benefit the reader. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 46. Past customers are usually irritated if a company sends a letter of inquiry trying to reestablish the relationship. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 47. It is not necessary to ask someone's permission before listing his or her name as a job reference. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 48. Because requests for recommendations are persuasive messages, you should use the indirect approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 49. If you are writing to someone to request a recommendation letter for a job or scholarship, you should include a stamped, pre-addressed envelope for mailing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 50. When making a claim or requesting an adjustment from a company, you should document your initial complaint and every correspondence after that. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 51. When writing a claim letter, you should assume that a fair adjustment will be made. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 52. When responding to claim letters, companies usually accept the customer's explanation of the problem. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 221; TYPE: concept 53. It's best to back up all claims and requests for adjustments with invoices, sales receipts, and so on and to send copies to the company and keep the originals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 221; TYPE: concept 54. "I am pleased to inform you that . . ." is a good standard opening for a positive message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 221; TYPE: concept 55. A routine positive message should never include negative information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 56. When sending a positive message to a customer, it is a good idea to reassure the customer that he or she has made a wise purchase. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 57. It is no longer acceptable to use form letters to handle repetitive requests for information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 225-26; TYPE: concept 58. Even when you grant a dissatisfied customer's request for adjustment, he or she will most likely not return to your business. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 226; TYPE: concept 59. When replying to a customer's complaint when your company is at fault, be sure to list the names of all employees who were involved in the error. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 226; TYPE: concept 60. In a letter agreeing to make an adjustment even though the buyer technically was at fault, a courteous tone is less important. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 227; TYPE: concept 61. When a third party is at fault in a claim, the best approach is simply to refer the customer to that party to resolve the problem. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 62. The most difficult recommendation letters to write are those for truly outstanding candidates. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 63. In positive recommendation letters, it's important to back up your general points with specific examples of the candidate's fitness for the job. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 64. When writing a letter of recommendation, you should omit references to the candidate's shortcomings if they will keep him or her from getting the job. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 229-30; TYPE: concept 65. Although most recommendation letters are confidential, it is best to avoid value judgments and stick to the facts. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 66. Because informative messages such as meeting announcements and reminder notices are generally neutral, it is not necessary to worry too much about the reader's attitude toward the information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 231; TYPE: concept 67. Goodwill messages are friendly, even unexpected notes with no direct business purpose. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 68. You shouldn't send notes of congratulation that deal with personal events unless you know the recipient well. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 69. A message of appreciation can become an important part of someone's personnel file. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 70. When writing a condolence message about a loss, always use expressions such as "passing away" or "departing," rather than the word "death." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 236; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. Most of a typical employee's communication is about ____________________ matters: orders, information, company policies. ANSWER: routine; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 214; TYPE: concept 72. Whenever you ask for something--information, action, adjustments--you are making a ____________________. ANSWER: request; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 215; TYPE: concept 73. If you are applying for a job, you may need to ask a professional associate to write a letter of ____________________. ANSWER: recommendation OR reference; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 74. Customers who are dissatisfied with a company's product or service make a (an) ____________________, or formal complaint. ANSWER: claim; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 75. Dissatisfied customers can request a(an) ____________________, or claim settlement. ANSWER: adjustment; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 76. If your routine message must convey some mildly disappointing information, put the negative portion into as ____________________ a context as possible. ANSWER: favorable OR positive; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 77. The body of a positive message is a good place to assure a customer of the wisdom of his or her ____________________ selection. ANSWER: purchase; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 223; TYPE: concept 78. Because many requests are similar, companies usually develop ____________________ letters to respond to these repetitive queries. ANSWER: form; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 224-25; TYPE: concept 79. Making a false and malicious written statement that injures someone's reputation constitutes ____________________. ANSWER: libel; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 80. If you must refer to a candidate's shortcomings in a recommendation letter, you should always stick to the ____________________. ANSWER: facts; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 81. In describing a candidate's shortcomings in a recommendation letter, it is often best to present them as areas for ____________________. ANSWER: improvement; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 82. A ____________________ ____________________ is a specialized document used to share relevant information with the local or national news media. ANSWER: news release OR press release; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 232; TYPE: concept 83. Friendly notes with no direct business purpose, such as those conveying congratulations or thanks, are called ____________________ messages. ANSWER: goodwill; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 84. Messages of ____________________ recognize the contributions of employees or business associates. ANSWER: appreciation; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 85. Messages of ____________________ express sympathy. ANSWER: condolence; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 235; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. List four guidelines to follow in preparing the opening of a routine request in the direct format. ANSWER: In preparing the opening of a routine request in the direct format, it is important to pay attention to tone and to avoid demanding action. You should also assume that your audience will comply, and be specific about what you want. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 87. Describe the elements that should be included in an effective closing for a routine request. ANSWER: The closing for an effective routine request should request specific action, provide contact information, and express appreciation and goodwill. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 88. List the three major categories of common routine requests. ANSWER: The three major types of routine requests are (1) requesting information and action, (2) asking for recommendations, and (3) making claims and requesting adjustments. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 217; TYPE: concept 89. Describe the three-step strategy for requesting information and action. ANSWER: Start with a clear statement of your reason for writing. Then provide whatever explanation is needed to justify your request. Finally, close with a specific account of what you expect, and include a deadline if appropriate. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 217; TYPE: concept 90. How can a request for information reestablish a relationship with former customers or suppliers? ANSWER: In some cases, when customers are unhappy with a business, they don't complain; they simply stay away. A letter of inquiry can offer them the chance to voice their displeasure and move on to a good relationship. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 91. How should mildly disappointing information be included within a generally positive routine message? ANSWER: In a generally positive routine message, mildly disappointing information should be placed in as favorable a context as possible. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 219; TYPE: concept 92. In responding favorably to a claim even though the customer was at fault, should you indicate that your company was not to blame? Why or why not? ANSWER: In these cases, it is important to make the customer realize that he or she was responsible for the damage. This must be done tactfully, but if you fail to do so you may commit your firm to an endless procession of returned merchandise. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 227; TYPE: concept 93. Briefly explain why it is so difficult to write recommendation letters for excellent candidates. ANSWER: Writing recommendations for outstanding candidates is difficult because your audience is not likely to believe uninterrupted praise for someone's talents and accomplishments. You therefore have to illustrate your general points with specific examples. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 94. What potential legal problem can result from writing a critical recommendation letter? ANSWER: Writing a negative letter of recommendation can constitute libel--publishing a false and malicious written statement that injures the candidate's reputation. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 230; TYPE: concept 95. List at least three guidelines to follow when writing condolence messages. ANSWER: Messages expressing sympathy are best when you keep reminiscences brief, write in your own words, and write tactfully. They also require special care with things like correctly spelling names. It is also helpful to write about the special qualities of the deceased and those of the bereaved person as you express sympathy for the loss. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 235-36; TYPE: concept Essay 96. Many routine requests have several parts. What guidelines should you keep in mind when your request contains a series of questions? ANSWER: It is important to ask the most important questions first and to ask only relevant questions. Both of these strategies usually expedite the handling of your request. If your questions require simple yes-or-no answers, providing a form with boxes to check is a good idea. Finally, it is helpful to deal with only one topic per question, rather than confuse the reader by asking too much at once. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 216; TYPE: concept 97. Explain what you should do when replying to a claim when the customer is at fault. ANSWER: First you must decide whether the cost of making the adjustment outweighs the cost of losing this customer's future business. You can refuse the claim and explain your refusal, but remember that refusal will most likely cost you this customer and perhaps the business of many of the customer's friends who will hear only one side of the argument. If you grant the claim, open with the good news. In the body, tactfully educate the customer on how to prevent this situation from occurring again. Be careful not to offend the person by being condescending or preachy. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 227; TYPE: application 98. Explain what you should include in an effective recommendation letter. Register to View Answersuccessful recommendation letter includes (1) the candidate's full name, (2) the position or other objective the candidate seeks, (3) the nature of your relationship with the candidate, (4) an indication of whether you're answering a request from the person or taking the initiative to write, (5) facts and evidence relevant to the candidate and the opportunity, (6) a comparison of this candidate's potential with that of peers, and (7) your overall evaluation of the candidate's suitability for the opportunity. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 229; TYPE: concept 99. Explain why goodwill messages are important, then describe at least two characteristics of effective goodwill messages. ANSWER: Goodwill messages can improve your relationships with customers, colleagues, and other businesspersons. They should be sincere and honest--otherwise the writer appears interested only in personal gain. Avoid exaggeration, back up compliments with specific points, and be restrained but sincere in your praise. Saying things like, "Only you can do the job" will detract from your credibility in these messages. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 234; TYPE: concept 100. Why are appreciation messages important? What should they include? ANSWER: It is important to recognize the contributions of employees, colleagues, suppliers, and other associates. Your praise will make the person feel good and encourage further excellence. These messages can also become part of an employee's personnel file. The message should specifically mention the person or persons you want to praise, and documents the person's contributions. DIFFICULTY: diff all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 14. A way to be tactful when giving your reasons for bad news is to a. explain why the decision is good for you and your company. b. highlight, if possible, how your negative decision benefits your readers. c. explain that the decision is based on company policy. d. apologize for having to be the bearer of bad news. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 137 15. Using the indirect approach, the bad news comes a. immediately after the buffer. b. immediately before the reasons. c. immediately after the reasons. d. at the very end. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 16. A good way to make bad news less painful is to a. maximize the space devoted to it. b. say, "I trust our decision is satisfactory." c. avoid stating it and hope that the reader understands what you mean. d. de-emphasize it by embedding it in the middle of a sentence or paragraph. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 17. When rejecting a job applicant, you can soften the blow by a. using a conditional statement to imply that he or she might someday receive a favorable Register to View Answermentioning the qualifications of the person who was hired. c. telling the applicant how many others he or she was competing against. d. apologizing for wasting the person's time. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 18. To clearly and kindly say no, do all of the following except a. offer a sincere apology. b. de-emphasize the bad news. c. imply that the audience may someday receive a favorable Register to View Answertell the audience what you can or will do rather than what you cannot or will not do. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 138 19. Which of the following statements does the best job of delivering the bad news clearly and kindly? a. I am sorry to have to tell you that you were not selected for the position. b. Because you do not have the experience we clearly listed in the job posting, we cannot offer you the position. c. Although you currently do not have the master's degree that we require for this position, we would be happy to reconsider your application once you have completed your degree. d. Several other applicants were far more qualified for the position than you were, so we cannot offer you the job. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261-62; TYPE: application 20. When delivering bad news, wording such as "We must turn down," "Much as I would like to," and "We cannot afford to" a. softens the blow by drawing attention away from the reader and onto the sender. b. will impress the reader as being straightforward and forceful. c. is likely to cause pain and anger in the reader. d. is unavoidable. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262; TYPE: concept 21. In the closing of a negative message, you should a. encourage the person to write or call to discuss the situation further. b. build goodwill by ending on a positive note. c. ask for feedback on whether the decision is acceptable to the reader. d. express concern over possibly losing the reader's business. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262; TYPE: concept 22. Which of the following is the most effective close for a letter rejecting a job applicant? a. If you have any questions about our decision, don't hesitate to call. b. We hope that despite this rejection you will continue to frequent our establishments. c. Again, we are very sorry that we cannot offer you a position at this time. d. I wish you the best in your job search. I am sure you will find a match for your skills and interests. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 262; TYPE: application 139 23. If you must send a negative message to someone in another country a. always use the direct approach. b. always use the indirect approach. c. use the direct approach for countries like France but the indirect approach for countries like Japan. d. use the same approach as you would for typical American readers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262-63; TYPE: concept 24. When you are refusing a routine request, you a. should always use the direct approach. b. should invoke company policy if that is a possible out. c. don't need to invest as much time and effort as you would for other kinds of negative messages. d. should use the indirect approach when you're forced to decline a request that you might have said yes to in the past. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 266; TYPE: concept 25. Negative messages about business transactions are designed to a. modify the customer's expectations. b. explain how you plan to resolve the situation. c. repair whatever damage might have been done to the business relationship. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 266; TYPE: concept 26. Whether or not you should apologize when delivering bad news about transactions depends mainly on a. how much the customer has purchased from your company in the past. b. the medium you are using for the message. c. how long it has been since the problem occurred. d. none of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 266; TYPE: concept 140 27. A woman returns a formal dress to your store. It is stained and has a rip at the hem line, but she says she is returning it unworn because it doesn't fit. How do you inform her of your refusal to give her a refund? a. State that company policy prevents you from accepting the return but that if you had anything to say about it you'd take it back, no questions asked. b. Restate her complaint to let her know you understand it, explain as positively as possible that you are unable to accept the return of damaged merchandise, and recommend a tailor who can fix the tear and alter the dress for her. c. Challenge the woman to try on the dress and prove that it doesn't fit. d. Use humor to soften the blow of your refusal. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 268-70; TYPE: application 28. Someone suing for defamation must prove a. that the statement is false. b. that the language is injurious to the person's reputation. c. that the statement has been published. d. all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 270; TYPE: concept 29. To avoid being accused of defamation when you refuse an adjustment a. make all refusals by phone instead of in writing. b. explain why you are making the refusal. c. consult your company's legal department or an attorney if you think a message might have legal consequences. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 270; TYPE: concept 30. When you need to inform employees that a benefit will be eliminated a. the best approach is to leak the news as a rumor rather than make a public announcement. b. minimize the bad news by presenting it in as positive a light as possible. c. use the direct approach. d. use as many hedging words as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 270-71; TYPE: concept 141 31. A letter in which you refuse to provide an employment recommendation a. is considered unethical; these requests should not be refused. b. should follow the indirect approach. c. should be brief and direct. d. involves all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 273; TYPE: concept 32. A letter rejecting a job applicant should a. clearly state why he or she was not selected. b. point out the applicant's shortcomings. c. be as personal as possible. d. be as long as possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275; TYPE: concept 33. If you must give an employee a negative performance review a. do so by e-mail or fax. b. confront the problem right away. c. limit your discussion to the areas where the employee needs improvement. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275; TYPE: concept 34. A negative performance review should a. focus on the problems caused by the employee's behavior. b. compare employee behavior with what is expected or with job requirements. c. mention some good points about the employee's contributions. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275-77; TYPE: concept 35. When writing an employment termination letter, you should a. include words that are open to interpretation, such as difficult and untidy. b. make sure your reasons are accurate and verifiable. c. not get too caught up in trying to preserve a good relationship with the employee. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 277; TYPE: concept 142 True or False 36. When delivering bad news, your only goal is to maintain a good image for yourself. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 254; TYPE: concept 37. To avoid awkward situations, it is best to deliver bad news for employees in writing whenever possible. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 254; TYPE: concept 38. You can help establish the right tone in a negative message by making liberal use of the "you" attitude. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 255; TYPE: concept 39. The direct approach is never used for negative messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 256; TYPE: concept 40. You would use the direct approach for negative messages when the message has a relatively minor impact on the audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 256; TYPE: concept 41. An advantage of the direct approach for communicating bad news is that it keeps the message short. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 257; TYPE: concept 42. No matter the situation, you should always provide an extensive explanation of the bad news in negative messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 258; TYPE: concept 43. Using a buffer to begin a negative message is generally manipulative and unethical. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 259; TYPE: concept 44. When writing negative messages, you begin with a buffer to make the reader think that good news will follow. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 259; TYPE: concept 143 45. A poorly written buffer can mislead your audience into expecting that positive news will follow. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 259; TYPE: application 46. The buffer for a negative message should be positive. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 259; TYPE: concept 47. In a negative message, an effective explanation section leads readers to your conclusion before you come right out and say it. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 48. It's best to suggest that the bad news will actually benefit your audience-- even if you don't really think it will. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 49. It is a good idea to use "company policy" as a cushion when presenting reasons for bad news. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 50. When the bad news is a logical outcome of the reasons that come before it, the reader is psychologically prepared to receive it. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 51. You can de-emphasize bad news by minimizing the space or time devoted to it. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 52. In a negative message, you should never give the reader any indication that he or she could have received or might someday receive a favorable answer. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 53. Statements beginning "I must refuse" and "We cannot allow" are particularly likely to offend readers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262; TYPE: application 144 54. In closing negative messages, it is always best to encourage additional communication. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262; TYPE: concept 55. In the close to a negative message, you should repeat the bad news. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262; TYPE: concept 56. The close of a negative message should end with a statement such as "We hope you will continue to do business with us." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 262; TYPE: concept 57. Negative messages from Japanese businesspeople may be worded so ambiguously that the recipient doesn't realize that the message contains a refusal. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 263; TYPE: concept 58. You should always use the direct approach when denying a request for information. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 266; TYPE: concept 59. If you are turning down an invitation, it is usually acceptable to use the direct approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 266; TYPE: concept 60. When you deliver bad news about business transactions, you should always apologize to the audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 266; TYPE: concept 61. Negative statements about a customer can always qualify as defamation, even if you can prove that those statements are true. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 270; TYPE: concept 62. One way to avoid being accused of defamation is to make accusations orally and not in writing. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 270; TYPE: concept 145 63. To avoid legal problems, businesses should delay communicating with the media in the aftermath of a crisis. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 271; TYPE: concept 64. Among other points, a crisis management plan outlines which individuals are authorized to speak for the company. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 272; TYPE: concept 65. Some employers refuse to write recommendation letters. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 273; TYPE: concept 66. Experts disagree on whether a direct or an indirect approach is best for letters turning down job applicants. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275; TYPE: concept 67. When rejecting a job applicant, it is best to come right out and say, "You do not meet our requirements." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275; TYPE: concept 68. Firing an employee whose performance reviews were all positive can result in a lawsuit. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275; TYPE: concept 69. The best method for delivering performance reviews is by e-mail or fax. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 276; TYPE: concept 70. Termination letters should always use delicate terms such as "untidy" and "difficult." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 277; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. The primary goal of a negative message is to _______________ the bad news. ANSWER: convey; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 254; TYPE: concept 146 72. Employees are more likely to accept negative news if it is delivered _______________ _______________, rather than via e-mail or memo. ANSWER: in person; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 254; TYPE: concept 73. When composing negative messages, it is important to use language that conveys respect and avoids an accusing _______________. ANSWER: tone; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 255; TYPE: concept 74. A message organized using the _______________ approach starts with a clear statement of the bad news. ANSWER: direct; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 256; TYPE: concept 75. Using the indirect approach, you begin your message with a (an) _______________ that softens the blow of the bad news. ANSWER: buffer; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 259; TYPE: concept 76. The _______________ section of a negative message should lead readers to your conclusion before you come right out and say it. ANSWER: explanation OR reasons; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 77. Avoid hiding behind _______________ _______________ to cushion your bad news. ANSWER: company policy; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260; TYPE: concept 78. In the _______________ approach for negative messages, the bad news comes after the reasons supporting the decision. ANSWER: indirect; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 260-61; TYPE: concept 79. One way to de-emphasize bad news is to embed it in the middle of a (an) _______________. ANSWER: paragraph; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 147 80. Almost every customer who makes a claim or requests an adjustment is _______________ involved; therefore, the indirect method is usually best for refusals. ANSWER: emotionally; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 268; TYPE: concept 81. Delivering bad news effectively requires special attention to ethics and _______________. ANSWER: etiquette; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 263; TYPE: concept 82. Making false statements that damage someone's character or reputation might cause you to be sued for _______________. ANSWER: defamation; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 270; TYPE: concept 83. A (An) _______________ review is a manager's formal or informal evaluation of an employee. ANSWER: performance; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 275; TYPE: concept 84. When evaluating employees, it is important to identify the _______________ of continuing poor performance. ANSWER: consequences; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 277; TYPE: concept 85. When writing a (an) _______________ message, present specific justifications for asking the employee to leave. ANSWER: termination; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 277; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. What are your five main goals when delivering bad news? ANSWER: In any negative message, your main goals are to (1) convey the bad news, (2) gain acceptance for it, (3) maintain as much goodwill as possible, (4) maintain a good image for your organization, and (5) reduce or eliminate the need for future correspondence on the matter. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 254; TYPE: concept 148 87. Rewrite the following sentence using the "you" attitude: "You shouldn't have put the blender into the dishwasher." ANSWER: This type of blender should not be cleaned in the dishwasher. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 255; TYPE: application 88. Rewrite the following negative message using positive words rather than negative ones: "Since you failed to send payment, we cannot ship your order." ANSWER: By sending payment promptly, you can receive your order within 5 business days. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 255; TYPE: application 89. What are the two benefits of stating the bad news at the beginning of a negative message? ANSWER: Stating the bad news at the beginning makes a shorter message possible and requires less time for the audience to reach the main idea of the message. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 257; TYPE: concept 90. Briefly describe the elements of a negative message that uses the direct approach. ANSWER: The opening should start with a clear statement of the bad news. The body should give the reasons for the bad news, and the closing should end with a positive statement aimed at maintaining a good relationship with the audience. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 256-59; TYPE: concept 91. What is a "buffer," and what function does it serve in negative messages? Register to View Answerbuffer is a neutral, noncontroversial statement that is closely related to the point of the message. In negative messages using the indirect approach, the buffer establishes common ground with your reader. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 259; TYPE: concept 92. Explain how an effective buffer differs from one that is poorly written. Register to View Answerpoorly written buffer might trivialize the reader's concerns, divert attention from the problem, or mislead the reader into thinking your message actually contains good news. A good buffer, on the other hand, is respectful, relevant, and neutral, and provides a smooth transition to the reasons that follow. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 259; TYPE: application 149 93. Briefly describe the elements of a negative message that uses the indirect approach. ANSWER: Begin with a buffer (a neutral statement that sets the stage for the bad news). Follow with the reasons for the bad news, then state the bad news as diplomatically as possible. Emphasize any good news and de-emphasize the bad. End with a positive, forward-looking statement that is helpful and friendly and tries to preserve goodwill. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 259-62; TYPE: concept 94. List three techniques for de-emphasizing bad news. ANSWER: Three methods for de-emphasizing bad news are (1) minimize the space or time you devote to the bad news, (2) subordinate your bad news in a complex or compound sentence, and (3) embed bad news mid-paragraph or use parenthetical expressions. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 261; TYPE: concept 95. Someone suing for defamation must prove three things about the statement(s) in question. What are those things? ANSWER: Someone suing for defamation must prove (1) that the statement is false, (2) that the language is injurious to the person's reputation, and (3) that the statement has been publages, persuasive messages aim to influence audiences who are likely to a. agree with you right away. b. know more than you do about the topic of your message. c. resist at first. d. be easily offended. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 2. If a supervisor approaches a worker who consistently arrives late by saying, "I know your job is important to you," the supervisor is addressing the worker's need for a. safety and security. b. acceptance. c. status and esteem. d. self-actualization. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: application 3. The best persuasive messages are closely connected to your audience's a. desires and interests. b. motivations. c. potential concerns and objections. d. all of the above Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: application 4. Which of the following is not an example of demographic information? a. Age b. Occupation c. Lifestyle d. Income Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 153 5. Personality, lifestyle, and attitudes are assessed through a. demographic surveys. b. psychographic studies. c. inkblot tests. d. examinations of census data. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 6. Most persuasive messages combine a. truth and falsehood. b. current and very old evidence. c. logical and emotional factors. d. many major points all at once. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 7. When it comes to persuasive messages, the direct approach a. is rarely used. b. is often preferable when you know your audience is likely to agree with you. c. is used only by top management. d. does not require inclusion of justifications or explanations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 8. AIDA stands for a. appeal, indirect, direct, action. b. anticipate inquiry in doing adjustments. c. assume, insist, describe, act. d. attention, interest, desire, action. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 9. When using the AIDA approach to persuasion, the opening should a. build common ground with your audience. b. build your audience's interest in your idea. c. capture the audience's attention. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 154 10. The purpose of the interest section of a persuasive message is to a. capture attention. b. explain the relevance of your message to your audience. c. increase the audience's desire to take the action recommended in the message. d. get the reader to act immediately. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 11. The purpose of the desire section of a persuasive message is to a. introduce the main idea. b. create interest in the main idea. c. help the audience embrace your idea by explaining how the change will benefit them. d. suggest the action your audience should take. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 12. When using the AIDA approach to persuasion, the closing should a. urge the audience to take the action you are requesting. b. provide additional evidence and detail not covered in the desire section. c. explain the steps needed to implement your ideas. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 13. An effective ending for a persuasive message would be a. Simply return the enclosed coupon by June 15 for your free oil and filter change. b. Please respond as soon as possible. c. Wouldn't you like to save some money? d. Be sure to tell all your friends about this exciting offer. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: application 14. The secret to a successful action phase in the AIDA model is a. getting readers to change their minds. b. increasing the audience's awareness of your product or service. c. convincing readers that the action you propose is easy. d. creating a win-lose situation, with you as the winner. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 155 15. The AIDA approach for persuasive messages should be used with a. a direct approach only. b. an indirect approach only. c. either a direct or an indirect approach. d. neither a direct nor an indirect approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 16. An advertisement stating that a new resort offers "freedom and comfort along with great value" is using a. an emotional appeal. b. an analogy. c. an inductive appeal. d. both logical and emotional appeals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 17. An analogy lets you a. reason from one specific piece of evidence to another specific piece of evidence. b. reason from specific evidence to a general conclusion. c. reason from a generalization to a specific conclusion. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 18. Which of the following uses a deductive approach to persuasion? a. Because the stock market is expected to fall next month, shares of our company stock will probably also decline. b. It is important for our sales force to operate like a well-oiled machine. c. Our stock price is like a marathon runner, slowly making progress towards our goal. d. None of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 19. When writing persuasive messages, one way to avoid faulty logic is to a. avoid induction. b. avoid deduction. c. avoid praising your opponent. d. avoid hasty generalizations. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 156 20. To overcome audience resistance to your message a. use the hard-sell approach. b. present all sides of the issue before making the case for your position. c. emphasize your impeccable logic. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 21. When preparing a persuasive request, it is vital to a. remain open to compromise. b. emphasize how you will benefit if the request is fulfilled. c. emphasize the negative consequences of not complying with the request. d. make yourself look good in the reader's eyes. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 22. When writing a persuasive request for action, you should a. use the direct approach. b. demonstrate that helping you will indeed solve a significant problem. c. ask for more than you actually want so that you'll have a cushion for negotiation. d. avoid flattery. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 305; TYPE: concept 23. When writing a persuasive claim letter, you should a. assume that the other person is trying to cheat you. b. use a confident and positive tone. c. mention as many additional complaints as possible about the company. d. do all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 24. In marketing and sales messages, what is the primary difference between selling points and benefits? a. Selling points are positive whereas benefits are not. b. Selling points focus on the user rather than the product. c. Selling points focus on the product rather than the user. d. None of the above are correct. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 308; TYPE: application 157 25. As you consider the benefits of your product, in your marketing or sales messages you will ultimately want to a. pick out three or four to call attention to. b. single out one benefit that corresponds to your readers' primary needs or emotional concerns. c. mention as many benefits as possible. d. choose one direct benefit and one indirect benefit. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 26. If the audience for your marketing or sales message promoting a new security system is made up of wealthy suburbanites, the consumer benefit you would most want to emphasize is a. the reliability of the system when protecting the consumer's property. b. the low cost. c. the attractive appearance of the device. d. easy, do-it-yourself installation. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308-09; TYPE: application 27. In marketing and sales messages, the best way to handle potential objections is to a. avoid mentioning them. b. identify them up front and try to address as many as you can. c. explain why the objections aren't really important. d. do none of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 309; TYPE: concept 28. In marketing and sales messages, you can deemphasize the price of your product by a. mentioning it in the middle of a paragraph after you've presented benefits and selling points. b. stating it right at the beginning. c. commenting on how wealthy your readers probably are. d. doing all of the above. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310; TYPE: concept 158 29. If price is one of your strong selling points, you should a. mention special offers, such as volume discounts, before actually stating the price. b. compare the price to the cost of some other product or activity ("This exercise equipment costs less than a health club membership"). c. break the total price into smaller units ("Just six easy payments of $19.95 each will bring you this lovely collector's item"). d. give it a position of prominence, such as in the headline or as the last item in a paragraph. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310; TYPE: concept 30. Which of the following is not an effective technique for gaining audience attention in sales messages? a. Stating your product's strongest benefit. b. Emphasizing how close your company is to going out of business. c. Explaining how your product offers a solution to a problem. d. Promising savings. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310-11; TYPE: concept 31. The interest phase of a sales message should a. flatter your audience. b. distract the audience with loads of complex data on your product. c. provide support for whatever claims or promises you made in the attention section. d. avoid any attempts at answering potential objections. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 311; TYPE: concept 32. Which of the following would be the best wording in a marketing or sales message? a. The Never-Off whole-house generator requires professional installation. b. The Never-Off whole-house generator is designed to turn on automatically when it detects a general service interruption. c. The Never-Off whole-house generator provides the power you and your family need during electrical outages. d. The Never-Off whole-house generator is compact and unobtrusive, so it will not present an unattractive appearance. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 311; TYPE: application 159 33. In a marketing or sales letter, product claims are supported a. primarily by testimonials from satisfied customers. b. primarily by statistics from scientific studies of the product. c. primarily by background information on the company selling the product. d. by as much information as possible, of many different types. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 313; TYPE: concept 34. In sales letters, a postscript (P.S.) below your signature is a. not likely to draw the reader's attention. b. often one of the first and last parts people will read. c. almost always inappropriate. d. expected by most consumers. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept 35. An ethical persuasive argument a. is a contradiction in terms. b. focuses on how the audience's actions will benefit the sender. c. includes any evidence the sender can come up with, whether or not it's relevant. d. influences audience members by providing information that allows them freedom to choose. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept True or False 36. Successful professionals understand that persuasion is the attempt to get your audience to make the choices you want them to make--even if those choices are not in their best interest. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 37. To devise an effective persuasive message, you need to analyze audience members and then appeal to their desires and interests. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 38. According to psychologist Abraham Maslow, people's higher-level needs must be met before they will seek to fill lower-level needs. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 160 39. Demographic information includes people's psychological characteristics, such as personality, attitudes, and lifestyle. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 40. Most persuasive messages combine logical and emotional appeals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 41. When writing persuasive messages, one should be careful not to mix emotional and logical appeals. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 42. Most persuasive messages take the direct organizational approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 43. The direct approach is not useful for persuasive messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 44. An important factor to take into account when deciding on the approach for persuasive messages is your corporate culture. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 297; TYPE: concept 45. When aiming persuasive messages at a French audience, you will be most successful if you use an aggressive, hard-sell approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 46. Using simple language in persuasive messages usually decreases your credibility. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 47. One of the best ways to gain credibility for your message is to support it with objective evidence. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 48. The term AIDA refers to computer software used to compose persuasive messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 161 49. In the attention phase of a persuasive letter, you make the audience want to hear about your problem or idea. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 50. The interest section of a persuasive letter provides details on how the message is relevant to the audience. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 51. The AIDA model can be used with both the direct and indirect approaches for persuasive messages. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 52. The primary purpose of the desire section of a persuasive letter is to get the audience to keep reading. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 53. When it comes to persuasive messages, an up-front hard-sell approach is usually the most successful. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 54. The AIDA model for persuasive messages works only with the indirect approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 55. Deductive reasoning moves from specific evidence to a general conclusion. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 56. Induction refers to reasoning from a generalization to a specific conclusion. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 57. An example of faulty logic is to assume that one event caused another just because it happened first. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 162 58. In developing persuasive messages, you should avoid the use of metaphors, as they will only confuse the reader. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 59. If you expect a hostile audience, you should be careful to present all sides of an issue before making the case for your own argument. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 60. If you anticipate objections to your message, it is best not to bring them up. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 61. Most persuasive business messages involve requests for action. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 62. A persuasive message should always do more than simply convince audiences to change their attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 63. Most persuasive claim letters and requests for adjustment use the direct approach. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 306; TYPE: concept 64. When writing a persuasive claim or request for adjustment, you should appeal to your audience's sense of fair play, goodwill, or moral responsibility. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 65. When it comes to promotional messages, selling points and benefits are basically the same things. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 66. Successful marketing and sales messages match the product's distinguishing benefit to the audience's primary needs or emotional concerns. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308-09; TYPE: concept 163 67. A good way to open a marketing or sales message would be "We here at Colbert Corporation are proud to announce our new, improved all-weather tent." Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310-11; TYPE: application 68. In the action section of a marketing or sales message, you try to persuade the reader to act immediately. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 313-14; TYPE: concept 69. Since promotional messages are not legally binding contracts in most states, it is usually acceptable to imply offers or promises you cannot deliver. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept 70. You usually do not need permission to use a person's name or photograph in a marketing or sales message. Register to View AnswerDIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 315; TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. ____________________ is the process of changing an audience's attitudes, beliefs, or actions. ANSWER: Persuasion; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 294; TYPE: concept 72. ____________________ information includes age, gender, occupation, income, and education. ANSWER: Demographic; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 73. ____________________ include information about an individual's personality, attitudes, lifestyle, and other psychological characteristics. ANSWER: Psychographics; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 74. It is particularly important to establish ____________________ with a skeptical or hostile audience--to convince them that you know what you're talking about and that you're not trying to mislead them. ANSWER: credibility; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 164 75. Persuasive messages often follow a specialized four-phase format called the ____________________ model. ANSWER: AIDA; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 76. A (An) ____________________ appeal bases an argument on the audience's needs or sympathies. ANSWER: emotional; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 77. ____________________ is reasoning from specific evidence to a general conclusion. ANSWER: Induction; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 78. ____________________ is reasoning from a generalization to a specific conclusion. ANSWER: Deduction; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 79. ____________________ ____________________ is a logical fallacy in which you try to support your claim by restating it in different words. ANSWER: Circular reasoning; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 303; TYPE: concept 80. Marketing and ____________________ messages are designed to motivate audiences to participate in a commercial transaction. ANSWER: sales; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 81. In part, writing promotional messages involves assessing customer ____________________, analyzing your ____________________, and determining key selling points and benefits. ANSWER: needs, competition; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 82. ____________________ ____________________ are the most attractive features of an idea or product. ANSWER: Selling points; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 165 83. _________________________ are the particular advantages that readers will realize from the features of a product or idea. ANSWER: Benefits; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept 84. A marketing or sales message begins with some sort of ____________________-____________________ device. ANSWER: attention-getting; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 310; TYPE: concept 85. In many states, marketing and sales messages are considered binding ____________________. ANSWER: contracts; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. In preparing to write persuasive messages, what two types of information are vital to assess the needs of your audience? ANSWER: Demographics (the age, gender, occupation, income, education, and other quantifiable characteristics of your audience) are very important. Psychographics (the personality, attitudes, lifestyle, and other psychological characteristics of your audience) are also helpful. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 295; TYPE: concept 87. When is it a good idea to use the direct approach for persuasive messages? ANSWER: Using the direct approach for persuasive messages can be effective when your audience is ready to hear your proposal or when you've been building your case through several indirect messages and now it's time to make your request. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 296; TYPE: concept 88. What does AIDA stand for? ANSWER: Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 166 89. When your AIDA message uses an indirect approach and is delivered by memo or e-mail, what are two goals to keep in mind as you write the subject line? ANSWER: One challenge in this situation is to make the subject line interesting and relevant enough to capture reader attention. At the same time, however, you have to do so without revealing your main idea. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 300-02; TYPE: concept 90. Rewrite the following e-mail subject line to make it more interesting without revealing the main idea: "Proposal to switch to new medical insurance provider." Register to View Answermore effective subject line would be something such as "Instant savings on medical insurance premiums." DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 91. What are three methods of reasoning you can use when making a logical appeal? ANSWER: Logical appeals can take place through analogy, induction, or deduction. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: concept 92. List three categories of common persuasive business messages. ANSWER: Most persuasive business messages fall into one of three categories: (1) persuasive requests for action, (2) persuasive presentation of ideas, and (3) persuasive claims and requests for adjustment. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 304; TYPE: concept 93. What three elements make up an effective persuasive claim letter? Register to View Answerpersuasive claim letter should begin by stating the problem or reviewing what has been done about the problem so far. It should then specifically state what you want to happen next, along with a good reason to grant your claim. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 307; TYPE: concept 94. Briefly explain the difference between selling points and benefits, and then give an example of each. ANSWER: Selling points are the most attractive features of an idea or product. Benefits are the particular advantages that readers will realize from those features. The fact that a television comes with a remote control is a selling point, but the convenience the buyer will enjoy because of the remote control is a benefit. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 308; TYPE: concept/application 167 95. Why is it important in marketing and sales messages to avoid implying offers or promises you cannot fulfill? ANSWER: In many states, marketing and sales messages are binding contracts. Therefore, dishonesty in a sales letter can lead to unfavorable legal action. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 314; TYPE: concept Essay 96. Describe at least five strategies for establishing credibility when preparing persuasive messages. ANSWER: (1) Use simple language. Your audience is likely to be cautious, watching for fantastic claims, insupportable descriptions, and emotional manipulation. (2) Support your message with facts. The more specific and relevant your evidence, the better. (3) Identify your sources. Tell your audience where your information comes from and who agrees with you. (4) Be an expert. Know your subject area thoroughly. (5) Establish common ground--help your audience identify with you by appealing to shared beliefs, attitudes, and background experiences. (6) Be objective. Your ability to acknowledge all sides of an issue will help you present fair and logical arguments. (7) Display your good intentions. Your willingness to keep your audience's best interests at heart will help you create ethical persuasive messages. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 298; TYPE: concept 97. Describe each of the four phases of the AIDA model for persuasive messages. ANSWER: (1) Attention: Make your audience want to hear about your idea. Find some common ground on which to build your case. (2) Interest: Explain the relevance of your message to your audience. (3) Desire: Make readers want to change by explaining how the change will benefit them. Answer in advance questions that your audience might have, and back up your claims with relevant evidence. (4) Action: Ask your audience to take the specific action you suggest. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 300; TYPE: concept 168 98. Explain how to balance emotional appeals and logical appeals to persuade an audience. ANSWER: Generally speaking, persuasive business messages rely more heavily on logical appeals than emotional appeals, since the main idea is to save money, improve quality, and so on. It is important, however, to avoid the assumption that business decisions are purely logical and therefore ignore the emotional component. For example, you might be able to build a strong logical case for acquiring another company, based on projected financial return and other objective factors. However, the managers making the decision will experience a range of emotions, such as fear of making a wrong move that could be careerthreatening. To find the optimum balance between emotional appeals and logical appeals, consider four factors: (1) the actions you hope to motivate, (2) your reader's expectations, (3) the degree of resistance you need to overcome, and (4) how far you feel empowered to go to sell your point of view. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 302; TYPE: application 99. Describe several ways you can de-emphasize price in sales letters. ANSWER: You can leave out any mention of price or include it in an accompanying brochure. You can place it in a less important location in the letter, near the end or middle paragraph after you have described the benefits and selling points. You can compare the cost to some other product or activity in an attempt to make the price of your product seem small and affordable in comparison. You can break a large price down into units--instead of noting the price of the whole unit, report the price of each individual element. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 310; TYPE: application 100. What are some common techniques for attracting an audience's attention at the beginning of a marketing or sales message? ANSWER: Effective strategies for grabbing the audience's attention include (1) outlining your product's strongest benefit, (2) sharing a piece of genuine news, (3) establishing a point of common ground with the audience, (4) making a personal appeal to the reader's emotions and values, (5) promising inside information, (6) promising savings, (7) providing a sample or demonstration of the product, and (8) offering a solution to a problem. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 310-11; TYPE: concept 169

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UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
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UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
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UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
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UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Profit Maximization: Choosing Output in the Short-Run The Short-Run SupplyReading: Chapter 81Two steps to maximizing profitTo maximize its profit, any firm (not just competitive firms) must answer two questions: Output decision: if the firm pr
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Profit Maximization: Choosing Output in the Long-RunReading: Chapter 81Choosing Output in the LR In the long run, a firm can alter all its inputs, including the size of the plant (K) LR output rule of profit-maximizing firm: LRMC = P LR indiv
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
Applying the Competitive Model:How to measure welfare effects ofgovernment policies?Reading: Chapter 91Consumer Surplus1. Consumer surplus (CS) is the total net benefit or value that consumers receive beyond what they pay for the good Deman
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
MonopolyReading: Chapter 10 (section 10.1)Review of Perfect Competition Homogenous product Large number of buyers and sellers Free entry/exit Firms are price takers P = LMC = min LRAC Zero economic profits in the long runMonopoly Monopoly
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
UC Riverside - ECON - 102a
UC Riverside - ECON - 102b
Econ 102B (Summer 2008) Problem Set 1 (Due Monday, August 4th) 1) Consider a two-person pure exchange economy with two goods, A and B, and two consumers, 1 and 2. 1's utility function is given by u=u(A1, B1) and 2's utility function is given by v=v(A
UC Riverside - ECON - 102b
Econ 102B, Summer Session II, 2008 Problem Set 2 (Due Wednesday, August 13th) 1. Consider an economy with one producer and one consumer. There are two goods: food (F) and labor (L). The production function is given by Fp=3Lp, and the consumer's margi
UC Riverside - ECON - 102b
Econ 102B (SSII 2008) Problem Set 3 (You don't need to turn in solutions. But you are responsible for them!) 1) For each of the following three games in normal form, answer the following questions: (i) What is the set of Nash equilibria of the game?