patterson9_sg_ch17
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patterson9_sg_ch17

Course Number: POLITICAL PSCI 231-, Spring 2009

College/University: Chadron State College

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Chapter Seventeen Foreign and Defense Policy: Protecting the American Way Chapter Outline I. The Roots of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy A. The Cold War Era B. A New World Order C. The War on Terrorism D. The Iraq War The Military Dimension of National Security Policy A. Military Power, Uses, and Capabilities 1. Nuclear War Capability 2. Conventional and Guerilla War Capability B. The Politics of National Defense...

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Seventeen Chapter Foreign and Defense Policy: Protecting the American Way Chapter Outline I. The Roots of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy A. The Cold War Era B. A New World Order C. The War on Terrorism D. The Iraq War The Military Dimension of National Security Policy A. Military Power, Uses, and Capabilities 1. Nuclear War Capability 2. Conventional and Guerilla War Capability B. The Politics of National Defense The Economic Dimension of National Security Policy A. Promoting Global Trade B. Access to Oil and Other Natural Resources C. Assistance to Developing Nations A Challenging World II. III. IV. Chapter Summary The chief instruments of national security policy are diplomacy, military force, economic exchange, and intelligence gathering. These are exercised through specialized agencies of the U.S. government, such as the Departments of State and Defense, which are largely responsive to presidential leadership. National security policy has also relied on international organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, that are responsive to the global concerns of major nations. From 1945 to 1990, U.S. foreign and defense policies were dominated by a concern with the Soviet Union. During most of this period, the United States pursued a policy of containment based on the premise that the Soviet Union was an aggressor nation bent on global conquest. Containment policy led the United States to enter into wars in Korea and Vietnam and to maintain a large defense establishment. U.S. military forces are deployed around the globe, and the nation maintains a large nuclear arsenal. The end of the cold war, however, made some of this weaponry and strategic planning less relevant to America's national security. A first response to the post-cold-war world was multilateralism, the idea that major nations could achieve common goals by working together, including using force as a means of arresting regional conflicts. The interventions in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans during the 1990s are examples. They demonstrated that major nations can intervene with some success in global hot spots but also showed that the ethnic, religious, and national conflicts that fuel these flashes are not easily resolved. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001 led to broad changes in national security organization and strategy. Increased spending on defense and homeland security have been coupled with a partial reorganization of U.S. intelligence, law-enforcement, and immigration agencies, as well as new laws affecting the SG 17 | 1 scope of their activities. However, the defining moment of the post-September 11 period was America's invasion of Iraq in 2003, which was rooted in President George W. Bush's preemptive war doctrine and his willingness to commit the United States to unilateral action. In recent decades, the United States has increasingly taken economic factors into account in its national security considerations, which has meant, for example, that trade has played a larger part in defining its relationships with other countries. The trading system that the United States helped erect after World War II has given way to one that is more global in scale and more competitive. Changes in communication, transportation, and computing have altered the way large corporations operate, and as businesses have changed their practices, nations have had to adapt. The changes include the emergence of regional and international economic structures, such as the European Union, NAFTA, and the WTO. Nevertheless, nations naturally compete for economic advantage, including access to natural resources; accordingly, trade is a source of conflict as well as a source of cooperation. In the coming years, oil is likely to be at the center of the conflict. The main points of this chapter are as follows: Since World War II, the United States has acted in the role of world leader, which has substantially affected its military, diplomatic, and economic policies. The United States maintains a high degree of defense preparedness, which mandates a substantial level of defense spending and a worldwide deployment of U.S. conventional and strategic forces. Changes in the international marketplace have led to increased economic interdependence among nations, which has had a marked influence on the U.S. economy and on America's security planning. Learning Objectives Having read the chapter, all students should be able to do each of the following: 30052. Outline the major international events that have influenced the evolution of American foreign and defense policy, focusing primarily on the emergence and subsequent collapse of a bipolar world. Included in the outline should be the Vietnam War, and the demise of the Soviet Union. 30053. Describe how the advent of large nuclear arsenals has altered the world security environment and changed the security policy options for the United States. 30054. Compare the military and economic dimensions of national security policy, explaining why the latter has gained precedence in recent years. 30055. Discuss the politics of national defense, including the role of public opinion and the alleged influence of the military-industrial complex. 30056. Discuss the importance of American global trade relations with the industrialized world and the developing nations. Be sure to include America's need for access to natural resources available only from other nations. Major Concepts Be able to identify and/or define each of the following in a short paragraph. 1. isolationist SG 17 | 2 2. internationalist 3. containment 4. cold war 5. bipolar (power structure) 6. unipolar (power structure) 7. multilateralism 8. preemptive war doctrine 9. deterrence policy 10. military-industrial complex 11. multinational corporations 12. economic globalization SG 17 | 3 13. free trade 14. protectionism 15. unilateralism Practice Exam (Answers appear at the end of chapter.) Multiple Choice 30568. _____ was the most costly application of the containment doctrine. a. Vietnam b. Iraq c. Korea d. Grenada e. Panama 30569. _____ visited the People's Republic of China in 1972. rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr. Lyndon Johnson ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss SG 17 | 4 John McCain tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt. Richard Nixon uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu. Ronald Reagan vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv. Jimmy Carter 30570. Which of the following statements is true? SG 17 | 5 nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnn. From the end of World War II until December 8, 1991, the world was bipolar. ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooo. The world now has a unipolar structure. ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppppp SG 17 | 6 From the end of World War II until December 8, 1991, the world was bipolar; now it has a unipolar structure. qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqq. The world is bipolar today. rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr. Dtente is still an important part of American foreign policy. 30571. _____ called for a "new world order." jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj. Ronald Reagan kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk SG 17 | 7 George H.W. Bush llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll. Bill Clinton mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm. George W. Bush nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn SG 17 | 8 Colin Powell 30572. _____ launched the preemptive war doctrine in the United States. fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff. Bill Clinton ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg. Harry Truman hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh SG 17 | 9 Lyndon Johnson iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii. Ronald Reagan jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj. George W. Bush 30573. Which one of the following was not a unilateral excursion? . Grenada in 1983 . Panama in 1989 . Haiti in 1994 . Afghanistan in 2002 . None of the answers are correct. 30574. America's trade deficit with China reached more than _____ in 2007. . $256 billion . $2 billion . $22 billion . $48 billion . $712 billion 30575. President _____ warned against the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. . George Washington . Woodrow Wilson . Franklin D. Roosevelt . Dwight Eisenhower . Ronald Reagan SG 17 | 10 30576. Which of the following is true about global economics today? . The world is unipolar. . The world is bipolar. . The world is tripolar. . Power is widely decentralized. . None of the answers are correct. 30577. The United States . spends the most on foreign aid in dollar terms, but several countries spend more on a per capita basis. . spends the most on a per capita basis, but several countries spend more in dollar terms. . spends the most on foreign aid in dollar terms and on a per capita basis. . spends less on foreign aid in dollar terms and on a per capita basis than several countries. . None of the answers are correct. 30578. Many of America's traditional allies in _____ were opposed to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. . Asia . South America . Africa . North America . Europe 30579. The European Recovery Plan is better known as the . Marshall Plan. . Truman Doctrine. . Eisenhower Doctrine. . Dulles Doctrine. . Carter Plan. 30580. The United States last had a trade surplus in . 1941. . 1960. . 1975. . 1991. . 1999. 14. _____ is the idea that major nations should act together in response to problems and crises. a. Unilateralism b. Containment c. Dtente d. Multilateralism e. United front _____ said that an "iron curtain" had fallen across Europe after World War II. . Harry Truman SG 17 | 11 15. . . . . 16. Thomas Dewey Winston Churchill Franklin D. Roosevelt Dwight Eisenhower In 1990 President Bush obtained UN resolutions . ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait and authorizing the use of force if it did not. . ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait but that did not authorize the use of force if it did not. . authorizing more severe sanctions on Iraq if it did not withdraw from Kuwait. . authorizing military action against Iraq if it did not share oil revenues captured in Kuwait with other countries in the region. . demanding that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait but without any specification of follow-up actions. The U.S. Army has roughly . one million regular troops and more than three hundred thousand Reserve and National Guard soldiers. . three hundred thousand regular troops and more than one hundred thousand Reserve and National Guard soldiers. . five hundred thousand regular troops and more than three hundred thousand Reserve and National Guard soldiers. . eight hundred thousand regular troops and more than five hundred thousand Reserve and National Guard soldiers. . two hundred thousand regular troops and more than three hundred thousand Reserve and National Guard soldiers. The Korean War resulted in the loss of _____ American lives. . 1,000 . 5,000 . 12,000 . 35,000 . 500,000 The Soviet Union leader that implemented perestroika was . Boris Yeltsin. . Joseph Stalin. . Nikita Khrushchev. . Leonid Brezhnev. . Mikhail Gorbachev. _____ was the Soviet Union's Vietnam. . Poland . Czechoslovakia . Syria . Afghanistan SG 17 | 12 17. 18. 19. 20. . Essays 21. Hungary Why was Vietnam a turning point in American foreign policy? 22. What are the chief instruments of national security policy? 23. How has the advent of global trade influenced U.S. foreign and economic policy? 24. Explain why the world is tripolar in economic terms but not in military terms. 25. Discuss the two dominant views on trade issues in the United States. Answers to the Practice Exam 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a c c b e d 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. SG 17 | 13 e a c d c a 7. 8. 9. 10. a d c a 17. 18. 19. 20. c d e d 21. The Vietnam War was a major turning point in American foreign policy. By the late 1960s, 550,000 Americans were stationed in South Vietnam. The objective was to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam; American forces, however, became embroiled in a civil war. Vietnam was a guerrilla war, with no front lines and few set battles. American forces were fighting an enemy that was not visible in a society that they did not understand culturally. As the conflict continued, public opinion in this country turned against the war. This contributed to President Lyndon Johnson's decision not to seek reelection in 1968. This was the first defeat in American military history. Many concluded that Vietnam was a misapplication of the containment doctrine because the costs associated with the war were too high, particularly considering that 58,000 American lives were lost. 22. The chief instruments of national security policy are diplomacy, military force, economic exchange, and intelligence gathering. Diplomacy is the process of negotiation between countries. In most cases, leaders from nations prefer to settle their differences by talking rather than by fighting. Most countries use military might as a defensive measure in the event of being attacked by a foreign aggressor. Some nations, however, use military force more actively. The United States is such a nation. Economic exchange is a tool of international relations that usually takes one of two forms, trade or assistance. A fourth instrument of national security policy is intelligence gathering, or the process of monitoring the activities of other countries. 23. The American economy today is global in nature, based on the growth, success, and policies of multi-national corporations that have operations in more than one country. This economic globalization results in a greater interdependence among nations with regard to both economic and foreign policy. Nations competing in the global economy must deal with the political repercussions of pursuing a free trade policy. In the United States, the free trade policy has usually prevailed, although politicians face protectionist pressures as more U.S. jobs move overseas. 24. The world is tripolar in economic terms because power is concentrated in three different centers. The United States produces about 20 percent of the world's goods and services. Another center is China and Japan, which accounts for about 15 percent of the world's economy. The largest center of economic activity is the European Union, which is responsible for more than 25 percent of the world's economy. In military terms there is but one superpower, and that is the United States. Policy makers in the United States spend more than $400 billion every year on national defense, which far exceeds that of any other country in the world. 25. There are two dominant viewpoints on trade issues in the United States. Those taking the free-trade position contend that the long-term economic interests of all countries are advanced when tariffs and other trade barriers are kept to a minimum. Most advocates of free-trade also believe in fair-trade, but they are philosophically committed SG 17 | 14 to the notion that free trade fuels economic growth, results in a net gain for U.S. business, and provides American consumers with lower-priced goods. In contract, protectionism emphasizes the immediate interests of domestic producers and includes measures designed to enable them to compete successfully with foreign competitors in the domestic market. In general, the free-trade position has prevailed in American national politics in the last decade or more, but protectionist sentiments have been growing in recent years. Multiple Choice Explanations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The Vietnam (a) War was the most costly war in the application of containment--58,000 American soldiers lost their lives. In 1972, Nixon (c) took a historic trip to China, the first official contact with that country since the communists took power in 1949. The correct answer is(c). When the Soviet Union disintegrated, the world no longer had a bipolar structure and dtente became moot. Now, the United States is the unrivaled world power. George H.W. Bush (b) called for a "new world order" in 1990 when the cold war ended. Bush (e) announced this doctrine shortly after identifying Iraq, Iran, and North Korea as an "axis of evil" in his 2002 State of the Union address. The only multilateral war listed occurred in Afghanistan in 2002 (d). The other three invasions involved only U.S. troops. In the past decade, America's trade deficit with China has increased more than thirty-fold and reached $256 billion (d) in 2007, the largest imbalance ever between two countries. In his 1961 farewell address, Eisenhower (d) warned Americans about the inordinate power of this complex. Power is concentrated in three centers (c)--the United States, Japan and China, and the European Union. The public tends to exaggerate how much is spent in this area. In reality, less than 1 percent (a) of the budget is allocated to foreign aid. 11. While the British supported the war in Iraq, much of the rest of the world opposed it, including France, Germany, and Russia (e). 12. The European Recovery Plan is named after George Marshall (a), and is perhaps the most successful U.S. foreign policy initiative in the twentieth century. 13. The trade deficit has reached record deficit levels in recent years. The last surplus occurred during the Ford Administration in 1975 (c). 14. Multilateralism (d) assumes an enhanced role for the United Nations and an emphasis on international cooperation to solve problems. Great Britain's wartime prime minister, Churchill (c), made this declaration. 16. Multilateralism defined America's response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August, 1990. President Bush obtained UN resolutions ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait and authorizing the use of force if it did not (a). 17. The U.S. Army has roughly five hundred thousand regular troops and more than three hundred thousand Reserve and National Guard soldiers. Thus, (c) is the correct response. 18. The Korean War lasted from 1950-1953 and resulted in a stalemate and the loss of 35,000 (d) American lives. SG 17 | 15 15. 19. In 1985, Gorbachev (e) became the Soviet leader and emphasized the need to restructure its society. 20. Mikhail Gorbachev ordered the withdrawal of Soviet troops in Afghanistan (d) because it had become a quagmire for his nation both in human and economic terms. SG 17 | 16

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Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
Chapter Sixteen Welfare and Education Policy: Providing for Personal Security and NeedChapter Outline I. II. Poverty in America: The Nature of the Problem A. The Poor: Who and How Many? B. Living in Poverty: By Choice or Chance? The Politics and Pol
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Chapter Fifteen Economic and Environmental Policy: Contributing to ProsperityChapter Outline I. The Public Policy Process A. Problem Recognition B. Policy Formation C. Policy Implementation Government as Regulator of the Economy A. Efficiency Throug
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Chapter Fourteen The Federal Judicial System: Applying the LawChapter Outline I. The Federal Judicial System A. The Supreme Court of the United States 1. Selecting and Deciding Cases 2. Issuing Decisions and Opinions B. Other Federal Courts 1. U.S.
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Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
Chapter Eleven Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local InterestsChapter Outline I. Congress as a Career: Election to Congress A. Using Incumbency to Stay in Congress 1. The Service Strategy: Taking Care of Constituents 2. Campaign Fund-Raising:
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Chapter Ten The News Media: Communicating Political ImagesChapter Outline I. II. Historical Development: From the Nation's Founding to Today A. The Objective Journalism Era B. The Rise of the "New" News The Politics of News A. The Signaling Function
Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
Chapter Nine Interest Groups: Organizing for InfluenceChapter Outline I. The Interest-Group System A. Economic Groups 1. Types of Economic Groups 2. An Organizational Edge B. Citizens' Groups 1. The Free-Rider Problem 2. Types of Citizens' Groups C.
Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
Chapter Eight Political Parties, Candidates, and Campaigns: Defining the Voter's ChoiceChapter Outline I. Party Competition and Majority Rule: The History of U.S. Parties A. The First Parties B. Andrew Jackson and Grassroots Parties C. Republicans V
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Chapter Seven Political Participation and Voting: Actvating the Popular WillChapter Outline I. Voter Participation A. Factors in Voter Turnout: The United States in Comparative Perspective 1. Registration Requirements 2. Frequency of Elections 3. Pa
Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
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Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
Chapter Five Equal Rights: Struggling Toward FairnessChapter Outline I. The Struggle for Equality A. African Americans 1. The Brown Decision 2. The Black Civil Rights Movement 3. The Aftermath of the Civil Rights Movement B. Women 1. Women's Legal a
Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
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Chapter Three Federalism: Forging a NationChapter Outline I. Federalism: National and State Sovereignty A. The Argument for Federalism 1. Protecting Liberty 2. Moderating the Power of Government 3. Strengthening the Union B. The Powers of the Nation
Chadron State College - POLITICAL - PSCI 231-
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Chapter 8 outline Political Parties, Candidates, and Campaigns: Defining the Voters' Choice The political party is the one institution that aims to develop broad policy and leadership choices and then presents them to the voting public to accept or r
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Chapter 8 Image Bank Tables_ChartsPolitical Parties, Candidates, and Campaigns: Defining the Voters' ChoiceTables and Graphs 1 A Graphic History of America's Major PartiesTables and Graphs 2 Partisan IdentificationTables and Graphs 3 Split-Ti
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Chapter 5 outlineEqual Rights: Struggling Toward FairnessEqual rights, or civil rights, are terms that refer to the right of every person to equal protection under the law and equal access to society's opportunities and public facilities. The chap
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Ch 7 outline Political Participation and Voting: Activating the Popular Will I Voter Participation Voting is a form of political participation-a sharing in activities designed to influence public policy and leadership. Political participation involve
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James Madison's Tenth Federalist Paper A Lecture by Alan R. Gibson James Madison Seminar I. Significance of Madison's Argument A. Historical Significance 1. Addressed the leading objection to the ratification of the Constitution. Montesquieu's "smal
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ME 242 Engineering Mechanics II (Dynamics) Name:Exam 3, November 17, 2008You may use 1 sheet (8.5" x 11") of notes during the exam. 1) A 1000-lb car on a roller coaster starts from rest at position 1 as shown in the figure. The car is released fr
UNLV - ME 242 - a
ME 242 Exam 2 Solutions, 10/20/2008:1) Block A weighs 30 lb and block B weighs 50 lb. They are connected by a rope as shown in the figure below. The kinetic coefficients of friction, k, are 0.35 for block A and 0.15 for block B. As the blocks slide
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Name:_KEY_ Last First UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, LAS VEGAS DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEG 242, Spring 2009, Final ExaminationClosed Book, three pages of handwritten notes allowed. Enter the answer for each question into the space provided. Ent
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Name:_Last FirstUNLV, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEG 207, Spring 2009, Third Test Closed Book, one page of handwritten notes allowed. Enter the answer for each question into the space provided. Enter SI units in all answer spaces with br
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Name:_KEY_ Last First UNLV, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME 242, SPRING 2009, Second TEST Closed Book, one page of handwritten notes allowed. Enter the answer for each question into the space provided. Enter SI units in all answer spaces with
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UNLV - ME 242 - a
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UNLV - EGG 307 - a
EGG 307: Engineering EconomicsHomework No. 10: Sample Solutions. Q1.Calculate and compare the PW value of the two alternatives Alternative A: Cash flows are in "actual dollars", therefore calculate PW based on the "market" interest rate, ic = ir +
UNLV - EGG 307 - a
EGG 307: Engineering EconomicsHomework No. 9: Solutions Review the lecture notes and examples on depreciation and tax analysis and attempt the following two problems. Chapter 7 Problems 7-8 and 7-15 Notes: (1) For Problem 7-8(b) use the regular 200%
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EGG 307: Homework No. 8 Sample Solutions Problem 6-4 MARR = 20% A B -$30,000 -$60,000 15000 20000 $3.10 $4.40 $46,500 $88,000 $1.00 $1.40 -$15,000 -$30,000 -$30,000 -$58,000 $10,000 $10,000 10 10 54.5% $145,000 $14,500 1.82 C -$40,000 18000 $3.70 $66
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EGG 307: Engineering Economics Homework No. 7 SolutionSpring 2009Problem Two mutually exclusive water purification systems are being considered for installation in a village in a developing country. The systems have estimated cash flows summarize
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EGG 307: Engineering Economics: Solution to Homework No. 6Homework Problems: Chapter 5 Problem: 5-34 Chapter 6 Problems: 6-4; 6-47; 6-55.Spring 2009Notes: (1) For Problem 5-34, use the trial-and-error method to compute the IRR. (2) For Problem 6
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EGG 307: Engineering Economics - Homework No. 5 SolutionsProblems: 4-102; 4-105; 4-111; 4-119; 4-122.Spring 2009Notes: 1. APR stands for "annual percentage rating", which another term for the annual interest rate. 2. For Problem 4-119 Additional
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EGG 307: Engineering Economics Sample solutions to Homework No. 4: Problems: 4-74; 4-81; 4-85; 4-96.Spring 2009Notes: 1. For Problem 4-74 Additional question: Repeat the problem for the following modified cash flows with the same 1st and 2nd year
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EGG 307: Engineering Economics Homework No. 3 SolutionsSpring 2009Problems: 4-27; 4-37; 4-39; 4-42; 4-57; 4-59; 4-64; 4-69; 4-71. Notes: (1) For Problem 4-59, answer only parts (a) and (b). (2) For Problem 4-64:.Hint: The annual payments A1 for
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EGG 307: Engineering EconomicsHomework No. 2: Due Wednesday 1/28/09 Problems: 2-14; 2-16. Problems: 4-8, 4-10; 4-15, 4-18, 4-19.Spring 2009Notes: (1) For Problem 2-14, answer the following additional questions: (c) What is the maximum amount of
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EGG 307: Homework No. 1: Sample Solutions Problems: Chapter 1 Problems: 1-11, 1-12 Chapter 2 Problems: 2-11, 2-20, 2-38, 2-56, 2-57, 2-58. Solutions:1EGG 307: Homework No. 1: Sample Solutions2EGG 307: Homework No. 1: Sample Solutions3
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EGG 307: 3rd Midterm Exam (sample solutions)Question 1 Solution: Calculate the expected EUAC for each alternative (a) Leave the valve as is: Expected EUAC = 0.1(-20,000) + 0.3(-10,000) = -$5,000 (b) Repair the valve: Exp. EUAC = -$15,000(A/P, 15%, 1
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EGG 307: ENGINEERING ECONOMICSProblem 1 Solution2nd Midterm Exam - Sample Solution(a) Nominal interest rate/quarter, r = 12%/4 = 3%; Compounding periods, m = 3 (months); N = 3x4 = 12 quarters Effective interest rate per quarter = (1+r/m)m = (1 +
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EGG 307: First Midterm Exam (Sample solutions)Problem 1 Solution: (a) Let P = Unit price of the filters Total cost, TC = $90,000 + 80x6,000 + 0.3Px6,000; Total revenue, TR = $Px6,000 For a 40% profit, TR = 1.4 TC , i.e., 6,000P = 1.4(90,000 + 80x6,0
UNLV - EGG 307 - a
University of Nevada Las Vegas EGG 307: ENGINEERING ECONOMICS Third Midterm Exam (Closed Book/Notes)PRACTICE EXAM Duration: 75 minutesInstructions: Please attempt all four questions using both sides of the exam paper provided. Read the questions
UNLV - EGG 307 - a
University of Nevada Las Vegas EGG 307: ENGINEERING ECONOMICS Second Midterm Exam (Closed Book/Notes) Name:PRACTICE EXAM Duration: 75 minutesInstructions: Please attempt all four questions using both sides of the exam paper provided. Read the que
UNLV - EGG 307 - a
University of Nevada Las Vegas EGG 307: ENGINEERING ECONOMICS Sample Exam No. 1 (Closed Book/Notes 2 pages of formulae allowed)Duration: 75 minutesInstructions: Please attempt all four questions using both sides of the exam paper provided. Read
UNLV - ME 242 - a
Name:_KEY_Last FirstUNLV, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEG 242, Spring 2009, FIRST TEST Closed Book, one page of handwritten notes allowed. Enter the answer for each question into the space provided. Enter SI units in all answer spaces wit
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c01.qxd9/19/078:53 PMPage 1 2008 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under allcopyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of thi