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Questions Multiple-Choice 1) The __________ is not the name of a Pleistocene glacial episode in North America. A) Dakotan B) Kansan C) Illinoian D) Nebraskan Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 2) The __________ was the most recent Pleistocene glacial episode in North America. A) Dakotan B) Kansan C) Indianan D) Wisconsinan Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 3) __________ is one of the two, major flow mechanism in a glacier. A) Basal slip B) Crevassal slip C) Frost heaving D) Morainal sliding Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 4) Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today? A) Greenland B) Russia, Siberia C) Iceland D) Antarctica Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 5) Approximately how long ago did the last of the great North American ice sheets melt? A) 1500 yrs B) 1.5 million yrs C) 15,000 yrs D) 150,000 yrs Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 6) __________ has speeds comparable to those of a flowing alpine glacier. A) Soil creep B) Streams C) Mudflows D) Basaltic lava flows Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 7) The bottom or downward tip of a crevasse marks the __________. A) boundary between parts of the glacier moving by basal sliding and crevassal slip B) boundary between the basal sliding and external flowage zones C) bottom of the basal sliding zone D) top of the internal deformation and flowage zone Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 8) Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years? A) Wastage exceeds accumulation. B) Accumulation exceeds wastage. C) Accumulation and wastage are about equal. D) none of the above Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 9) Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier? A) the internal, flowage zone B) the snout zone C) the surface, brittle zone D) the basal, sliding zone Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 10) A __________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers. A) U B) Y C) V D) S Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 11) __________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers. A) Moraines B) Cirques C) Eskers D) Drumlins Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 12) A(n) __________ is a depositional feature composed of till and only associated with continental glaciation, not with alpine glaciers. A) cirque B) moraine C) drumlin D) outwash deposit Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 Match the feature with the appropriate material. A) till B) outwash 13) _____ moraine Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 14) _____ erratic Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 15) _____ cirque Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 16) _____ esker Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 17) _____ horn Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 18) _____ drumlin Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 19) __________ first developed the theory that small variations in the Earth-Sun distance were responsible for short term, climatic oscillations (1000 to 100,000 years). A) H. Goering B) H. Marcee C) G. Zukhov D) M. Milankovitch Register to View AnswerC) solid rock Diff: 1 20) The great, Southern Hemisphere glaciation that affected parts of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica occurred __________. A) in late Paleozoic time B) in late Proterozoic time C) in early Cenozoic time D) in middle Mesozoic time Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 21) Which of the following glacial features would typically be found in close proximity? A) cirque and terminal moraine B) outwash plain and horn C) hanging valley and truncated spur D) drumlin and fiord Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 22) A(n) __________ represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel. A) esker B) yazoo ridge C) valley plain D) kettle Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 23) What type of moraine would be most useful for tracing diamond-bearing kimberlite fragments directly to their bedrock source area? A) terminal, valley or alpine glacier B) terminal, continental ice sheet C) recessional, continental ice sheet D) lateral, valley or alpine glacier Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 24) Which one of the following samples and experimental measurements would provide the most information about the Earth's climate over the last 100,000 years or so? A) cores from sea ice in the Arctic Ocean; NaCl content B) sediment cores from a terminal moraine in Ohio sand to clay ratio C) sediment cores from a Pleistocene loess deposit in the state of Mississippi; SiO2 content D) cores from the Greenland ice sheet; ratios of the oxygen isotopes (0-18/0-16) Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 25) __________ is the best explanation for a glacial surge. A) The climate cools suddenly and a retreating glacier begins to advance B) Heavy snowfalls resulting in avalanches in the zone of accumulation C) Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip D) Crevasses opening suddenly near the snout of a glacier Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 26) All of the following descriptions apply to stratified drift (not glacial till) except for __________. A) deposited directly from melting ice B) sand and gravel beds C) deposits are often layered and well-sorted D) deposited by glacial meltwater streams Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 27) A(n) __________ is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area. A) moraine B) esker C) cirque D) kettle Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 28) Which one of the following prominent landforms, located from the Wasatch Range, UT, westward to the Sierra Nevada, CA, formed during the Pleistocene glacial episodes? A) terminal moraines of continental ice sheets that moved south from Canada B) old shorelines of large, pluvial lakes C) erosional features produced by continental glaciation D) subaerial deltas submerged by the post-glacial rise in sea level Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 29) A fiord is __________. A) a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises B) a glacier-cut valley that is dammed by an end moraine and a large lake is formed C) a glacier-cut valley which sinks below sea level due to glacial rebound after the ice melts D) a large, kettle-pocked moraine left as an island when sea level rises following melting of the ice Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 30) Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea? A) kaming B) calving C) surging D) drowning Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 31) The __________ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age." A) Pleistocene era B) Pliocene epoch C) Pleistocene epoch D) Pliocene era Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 32) Which of the following is the correct listing of the North American glacial stages from older to younger? A) Indianan, Kansan, Nebraskan, Ohioan B) Kansan, Illinoian, Iowan, Dakotan C) Nebraskan, Indianan, Illinoian, Wisconsinan D) Nebraskan, Kansan, Illinoian, Wisconsinan Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 33) Which one of the following statements concerning glaciers is not true? A) Ice sheets are larger than ice caps. B) Piedmont glaciers form on lowlands at the base of mountainous terrain. C) The volume of water tied up in the Antarctic ice sheet is about the same as the total discharge of the Amazon River in one year. D) Long, extended, alpine glaciers occupied valleys in most high, mountainous areas in the United States, Canada, and Europe at one or more times during the past two million years. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 34) A __________ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation. A) lateral moraine B) drumlin C) crevasse spur D) U-shaped valley Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 35) A(n) __________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today. A) outwash plain B) hanging valley C) striated drumlin D) horn peak Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 36) A __________ is a glacier-cut valley that partly flooded as sea level rose. A) till crevasse B) fiord C) hanging cirque D) kettle trough Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 37) A drumlin is a __________. A) smooth, tapering ridge of till; formed and shaped beneath a continental ice sheet B) bowl-shaped depression eroded largely by frost action and glacial plucking C) till mound of outwash deposited by meltwater streams at the snout of a glacier D) smooth, striated, bedrock ridge shaped and polished by a glacier Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 38) __________ are both deposited by meltwater streams. A) Terminal moraines and cirques B) Outwash plains and valley trains C) Valley moraines and ice sheet trains D) Recessional kettles and erratics Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 39) Where is the world's second largest continental ice sheet? A) Iceland B) Greenland C) Antarctica D) Siberian Russia Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 40) How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate? A) by calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland B) as large masses of sea ice that float northward from Antarctica C) as masses of sea ice that float southward from the Arctic Ocean D) as calved blocks of glacial ice that float northward from Antarctica Register to View Answer Diff: 1 41) Which of the following best describes the term glacial drift? A) floating of icebergs southward from the north polar seas B) slow, plastic flow movement in the brittle zone of a glacier C) the sedimentary materials outwash and till D) the slow, southward advance of the continental ice sheets over Canada and America North during the Pleistocene Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 42) Which one of the following statements concerning glacial deposits is not true? A) Till is deposited directly from the ice; outwash is deposited by meltwater streams. B) Glacial erratics are blocks of rock that are too large for the glacier to move. C) Tills are poorly sorted and the fragments are mostly angular. D) Outwash is mainly stratified sand and gravel. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 43) What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers? A) medial B) recessional C) ground D) kettle Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 44) A __________ forms when stagnant, glacial ice melts after being buried by drift. A) tarn B) kettle C) drumlin D) pluvial delta Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 45) Which one of the following could not have significantly affected climatic variations and advances and retreats of ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch? A) movements of Earth's tectonic plates B) variations in the Sun's energy output C) precession of Earth's orbit D) wobbling of Earth's rotational axis Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 46) __________ was a very large, pluvial lake in Utah during the Pleistocene Epoch. A) Lake Caspian B) Lake Aral C) Lake Mead D) Lake Bonneville Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 47) A __________ would logically be situated next to a large end moraine or terminal moraine. A) cirque B) fiord C) pluvial lake D) outwash plain Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 48) Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain? A) loon lake B) kettle pond C) tarn lake D arte pond Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 49) __________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier. A) Terminal moraine B) Outwash blanket C) Kame sheet D) Ground moraine Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 50) All of the following are thought to possibly contribute to the formation of glaciers except for __________. A) eccentricity B) precession C) comets D) plate tectonics Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 Word Analysis Questions Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern. 1) A) drumlin B) cirque Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 2) A) horn Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 B) arte C) esker D) moraine C) lateral moraine D) drumlin 3) A) calving B) zone of accumulation Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 4) A) truncated spur B) glacial trough Register to View AnswerDiff: 2 5) A)drumlin B) kame Register to View AnswerDiff: 2 True/False Questions C) kettle C) melting D) zone of wastage C) hanging valley D) pater noster lake D) esker 1) When a glacier is retreating, the upstream ice is still moving forward toward the downstream terminus of the glacier. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 2) Crevasses are short, narrow cracks in the plastic flow zone of a glacier that alternately open and close as the ice flows along. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 3) The downstream end or snout of a glacier advances over periods of time during which ablation exceeds accumulation. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 4) Till is an unsorted sediment deposited directly from the melting glacial ice; stream action is not involved. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 5) The recessional moraine is the largest of many terminal moraines laid down by a retreating glacier. Register to View Answer Diff: 1 6) Melting and evaporation are two forms of ablative calving. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 7) Fiords are glacier-cut valleys that flooded as sea level rose in post-glacial times. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 8) A cirque represents an erosional feature formed in what was an important accumulation zone for snow and ice at the upstream head of a glacier. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 9) The volume of the Antarctic ice sheet is about equal to the total volume of ice in all alpine glaciers of the world. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 10) The Pleistocene epoch of geological time began about 6 million years ago. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 11) Because ice floats on seawater, coastal piedmont glaciers seldom erode much below the elevation of sea level at the times the glaciers are active. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 12) The great, Southern Hemisphere glaciation left Jurassic tills on parts of South America, India, and South Africa. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 13) Rapid surge movements of the Earth's tectonic plates offer a convincing explanation for the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene ice sheets. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 14) Great Salt Lake in Utah is the shrunken, salty remnant of a much larger, Pleistocene, pluvial lake called Lake Bonneville. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 15) Arte, horns, and U-shaped valleys are erosional features carved from bedrock by glaciers. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 16) Sand and gravel deposited by glacial meltwater streams are known as outwash till or stratified till. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 17) In the north-central United States, much of the land north of the Ohio and Missouri Rivers was covered by one or more of the Pleistocene ice sheets. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 18) Surges in glacial movement are probably related to unusually fast rates of basal sliding. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 19) Rock flour consists of silt-sized, rock and mineral particles produced by glacial abrasion. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 20) Eskers and kames are deposited by meltwater streams; they are composed of stratified sand and gravel. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 21) Drumlins are believed to represent deltas built into pluvial lakes by meltwater streams. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 22) Eccentricity, obliquity, and precession are three factors involved in the Milankovitch astronomical explanation of why the Pleistocene continental ice sheets alternately grew and shrank in size. Register to View AnswerDiff: 1 Short Answer Questions 1) The upper 40 meters or so of a glacier is known as the zone of __________. Answer: fracture Diff: 1 29) Unusually rapid, forward movements of glaciers are called __________. Answer: surges Diff: 1 3) List the two, major mechanisms of glacial flow. Answer: plastic flow; basal slip Diff: 1 4) What term describes open fissures in the brittle, surface ice of a glacier? Answer: crevasse Diff: 1 5) What general term denotes wastage of a glacier? Answer: ablation Diff: 1 6) Bridal Veil Falls in Yosemite National Park is an example a __________. Answer: hanging valley Diff: 1 7) Bowl-shaped depressions in bedrock at upstream ends of alpine glacial valleys are called __________. Answer: cirque Diff: 1 8) The wobbling motion of a spinning object is known as __________. Answer: precession Diff: 1 9) During the Pleistocene glacial epoch, pluvial lakes were common in valley regions of what part of the United States? Answer: Basin & Range Diff: 1 10) What is the name for the very large, pluvial lake that once existed in northwestern Utah? Answer: Lake Bonneville Diff: 1 11) __________ are smoothly tapered, elongated hills of till shaped by an overriding, continental ice sheet. Answer: drumlins Diff: 1 12) What is the oldest, Pleistocene, glacial stage in North America? Answer: Nebraskan Diff: 1 13) A(n) __________ is a closed depression formed by melting of an ice block buried in a moraine or outwash plain. Answer: kettle Diff: 1 14) A(n) __________ is a narrow, winding ridge composed of outwash deposited in a tunnel or channel cut into stagnant, glacial ice. Answer: esker Diff: 1 15) Valleys deeply eroded by alpine glaciers have what characteristic, cross-valley profile? Answer: U-shaped Diff: 1 16) What term denotes a glacial valley that was partly flooded as sea level rose? Answer: fiord Diff: 1 Critical Thinking Questions Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 18 to answer the questions below 1) Would most features of alpine glaciation be preserved in the geologic record? Why or why not? What about continental glaciation? Diff: 3 2) Glacial ice is very effective as an agent of erosion. How would you identify glacial sediments from alluvial (stream) sediments? Also, could certain glacial sediments be mistaken for alluvium? Diff: 3 3) Briefly discuss the indirect effects of glaciation. Indicate whether such changes would occur in conjunction with glaciation or at some time later? Diff: 3 Visualization Questions 1) Label the zones of ice movement on the glacier in the diagram below. Answer: See figure 18.8 in chapter 18 of Earth, 8e Diff: 1 2) Label the zone of accumulation and the zone of wastage on the diagram below. Answer: See figure 18.11 in chapter 18 of Earth, 8e Diff: 1 3) On the blanks provided below, fill in the name of the labeled features that formed as a product of alpine glaciation. Answer: (a) hanging valley (f) cirques Diff: 2 (b) ar te (c) horn (d) tarn(e) pater noster lake 4) Match the features on the illustration below to the correct answer for each one. A) ground moraine B) outwash plain E) drumlin F) kettle hole/lake Answer: (a) C (b) E (c) D (d) A (e) F Diff: 2 (f) B C) esker D) end moraine ... View Full Document

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