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9 Chapter The Basic Tools of Finance
1. The field of finance studies how a. society manages its scarce resources. b. people make decisions regarding resource allocation over time and how to handle risk c. people decide whether or not to become risk averse. d. society can reduce aggregate risk.
how people make decisions regarding resource allocation over time and how to handle risk TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.0 2. If you put $300 in an account paying 2 percent interest, what is the future value of this account in two years? a. $310 b. $312 c. $312.12 d. $314.24 $312.12 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 3. What is the future value of $500 one year from today if the interest rate is 6 percent? a. $503 b. $515 c. $530 d. None of the above are correct. $530 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 4. What is the future value of $750 one year from today if the interest rate is 3 percent? a. 772.73 b. 772.50 c. 773.33 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. 772.50 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 5. What is the future value of $800 one year from today if the interest rate is 7 percent? a. $747.66 b. $756.00 c. $856.00 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $856.00 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 6. What is the future value of $333 at an interest rate of 3 percent one year from today? a. $337.39 b. $342.99 c. $343.09 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $342.99 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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7. What is the future value of $450 at an interest rate of 11 percent one year from today? a. $495.00 b. $495.40 c. $494.50 d. $499.50 $499.50 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 8. Two years ago Rudolph put $3,000 in an account paying 3 percent interest. How much does he have in the account today? a. $3,180.00 b. $3,182.70 c. $3,183.62 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $3,182.70 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 9. Three years ago Warren put $1,200 in an account paying 2 percent interest. How much is the account worth today? a. $1,225.38 b. $1,248.48 c. $1,264.72 d. $1,273.45 $1,273.45 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 10. Lisa deposits $250 in an account and one year later has $270; what was the interest rate? a. 8 percent b. 9 percent c. 10 percent d. None of the above are correct. 8 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 11. Mark puts $500 in an account and one year later has $550; what was the interest rate on the account? a. 10 percent b. 9 percent c. 8 percent d. None of the above are correct. 10 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 12. Darby puts $75 in an account and one year later has $100; what was the interest rate on the account? a. 20 percent b. 25 percent c. 30 percent d. None of the above are correct. None of the above are correct. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 13. Susan puts $125 into an account and one year later has $135; what was the interest rate? a. 5 percent b. 7 percent c. 8 percent d. 10 percent 8 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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14. Fred puts $150 into an account when the interest rate is 4 percent. Later he checks his balance and finds he has about $168.73. How long did Fred wait to check his balance? a. 3 years b. 3.5 years c. 4 years d. 4.5 years 3 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 15. Brad puts $200 into an account when the interest rate is 8 percent. Later he checks his balance and finds that he has a balance of about $272.10. How many years did he wait to check his balance? a. 3 years b. 3.5 years c. 4 years d. 4.5 years 4 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 16. Jackie puts $400 into an account when the interest rate is 10 percent. Later she checks her balance and finds it's worth about $708.62. How many years did she wait to check her balance? a. 5 years b. 6 years c. 7 years d. 8 years 6 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 17. Al claims that $200 collecting 4 percent interest for 2 years has the same future value as $200 collecting 8 percent interest for 1 year. Bill says that waiting one year for $200 when the interest rate is 8 percent has the same present value as waiting 2 years for $200 when the interest rate is 4 percent. a. Both Al and Bill are correct. b. Both Al and Bill are incorrect. c. Only Al is correct. d. Only Bill is correct. Both Al and Bill are incorrect. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 18. Alice claims that $700 paid one year from now when the interest rate is 6 percent has a higher present value than $700 two years from now when the interest rate is 3 percent. Beth claims that the future value of $700 in one year when the interest rate is 6 percent is more than the future value in two years of $700 when the interest rate is 3 percent. a. Both Alice and Beth are correct. b. Both Alice and Beth are incorrect. c. Only Alice is correct. d. Only Beth is correct. Only Alice is correct. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 19. Alex says that $400 saved for one year at 4 percent interest has a smaller future value than $400 saved for two years at 2 percent interest. Brian says that the present value of $400 one year from today if the interest rate is 4 percent is worth more than the present value of $400 two years from today if the interest rate is 2 percent. a. Alex and Brian are both correct. b. Alex and Brian are both incorrect. c. Only Alex is correct. d. Only Brian is correct. Alex and Brian are both correct. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1
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20. Amy says that the future value of $250 saved for one year at 6 percent is less than the future value of $250 saved for two years at 3 percent. Brad says that the present value of a $250 payment in one year when the interest rate is 6 percent is less than the value of a $250 payment in two years when the interest rate is 3 percent. a. Amy and Brad are both correct. b. Amy and Brad are both incorrect. c. Only Amy is correct. d. Only Brad is correct. Only Amy is correct. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 21. Three people go to the bank to cash in their accounts. April had her money in an account for 25 years at 4 percent interest. Ben had his money in an account for 20 years at 5 percent interest. Cathy had her money in an account for five years at 20 percent interest. If each of them originally deposited $500 in their accounts, which of them gets the most money when they cash in their accounts? a. April b. Ben c. Cathy d. They each get the same amount. April TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 22. Kelly deposited $1,000 into an account three years ago. The first two years she earned 5 percent interest, the third she earned 6 percent. How much money does she have in her account today? a. $1,157.90 b. $1,168.65 c. $1,176.00 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $1,168.65 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 23. Grace deposited $10,000 into an account three years ago. The first year she earned 12 percent interest, the second year she earned 8 percent interest, and the third year she earned 4 percent interest. How much money does she have in her account today? a. $12,579.84 b. $12,596.80 c. $12,597.12 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $12,579.84 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 24. Oscar deposited $500 into an account two years ago. The first year he earned 3 percent interest and the second year he earned 5 percent interest. How much money does Oscar have in his account now? a. $540.75 b. $540.80 c. $540.85 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $540.75 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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25. You are given three options. You may have the balance in an account that has been collecting 5 percent interest for 20 years, the balance in an account that has been collecting 10 percent interest for 10 years, or the balance in an account that has been collecting 20 percent interest for five years. Each account had the same original balance. Which account now has the lowest balance? a. the first one b. the second one c. the third one d. It doesn't matter; they all have the same balance. the third one TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 26. George has almost $300 in his account. Some years ago he put $213.20 into his account that promised to pay 5 percent interest. How many years ago did he open his account? a. 4 years b. 5 years c. 6 years d. 7 years 7 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 27. When he was 18, Gerald put $100 into an account at an interest rate of 8 percent. He now has about $171.38 in this account. How many years did Gerald leave this money in his account? a. 5 years b. 6 years c. 7 years d. 8 years. 7 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 28. Four years ago Matt deposited some money into an account. He earned 5 percent on this account and now has a balance of about $303.88. How much did he deposit into his account when he opened it? a. about $210 b. about $220 c. about $240 d. about $250 about $250 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 29. Two years ago Edgar put some money into an account. He earned 6 percent interest on this account and now has about $1,000. About how much did he deposit into his account two years ago? a. about $860 b. about $870 c. about $880 d. about $890 about $890 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 30. Martin put $250 in an account three years ago. The first year he earned 6 percent interest, the second year 7 percent, and the third year 8 percent. About how about much does Martin have in his account now? a. $302.50 b. $306.23 c. $308.67 d. $309.39 $306.23 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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31. Which of the following is the correct way to figure the future value of $X that earns r percent for N years? a. $X(1 + rN)N b. $X(1 + r)N c. $X(1 + rN) d. $X(1 + r/N)N $X(1 + r)N TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 32. Which of the following is the correct way to figure the future value of $1 put in an account that earns 5 percent for 20 years? a. $1(1 + .05)20 b. $1(1 + .05 20) 20 c. $1(1 + .05 20) d. $1(1 + 20/.05)20 .05 $1(1 + .05)20 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 33. On New Year's Day 1975, three pals agreed to each put $100 into the bank at a fixed rate of 5 percent and use the money for a New Year's Party in 2000. At the end of the 25 years they each cashed in their accounts and brought the money. What amount should they have each had? a. $305.18 b. $325.00 c. $338.64 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $338.64 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 34. Brittany wants to have about $250,000 when she retires in 10 years. She has $100,000 to deposit now. Which of the following interest rates would get her within $100 of $250,000? a. 9.6 percent b. 9.8 percent c. 10 percent d. 10.2 percent 9.6 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 35. You want to have $100,000 in five years. If the interest rate is 8 percent, about how much do you need to save today? a. $66,225.25 b. $67,556.42 c. $68,058.32 d. $71,428.57 $68,058.32 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 36. Julio, Paul, and James are all intending to retire. Each currently has $1 million in assets. Julio will retire in ten years and gets 5 percent on his money. Paul will retire in five years and gets 10 percent on his money. John will retire in two years and gets 25 percent on his money. Who will have the most dollars when he retires? a. Julio b. Paul c. James d. They all retire with the same amount. Julio TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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37. Sage decides to cash in all his savings to open a recording studio. He has three accounts to cash in. The first earned 9 percent for two years. The second earned 6 percent for three years. And the last earned 3 percent for six years. Supposing he started with $5,000 in each account, from which account will he get the most cash? a. the twoyear account at 9 percent b. the threeyear account at 6 percent c. the sixyear account at 3 percent d. The accounts are all worth the same. the sixyear account at 3 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 38. At which interest rate is the present value of $79.50 one year from today equal to $75 today? a. 4 percent b. 5 percent c. 6 percent d. 7 percent 6 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 39. At which interest rate is the present value of $95.40 one year from today equal to $90 today? a. 4 percent b. 5 percent c. 6 percent d. 7 percent 6 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 40. At which interest rate is the present value of $162.24 two years from today equal to $150 today? a. 4 percent b. 5 percent c. 6 percent d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. 4 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 41. At which interest rate is the present value of $189.28 two years from today equal to $175 today? a. 2 percent b. 4 percent c. 6 percent d. 8 percent 4 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 42. What is the present value of a payment of $100 one year from today if the interest rate is 5 percent? a. $95.50 b. $95.24 c. $95.00 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $95.24 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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43. What is the present value of a payment of $150 one year from today if the interest rate is 6 percent? a. $141.11 b. $141.36 c. $141.75 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 44. What is the present value of a payment of $250 one year from today if the interest rate is 4 percent? a. $240.38 b. $242.24 c. $244.40 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $240.38 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 45. At which interest rate is the present value of $260.10 two years from today equal to $250 today? a. 2 percent b. 3 percent c. 4 percent d. 5 percent 2 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 46. At which interest rate is the present value of $135.20 two years from today equal to $125 today? a. 2 percent b. 4 percent c. 6 percent d. 8 percent 4 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 47. At which interest rate is the present value of $34.99 two years from today equal to about $30.00 today? a. 9 percent b. 8 percent c. 7 percent d. 6 percent 8 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 48. Of the following interest rates which is the highest one at which you would prefer to have $200 ten years from today instead of $100 today? a. 2 percent b. 4 percent c. 6 percent d. 8 percent 6 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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49. Of the following interest rates which is the highest one at which the present value of $200 ten years from today is greater than $150? a. 2 percent b. 4 percent c. 6 percent d. 8 percent 2 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 50. Mary put $6,139 into an account ten years ago. She now has $10,000 in the account. What will her balance be in another 10 years if she gets the same rate of interest? a. $16,105.10 b. $16,139.00 c. $16,288.95 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $16,288.95 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 51. You put $75 in the bank one year ago and forgot about it. The bank sends you a notice that you now have $81 in your account. What interest rate did you earn? a. 5 percent b. 6 percent c. 7 percent d. 8 percent 8 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 52. Your parents put $500 into an account paying 7 percent interest when you were ten. Now ten years later they tell you that you can take the money out of the account if you can figure out the balance. What is the balance to the nearest penny? a. $1,200.00 b. $1,111.77 c. $9,83.58 d. $8,50.00 $983.58 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 53. George knows that he has about $95 dollars in his account. He knows he earned an interest rate of 4 percent, but he doesn't remember how much he opened the account with a year ago. How much did he put in? a. $91.00 b. $91.20 c. $91.27 d. $91.35 $91.35 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 54. If you put $250 in an account with a 4 percent interest rate, how many years would you have to wait to have about $370.06? a. 10 b. 14 c. 17 d. 20 10 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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55. Your accountant tells you that if you can continue to earn the current interest rate on your balance of $750 for the next three years, you will have $998.25 in your account. If your accountant is correct, what is the current interest rate? a. 9 percent b. 10 percent c. 11 percent d. 12 percent 10 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 56. Your accountant tells you that if you can continue to earn the current interest rate on your balance of $800 for the next two years you will have $898.88 in your account. What rate of interest do you need to earn to meet your accountant's expectations? a. 6 percent b. 7 percent c. 8 percent d. 9 percent 6 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 57. Your accountant tells you that if you can continue to earn the current interest rate on your balance of $500 for ten years, you will have about $983.58. What rate of interest does your accountant expect you to earn? a. 5 percent b. 6 percent c. 7 percent d. 8 percent 7 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 58. Suppose that the price of a bond is equal to the sum of the present value of its future payments. Suppose further that this bond pays $50 in one year and $1,050 in two years. What is the price of the bond if the interest rate is 5 percent? a. $1,050.00 b. $1,045.35 c. $1,000.00 d. $945.35 $1,000.00 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 59. Suppose that the price of a bond is equal to the sum of the present value of its payments. Suppose further that the bond pays $50 today and $1,050 one year from today. What is the price of this bond if the interest rate is 5 percent? a. $1,100.00 b. $1,050.00 c. $1,047.62 d. $945.35 $1,050.00 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 60. Suppose that the price of a bond is equal to the sum of the present value of its future payments. Suppose further that the bond pays $50 today, $50 one year from today, and $1,050 two years from today. What is the price of this bond if the interest rate is 5 percent? a. $1,000 b. $1,050 c. $1,100 d. None of the above are correct. $1,050 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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61. What is the present value of a payment of $100 to be made one year from today if the interest rate is 5 percent? a. $105.26 b. $105.00 c. $95.24 d. $95.00 $95.24 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 62. What is the present value of a payment of $200 to be made one year from today if the interest rate is 10 percent? a. $180 b. $181.82 c. $220 d. $222.22 $181.82 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 63. What is the present value of a payment of $100 to be made one year from today? a. $100*(1 + r) b. $100/(1 + r) c. $100 $100 r d. $100 (1 + r)/$100 $100/(1 + r) TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 64. If the interest rate is 5 percent, what is the present value of a payment of $500 to be made one year from today? a. $457.14 b. $475.00 c. $480.77 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 65. Natasha promises to pay Jennifer $1,000 in two years. If the interest rate is 6 percent, how many dollars today is this future payment worth? a. $883.60 b. $887.97 c. $893.67 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 66. Your rich uncle Earl tells you that he will give you $500 in two years. You could borrow the present value of this $500 and when your uncle sends you the gift have just enough to pay off the loan. About how much can you borrow if the interest rate is 11 percent? a. $396.05 b. $402.13 c. $405.81 d. $409.84 $405.81 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1
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67. At which interest rate is the present value of $183.60 two years from today equal to about $173.06 today? a. 2 percent b. 3 percent c. 4 percent d. 5 percent 3 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 68. At which interest rate is the present value of $360 three years from today equal to about $320 today? a. 4 percent b. 4.5 percent c. 5 percent d. 5.5 percent 4 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 69. The present value of a payment to be made in the future is lower at a. higher interest rates and as the time until the payment is made increases. b. higher interest rates and as the time until the payment is made decreases. c. lower interest rates and as the time until the payment is made increases. d. lower interest rates and as the time until the payment is made decreases. at higher interest rates and as the time until the payment is made increases. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 70. You are expecting to receive $650 at some time in the future. Which of the following would decrease the present value of this future payment? a. Interest rates rise and you get the payment sooner. b. Interest rates rise and you have to wait longer for the payment. c. Interest rates fall and you get the payment sooner. d. Interest rates fall and you have to wait longer to get the payment. Interest rates rise and you have to wait longer for the payment. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 71. You are expecting to receive $750 at some time in the future. Which of the following would increase the present value of this future payment? a. Interest rates rise and you get the payment sooner. b. Interest rates rise and you have to wait longer for the payment. c. Interest rates fall and you get the payment sooner. d. Interest rates fall and you have to wait longer to get the payment. Interest rates fall and you get the payment sooner. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 72. Which of the following is the correct expression for finding the present value of a $1,000 payment one year from today if the interest rate is 6 percent? a. $1,000 (1.06). b. $1,000(1.06) c. $1,000/(1.06) d. None of the above are correct. $1,000/(1.06) TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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73. Which of the following is the correct expression for finding the present value of a $500 payment two years from today if the interest rate is 4 percent? a. $500/(1.04)2 b. $500 500(1.04)2 c. $500 $500/(.04)2 d. None of the above are correct. $500/(1.04)2 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 74. Your Aunt gives you $100 today and promises to pay you $100 one year from today. What is the present value of these payments? a. $200/(1 + r)2. b. $100 + $100/(1 + r) c. $100/(1 + r) + $100/(1 + r)2 d. $100(1 + r) + $100(1 + r)2 $100 + $100/(1 + r) TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 75. Assuming the interest rate is 6 percent, which of the following has the greatest present value? a. $300 paid in two years b. $150 paid in one year plus $140 paid in two years c. $100 paid today plus $100 paid in one year plus $100 paid in two years d. $285 today $285 today TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 76. Assuming the interest rate is 5 percent, which of the following has the greatest present value? a. $240 paid in three years b. $225 paid in two years c. $210 paid in one year d. $200 today $240 paid in three years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 77. Suppose that the interest rate is 4 percent, which of the following has the greatest present value? a. $100 today plus $190 one year from today b. $150 today plus $140 one year from today c. $200 today plus $90 one year from today d. $250 today plus $40 one year from today $250 today plus $40 one year from today TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 78. Suppose that the interest rate is 7 percent. Consider four payment options: Option A: $500 today. Option B: $550 one year from today. Option C: $575 two years from today. Option D: $600 three years from today. Which of the payments has the highest present value today? a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. Option D Option B TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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79. Suppose that the interest rate is 8 percent. Consider three payment options: 1. $200 today. 2. $220 one year from today. 3. $240 two years from today. Which of the following is true? a. 1 has the highest present value and 2 has the lowest. b. 2 has the highest present value and 3 has the lowest. c. 3 has the highest present value and 1 has the lowest. d. None of the above are correct. 3 has the highest present value and 1 has the lowest TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 80. Jimmy computes the present value of three future payments. Which, if any, did he compute correctly? a. $100 one year from today at 2 percent interest = $98.81 b. $200 two years from today at 3 percent interest = $188.22 c. $300 three years from today at 4 percent interest = $234.34 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 81. Maria computes the present value of three future payments. Which if any did she compute correctly? a. $1,000 one year from today at 8 percent interest = $945.45 b. $1,000 one year from today at 9 percent interest = $911.11 c. $1,000 one year from today at 10 percent interest = $909.09 d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $1,000 one year from today at 10 percent interest = $909.09 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 82. Which of the following has a present value of $100? a. $110 in two years when the interest rate is 5 percent b. $112.36 in two years when the interest rate is 6 percent c. $117.49 in two years when the interest rate is 7 percent d. None of the above are correct to the nearest penny. $112.36 in two years when the interest rate is 6 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 83. Suppose that the interest rate is 5 percent. Consider three payment options: 1. $500 today. 2. $520 one year from today. 3. $550 two years from today. Which of the following is true? a. 1 has the lowest present value and 3 has the highest. b. 2 has the lowest present value and 1 has the highest. c. 3 has the lowest present value and 2 has the highest. d. None of the above are correct. 2 has the lowest present value and 1 has the highest. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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84. Suppose that the interest rate is 8 percent. Consider three payment options. 1. $300 today. 2. $330 one year from today. 3. $360 two years from today. Which of the following is true? a. 1 has the highest present value and 2 has the lowest. b. 2 has the highest present value and 3 has the lowest. c. 3 has the highest present value and 1 has the lowest. d. None of the above are correct. 3 has the highest present value and 1 has the lowest. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 85. Pat was given two choices when the interest rate was 6 percent. In each case she was supposed to choose the option with the highest present value. In option 1 Pat chose $200 today over $215 a year from today. In option 2 Pat chose $400 today over $420 a year from today. Which of the following is correct? a. Pat made the right choice in both cases. b. Pat made the right choice in the first case only. c. Pat made the right choice in the second case only. d. Pat made the wrong choice in both cases. Pat made the right choice in the second case only. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 86. Art was given two choices when the interest rate was 3 percent. In each case he was supposed to choose the option with the highest present value. In option 1 Art chose $50 today over $51 a year from today. In option 2 Art chose $250 today over $260 a year from today. Which of the following is correct? a. Art made the right choice in both cases. b. Art made the right choice only in the first case. c. Art made the right choice only in the second case. d. Art made the wrong choice in both cases. Art made the right choice only in the first case. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 87. HydroGrow is considering building a new building in which to grow tomatoes. The board meets and decides that this is the right thing to do. Before they can put their plans into action, the interest rate increases. The present value of the returns from this investment project a. falls, and so Hydro Grow is less likely to build the building. b. falls, and so HydroGrow is more likely to build the building. c. rise, and so HydroGrow is less likely to build the building. d. rise, and so HydroGrow is more likely to build the building. falls, and so Hydro Grow is less likely to build the building. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 88. Happy Trails, a bicycle rental company, is considering purchasing additional bicycles. Each bicycle would cost them $249.66. At the end of the first year the increase to their revenues would be $140 per bicycle. At the end of the second year the increase to their revenues would be $115 per bicycle and they can sell each used bike for another $25. At which of the following interest rates is the sum of the present value of the revenues from buying a bicycle closest to the price of the bicycle? a. 5 percent b. 6 percent c. 7 percent d. 8 percent 8 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1
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89. A fall in the rate of interest will a. reduce investment primarily because it will reduce the present value of future revenues expected from investment projects. b. reduce investment primarily because it will increase the present value of current construction costs. c. increase investment primarily because it will increase the present value of future revenues expected from investment projects. d. increase investment primarily because it will reduce the present value of current construction costs. increase investment primarily because it will increase the present value of future revenues expected from investment projects. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 90. A firm has three different investment options, each costing $10 million. Option A will generate $12 million in revenue at the end of one year. Option B will generate $15 million in revenue at the end of two years. Option C will generate $18 million in revenue at the end of three years. Which option should the firm choose? a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. The answer depends on the rate of interest. The answer depends on the rate of interest. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 91. A firm has three different investment options. Option A will give the firm $10 million at the end of one year, $10 million at the end of two years, and $10 million at the end of three years. Option B will give the firm $15 million at the end of one year, $10 million at the end of two years, and $5 million at the end of three years. Option C will give the firm $30 million at the end of one year, and nothing thereafter. Which of these options has the highest present value? a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. The answer depends on the rate of interest. Option C TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 92. A firm has four different investment options. Option A will give the firm $10 million at the end of one year, $10 million at the end of two years, and $10 million at the end of three years. Option B will give the firm $5 million at the end of one year, $10 million at the end of two years, and $15 million at the end of three years. Option C will give the firm $15 million at the end of one year, $10 million at the end of two years, and $5 million at the end of three years. Option D will give the firm $21 million at the end of one year, nothing at the end of two years, and $9 million at the end of three years. Which of these options has the highest present value if the rate of interest is 5 percent? a. Option A b. Option B c. Option C d. Option D Option D TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 93. As the interest rate rises, the present value of future revenues from investment projects a. rise, so investment spending rises. b. fall, so investment spending rises. c. rise, so investment spending falls. d. fall, so investment spending falls. fall, so investment spending falls. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1
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94. A University of Iowa basketball standout is offered a choice of contracts by the New York Liberty. The first one gives her $50,000 one year from today and $50,000 two years from today. The second one gives her $66,000 one year from today and $33,000 two years from today. As her agent, you must find the interest rate and compute the present value of each contract. Which of the following interest rates is the lowest one at which the sum of the present values from the second contract exceeds that of the first? a. 7 percent b. 8 percent c. 9 percent d. 10 percent 7 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 95. A car salesperson gives you four alternative ways to pay for your car. The first is to pay $18,000 today. The second is to pay $19,000 one year from today. The third is to pay $20,300 two years from today. The fourth is to pay $21,500 three years from today. If the interest rate is 6 percent, which payment option has the lowest present value and which has the highest? a. The first is lowest; the second is highest. b. The second is lowest; the third is highest. c. The third is lowest; the fourth is highest. d. The fourth is lowest; the first is highest. The second is lowest; the third is highest. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 96. Norne Corporation is considering building a new plant. It will cost them $1 million today to build it and it will generate revenues of $1,121 million three years from today. Of the interest rates below, which is the highest interest rate at which Norne would still be willing to build the plant? a. 3 percent b. 3.5 percent c. 4 percent d. 4.5 percent 3.5 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 97. Kramer's Frozen Sandwiches is thinking of building a new warehouse. They believe that this will given them $50,000 of additional revenue at the end of one year, $60,000 additional revenue at the end of two years, and $70,000 in additional revenue at the end of three years. If the interest rate is 5 percent, they would be willing to pay a. $140,000, but not $150,000. b. $150,000, but not $160,000. c. $160,000, but not $170,000. d. $170,000, but not $180,000 $160,000, but not $170,000. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 98. When the interest rate rises, the quantity of loanable funds demanded a. rises, and investment spending rises. b. rises, and investment spending falls. c. falls, and investment spending rises. d. falls, and investment spending falls. falls, and investment spending falls. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
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99. When the interest rate falls, the quantity of loanable funds demanded a. rises, and investment spending rises. b. rises, and investment spending falls. c. falls, and investment spending rises. d. falls, and investment spending falls. rises, and investment spending rises. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 100. Which of the following is the correct way to state the rule of 70? A variable with a growth rate of X percent a. doubles every 70/x years. b. doubles every 70(1 1/x) years. c. doubles every 70/x2 years. d. doubles every 70/(1 x) years. doubles every 70/x years. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 101. According to the rule of 70, if the interest rate is 10 percent, about how long will it take for the value of a savings account to double? a. about 6.3 years b. about 7 years c. about 7.7 years d. about 10 years about 7 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 102. According to the rule of 70, if the interest rate is 5 percent, how long will it take for the value of a savings account to double? a. about 3.5 years b. about 6.3 years c. about 12 years d. about 14 years about 14 years TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 103. Sari puts $100 in an account with an interest rate of 10 percent. According to the rule of 70, about how much does she have at the end of 21 years? a. $210 b. $300 c. $800 d. $1,010 $800 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 104. Nancy would like to double the money in her retirement account in five years. According to the rule of 70, what rate of interest would she need to obtain her goal? a. 5 percent b. 7 percent c. 10 percent d. 14 percent 14 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1
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105. Twenty years ago, Dr. Montgomery borrowed money from her parents to pay her tuition at graduate school. Now she wants to pay them back. She gives them double what they gave her. According to the rule of 70, what interest rate would have given her parents the same amount of money if they had put it in the bank rather than lending it to their daughter? a. 3.5 percent b. 4.5 percent c. 5 percent d. 7 percent 3.5 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 106. Fourteen years ago Alfred put money in his account at First National Bank. Alfred decides to cash in his account and is told that his money has quadrupled. According to the rule of 70, what rate of interest did Alfred earn? a. 5 percent b. 7 percent c. 10 percent d. 14 percent 10 percent TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 107. You are tearing down a building and find $1 in change that someone lost when working on the building 140 years ago. If instead of being careless with their change, this person had deposited their $1 in a bank and earned 2 percent interest, how much would be in the account today according to the rule of 70? a. $4 b. $16 c. $32 d. None of the above are correct. $16 TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.1 108. Robert is risk averse and has $1,000 with which to make a financial investment. He has three options. Option A is a riskfree government bond that pays 5 percent interest each year for two years. Option B is a lowrisk stock that analysts expect to be worth about $1,102.50 in two years. Option C is a highrisk stock that is expected to be worth about $1,200 in four years. Robert should choose a. option A. b. option B. c. option C. d. either A or B because they are the same to him. option A. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.1 and 27.2 Riskaverse 109. people will choose different asset portfolios than people who are not risk averse. Over a long period of time, we would expect that a. every riskaverse person will earn a higher rate of return than every nonrisk averse person. b. every riskaverse person will earn a lower rate of return than every nonrisk averse person. c. the average riskaverse person will earn a higher rate of return than the average nonrisk averse person. d. the average riskaverse person will earn a lower rate of return than the average nonrisk averse person. the average riskaverse person will earn a lower rate of return than the average nonrisk averse person. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 110. A measure of the volatility of a variable is its a. present value. b. future value. c. return. d. standard deviation. standard deviation. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2
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111. A riskaverse person a. would necessarily not play a game where she had a 50 percent chance of winning $1 and a 50 percent chance of losing $1. b. would necessarily not play a game where she had a 75 percent chance of winning $1 and a 25 percent chance of losing $1. c. both of the above are correct. d. Neither of the above are correct. would necessarily not play a game where she had a 50 percent chance of winning $1 and a 50 percent chance of losing $1. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 112. Which of the following games might a riskaverse person be willing to play? a. A game where she has a 50 percent chance of winning $1 and a 50 percent chance of losing $1. b. A game where she has a 60 percent chance of winning $1 and a 40 percent chance of losing $1. c. Both of the above. d. Neither of the above. A game where she has a 60 percent chance of winning $1 and a 40 percent chance of losing $1. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 113. Which of the following games might a riskaverse person be willing to play? a. A game where she has a 60 percent chance of winning $1 and a 40 percent chance of getting nothing. b. A game where she has a 70 percent chance of winning $1 and a 30 percent chance of losing a $1. c. both of the above d. neither of the above both of the above TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 114. Which of the following is true concerning a riskaverse person? a. She would not play games where the probability of winning and losing a dollar are the same. b. She might not buy health insurance if she thinks her risks are low. c. Her marginal utility of wealth decreases as her income increases. d. All of the above are correct. All of the above are correct. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 115. Eddie is risk averse. Which of the following is true about Eddie? a. His marginal utility of wealth increases as his income increases. b. He will not accept bets where his probability of winning and losing a dollar are the same. c. both of the above d. neither of the above He will not accept bets where his probability of winning and losing a dollar are the same. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 116. If a person is risk averse, then he has a. diminishing marginal utility of wealth, implying that his utility function gets flatter as wealth increases. b. diminishing marginal utility of wealth, implying that his utility function gets steeper as wealth increases. c. increasing marginal utility of wealth, implying that his utility function gets flatter as wealth increases. d. increasing marginal utility of wealth, implying that his utility function gets steeper as wealth increases. diminishing marginal utility of wealth, implying that his utility function gets flatter as wealth increases. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 117. The utility function of a riskaverse person has a a. positive slope and gets steeper as wealth increases. b. positive slope but gets flatter as wealth increases. c. negative slope but gets steeper as wealth increases. d. negative slope and gets flatter as wealth increases. positive slope, but gets flatter as wealth increases. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2
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118. A risk averse person has a. utility and marginal utility curves that slope upward. b. utility and marginal utility curves that slope downward. c. a utility curve that slopes down and a marginal utility curve that slopes upward. d. a utility curve that slopes upward and a marginal utility curve that slopes downward. a utility curve that slopes upward and a marginal utility curve that slopes downward. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.2 119. Diminishing marginal utility of wealth implies that the utility function is a. upward sloping and has decreasing slope. b. upward sloping and has increasing slope. c. downward sloping and has decreasing slope. d. downward sloping and has increasing slope. upward sloping and has decreasing slope. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 120. If a person is risk averse, then as wealth increases, total utility of wealth a. increases at an increasing rate b. increases at a decreasing rate c. decreases at an increasing rate d. decreases at a decreasing rate increases at a decreasing rate TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 121. Risk a. can be reduced by placing a large number of small bets rather than a small number of large bets. b. can be reduced by increasing the number of stocks in a portfolio. c. Both A and B are correct. d. Neither A nor B are correct. Both A and B are correct. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 122. The last $1,000 of Arnold's wealth adds more to his utility than the previous $1,000. Based on this information, Arnold has a. increasing marginal utility of wealth and is risk averse b. increasing marginal utility of wealth and is not risk averse c. decreasing marginal utility of wealth and is risk averse d. decreasing marginal utility of wealth and is not risk averse decreasing marginal utility of wealth, and is risk averse TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 123. The last $500 of Mary's wealth adds more to her utility than another $500 would. Based on this information, Mary's utility function a. and marginal utility function are both upward sloping. b. and marginal utility function are both downward sloping. c. is upward sloping and her marginal utility function is downward sloping. d. is downward sloping and her marginal utility function is upward sloping. is upward sloping and her marginal utility function is downward sloping. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2
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124. Tiffany knows that people in her family die young, and so she buys life insurance. Mark knows he is a reckless driver and so he applies for automobile insurance. a. These are both examples of adverse selection. b. These are both examples of moral hazard. c. The first example illustrates adverse selection, and the second illustrates moral hazard. d. The first example illustrates moral hazard, and the second illustrates adverse selection. These are both examples of adverse selection. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 125. Which of the following is adverse selection? a. the risk associated with selecting stocks in only a few specific companies b. the risk that a person will become overconfident in his ability to select stocks c. a highrisk person being more likely to apply for insurance d. after obtaining insurance a person having less incentive to be careful a highrisk person being more likely to apply for insurance TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 126. Which of the following best illustrates moral hazard? a. After a person obtains auto insurance, she drives less carefully. b. A person obtains insurance knowing he is in poor health. c. A person holds stock only in very risky corporations. d. A person holds stocks from only a few corporations. After a person obtains auto insurance, she drives less carefully. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 127. When you rent a video, you might treat it with less care than you would if it were your own. This is an example of a. aggregate risk. b. moral hazard. c. adverse selection. d. selfserving attribution bias. moral hazard. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 128. Which of the following defines an annuity? a. For a fee, an insurance company provides you with regular income until you die. b. An extra fee charged to persons in dangerous occupations by life insurance companies. c. It's another name for stock funds managed by mutual fund managers. d. It's another name for any diversified portfolio. For a fee, an insurance company provides you with regular income until you die. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2
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129.
Which of the graphs above is consistent with positive but diminishing marginal utility? a. Diagram A b. Diagram B c. Diagram C d. Diagram D Diagram C TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 130. Financial intermediaries typically require mortgage borrowers to have homeowner's insurance and do credit checks before making the loan. a. The insurance requirement and the credit check are both designed primarily to reduce adverse selection. b. The insurance requirement and the credit check are both designed primarily to reduce the risk of moral hazard. c. The insurance requirement is designed primarily to reduce adverse selection; the credit check is designed primarily to reduce the risk of moral hazard. d. The insurance requirement is designed primarily to reduce the risk of moral hazard; the credit check is designed primarily to reduce adverse selection. The insurance requirement is designed primarily to reduce the risk of moral hazard; the credit check is designed primarily to reduce adverse selection. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 131. You may be unwilling to buy a used car because you suspect the last owner found out the car was a lemon. You may treat a car you rented with a little less care than you'd use on your own car. a. Both examples primarily illustrate adverse selection. b. Both examples primarily illustrate moral hazard. c. The first example primarily illustrates adverse selection; the second primarily illustrates moral hazard. d. The first example primarily illustrates moral hazard; the second primarily illustrates adverse selection. The first example primarily illustrates adverse selection; the second primarily illustrates moral hazard. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 132. Over the past two centuries, the average annual rates of return were about a. 5.1 percent for stocks and about 1.5 percent for shortterm government bonds. b. 6.2 percent for stocks and about 2.5 percent for shortterm government bonds. c. 8.3 percent for stocks and about 3.1 percent for shortterm government bonds. d. None of the above are correct. 8.3 percent for stocks and about 3.1 percent for shortterm government bonds. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2
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133. Which of the following is not correct? a. The higher average return on stocks than on bonds comes at the price of higher risk. b. Riskaverse persons will take the risks involved in holding stocks if the average return is high enough to compensate for the risk. c. Insurance markets reduce risk, but not by diversification. d. Risk can be reduced by placing a large number of small bets, rather than a small number of large bets. Insurance markets reduce risk, but not by diversification. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 134. Ross thinks that if Acme Corporation has high revenues, then Zenith Corporation will have low revenues, and that if Acme Corporation has low revenues, Zenith Corporation will have high revenues. He buys stock in both corporations. a. He has reduced idiosyncratic risk but not aggregate risk. b. He has reduced aggregate risk, but not idiosyncratic risk. c. He had reduce both idiosyncratic risk and aggregate risk. d. He has reduced neither idiosyncratic risk nor aggregate risk. He has reduced idiosyncratic risk but not aggregate risk. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 135. Amanda talks with several different brokers at a social gathering. She hears the following advice from brokers A, B, and C. Which broker, if any, gave her incorrect advice? a. There are risks in holding stocks, even in a highly diversified portfolio. b. Portfolios with smaller standard deviations have greater risk c. Stocks with greater risks offer greater average returns. d. They all gave her correct advice. Portfolios with smaller standard deviations have greater risk TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 136. Peter talked to several stockbrokers and made the following conclusions. Which, if any, of his conclusions are incorrect? a. It is relatively easy to reduce idiosyncratic risk by increasing the number of companies one holds stock in. b. Stock prices, even if not exactly a random walk, are very close to it. c. Some people have made a lot of money in the stock market by using insider information, but these cases are not contrary to the efficient markets hypothesis. d. None of Peter's conclusions are incorrect. None of Peter's conclusions are incorrect. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.2 137. Other things the same, as the number of stocks in a portfolio rises, a. risk increases and so the standard deviation of the return rises. b. risk increases and so the standard deviation of the return falls. c. risk decreases and so the standard deviation of the return rises. d. risk decreases and so the standard deviation of the return falls. risk decreases and so the standard deviation of the return falls. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 138. Other things the same, as the stocks of a greater number of corporations are held in a portfolio, a. risk increases at an increasing rate. b. risk increases at a decreasing rate. c. risk decreases at an increasing rate. d. risk decreases at a decreasing rate. risk decreases at a decreasing rate. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2
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139.
Which of the above graphs correctly shows how risk changes as the number of corporations held in a portfolio changes? a. graph a b. graph b c. graph c d. graph d graph c TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 140. An increase in the number of corporations in a portfolio from 1 to 10 reduces a. aggregate risk by more than an increase from 110 to 120. b. aggregate risk by less than an increase from 110 to 120. c. idiosyncratic risk by more than an increase from 110 to 120. d. idiosyncratic risk by less than an increase from 110 to 120. idiosyncratic risk by more than an increase from 110 to 120. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 3 SECTION: 9.2 141. Angela reads financial advice columns and concludes the following. Which, if any, of her conclusions are incorrect? a. Higher average returns come at the price of higher risk. b. People who are risk averse should never hold stock. c. Diversification cannot eliminate all of the risk in stock portfolio. d. None of her conclusions are incorrect. People who are risk averse should never hold stock. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 142. After the Enron debacle, Dewey Rockmuch decided to increase the number of stocks in his portfolio. His actions reduced a. both the idiosyncratic risk and the aggregate risk of his portfolio. b. the idiosyncratic risk, but not the aggregate risk of his portfolio. c. the aggregate risk, but not the idiosyncratic risk of his portfolio. d. neither the aggregate nor the idiosyncratic risk of his portfolio. the idiosyncratic risk, but not the aggregate risk of his portfolio. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2
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143. David increases the number of companies in which he holds stocks. a. This reduces risk's standard deviation and idiosyncratic risk. b. This reduces risk's standard deviation and aggregate risk. c. This raises aggregate risk, but lowers idiosyncratic risk. What happens to overall risk is unclear. d. This raises idiosyncratic risk, but lowers aggregate risk. What happens to overall risk is unclear. This reduces risk's standard deviation, and idiosyncratic risk. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 144. Dakota rearranges her portfolio so that it has a higher average return. In doing this rearranging, she a. raised both idiosyncratic risk and aggregate risk. b. raised idiosyncratic risk, but not aggregate risk. c. raised aggregate risk, but not idiosyncratic risk. d. None of the above are correct. raised idiosyncratic risk, but not aggregate risk. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 145. Marcus puts a greater proportion of his portfolio into government bonds. This a. increases both risk and the average rate of return b. decreases both risk and the average rate of return c. increases risk, but decreases the average rate of return d. decreases risk, but increases the average rate of return decreases both risk and the average rate of return TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 146. Fundamental analysis shows that stock in BN Corporation has a present value that is higher than its price. a. This stock is overvalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. b. This stock is overvalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. c. This stock is undervalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. d. This stock is undervalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. This stock is undervalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 147. Dividends are a. the rates of return on different portfolios. b. cash payments that companies make to shareholders. c. the value of stocks. d. measures of the value of companies' capital. cash payments that companies make to shareholders. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 148. If stock prices follow a random walk, it means that, based on publicly available information, changes in stock prices a. are impossible to consistently predict. b. can be consistently predicted by fundamental analysis. c. are random and never reflect fundamentals such as dividend payments, demand for the firm's product, and the like. d. are irrational. are impossible to consistently predict. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3
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149. Psychologists say that some people, especially men, suffer from "selfserving attribution bias." This means that a. men are less risk averse than women. As a result, men's actions may help reduce fluctuations in the stock market. b. men are more risk averse than women. As a result, men's actions may increase fluctuations in the stock market. c. men are more likely than women to think that their success is the result of their own skill rather than luck. As s result, men's actions may contribute to speculative bubbles. d. men are more likely than women to think that their success is the result of their own skill rather than luck. As s result, men's actions may counteract speculative bubbles. men are more likely than women to think that their success is the result of their own skill rather than luck. As s result, men's actions may contribute to speculative bubbles. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.3 150. Under what circumstances might it be a good idea to require people to put their retirement savings into defined benefit plans as opposed to letting people choose their own retirement options? a. if people are risk averse b. if the stock market follows a random walk c. if people tend to be overconfident in their own abilities d. if interest rates are low if people tend to be overconfident in their own abilities TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.3 151. Fundamental analysis shows that stock in Cedar Valley Furniture Corporation has a price that exceeds its present value. a. This stock is overvalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. b. This stock is overvalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. c. This stock is undervalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. d. This stock is undervalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. This stock is overvalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 152. Fundamental analysis shows that stock in Peapod Vegetarian Restaurants has a present value below its price. a. This stock is overvalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. b. This stock is overvalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. c. This stock is undervalued; you should consider adding it to your portfolio. d. This stock is undervalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. This stock is overvalued; you shouldn't consider adding it to your portfolio. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 153. Fundamental analysis determines the value of a stock based on a. dividends. b. the expected final sale price. c. the ability of the corporation to earn profits. d. all of the above all of the above TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 154. Manufacturers of Weightbegone are concerned that genetic advances in weight control might reduce the demand for their diet snacks. This is an example of a. idiosyncratic risk, which will likely raise shareholders demand for higher return. b. idiosyncratic risk, which will likely not likely raise shareholders demand for higher return. c. aggregate risk, which will likely raise shareholders demand for higher return. d. aggregate risk, which will likely not raise shareholders demand for higher return. idiosyncratic risk, which will likely raise shareholders demand for higher return. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2
252 3 Chapter 9/The Basic Tools of Finance
155. Diversification reduces a. only aggregate risk. b. only idiosyncratic risk. c. neither aggregate or idiosyncratic risk. d. both aggregate and idiosyncratic risk. only idiosyncratic risk. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 156. Which of the flowing is correct? a. Riskaverse people will not hold stock. b. Diversification cannot reduce idiosyncratic risk. c. The larger the percentage of stock in a portfolio, the greater the risk, but the greater the average return. d. Stock prices are determined by fundamental analysis rather than supply and demand. The larger the percentage of stock in a portfolio, the greater the risk, but the greater the average return. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 157. There are many concerns for riskaverse lenders. Consider the following: 1. Lenders are concerned that borrowers with the greatest risk are the ones most likely to actively pursue loans. 2. Lenders are concerned that real GDP will decline leading to reduced corporate profits. 3. Lenders are concerned that products produced by certain corporations will become obsolete. a. 1 is aggregate risk; 2 is idiosyncratic risk b. 2 is aggregate risk; 3 is idiosyncratic risk c. 3 is aggregate risk; 1 is idiosyncratic risk d. 2 is idiosyncratic risk; 3 is aggregate risk 2 is aggregate risk; 3 is idiosyncratic risk TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 158. Which of the following is a source of aggregate risk? a. Holding stocks in many companies carries the risk of a reduced average return. b. Real GDP varies over time and sales and profits move with real GDP. c. When a paper producer has declining sales, it is likely that other paper producers will too. d. If stockholders become aggravated with the way a CEO runs the company, the stock price may fall. Real GDP varies over time and sales and profits move with real GDP. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.2 159. The efficient markets hypothesis says that a. individual investors with no insider information can make no money in the stock market. b. it should be difficult to find stocks that are not correctly valued. c. stock prices do not follow a random walk. d. All of the above. it should be difficult to find stocks that are not correctly valued. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 160. According to the efficient market hypothesis, which of the following is incorrect? a. Stock market prices tend to rise today if they rose yesterday. b. As judged by the typical person in the market, all stocks are fairly valued all the time. c. At the market price, the number of shares being offered for sale matches the number of shares people want to buy. d. All of the above are incorrect. Stock market prices tend to rise today if they rose yesterday. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.3
Chapter 9/The Basic Tools of Finance 3 253
161. According to the efficient markets hypothesis, better than expected news about a corporation will a. have no effect on it's stock price. b. raise the price of the stock. c. lower the price of the stock. d. change the price of the stock in a random direction. raise the price of the stock. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.3 162. Statistical studies have shown that a. the correlation between how well a stock does one year and how well it does the next is close to zero. b. managed funds generally outperform indexed funds. c. households that actively traded stock had a higher average return than households that traded infrequently. d. All of the above are correct. the correlation between how well a stock does one year and how well it does the next is close to zero. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.3 163. Which of the following is not consistent with the efficient market hypothesis? a. Stock prices should follow a random walk. b. Managed funds should consistently outperform indexed funds. c. The only thing that affects the price of a stock are unpredictable events. d. There is little point in spending many hours studying the business pages looking for undervalued stocks. Managed funds should consistently outperform indexed funds. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 164. According to the efficient markets hypothesis, which of the following would increase the price of stock in the McCloud Corporation? a. McCloud announces, just as everyone had expected, that they have hired a new highly respected CEO. b. McCloud announces that their profits came in low, but that they were not as low as the market had expected. c. Analysis by a column in a business weekly indicates that McCloud is overvalued. d. All of the above would increase the price. McCloud announces that their profits came in low, but that they were not as low as the market had expected. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 2 SECTION: 9.3 165. An index fund a. holds only stocks and bonds that are indexed to inflation. b. holds all the stocks in a given stock index. c. guarantees a return that follows the index of leading economic indicators. d. typically does not have as high a rate of return as a managed fund. holds all the stocks in a given stock index. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 166. In the late 1990s, Fed Chairperson Alan Greenspan believed that the market was a. overvalued, but stock prices continued to rise through the mid 2002. b. overvalued, and stock prices fell by mid 2002. c. undervalued, but stock prices continued to fall into mid 2002. d. undervalued, but stock prices continued to rise even into mid 2002. overvalued, and stock prices fell by mid 2002. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 167. In the late 1990s, Fed Chairperson Alan Greenspan believed that the market was a. undervalued, and evidence later showed that this was clearly correct. b. undervalued, but whether it was remains debatable. c. overvalued, and evidence later showed that this was clearly correct. d. overvalued, but whether it was remains debatable. overvalued, but whether it was remains debatable. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3
254 3 Chapter 9/The Basic Tools of Finance
168. Which of the following is correct? a. Managed funds typically have a higher return than indexed funds. This tends to refute the efficient market hypothesis. b. Managed funds typically have a higher return than indexed funds. This tends to support the efficient market hypothesis. c. Index funds typically have a higher rate of return than managed funds. This tends to refute the efficient market hypothesis. d. Index funds typically have a higher rate of return than managed funds. This tends to support the efficient market hypothesis. Index funds typically have a higher rate of return than managed funds. This tends to support the efficient market hypothesis. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 169. Brad Barber and Terrance Odean found that households that traded stock frequently tended to get a a. higher return on their investment than households who did not. This supports the efficient market hypothesis. b. higher return on their investment than households who did not. This refutes the efficient market hypothesis. c. lower return on their investment than households who did not. This supports the efficient market hypothesis. d. lower return on their investment than households who did not. This refutes the efficient market hypothesis. lower return on their investment than households who did not. This supports the efficient market hypothesis. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 170. Brad Barber and Terrance Odean found that men traded their stocks a. more frequently than women and had a higher return b. more frequently than women and had a lower return. c. less frequently than women and had a higher return. d. less frequently than women and had a lower return more frequently than women and had a lower return. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 171. Which of the following is not correct? a. There is a greater reduction in risk by increasing the number of stocks in a portfolio from 1 to 10, than by increasing it from 100 to 120 stocks. b. The historical rate of return on stocks has been a bit more than 5 percentage points higher than the historical rate of return on bonds. c. Stock in an industry that is very sensitive to economic conditions is likely to have a higher average return than stock in an industry that is not so sensitive to economic conditions. d. If you had information about a corporation that no one else did, you could earn a very high rate of return. This contradicts the efficient market hypothesis. If you had information about a corporation that no one else did, you could earn a very high rate of return. This contradicts the efficient market hypothesis. TYPE: M DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 TRUE/FALSE 1. The future value of $1 saved today is $1/(1 + r). TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 2. The present value of any future sum of money is the amount that would be needed today, at current interest rates, to produce that future sum. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 3. The sooner a payment is received and the higher the interest rate, the greater the present value of a future payment. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 4. A company that can build a project that will cost $50,000, but returns $52,000 in one year would make a good decision turning this project down if the interest rate were 3 percent. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 5. As the interest rate increases, the present value of future sums decrease, so firms will find fewer investment projects profitable. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1
Chapter 9/The Basic Tools of Finance 3 255
6. According to the rule of 70, if you earn an interest rate of 3.5 percent, your savings will double about every 20 years. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.1 7. Riskaverse persons will take no risks. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 8. The market for insurance is one example of reducing risk by using diversification. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 9. A person with diminishing marginal utility of wealth is risk averse. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 10. Adverse selection is illustrated by people who take more risks after they purchase insurance. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 11. Increasing the number of corporations whose stocks are in your portfolio reduces aggregate risk. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 12. Idiosyncratic risk refers to uncertainty associated with specific companies. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 13. Historically, stocks have offered higher rates of return than bonds. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.2 14. When choosing stocks for your portfolio, you should prefer undervalued stocks. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 15. The value of a stock depends on the ability of the company to generate dividends and the expected price of the stock when the stockholder sells her shares. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 16. Fundamental analysis refers to research done to help diversify a portfolio. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 17. According to the efficient markets hypothesis, at any moment in time, the market price is the best guess of the company's value based on available information. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 18. According to the efficient markets hypothesis, stocks follow a random walk so that stocks that increase in price one year are more likely to increase than decrease in the next year. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 19. Managed mutual funds usually outperform mutual funds that are supposed to follow some stock index. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 20. Speculative bubbles may arise in part because the value of the stock to a stockholder depends on the final sale price. TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: 1 SECTION: 9.3 SHORT ANSWER 1. Demonstrate that whether you would prefer to have $225 today or wait five years for $300 depends on the interest rate. Show your work. ANSWER: For example at 3 percent the present value of $300 in five years is $300/(1.03)5 = $258.78 but at 7 percent the present value of $300 in five years is $300/(1.07)5 = $213.90. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 2 SECTION 27.1 2. As the interest rate increases, what happens to the present value of a future payment? Explain why changes in the interest rate will lead to changes in the quantity of loanable funds demanded and investment spending. ANSWER: An increase in the interest rate reduces the present value of future payments. Investment spending is the purchasing of capital goods that are expected to raise future revenues. When interest rates rise, the present value of these future revenues decline so that fewer capital expenditures are likely to generate enough revenue to justify their price. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 2 SECTION 27.1
256 3 Chapter 9/The Basic Tools of Finance
3. Write the rule of 70. Suppose that your greatgreatgrandmother bought $50 in stock 100 years ago and the account is now worth $1,600. Use the rule of 70 to determine about what interest rate she earned. ANSWER: $1,600/$50 = 32. The rule of 70 says that if X is the growth rate of a variable, that the variable doubles every 70/X years. This implies the value of the stock doubled five times. Since it doubled 5 times in 100 years, it doubled every 20 years. According to the rule of 70, the value of an asset doubles every 70/X years. So, we need 70/X = 20, which means that X is 3.5 percent. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 3 SECTION 27.1 4. Give an example of adverse selection and moral hazard in home insurance. ANSWER: An example of adverse selection is that someone whose home is in a location prone to theft is more likely to apply for home insurance. An example of moral hazard is that once someone has insurance, they might keep fewer fire extinguishers in the house. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 1 SECTION 27.2 5. What's the difference between aggregate risk and idiosyncratic risk? Will diversification eliminate one or both? Explain. ANSWER: Aggregate risk refers to economywide risk created by variations in output. Firms in general have lower sales and profits when output falls. Because all firms are likely to suffer through the downturn, aggregate risk cannot be eliminated by diversification. Idiosyncratic risk is risk that is specific to firms or industries. Since some changes will be good for one industry and bad for another, diversification can reduce idiosyncratic risk. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 1 SECTION 27.2 6. List three different ways that a riskaverse person can reduce financial risk. riskaverse person can reduce risk by buying insurance, by diversifying his stock portfolio, and by holding a larger percentage of his assets as low risk and low return assets such as government securities. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 2 SECTION 27.2 7. Discuss the statistical evidence concerning the efficient markets hypothesis. ANSWER: The evidence indicates that stock prices may not follow a random walk exactly, but they are pretty close. The correlation between how well a stock does one year and how well it does the next is close to zero. Indexed funds tend to perform better than most managed funds and households that trade little tend to get higher returns than households that trade much. However, there is some evidence that people may become overconfident in their abilities and this may lead to the overvaluation of stocks. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 3 SECTION 27.3 8. In the 1990s, several stocks had very, very high price to earnings ratios. These stocks appeared overvalued to many observers. What might the people who bought them have been thinking? ANSWER: There are several possibilities. The first is that they had very high expectations for corporations that weren't doing well at the time to do very well in the future. The second is that in evaluating the value of stocks they took into account what others might be willing to pay for them in the future. Even if they thought that the corporation might never be profitable, they might have believed that other people would be willing to pay a lot for it in the future. Another possibility is that people became overconfident in their ability to pick stocks in a rising stock market. This "selfserving attribution bias" may have led traders to bid up the price. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 2 SECTION 27.3 9. Give two conditions that are important to the efficient market theory. List one implication of the efficient market theory. ANSWER: Efficient market theory says that it should be very difficult to beat the market by finding undervalued stocks. The first condition is that lots of people are following the stock exchange closely, so that any new information will be reflected in a change in the stock price. The second condition is that supply and demand determine the price. Thus, the market will balance the number of people who think the stock is overvalued with those who think it is undervalued. TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 2 SECTION 27.3 10. Draw graphs showing two of the following three relationships. a. The relation between utility and wealth for a risk averse consumer. b. The relation between risk deviation and number of stocks in a portfolio. c. The relation between return and risk.
Chapter 9/The Basic Tools of Finance 3 257
ANSWER:
TYPE: S DIFFICULTY 3 SECTION 27.1, 27.2, 27.3

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Another catalyst to the college drinking problem is explained through the Reactance Theory. The theory suggests that there is an emotional response to contradict rules that threaten or eliminate behavioral freedom. If most college students spend 2 or

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Will Passidomo Prof. WhitneySocial Psycology 12/04/0812 Angry Men Analysis Stereotype, catigorization- In the scene were juror number 10 causes everyone to leave the table during his rant, he displays his personal stereotype of what kind of perso

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Greg Sullivan Exam 2 Take-home Component PS 250 Social Psychology Prof. Whitney Dec. 2nd 2008 Chapter 8 3. The terms emotional loneliness and social loneliness definitely differ from one and other. Loneliness itself is defined as "Psychological disco

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Greg Sullivan Social Psychology 12.12.2008 Group Evaluation Once again working with Pat and Will worked out great. I thought it was good that we watched the movie separately and reflected on it separately because it brought a whole lot to the paper.

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PS 250 Social Psychology Fall 2008 Dr. Whitney November 6th, 2008 Final Exam Assignment: Movie Analysis and ApplicationFor the final exam in this course you are to work in groups of 3-4 and analyze one of the movies listed below from the perspective

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PS 250-A Social Psychology Spring 2008Instructor: Dr. Carolyn Whitney Class Meetings: T/Th 2:30-3:45 Room STE 205 Office: STE 206 Phone: 654-2890 Office Hours: T 10-11:30, W 11-11:45 and by appointment Email: cwhitney@smcvt.edu Course Overview Socia

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Greg Sullivan Movie Analysis Dec. 9th 2008Throughout the movie "Rat Race" I encountered numerous social psychological concepts that we have discussed over the course of the semester. Many of the concepts selected are acts that we as social animals

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Will Passidomo 10/7/08 Reactance Theory and Impact on Colligate Alcohol ConsumptionSocial Psycology Professor whitneyThe psychological reactance theory states that a perceived threat to a freedom will raise the significance of maintaining that fr

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With college drinking, there doesn't seem to be one social norm amongst all college students. For example, there is no schema of the "typical college student" that can be used to justify a social norm of all the students of a campus. Studies have sho

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Greg Sullivan Composicin Practicar 10/06/2008 Hola me llamo Greg! Que tal mi amigo? Yo soy estudiante a la College de San Miguel. Soy alto, interesante y trabajador. Yo Estoy bien pero tambin preocupado. Yo trabajo al restaurante de "Ground Round" y

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FOUNDATIONS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (4 cr.) BU 113Fall Semester 2008Teaching Team: Roger Putzel Section A Joanne Scott Section B Office: JEM 369B Office Hours: Email Office: JEM 146 Office Hours: E-mail Home: Office: JEM 169A Office Hours: Emai

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Interim Team Evaluations Your Name: reg Sullivan Your Team #: Respects1) How are things going on your team in general? What is working well, and what needs to be fixed? As of now I believe our team is getting along just well. We figured out that we

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Professor, I left the completed performance appraisals and team evaluation under your door late afternoon on Wednesday. Attached is the team evaluation. Sorry the assignment was handed in late, I've been struggling with quite a heavy work load. Greg

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Study Guide BU 113 Exam #1 Spring 2009 Chapters: 2,3,5,6,11, Appendix II Class sessions: Group Dynamics, Introduction to Marketing, Introduction to Management, Business Communications, Types of Business Ownership, Business Ethics and Legal Considerat

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To: Professor Scott From: Greg Sullivan RE: Team Evaluation and Performance Appraisal Date: March 30, 2009 Introduction Our company "Respects" formed in January of 2009 with a goal to sell affordable yet styles sunglasses to the greater Burlington Ar

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Team Evaluation Assignment On Monday, March 30 your team evaluation assignment is due. This is an individual, graded assignment, so please be frank in your assessment of performance. You need to write a memo addressing the performance of the team as

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No Minimum Armenia Azerbaijan China Fiji Nigeria Poland* Portugal Soviet Georgia Thailand Viet NamAge 16 Antigua Austria Belgium France Germany* Greece* Italy ArgentinaWorld Drinking Ages Age 18Age 19 South KoreaBarbados Bermuda British Virgi

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Grizzly ManFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Find out more about navigating Wikipedia and finding information Jump to: navigation, search Grizzly ManPromotional Poster for Grizzly ManWerner Herzog Discovery Docs Produced by Lions Gate Fil

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Greg Sullivan Principles of Business Communication Genevieve Jacobs December 6th, 2007 Final ReflectionOver the course of my first semester as a college student here at Saint Mike's I have learned some great things about my self as a person, and al

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Sleep is one of those funny things about being a human being - you just have to do it. Have you ever wondered why? Characteristics of Sleep We all know how sleep looks - when we see someone sleeping, we recognize the following characteristics: If pos

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Successby Ralph Waldo EmersonTo laugh often and much; To win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children; To earn the appreciation of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false friends; To appreciate beauty, To find the bes