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3 UTR 5 UTR 3 5 Ribosome binding site (Shine-Dalgarno) Stop site Start site IRES Hairpin Normal polyadenylation element Antisense RNA AAUAA-AAAAAAA Zip code 3 Start site 5 CPE (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element) Stop site Kozak sequence 5 cap 3 UTR CDS 5 UTR Instability/stability element uORF Stop site of transcription TATA box 3 splice site 5 splice site cleavage site yadenylation element LECTURES 1-4 1. What information could you obtain from a genetic approach of studying mutants defective in a particular process?-the potential function and importance of the protein identification/isolation/survival of mutants-how many genes are involved in a certain process-order of these genes (proteins) in the process by applying genetic approach (complementation analysis)-interaction between different genes (proteins) by using genetic approach (genetic suppression) 2. How would you define permissive conditions in respect to temperature sensitive mutants?-permissive conditions are the temperatures at which the mutants can survive and grow 3. Define (or compare and contrast): a) gene expression; transcription; replication; translation; b) gene; allele-Gene Expression: the processes through which the information carried by a gene is converted into an o bservable product (either RNA or protein)-Transcription: the process of copying DNA to RNA by enzymatic processes-Replication: the process of copying a double stranded DNA molecule (DNA synthesis)-Translation: the process that converts an mRNA sequence into a chain of amino acids that form a protein-Gene: the functional unit of heredity; the entire DNA sequence necessary for the synthesis of a RNA molecule or functional polypeptide (it includes coding and regulatory regions)-Allele: different version of the same gene 4. Explain by using your own words the meaning/significance of gene expression.-gene expression is the conversion of a sequence of DNA into a final observable product (either RNA or protein)-it is important since all living things rely on proteins to function and survive everything in/about the living cell/organism is about proteins 5. What are the roles of model organisms in molecular biology studies? Choose two model organisms and explain your reasoning.-model organisms help us understand (at a basic molecular level) how something affects/alters cells and the organism in general; can be extrapolated to more complex organisms Escherichia coli Drosophila-short reproductive period-simple-relatively cheap-easy to maintain-lots of data available-4 million bp-4000 different proteins-divides every 20-60 minutes-simple nutritional requirement-useful for genetic experiments-developmental studies body plan formation-relatively small-cheap-easy to maintain-lots of data available-first to be extrapolated to higher mammals 6. What are three main functions of DNA? Explain the importance of each of them.... View Full Document

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