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10 Chapter 2. _____ rules allow us to generate a sentence's d-structure; ________ rules allow us to create a s-surface structure. a) phrase structure; movement 3. Categorical perception can explain: a) why we more easily detect differences between two phonemic categories than variations within a single category. 5. Identify the voiced labiodental phoneme: c) [v] 7. Which of the following is TRUE about language acquisition? a) The fact that children start saying "goed" although they already know the word "went" is easily understood in terms of rule learning. 9. The only difference between the [p] and the [t] phonemes is: a) place of articulation. 11. Brain damage producing a disruption in language is called: b) aphasia 13. The hierarchy of linguistic units, from smallest to largest, is: d) phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases 18. Patient A: "I. . . w-.w-.w-... went. . . um. . th." Patient B: "Then, the zoo did very wildly to him, and before all he then did again to her. It did too him and her and them and all from here." Patient A suffers from damage to ______ resulting in a _____ aphasia. Patient B suffers from damage to ________ resulting in a ____ aphasia. c) Broca's area, nonfluent; Wernicke's area, fluent 20. The structure that applies to the order in which the words were actually spoken is: c) surface structure. 24. Which of the following is a function morpheme? b) -s 25. Given current evidence, what is the most likely impact of one's language on one's thought? d) one's language impacts one's thought only indirectly by impacting memory and attention. Chapter 11 1. Participants are first acquainted with a series of ambiguous pictures. After identifying the two possible interpretations in each picture, they are then asked to form a mental image of a new ambiguous picture. When asked to reinterpret their image, they ______. When asked to draw the image on paper and then reinterpret it, they ______. c) fail; succeed 3. Which of the following mental-image reinterpretations would be the EASIEST? c) The sought-after discovery is compatible with both the image's depiction and its reference frame. 4. Assuming all the following words have equal frequency in English, which word would show the LOWEST rate of retention? c) honor 5. Which of the following accurately represent the results of a chronometric study? a) The more distance one has to scan across in a mental image, the longer it takes. b) The more one has to zoom in on a mental image, the longer it takes. d) People are able to mentally rotate things in a three-dimensional plane. 8. Which would be the best aid for memory of a pair of items? b) An image of the items interacting. 9. In which mental-imaging experiment would "vivid imagers" outperform "nonimagers"? a) In a two-point acuity task, in which participants are asked to indicate when two dots in the center of their field of vision merge. 10. Pavio's dual-code hypothesis proposed that: a) there are two different kinds of memory: symbolic and image-based. 11. All of the following are chronometric studies in support of the claim that mental images are like pictures: a) mental rotation experiments. b) Kosslyn's image-zooming experiments. d) Kosslyn's image-scanning experiments. 13. In a 1970 study by Segal and Fusella, participants tried to detect faint symbols (either visual or auditory) while forming a mental image (either visual or auditory). What were the results? d) A visual image interfered with the detection of a visual stimulus and an auditory image did the same for an auditory stimulus. 14. In remembering pictures, people seem consistently to: d) draw the images, afterwards, as if it they were more zoomed out than they actually were. 15. The primacy and recency effects in serial-picture recall suggest that: c) pictorial memory has key properties in common with other types of memory. 16. A blind person and a sighted person participate in a mental-rotation experiment. Each participant is presented with a cube at a fixed orientation and asked whether it can be rotated to match a target cube. (The blind person is given the cubes to feel, the sighted person sees a picture of the cubes.) Which prediction would you make about the performance of the two participants? c) Both participants show a linear relationship between degree of rotation and reaction time. 17. Which of the following scenarios would produce the MOST severe interference effects? You must: c) identify the direction of a moving dot while imagining rotating a box by 75 degrees. 18. Images that are more detailed take longer to recall than those that are less detailed. This is evidence AGAINST the claim that: c) complete mental images are stored in long-term memory. 19. What is the best description of individual differences in imagery ability? c) Within visual imagery and spatial imagery, most people have some strengths and some weaknesses. 20. All of the following are evidence that there are different types of imagery EXCEPT: a) Blind people can complete mental-rotation experiments as quickly and accurately as sighted people. b) There is no interference when people are asked to judge the brightness of a light while making a mental-rotation decision. d) Patient L.H. performs well on spatial imagery tasks, but fails with visual imagery tasks. 21. UNLIKE pictures, mental images are: b) organized depictions. 22. Most behavioral and neuroimaging data suggest that: b) visualizing and perceiving draw on similar mechanisms. 23. Based on image-zooming experiments, participants would be slowest to identify, in a mental image: d) the antennae of a butterfly positioned next to an elephant. 25. Which of the following does support the claim that mental images are stored in longterm memory by a nonverbal "recipe" for how to construct the image? a) Images with more parts take more time to create. b) Images that are easier to describe are easier to remember. c) People are able to control how sketchy vs. detailed they want an image to be. Chapter 12 1. The text describes one study in which some participants were asked to come up with 6 times they had been assertive in the past and others were asked to come up with 12 times. Which of the following best describes the results from this study? b) Participants who came up with more examples judged themselves to be less assertive. 5. The fact that people report motor-vehicle deaths as more common than diabetes, and homicides as more common than stomach cancer, MOST directly reflects which of the following: c) media bias 9. The representativeness heuristic relies on the assumption that: b) the categories we think about are relatively internally homogenous. 10. People are MOST likely to use heuristics: d) if they are under time pressure. 11. Which of the following is true about confirmation bias? a) It works to bring our recollections into line with our expectations. b) It makes people more alert and responsive to evidence that confirms their beliefs than to challenging evidence. d) It makes us unlikely to seek counterexamples. 12. Which of the following is true of the anchoring heuristic? a) It can combine with other biases so that even if you are aware of the biases, you do not sufficiently correct for them. b) Estimates can be manipulated simply by introducing a quantitative framework for the Register to View AnswerAn initial estimate, even if clearly incorrect, will influence a subsequent judgment. 13. Kahneman and Tversky (1973) asked participants to make judgments about the likelihood that people with certain characteristics were lawyers or engineers. These participants were also told the proportion of people in the overall population who were lawyers or engineers. In this situation, d) participants ignored base rate and relied only on diagnostic information. 14. When reasoning, it is important to consider the overall likelihood that an individual will be in one category or another, independent of diagnostic information. This overall likelihood is called: b) the base rate. 15. Compared to theory-driven judgments, data-driven judgments are ______. a) more accurate 16. Consider two hospitals: Hospital A has an average of 10 births per day, and Hospital B has an average of 100 births per day. We know that, on average, 50 percent of the overall babies born are male. Which hospital is likely to report more days on which 75 percent of the babies born were boys? c) Hospital A 19. According to the dual-process model of reasoning, one mode of thought is ______, while the other mode of thought is ______. b) automatic, effortful 20. When people are explicitly told that a particular instance is NOT representative of the larger group, they: a) often continue to reason as if the instance IS representative of the larger group. 21. Why does statistical training have an effect? b) It makes it easier to for us trigger System 2. 22. Judgments BEST are if people are given information about a population sample in which of the following forms? a) "10 out of 100" 25. Which is not a reason why background knowledge is useful in reasoning? c) It impairs our ability to use the anchoring heuristic. Chapter 13 1. Which of the following is TRUE about decision making? b) People tend to overestimate how much they will later regret their errors. 2. According to utility theory, people should not: b) allow the wording of a choice to affect expected value. 3. Which of the following is true with regard to the role of emotions in decision making? a) Certain emotions can cause clear bodily reactions. c) Having justification for decisions can help defend against the emotion of regret. d) People with brain damage impairing their "gut feelings" are less likely to avoid risky choices. 4. Which of the following is true of utility theory? d) It involves comparing summed expected values (utility x probability). 5. Two parents are presented in a hypothetical custody case. One parent has moderate traits, while the other has some extremely good and some extremely bad traits. When asked who they would award custody to, the majority of people say they would award custody to _______. b) the parent with extreme traits. 6. People seem NOT to have pragmatic reasoning schemata that apply to situations involving a) cause-and-effect relations b) obligations c) permission 7. If people are making reason-based choices rather than utility-based ones, we would expect them to act in the following way: a) if there is no clear reason to choose A over B, choose neither. 9. Errors in reasoning about conditional statements are LESS common when: d) the logical rule under question is modus ponens rather than modus tollens. 2. Sometimes you get candy just as a treat, no matter what you've done recently. In that context, the sentence "If you clean your room, you can have candy" describes a condition that is. c) sufficient but not necessary. 3. According to the logical error called ______, the following conclusion is justified: "If C is true, then D is true. D is true. Therefore, C must be true." c) affirming the consequent 4. People are often selective in how they search memory for evidence. As a result, b) they usually search memory for evidence that might confirm their current beliefs. 5. In a game where one chooses cards from either a high-risk or low-risk stack, participants with orbitofrontal damage c) only showed increased arousal after turning over a card. 8. According to the principle of mental accounting, most people, when told an item they are buying is $5 less at another store across town, will c) go to the other store only if the item is inexpensive. 12. What is the common definition of a matching strategy? b) If the conclusion matches the premises in wording and structure, it is accepted. 16. Utility theory seems wrong as a ____ theory of decision making, but looks plausible as a _____ theory: a) descriptive; normative 17. In the study in which people were asked to judge their social sensitivity after being given false positive or negative feedback (but then debriefed), participants were clearly influenced by b) the feedback they had been given, even though they knew it was false. 19. Decisions based on utility calculations should: b) be immune to framing effects. 23. If a politician is trying to convince voters to support an action, she would probably have the most success by framing the choice in terms of b) being cautious if the action involves gains. 24. Responses to the Wason four-card task ("If an odd number on one side, then a vowel on the other") versus the Griggs and Cox drinking-age task ("If drinking alcohol then must be over 18") present a CHALLENGE to what previous assumption? d) Formal logic does not depend on the content of assertions. 25. Participants were MOST likely to guess correctly the rule behind a series of numbers if they: c) asked questions that could disconfirm their theories. Chapter 14 1. What is a benefit of problem-solving sets? b) They allow you to focus your search. 2. Which features of a problem would cause pictures to be a more useful strategy than mental images? d) The problem solution requires a change in reference frame. 3. Participants' performance with the water-jar problem, where in each trial they are given three jars of different sizes and need to use those jars to come up with a certain volume of water, demonstrates: d) Einstellung 6. Which of the following statements about creative thought is most likely to be true? b) The "aha" experience implies only that we've discovered a new approach a problem, not that we've discovered the right solution. 7. Which of the following things have highly creative people typically had in common? d) they were in the right place at the right time 8. Which of the following responses is a result of Einstellung? a) Overlooking a simple response in favor of a practiced, more difficult one. 9. Which of the following is a characteristic distinguishing experts in a particular domain from novices in that domain? a) Experts organize their knowledge more effectively. c) Experts have more automatized routines to deal with different type of problems. d) Experts have more knowledge than novices in their domain of expertise. 10. Which of the following statements is true? a) Creativity may be an extraordinary product that results from the right combination of ordinary processes. 11. How does memory search in highly creative people differ from memory search in everyone else? b) Highly creative people are better at making novel associations. 14. In the Gick and Holyoak paradigm, participants were required to solve the tumor problem. Those who demonstrated the fastest solution times were the participants who: c) read the "General and Fortress" solution and were told to apply it to the tumor problem. 15. The strategy whereby one compares the current state to the goal state, often using this information to break a large problem into smaller subproblems, is called. a) means-end analysis. 16. Regarding the use of analogies in problem solving: a) Students taught new information via analogy were better able to make inferences from that information than other students. 18. The pattern of causal relationships within a problem is the problem's: c) eep structure 20. Participants are given a pair of pliers to help solve the two string problem. Which situation would help overcome the effects of functional fixedness? d) The experimenter 'absent-mindedly' sets one of the strings swinging back and forth while giving the instructions. 21. Problem-solving heuristics do NOT: a) increase the efficiency of problem-solving strategies. b) strategically decrease the size of the problem space. d) involve an accuracy-efficiency trade-off. 24. Wallas believed, probably incorrectly, that creative thought proceeds through four stages in the following order: a) preparation, incubation, illumination, verification 25. Chess experts are better at remembering chess positions than novices because: a) they use chunking strategies. Chapter 15 According to some current theories, information that is consciously available is considered trustworthy enough to act upon whenever d) it is confirmed by multiple systems When people reconstruct their thought processes, what does it most often feel like? a) remembering The role of the anterior cingulate cortex, with regard to the neuronal workspace, is to: b) detect and resolve conflicts among different brain systems Consciousness a) is a state of awareness of sensation or ideas. When people offer explanations for their behaviors and decisions, it is because c) they are able to make hypotheses based on what they know about the current situation and their past experiences. What is an advantage for conscious, as opposed to unconscious, performance? c) It is much more flexible. Phenomenal consciousness refers to the state in which we have a) subjective experience Different areas of the brain are highly specialized. Each area does its own job and activity that tends to be highly transient. ______________ is what enables us to sustain the activity in these various systems. b) attention The unconscious is NOT: d) able to respond to situations in novel ways. The neuronal workspace hypothesis attempts to explain ______________ consciousness. a) access Over and over, research shows us that c) peoples' introspections are often wrong, even if they are 100% confident in them. In the Nisbett and Schachter study, participants were asked to let the experimenter know when they no longer wanted to continue receiving electric shocks. Which of the following is true of the participants who had taken a placebo pill? d) They experienced shaking and upset-stomach symptoms similar to those in participants not receiving the placebo pill. ... View Full Document

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