chap9
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chap9

Course Number: PHY 557, Spring 2009

College/University: Adelphi

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CHAPTER 9 GRAVITATION radius. Thus, R/RE = 1/ 3 = 57.7% gives the new, shrunken radius. ActivPhysics can help with these problems: Activity 4.8 Section 9-2: The Law of Universal Gravitation Problem 1. Space explorers land on a planet with the same mass as Earth, but they nd they weigh twice as much as they would on Earth. What is the radius of the planet? Problem 4. Calculate the gravitational acceleration at...

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CHAPTER 9 GRAVITATION ActivPhysics can help with these problems: Activity 4.8 Section 9-2: The Law of Universal Gravitation Problem 1. Space explorers land on a planet with the same mass as Earth, but they find they weigh twice as much as they would on Earth. What is the radius of the planet? Solution At rest on a uniform spherical planet, a bodys weight is proportional to the surface gravity, g = GM/R 2 . Therefore, ( g p /g E ) = ( M p /M E )( R E /R p ) 2 = 2 . Since M p /M E = 1 ,R p = R E / 2 . Problem 2. Use data for the moons orbit from Appendix E to compute the moons acceleration in its circular orbit, and verify that the result is consistent with Newtons law of universal gravitation. Solution The centripetal acceleration of the moon in its orbit around the Earth is approximately a c = (2 /T ) 2 r = (2 / 27 . 3 86 , 400 s) 2 (3 . 85 10 8 m) = 2 . 73 10 3 m / s 2 (see Problem 4-43). (One could also use a c = v 2 /r , but the orbital speed given in Appendix E is less accurate.) The acceleration of gravity at the moons approximate distance from the Earth is g ( r ) = GM E /r 2 = (6 . 67 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 )(5 . 97 10 24 kg) (3 . 85 10 8 m) 2 = 2 . 69 10 3 m / s 2 . Since the moons orbit is actually elliptical (with 5.5% eccentricity), these values based on circular orbits are not inconsistent. Problem 3. To what fraction of its current radius would Earth have to be shrunk (with no change in mass) for the gravitational acceleration at its surface to triple? Solution If the surface gravity of the Earth were three times its present value, with no change in mass, then GM E /R 2 = 3 GM E /R 2 E , where R E is the present radius. Thus, R/R E = 1 / 3 = 57 . 7% gives the new, shrunken radius. Problem 4. Calculate the gravitational acceleration at the surface of (a) Mercury and (b) Saturns moon Titan. Solution With reference to the first two columns in Appendix E: (a) g Merc = G (0 . 330 10 24 kg) / (2 . 44 10 6 m) 2 = 3 . 70 m / s 2 , and (b) g Titan = G (0 . 135 10 24 kg) (2 . 58 10 6 m) 2 = 1 . 35 m / s 2 . Problem 5. Two identical lead spheres are 14 cm apart and attract each other with a force of 0 . 25 N . What is their mass? Solution Newtons law of the universal gravitation (Equation 9-1), with m 1 = m 2 = m, gives m = radicalbigg Fr 2 G = parenleftbigg . 25 10 6 N (0 . 14 m) 2 6 . 67 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 parenrightbigg 1 / 2 = 8 . 57 kg . (Newtons law holds as stated, for two uniform spherical bodies, if the distance is taken between their centers.) Problem 6. The gravitational acceleration at the surface of a planet is 22 . 5 m / s 2 . Find the acceleration at a height above the surface equal to half the planets radius.

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Adelphi - PHY - 557
CHAPTER 12ROTATIONAL MOTIONProblem4. A 25-cm-diameter circular saw blade spins at 3500 rpm. How fast would you have to push a straight hand saw to have the teeth move through the wood at the same rate as the circular saw teeth?ActivPhysics can help wi
Adelphi - PHY - 557
CHAPTER 13ROTATIONAL VECTORS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUMActivPhysics can help with these problems: Activities 7.1, 7.16, 7.17 Section 13-1: Angular Velocity and Acceleration Vectors Problem1. A car is headed north at 70 km/h. Give the magnitude and direction
Adelphi - PHY - 557
CHAPTER 14STATIC EQUILIBRIUMProblem2. A body is subject to three forces: F1 = 2^ + 2^ N, i applied at the point x = 2 m, y = 0 m; F2 = -2^ - i 3^ N, applied at x = -1 m, y = 0; and F3 = 1^ N, applied at x = -7 m, y = 1 m. (a) Show explicitly that the n
Adelphi - PHY - 557
PART 2OSCILLATIONS, WAVES, AND FLUIDS OSCILLATORY MOTIONcos[(10 s1 )t]. (b) The maximum (positive) velocity occurs at t = 0 if sin = 1 (from Equation 15-10), therefore, the motion is described by Equation 15-9 with A = 2.5 cm, = 5 s1 , and = /2. Since c
Adelphi - PHY - 557
CHAPTER 5 FORCE AND MOTIONActivPhysics can help with these problems: All activities in Section 2, Forces and Motion Section 5-4: Newton's Second Law Problem1. A subway train has a mass of 1.5x106 kg. What force is required to accelerate the train at 2.5
Adelphi - PHY - 557
CHAPTER 6USING NEWTON'SLAWSActivPhysics can help with these problems: All Activities in Section 2 "Forces and Motion" and Section 4 "Circular Motion." Section 6-1: Using Newton's Second Law Problem1. Two forces, both in the x-y plane, act on a 1.5-kg
Adelphi - PHY - 557
CHAPTER 7WORK, ENERGY, AND POWERHow much work do you do on the barbell during this time? (c) You lower the barbell to the ground. Now how much work do you do on it?ActivPhysics can help with these problems: Activity 5.1 Section 7-1: Work Problem1. How
Adelphi - PHY - 557
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY'CtivPhysiCS can help with these Problems: ji.u Activities in Section 5, Work and Energy0$ y:;: e, followed by dr=idx for y = i and 0$ x:$ and (b) dr=idx+jdy=(i+j)dy, for 0 :$ y :$ e (since x = y along this path). The work done by
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Problem Section 10-1: Center of Mass,9. Find the center of mass of a pentagon of side a with one triangle missing, as shown in Fig. 10-24. Hint: See Example 10-3, and treat the pentagon as a group of triangles._-Pro61~m1. A 28-kg child sits at one end o
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,"Problem3. A 62-kg parachutist hits the ground moving at 35'km/hand come~ to a stop in 140 IUS.Find the ' average impulsive force on the chutist, and compare 1with the chutist's weight.Problem17. In a railroad switchyard, a 56-ton freight car is se'n
Adelphi - PHY - 557
PH1004 laboratory InstructionsExp 1: One Dimensional MotionPH 1004 Laboratory InstructionsExperiment 1One Dimensional MotionBackgroundThe displacement of an object is defined as change in its position. In this experiment you will investigate objects
Adelphi - PHY - 557
PH1004Exp 2: ForcesPH 1004 Laboratory Instructions Experiment 2ForcesBackgroundNewton's first law states that an object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an outside force, and an object in motion continues to travel at constant velocity un
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PH1004Exp 3: CollisionsPH 1004 Laboratory Instructions Experiment 3CollisionsBackgroundA collision is an isolated event in which each colliding particle exerts a force on one or more other particles for a relatively short period of time. Collisions c
Adelphi - PHY - 557
PH1004 Exp 4:Rotational Motion. Moment of Inertia.PH 1004 Laboratory InstructionsExperiment 4 Rotational Motion. Moment of Inertia.IntroductionPrevious experiments dealt with the effect of a force on the linear motion of an object that could be assum
Adelphi - PHY - 557
PH1004Exp 5: Acceleration Due To Gravity. Free Fall and Pendulum.PH 1004 Laboratory Instructions Experiment 5Acceleration Due to Gravity. Free Fall and Pendulum.IntroductionBoth the free fall of a body and the oscillation of a simple pendulum occur d
Adelphi - PHY - 557
PH1004 Exp 6:Thermal ConductivityPH 1004 Laboratory Instructions Experiment 6Thermal ConductivityIntroductionHeat is thermal energy, which is transferred from one place to another due to a temperature difference. In the SI system of measurement, the
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Chapter OneCHEMISTRY: THE STUDY OF CHANGEIntroductionMatter and Its PropertiesUnits of MeasurementMath Review and Significant FiguresFactor-Label Method of Problem SolvingINTRODUCTIONSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.Describe matter and its physical state
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter TwoATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONSDalton's Atomic TheorySubatomic Particles and the Structure of the AtomMolecules and IonsChemical FormulasNaming Inorganic CompoundsDALTON'S ATOMIC THEORYSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.State the laws of definite pro
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
C hapter ThreeMASS RELATIONSHIPS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONSAtomic and Molecular MassesThe Molar Mass of Elements and CompoundsChemical Formulas and Percent CompositionChemical Reactions and EquationsStoichiometry: Amounts of Reactants and ProductsLimiti
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter FourREACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONGeneral Properties of Aqueous SolutionsPrecipitation ReactionsAcid-Base ReactionsOxidation-Reduction ReactionsSolution ConcentrationGravimetric AnalysisAcid-Base TitrationsRedox TitrationsGENERAL PROPERTI
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter FiveGASESProperties of GasesThe Gas LawsThe Ideal Gas LawGas StoichiometryThe Kinetic Molecular Theory of GasesNonideal GasesPROPERTIES OF GASESSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.List the properties that are characteristic of gases.Interconvert p
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter SixTHERMOCHEMISTRYEnergy Changes in Chemical ReactionsEnthalpyCalorimetryStandard Enthalpies of Formation and ReactionHeats of Solution and DilutionThe First Law of ThermodynamicsENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter SevenQUANTUM THEORY AND THE ELECTRONICSTRUCTURE OF ATOMSElectromagnetic RadiationBohr's Model of the Hydrogen AtomThe Dual Nature of the ElectronQuantum Mechanics and Quantum NumbersElectron Configurations and the Aufbau PrincipleELECTROMA
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter EightPERIODIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THEELEMENTSPeriodic Classification of the ElementsPeriodic Variation in Physical PropertiesIonization Energy and Electron AffinityTypes of ElementsPERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter NineCHEMICAL BONDING I: BASIC CONCEPTSLewis SymbolsIonic Bonding and the Lattice EnergyCovalent Bonding and Lewis StructuresElectronegativityFormal ChargeThe Concept of ResonanceExceptions to the Octet RuleBond Dissociation EnergyLEWIS S
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter TenCHEMICAL BONDING II: MOLECULARGEOMETRY AND HYBRIDIZATION OFATOMIC ORBITALSMolecular Geometry and the VSEPR ModelPolar MoleculesValence Bond Theory and Hybrid OrbitalsMolecular Orbital TheoryMOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND THE VSEPR MODELSTUDY O
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter ElevenINTERMOLECULAR FORCES ANDLIQUIDS AND SOLIDSThe Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and SolidsIntermolecular ForcesProperties of LiquidsThe Solid StatePhase Changes and Phase DiagramsTHE KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF LIQUIDSAND SOLIDS
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter TwelvePHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONSThe Solution ProcessConcentration UnitsTemperature and Pressure Effects on SolubilityColligative PropertiesTHE SOLUTION PROCESSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.Describe the role of intermolecular forces in the
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter ThirteenCHEMICAL KINETICSThe Rate of ReactionRate LawsThe Relation Between Reactant Concentration and TimeActivation Energy and Temperature Dependence of Reaction RatesReaction MechanismsCatalysisTHE RATE OF REACTIONSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter FourteenCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUMChemical Equilibrium and the Equilibrium ConstantWriting Equilibrium Constant ExpressionsCalculating Equilibrium ConstantsWhat the Equilibrium Constant Tells UsFactors Affecting EquilibriumCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AN
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter FifteenACIDS AND BASESBrnsted Acids and BasesAcid-Base Properties of Water and the pH ScaleStrengths of Acids and BasesWeak Acids, Weak Bases, and Ionization ConstantsDiprotic and Polyprotic AcidsMolecular Structure and Strengths of AcidsH
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter SixteenACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITYEQUILIBRIABuffer SolutionsTitration Curves and IndicatorsSolubility and Solubility ProductPredicting Precipitation Reactions and Separation of Ions by PrecipitationFactors Affecting Solubility: Comm
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter SeventeenCHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHEREEarth's Atmosphere and Its RegionsDepletion of the Ozone LayerThe Greenhouse Effect and Acid RainPhotochemical SmogIndoor Air PollutionEARTH'S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS REGIONSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.List the
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter EighteenENTROPY, FREE ENERGY, AND EQUILIBRIUMThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsGibbs Free EnergyFree Energy and EquilibriumTHE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.4.Explain the meaning of the term spontaneous process.Predic
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter NineteenELECTROCHEMISTRYBalancing Redox EquationsElectrochemical Cells and Standard Electrode PotentialsSpontaneity of Redox ReactionsEffect of Concentration on Cell EMFElectrolysis and Its Quantitative AspectsBALANCING REDOX EQUATIONSSTUD
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter TwentyMETALLURGY AND THE CHEMISTRY OFMETALSMetallurgical ProcessesThe Band Theory of ConductivityThe Alkali MetalsThe Alkaline Earth MetalsAluminumMETALLURGICAL PROCESSESSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.List the procedures used to separate miner
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter Twenty-OneNONMETALLIC ELEMENTS AND THEIRCOMPOUNDSHydrogenCarbonNitrogen and PhosphorusOxygen and SulfurThe HalogensHYDROGENSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.Write chemical equations to show the reactions used to prepare hydrogen.Describe the chemic
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Chapter Twenty-TwoTRANSITION METAL CHEMISTRY ANDCOORDINATION COMPOUNDSProperties of the Transition MetalsCoordination CompoundsThe Structure of Coordination CompoundsBonding in Coordination CompoundsPROPERTIES OF THE TRANSITION METALSSTUDY OBJECTI
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Chapter Twenty-ThreeNUCLEAR CHEMISTRYThe Nature of Nuclear ReactionsThe Stability of NucleiNatural RadioactivityNuclear TransmutationNuclear Fission and FusionBiological Effects of RadiationTHE NATURE OF NUCLEAR REACTIONSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.Wr
Adelphi - CHEM - 102
Chapter Twenty-FourORGANIC CHEMISTRYAliphatic HydrocarbonsAromatic HydrocarbonsFunctional GroupsALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.4.Name four different types of aliphatic hydrocarbons and draw a structural formula of a typical example
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Chapter Twenty-FiveSYNTHETIC AND NATURAL ORGANICPOLYMERSSynthetic Organic PolymersProteinsNucleic AcidsSYNTHETIC ORGANIC POLYMERSSTUDY OBJECTIVES1.2.3.Define monomer and give several examples of addition polymers.Define copolymer and give seve
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 45123 Mar 25, 2004 This print-out should have 15 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapter 2 prob
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 3 David McIntyre 45123 Mar 25, 2004 This print-out should have 21 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapters 2 and
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 4 David McIntyre 45123 Mar 25, 2004 This print-out should have 18 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapters 3 and
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 5 David McIntyre 45123 Mar 25, 2004 This print-out should have 6 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapter 5 probl
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 45123 Mar 25, 2004 This print-out should have 20 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapters 5 and
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 7 David McIntyre 45123 Mar 25, 2004 This print-out should have 24 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapters 6 and
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 8 David McIntyre 45123 May 10, 2004 This print-out should have 8 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapter 8 probl
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 10 David McIntyre 45123 May 10, 2004 This print-out should have 26 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapter 9 pro
Adelphi - PHY - 557
Answer, Key Homework 11 David McIntyre 45123 May 10, 2004 This print-out should have 8 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapter 9 prob
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