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8B rev Physics 4.0 Contents Table of Contents Introduction and Comments Introduction Course Objectives Structure of the Physics 8B Course Ten Commandments for Effective Study Skills References Worksheets 1 Charge and Coulomb's Law 2 Electric Fields 3 Gauss's Law and Electric Fields 4 - Electric Potential 5 - Capacitance 6 - Current, Resistance, Ohm's Law 7 - DC Circuits 8 - Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields 9 - Induction 10 - AC Circuits 11 - EM Waves 12 - Reflection and Refraction 13 - Mirrors and Lenses 14 - Optical Instruments 15 - Interference & Diffraction 16 - Special Relativity 17 - Modern Physics 18 - Atomic Physics 19 - Nuclear Physics 20 - (Optional) Quantum Physics Labs Lab 1 - Ohm's Law & DC Circuits Lab 2 - Magnetic Fields Lab 3 - Electric Motors & Generators Lab 4 - Oscilloscopes & Time Dependent Circuits Lab 5 - Properties of Light Lab 6 - Mirrors & Lenses Lab 7 - Optical instruments Lab 8 - Diffraction Lab 9 - Atomic Spectra Lab 10 - Radioactivity Page 1 3 3 4 7 10 11 19 27 35 45 49 53 63 71 81 89 97 104 114 121 129 139 149 159 167 171 181 193 203 215 225 233 245 253 261 Physics 8B rev 4.0 Physics 8B rev 4.0 Introduction This handbook provides course-related information and assistance for students taking the introductory Physics 8B series at UC Berkeley. It is important to note that a physics curriculum is predominantly linear in nature. Commonly there are basic underpinning concepts that have to be mastered before further study can be considered. Physics is also a practical course and educators see this practical experience as vital. Students taking physics will have a high class-contact time compared to those taking arts and humanities. This experience is vital for the development of practical, discipline-specific skills, but it also provides rich opportunities for the development of intellectual and transferable skills. The aim of the Physics 8B course is to change the way you think about physics and the physical world, and as a result change the way you go about learning in new situations. Course Objectives Education is a process of influence and change in people's understandings, skills and attitudes. It follows from this, that we cannot teach you physics unless we have some idea of what physics concepts and theories we want you to learn. Objectives of student learning serve as a means of clarifying our intent as educators. General objectives of this course are given in this handbook along with more defined weekly objectives. The objectives state what you are expected to know and what you should be able to do in this course. It is the intention of this course that students will gain a deep understanding of the key concepts and theories, without a focus on memorization and recall. Only a demonstration of understanding of physics concepts in the homework assignments, examinations, and other graded work will be rewarded. The worksheets and laboratories are designed to help you achieve understanding, and form the basis for the homework assignments and examination questions. You should take note of the weekly objectives, aiming to meet each objective by the end of that week. You should also aim to integrate the knowledge you have gained each week with the overall objectives of this course. There are three stages to learning physics. The first stage is to learn the physical concepts, understanding each concept in relation to the larger physical phenomena. The second stage is to set up the physical models and adapt each model for the particular phenomenon you are confronted with. The third stage is to apply the physics to various practice problems, including a focus on the mathematics of each problem. The textbook reading, the lectures and the discussion and laboratory sections are designed to help you learn the physical concepts and to set up the appropriate physical models. The textbook reading including the examples, the mathematical problems within the worksheets and the online assignments, are designed to help you with the applications of physics. The majority of the course time is spent on stages one and two, as these are the major focus and emphasis in the examinations. Physics 8B rev 4.0 Structure of the Physics 8B Course The integrated discussion/laboratory (D/L) series for Physics 8B has been designed to maximize student understanding through the increased awareness of and focus on the teaching and learning environment and processes. Because you and your fellow students will approach studying in different ways, the separate areas in this course have been designed to encourage various styles of learning. The aim is to offer all students a chance to learn and perform well in at least one of these academic formats. Due to the integrated nature of this course, attendance at the lecture series and the D/L sections is compulsory. You are also required to complete all worksheets, laboratories, textbook reading, homework assignments, and examinations. We cannot stress enough the importance of every part of this course, and highly recommend that you attend all sections and complete all set tasks. Lectures In lectures, the background material to the course is presented. Lectures impart information about a variety of things, such as: introducing important concepts; presenting the history of the course; explaining established approaches and understandings; and highlighting the work of leading scholars in the field of physics. This provides an environment within which you can begin to do meaningful learning. You go to lectures to get the basic background information that helps to make learning possible. When taking notes in lectures, record the key points for use when revising for examinations, but do not record everything. You are there to listen, observe demonstrations, ask and answer questions, participate in activities, and to occasionally take notes. Although the lecture series is valuable, the most significant part of university learning results from two activities that occur outside the lecture room: individual textbook reading and group discussion. Discussion and Laboratory Sections Small groups are generally better than lectures in developing higher-level intellectual skills involving reasoning and problem-solving, as well as applying principles. The D/L sections in Physics 8B provide a chance for you to: develop and test your own ideas; clarify material presented in lectures; apply general concepts to the solution of specific problems; define new problems and seek solutions to them; discuss ideas with fellow students; test hypotheses and hone problem-solving skills; and to learn essential practical skills and techniques. Small groups will introduce you to the university's culture, particularly the culture of critical debate and discussion. You will have the opportunity to participate and contribute, your concerns and uncertainties can be freely raised, and you can receive rapid feedback on your ideas. Physics 8B rev 4.0 One of the valuable aspects of the integrated D/L course is the opportunity for you to give feedback on how you are coping with the course, what you do and do not understand, and what aspects of the course you find most or least stimulating. This helps your graduate student instructor to ascertain the general level of knowledge of you and your fellow students and to devise strategies for improving it. For instance, most students look for a single answer to a physics problem and need to be led by their graduate student instructor to see that the intention of university study is to engage in a process of inquiry and not to reach `the answer' as fast as possible. The aim of the discussion part of the D/L sections is to develop your abilities to analyze, synthesize and evaluate relatively complex material by discussing your ideas with fellow students. The purpose of the worksheets is to foster your understandings and build problem-solving skills, rather than plugging numbers into formulae. It is the process of answering a worksheet problem that leads to a deeper understanding. The worksheets are designed to take longer than the two hours allocated. The discussion session should build on the basic ideas introduced in the lecture, while you should practice related problems on your own, by completing unfinished worksheet problems after each session. This will help to reinforce and expand on the ideas covered in lectures and the discussion sections. Worked solutions will not be provided to you, as this would be detrimental to the learning and teaching environment designed for this course. Rather, you need to work through the ideas and develop new understandings of the physical concepts and phenomena. The aim of the laboratory part of the D/L sections is to give you experience with physics phenomena, and not the practice of technique or use of equipment. Contrary to some physics courses, laboratory exercises in Physics 8B are aimed at qualitative understandings of fundamental concepts and theories, rather than good report writing or error analysis. The laboratory exercises should convey to you that the physics concepts, phenomena, and theories dealt with in lectures and discussions are real and observable, and are more like lecture demonstrations that you conduct for yourself. You need to engage with the theory and the assumptions that are relevant to each laboratory by making connections with previous activities or the associated lecture series. Participate in all aspects of laboratory work, and try to focus on describing your experiences of the exercises, rather than your actions taken during the exercises. The small group is viewed as an important step for exploring the development of a range of key skills. Students are engaged in small groups, both as learners and as collaborators in their own intellectual, personal and professional development. It is within the small group that self-confidence can be improved, and teamwork and interpersonal communication developed. These groups give you the opportunity to observe your own learning styles, change these styles to suit different tasks and engage more deeply with the course material. While content is obviously important, much of the content you learn will either be quickly forgotten, or will lose its relevance. But students who learn how to learn effectively will have skills that will not only be immediately applicable to their studies, but also will help them to become lifelong learners. Physics 8B rev 4.0 Effective, active learners take responsibility for much of their learning. In so doing, they are able to identify and tackle problems, share and discuss ideas in formal and informal situations, master a body of knowledge appropriate to the course, and develop the competencies necessary to communicate those ideas to others. Essentially, there is no one right way to learn; there are many ways and it is important for you to explore and find ways that best serve your needs and that best enable you to develop the characteristics of effective learning. You need to come to each D/L section having completed all the pre-reading and attended the lectures. The D/L sections will proceed on the assumption that you are prepared and therefore will benefit the most from the course. Your graduate student instructor is not employed to duplicate the work of the lecturer and cannot help you learn if you do not actively engage in the learning activities. So be respectful of the way they choose to teach in order to help you to understand. They are also the authority in your section so you need to also be respectful to their wishes. If you are having with difficulties your graduate student instructor, you may ask the head graduate student instructor to help resolves these difficulties. Pre-reading of Required Textbook Some of the knowledge that you need to acquire to succeed at university level comes from reading the assigned textbook. Without active reading, little learning will take place. University reading seeks to encourage you to think about issues in broad terms and does not aim to deliver answers on a weekly basis. The pre-readings assigned in this course, both textbook and supplementary handouts, are designed to act as the primary source of written information. When reading prescribed sections of the textbook, all information including worked examples and mathematical derivatives are relevant. You need to develop good reading habits throughout the semester. Regular reading will provide a firm basis for exam preparation. It is in your best interests to complete all pre-reading before attending any of the lectures and D/L sections for that week. Reading materials are used in different ways, such as finding a piece of information, surveying a topic, providing an alternative point of view, finding a definition, or understanding a theory. Readers who achieve a better understanding of a text, that is closer to the author's intention, are known to pause and reflect over how the current passage relates to that which they have previously learnt. They try to discern different parts of the text, aim to find out the main point of each, link the parts to each other and to the whole, and relate the content of the text to their own experiences. One reading technique you may wish to use is called the SQ3R, i.e. Survey, Question, Read, Recall, and then Review. To Survey a text or other reading material, read quickly over the entire weekly reading to get an overview of its contents. To Question, ask yourself what the main points in the reading were. Then Read all the material in order to answer this question. To Recall answer your question without referring to the reading materials. Finally Review by checking your answers against the textbook or reading materials. This technique will help you read with more purpose. Physics 8B rev 4.0 Assignments and Examinations Assessment is a way of learning and of demonstrating understanding. The assessment tasks in this course require analysis, synthesis and evaluation of ideas that encourage students to develop a deep understanding and proficiency in the skills of problem solving. The examination questions are similar to those in the worksheets, laboratories, assignments, and those dealt with in lectures. You should continue to attend lectures and D/L sections despite deadlines, even though you may not be prepared. The assignments in the Physics 8B course use the online Mastering Physics system and are completed weekly. One of the benefits of using an online homework system is the immediate feedback that you receive on your current level of understanding. There are also two midterms and a final examination. The purpose of each mid-term is to give accurate feedback on your demonstrated level of understanding at that particular point in the semester. You should treat each mid-term as a formal examination, and prepare accordingly. If you do not perform well in a mid-term do not get disillusioned. Instead, use the midterm to identify specific areas of weakness in your level of understanding and take actions to improve those areas. If you feel a question on a mid-term was marked too harshly you may request a correction. However, you must have understood the question at the time you took the mid-term and demonstrated this on the examination paper. In a case where your given information in the mid-term was contradictory or showed a lack of understanding, and you have requested a correction having not recognized this, then that question will be marked as zero. A question, or in some cases the entire mid-term, may also be marked as zero if alterations have been made to the mid-term. The Physics department will not tolerate cheating at any level. Corrections are only for those questions when a grader has failed to acknowledge critical information in a student's answer and has given a lower mark than deserved as a result. So think very carefully before requesting a correction. Ten Commandments for Effective Study Skills 1) Thou Shalt Be Responsible and Thou Shalt be Active For There Be No Other Passage to Academic Success: Responsibility means control. Your grade in a class is relatively free of any variables other than your own effort. Sure, you may have a lousy instructor: it happens. But remember: you are the one who has to live with your grade. It goes on your grade report, not your instructor's. 2) Thou Shalt Know Where Thy `Hot Buttons' Are, and Thou Shalt Push Them Regularly: Physics 8B rev 4.0 The next time you seat yourself in class, ask yourself these questions: What am I doing here?; Why have I chosen to be sitting here now?; Is there some better place I could be?; What does my presence here mean to me? Your responses to these questions represent your educational goals. They are the `hot buttons', and they are the most important factors in your success as a student. University is not easy. Believe it or not, there will be times when you tire of being a student. And that's when a press or two on the hot buttons can pull you through. 3) If Thou Hath Questions, Asketh Them. If Thou Hath No Questions, Maketh Some: Just as a straight line usually indicates the shortest distance between two points, questions generally provide the quickest route between ignorance and knowledge. In addition to securing knowledge that you seek, asking questions has at least two other extremely important benefits. The process helps you pay attention to your instructor and helps your instructor pay attention to you. 4) Thou Shalt Learn That Thou and Thy Instructor Maketh a Team and Thou Shalt Be a Team Player: Most instructors want exactly what you want: they would like for you to learn the material in their respective classes and earn a good grade. After all, successful students reflect well on the efforts of any teaching; if you learned your stuff, the instructor takes some justifiable pride in teaching. 5) Thou Shalt Not Parketh Thy Butt in the Back: Suppose you can get cheap concert tickets for your favorite musical artist. Do you choose front row seats or the seats at the rear of the auditorium? Why do some students who spend far more money on a university education than on concert tickets willingly place themselves in the last row of the classroom? In class, the back row gives invisibility and anonymity, both of which are antithetical to efficient and effective learning. 6) Thou Shalt Not Write in Thy Notes What Thou Faileth to Understand: Avoid the `whatinthehellisthat' phenomenon experienced by most students. This unique reaction occurs when students first review their notes for a major examination. Being unable to read, decipher, or comprehend the mess that passes for notes, students are likely to utter the expression that grants this particular phenomenon its name. Physics 8B rev 4.0 7) If Thine Interest in Class Be Gone, Faketh It: If you are a good actor, you may even fool yourself into liking the class. How do you fake interest? You simply assume the `interested student position' lean forward, place your feet flat on the floor in front of you, maintain eye contact with your instructor, smile or nod occasionally as though you understand and care about what your instructor is saying, take notes, and ask questions. Having faked interest, you may find that the class seems a little less boring now. At a minimum, you now have a few good notes that you can use to guide your future learning activities. 8) Thou Shalt Know That If Silence Be Golden Discussion Shalt Be Platinum: If you are seeking a way of increasing learning and improving grades without increasing your study time, active classroom participation is your answer. Look at it this way: classroom time is something to which you are already committed. So you can sit there, assume the `bored student position' arms crossed, slumped in the chair, eyes at half-mast and allow yourself an `out-of-body' experience. Or you can maximize your classroom time by actively listening, thinking, questioning, taking notes and participating totally in the learning experience. 9) Thou Shalt Knoweth That Cram Is a Four-Letter Word: If there is one thing that study skills specialists agree on, it is that divided periods of study are more efficient and effective than a single period of condensed study. In other words, you will learn more and earn a higher grade if you prepare for Friday's examination by studying one hour a night, Monday through Thursday, rather than studying for four hours straight on Thursday evening. It is also important to study throughout the semester, and to not leave exam preparation to the last week. It is difficult to prepare for a mid-term by condensing a third of a course into a few hours of study. 10)Thou Shalt Not Procrastinate and Thou Shalt Beginneth It Right Now: An elemental truth: you will either control time or be controlled by it. There is no middle ground. It's your choice: you can lead or be led, establish control or relinquish control, steer your own course or have it dictated to you. When students are asked which they prefer, choosing their own path or having it chosen for them, they almost uniformly select the first option. In spite of this response, however, failure to take control of their own time is probably the number one study skills problem of university students. Physics 8B rev 4.0 References Problems in Physics, Gardiner, E., & McKittrick, B. (1985); Australia, McGraw-Hill. Physics for Senior Students, Storen, A., & Martine, R. (1987); Australia, Thomas Nelson. Tutoring at University: A Beginner's Practical Guide, Bertola, P., & Murphy, E. (1994); Australia, Curtin University of Technology, Paradigm Books. Physics by Inquiry, McDermott, L., & Physics Education Group. (1996); University of Washington, USA, John Wiley & Sons. Effective Tutorial Teaching: A Guide for University College Tutors, Dawson, S. (1998); Australia, RMIT Publishing. The Portable TA, Elby, A. (1998); New Jersey, USA, Prentice Hall. Just in Time Teaching, Novak, G., Patterson, E., Gavrin, A., & Christian, W. (1999); USA, Prentice Hall. Understanding Learning and Teaching: The Experience in Higher Education, Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (1999); Research into Higher Education, USA, Open University Press. Real Time Physics, Sokoloff, D., Laws, P., & Thornton, R. (2000); USA, Wiley & Sons. Biomedical Applications of Introductory Physics, Tuszynski, J., & Dixon, J. (2002); USA, John Wiley & Sons. Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice, Weimer, M. (2002); San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. Principles of Physics: A Calculus-based Text, 3rd Ed., Serway, R., & Jewett, J. (2002); USA, Harcourt College Publishers. Tutorials in Introductory Physics, McDermott, L., Shaffer, P., & Physics Education Group (2002); University of Washington, USA, Prentice Hall. A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice, Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., & Marshall, S. (2003); Great Britain, Kogan Page. Introductory Physics Laboratory Manual OP2 (2003); USA, University of Iowa. Physics 121/2 and 141/2 Laboratory Manual (2003); Australia, University of Melbourne. Physics 7B and 8B Lab Manual (2003); USA, University of California at Berkeley ... View Full Document

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