6a(2)
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6a(2)

Course: PGS 11653, Fall 2009

School: ASU

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Name Chapter 6 A--Learning Description Instructions Modify Add Question Here Question 1 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience is defined as Answer mediation. maturation. learning. conditioning. Add Question Here Question 2 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A type of learning in which a stimulus...

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Chapter Name 6 A--Learning Description Instructions Modify Add Question Here Question 1 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience is defined as Answer mediation. maturation. learning. conditioning. Add Question Here Question 2 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus is known as Answer state-dependent learning. classical conditioning. operant conditioning. observational conditioning. Add Question Here Question 3 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which Answer responses come to be controlled by their consequences. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others' behavior. an organism engages in a response that brings aversive stimulation to an end. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus. Add Question Here Question 4 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Pavlov became interested in conditioning when he observed laboratory dogs Answer salivating right before food was placed in their mouths. failing to salivate when food was placed in their mouths. salivating only when food was placed in their mouths. salivating right after they had swallowed food. Add Question Here Question 5 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus, the process is Answer operant conditioning. primary reinforcement. Skinnerian conditioning. classical conditioning. Add Question Here Question 6 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Pavlov found that meat powder placed on a dog's tongue will make the dog salivate. In Pavlov's terms, the meat powder is Answer an unconditioned stimulus. an unconditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. a conditioned response. Add Question Here Question 7 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UR) was Answer the sound of a tone. salivation elicited by a tone. the presentation of meat powder following a tone. salivation elicited by meat powder. Add Question Here Question 8 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In classical conditioning, the stimulus that naturally evokes an unlearned response is the Answer conditioned stimulus. unconditioned stimulus. unconditioned reinforcer. conditioned reinforcer. Add Question Here Question 9 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the Answer unconditioned stimulus. unconditioned response. conditioned stimulus. conditioned response. Add Question Here Question 10 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A conditioned stimulus is Answer a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. an unlearned reaction that occurs without previous conditioning. a previously neutral stimulus that, through conditioning, acquires the capacity to elicit a conditioned response. a learned reaction that occurs because of previous conditioning. Add Question Here Question 11 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The major difference between a CS and a US is Answer the order in which they are presented. that one reliably elicits the response of interest prior to conditioning while the other does not. that during conditioning the response to one increases while the response to the other decreases. the strength of the response that each stimulus elicits. Add Question Here Question 12 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Carson used to really enjoy lime sherbet, and when he was in Mexico he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is Answer the lime margaritas that Carson consumed. the illness that followed the fourth margarita. the sight of lime sherbet. the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet. Add Question Here Question 13 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" his girlfriend gave him a long passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is Answer a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned response. a conditioned response. an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 14 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience defines Answer development. classical conditioning. learning. operant conditioning. Add Question Here Question 15 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Veronica had been working at Zenex Industries for 8 months when her boss asked to see her in his office. She thought he wanted to talk about a promotion so she was quite excited, but instead of giving her a promotion, the boss told Veronica she was being laid off as a result of company downsizing. Veronica could feel her heart pounding as she listened to the news. Veronica was able to get a new job, but every time her new boss asks to talk to her in private, Veronica feels a little faint. In this example, the unconditioned response is Answer the bad news from her boss at Zenex Industries. her new boss asking for a private meeting. her pounding heart when she heard she was being laid off. the faintness she feels when her new boss wants to talk to her in private. Add Question Here Question 16 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question One Saturday, Lacey was sitting at home when the telephone rang. A local company was making promotional calls and told Lacey she had just won a $1000 gift certificate. She felt a rush of excitement at the thought of what she could do with $1000. Now Lacey finds that whenever she hears a telephone ring, she feels a surge of excitement. In this example, the rush of excitement that Lacey felt when she heard she had won the gift certificate is Answer the conditioned stimulus. the unconditioned stimulus. the unconditioned response. the conditioned response. Add Question Here Question 17 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Holly was dancing with her new boyfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" her boyfriend gave her a long, passionate kiss, which Holly found very enjoyable. Now Holly finds that every time she hears "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" on the radio, she becomes a little flushed. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is Answer the long, passionate kiss. the song, "Can't Help Falling in Love with You." the enjoyment she experienced after the kiss from her boyfriend. the flushing she experiences when she hears the song on the radio. Add Question Here Question 18 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Floyd had been working at Qualton Enterprises for 2 years when his boss asked to see him in her office. He thought she wanted to talk about a promotion so he was quite excited, but instead of giving him a promotion, the boss told Floyd he was being laid off as a result of company downsizing. Floyd could feel his heart pounding as he listened to the news. Floyd has a new job now, but every time his new boss asks to talk to him in private, Floyd feels a little faint. In this example, Floyd's new boss asking for a private talk is Answer an unconditioned response. a conditioned response. an unconditioned stimulus. a conditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 19 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question One Saturday, Clayton was sitting at home when the telephone rang. A local company was making promotional calls and told Clayton he had just won a $500 gift certificate. He felt a rush of excitement at the thought of what he could do with $500. Now Clayton finds that whenever he hears a telephone ring, he feels a little surge of excitement. In this example, the conditioned response is Answer the surge of excitement that Clayton feels whenever he hears a telephone ring. the ringing of a telephone. the news that he had just won a $500 gift certificate. the rush of excitement he felt when he won the certificate. Add Question Here Question 20 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Charity used to really enjoy potato salad, and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately, the potato salad had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is Answer an unconditioned response. a conditioned response. an unconditioned stimulus. a conditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 21 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of learning? Answer learning involves a change in behavior or knowledge learning is due to experience learning is an automatic process learning is relatively durable Add Question Here Question 22 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus is Answer observational learning. classical conditioning. operant conditioning. reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 23 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which Answer an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences. an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response. Add Question Here Question 24 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In classical conditioning, a US is Answer an unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning. a learned reaction to a stimulus that occurs as a result of previous conditioning. a stimulus that evokes a response without previous conditioning. a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a learned response. Add Question Here Question 25 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In Pavlov's principle experiment, the unconditioned stimulus was the Answer salivation. light. tone. meat powder. Add Question Here Question 26 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question An unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning is Answer an unconditioned response. a conditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 27 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In Pavlov's principle experiment, when the dog salivated after receiving meat powder, the salivation was the Answer conditioned response. conditioned stimulus. unconditioned response. unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 28 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A previously neutral stimulus, that through conditioning acquires the capacity to evoke a response, is Answer a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. an unconditioned response. a conditioned response. Add Question Here Question 29 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In Pavlov's principle experiment the conditioned stimulus was the Answer salivation. meat powder. light. tone. Add Question Here Question 30 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If a child covers his/her ears when seeing fireworks, before hearing the sound of the fireworks, seeing the fireworks would be a(n) Answer unconditioned response unconditioned stimulus conditioned response conditioned stimulus Add Question Here Question 31 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In classical conditioning, a CR is Answer an unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning. a learned reaction to a stimulus that occurs as a result of previous conditioning. a stimulus that evokes a response without previous conditioning. a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a learned response. Add Question Here Question 32 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In Pavlov's principle experiment, if a dog salivates after hearing a tone the salivation would be the Answer conditioned response. conditioned stimulus. unconditioned stimulus. unconditioned response. Add Question Here Question 33 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Assuming you have eaten sour pickles before, imagine eating a large, juicy sour pickle. If just thinking about the pickles causes your mouth to water, your salivation would be Answer a conditioned stimulus. a conditioned response. an unconditioned stimulus. an unconditioned response. Add Question Here Question 34 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to Answer sing a song. tie shoe laces. print letters. fear the dark. Add Question Here Question 35 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Lyn is afraid of all spiders because her brother once dropped a spider down her shirt when she was younger. Today, even the sight of a rubber spider is enough to send shivers down her spine. The learning process that could best account for Lyn's fear of spiders is Answer operant conditioning. observational learning. delayed reinforcement. classical conditioning. Add Question Here Question 36 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When an individual has a phobia, the irrational fear and anxiety that the person experiences is Answer a conditioned response. an unconditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 37 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is Answer a conditioned response. an unconditioned stimulus. an unconditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 38 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is Answer an unconditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. a conditioned response. an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 39 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Belinda was very close to her father, she claims that he always made her feel safe. Belinda's father always wore "Stetson" cologne. Today every time she smells the scent of "Stetson" cologne she develops a pleasant feeling of warmth and comfort. The learning process that could best account for Belinda's pleasant feelings is Answer operant conditioning. observational learning. delayed reinforcement. classical conditioning. Add Question Here Question 40 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to Answer talk. play baseball. walk. love the smell of her father's after shave. Add Question Here Question 41 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When advertisers pair their products with attractive people or enjoyable surroundings, in the hope that the pairings will cause their products to evoke good feelings, they are using principles derived from Answer classical conditioning. state-dependent learning. observational learning. operant conditioning. Add Question Here Question 42 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A woman reported feeling "weak in the knees" whenever she smelled cigarette smoke and Beemans gum because of the association of these smells with her first love. In this example, her "weak knees" would be Answer an unconditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. a conditioned response. Add Question Here Question 43 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A woman reported feeling "weak in the knees" whenever she smelled cigarette smoke and Beemans gum because of the association of these smells with her first love. In this example, the combined smell of cigarettes and Beemans gum would be Answer a conditioned response. an unconditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 44 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A woman reported feeling "weak in the knees" whenever she smelled cigarette smoke and Beemans gum because of the association of these smells with her first love. The positive emotional response that this woman experienced developed through Answer secondary reinforcement. classical conditioning. observational learning. operant conditioning. Add Question Here Question 45 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A major automaker has developed a series of television commercials that show its cars in the great outdoors, in peaceful settings, away from the hustle and bustle of big cities. They hope that seeing the cars in these settings will condition good feelings about their cars. This particular auto maker is attempting to use Answer classical conditioning in its advertising campaign. operant conditioning in its advertising campaign. observational learning in its advertising campaign. noncontingent reinforcement in its advertising campaign. Add Question Here Question 46 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Eduardo's mother always wore Chantille perfume, and when she would hug him or hold him close he could smell that scent. Today, whenever he catches a whiff of Chantille perfume, it makes him feel calm and relaxed. The learning process that could best account for Eduardo's response to the scent of Chantille perfume is Answer operant conditioning. observational learning. classical conditioning. delayed reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 47 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Researchers have found that animals show evidence of classical conditioning if they are injected with a drug that chemically causes immunosuppression, while they are simultaneously drinking an unusual-tasting liquid. In these studies, the conditioned response would be Answer the immunosuppression. the taste of the liquid that is used. the injection of the drug. fear of the injection process. Add Question Here Question 48 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The study by Domjan et al. (1988), which investigated the adaptive significance of sexual conditioning, may shed some light on Answer how erectile dysfunction may develop in humans. why some species fail to reproduce and become extinct. how sexual fetishes develop in humans. the evolutionary causes of infertility in humans. Add Question Here Question 49 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A compensatory conditioned response is one that Answer is opposite in direction to the unconditioned response (UR). develops without a conditioned stimulus being present. develops without an unconditioned stimulus being present. is in the same direction as the unconditioned response. Add Question Here Question 50 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Compensatory CRs tend to Answer amplify some of the actual effects of psychoactive drugs. cancel out some of the anticipated effects of psychoactive drugs. become weaker over time and eventually disappear. disrupt homeostasis. Add Question Here Question 51 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Compensatory CRs are Answer maladaptive in the short-run, but adaptive in the long-run. maladaptive in both the short-run and the long-run. adaptive in the short-run, but maladaptive in the long-run. adaptive in both the short-run and the long-run. Add Question Here Question 52 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When drug users depart from their normal drug routines, the risk of overdosing from their typical drug dosage Answer decreases because compensatory CRs occur. increases because compensatory URs occur. decreases because compensatory URs do not occur. increases because compensatory CRs do not occur. Add Question Here Question 53 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When people try to quit drugs to which they are addicted, exposure to drug-related cues may trigger Answer compensatory URs, increasing drug cravings. compensatory CRs, increasing drug cravings. compensatory URs, decreasing drug cravings. compensatory CRs, decreasing drug cravings. Add Question Here Question 54 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Becky has an intense fear of dogs. Her fear dates back to when as a young child she was attacked and bitten by a stray dog. Her dog phobia developed as a result of Answer operant conditioning. classical conditioning. observational learning. negative reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 55 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Classical conditioning could easily account for how a young child might learn to Answer become potty-trained. feed himself. pick up his toys. fear the dentist. Add Question Here Question 56 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Every Sunday morning when Benjamin was a young child, his family would have a special breakfast complete with freshly baked cinnamon rolls. To this day he finds himself smiling whenever he smells cinnamon rolls baking. The smell of the cinnamon rolls is ____ for his positive feelings. Answer a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. a discriminative stimulus. a cue. Add Question Here Question 57 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Examples of behaviors learned through classical conditioning would include all the following EXCEPT Answer both pleasant and unpleasant emotional responses. simple reflexive behaviors such as blinking. the physiological functioning of the immune system. voluntary behaviors such as setting the table for dinner. Add Question Here Question 58 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The initial stage of learning a response is called Answer extinction. contiguity. acquisition. conditioning. Add Question Here Question 59 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question According to Pavlov, the key to classical conditioning is the Answer strength of the US. strength of the CS. resistance to extinction brought about by sign-releasing stimuli. stimulus contiguity. Add Question Here Question 60 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Stimulus contiguity refers to whether the stimuli Answer occur together in time. occur together in space. occur together in time and space. have been conditioned prior to the current trial. Add Question Here Question 61 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question On Tuesday morning, Chloe prepared her typical breakfast of corn flakes with milk and a cup of coffee. However, instead of having grapefruit with her breakfast, she tried eating guava for the first time. Later she became extremely ill. If her illness causes her to develop a conditioned response to one of her breakfast items, the conditioned response will MOST likely be to Answer guava, because it was a novel stimulus. milk, because the milk may have been sour. grapefruit, because that was the one thing missing from her typical breakfast. coffee, because coffee is a stimulant. Add Question Here Question 62 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question On Thursday morning, Charles prepared his typical breakfast of corn flakes with milk and a cup of coffee. However, instead of having grapefruit with his breakfast, he tried eating guava for the first time. At lunchtime he ate his typical lunch of tuna salad and potato chips. However, instead of having a Coke to drink with his lunch, he drank a new fruit flavored soft drink for the first time. During the mid afternoon he became extremely ill. If his illness causes him to develop a conditioned response to something which stimulus is likely to be the conditioned stimulus? Answer guava, because it was a novel stimulus and was the first novel thing he ingested that day tuna, because it is most likely have been sour and it was ingested closest in time to the onset of the illness milk, because the milk may have been sour and it was ingested first thing in the morning the new fruit flavored soft drink, because it was a novel stimulus and was ingested closest in time to the onset of the illness Add Question Here Question 63 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The continued presentation of the CS without the US will result in the gradual disappearance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as Answer extinction. inhibition. suppression. conditioned forgetting. Add Question Here Question 64 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question After training one of his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, Pavlov continued to present the tone periodically without the food, with the result that the dog Answer kept responding at the same intensity, despite extended exposure to the tone alone. stopped responding immediately. initially responded to the tone at an even greater intensity than before. gradually stopped responding to the tone. Add Question Here Question 65 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Carly used to be afraid of visits to her family doctor because she associated the sight of his waiting room with the pain of having a blood sample drawn. However, Carly's new doctor's lab worker is "painless," and the sight of the waiting room is no longer associated with pain. Consequently, Carly finds her fear of visits to her family doctor has disappeared. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as Answer spontaneous recovery. extinction. second-order conditioning. avoidance. Add Question Here Question 66 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Ken used to drool at the smell of peanut butter cookies as they baked, and he couldn't wait to sink his teeth into that first cookie. However, Ken's new roommate makes terrible peanut butter cookies, and the smell of them baking is no longer associated with a wonderful taste experience. Consequently, Ken finds that the smell of the cookies no longer makes him drool in anticipation. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as Answer spontaneous recovery. second-order conditioning. extinction. avoidance. Add Question Here Question 67 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response, you would present Answer the US before the CS several times. the CS alone several times. the US alone several times. extra pairings of the CS and US. Add Question Here Question 68 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called Answer disinhibition. reconditioning. stimulus generalization. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 69 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Mariah developed a fear of the water when she fell off a river raft last summer. This year she took swimming lessons and thought she had finally overcome her fear of water. She was eagerly looking forward to an upcoming rafting trip, however, as soon as she stepped onto the raft she was instantly terrified again. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as Answer extinction. second-order conditioning. stimulus generalization. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 70 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Kaleb developed a fear of snowstorms two winters ago when his car spun off the road and hit a tree during a blizzard. As the winter progressed and he had no further accidents, Kaleb thought his fear of snowstorms had pretty well disappeared. To his surprise, this winter when the first heavy snow started to fall, he found his heart was pounding and he was trembling. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as Answer extinction. second-order conditioning. stimulus generalization. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 71 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically Answer is weaker than the previously conditioned response. is stronger than the previously conditioned response. occurs before the conditioned stimulus. changes to an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 72 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The phenomenon of spontaneous recovery suggests that Answer classical conditioning can only be used to condition biologically meaningful responses. even if a person is able to extinguish a conditioned response, there is an excellent chance that it will reappear later. once a conditioned response has been extinguished, a person will also stop responding to other stimuli that are similar. when a conditioned response is extinguished, higher-order responses replace the original response. Add Question Here Question 73 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Anthony classically conditioned his cat to purr whenever the phone rang. One day, the phone rang for nearly two hours straight when Anthony wasn't home, and the cat's conditioned purring response underwent extinction. Today, the response has spontaneously recovered, but if the conditioned purring response were to undergo extinction again Anthony should expect that it will Answer take less time to extinguish than it took for the original extinction. take more time to extinguish than it took for the original extinction. take the same amount of time to extinguish as it took for the original extinction. be impossible to extinguish the response now that spontaneous recovery has occurred. Add Question Here Question 74 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The phenomenon of spontaneous recovery suggests that Answer classical conditioning can only be used to condition biologically meaningful responses. once a conditioned response has been extinguished, a person will also stop responding to other stimuli that are similar. extinction does not erase a learned association, it only suppresses or interferes with a conditioned response. when a conditioned response is extinguished, higher-order responses replace the original response. Add Question Here Question 75 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In classical conditioning, spontaneous recovery refers to Answer the return of a conditioned response that had been extinguished, after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. a loss of responding that results from the repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus without an unconditioned stimulus. learning that an event signals the absence, or non-occurrence, of the unconditioned stimulus. a procedure which uses an established conditioned stimulus to condition a response to a second, neutral stimulus. Add Question Here Question 76 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If a classically conditioned response undergoes extinction in an environment which is different from the one in which the response was acquired, the extinguished response will often reappear if the individual is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place. This phenomenon is called Answer second-order conditioning. the renewal effect. stimulus generalization. vicarious conditioning. Add Question Here Question 77 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Bart developed a severe fear of flying when he was piloting a small plan through some severe turbulence. He has been seeing a therapist, and it appears that his fear response has been successfully extinguished. The therapist used a flight simulator to help Bart practice his piloting skills in a safe setting. However, the first time Bart stepped back into a real plane, his fear returned. This example illustrates the phenomenon known as Answer second-order conditioning. the renewal effect. unblocking. stimulus generalization. Add Question Here Question 78 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Pavlov believed that the acquisition of a conditioned response depended on Answer the stimulus contiguity of the CS and US. the stimulus contiguity of the US and UR. the response contiguity of the UR and CR. the contiguity of the response and its consequences. Add Question Here Question 79 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When choosing a conditioned stimulus, it is best to select a stimulus that is Answer naturally associated with the response. familiar. novel or intense. something the organism perceives as positive. Add Question Here Question 80 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The gradual weakening and disappearance of a tendency to make a conditioned response is termed Answer higher-order conditioning. extinction. stimulus discrimination. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 81 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Extinction of a conditioned response in classical conditioning occurs when the Answer CS is occasionally presented without the US. CS is repeatedly presented without the US. US is repeatedly presented without the UR. US is occasionally presented without the UR. Add Question Here Question 82 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Spontaneous recovery describes Answer the initial stages of learning a conditioned response. the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response. the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus. a situation in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 83 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Last year Becky went to a psychologist and was cured of her dog phobia. Today, however, while jogging in the park she was overcome with anxiety when she saw a young man jogging toward her with his golden retriever on a leash. Apparently, Becky's dog phobia Answer showed spontaneous recovery. had not been extinguished after all. showed higher-order conditioning. showed stimulus generalization. Add Question Here Question 84 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Stimulus generalization occurs when Answer there is a temporal association between two stimuli. an organism fails to respond to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus used in conditioning. an unconditioned stimulus fails to elicit the unconditioned response. an organism responds to new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 85 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When shown a Santa Claus beard, Little Albert showed a fear response, which was evidence of Answer stimulus discrimination. superstitious behavior. stimulus generalization. extinction. Add Question Here Question 86 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Diana was three years old, she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pigeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer preparedness. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. negative avoidance. Add Question Here Question 87 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Luis was a child, he really liked the smell of the rose-scented perfume his mother always used to wear. He came to associate that scent with snuggles and hugs from his mom. As an adult, Luis likes any floral scent, including the smell of lilacs and wildflowers. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. preparedness. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 88 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Lisa was a child, she was bitten by a German Shepard dog. She came to associate German Shepard's with pain. As an adult, Lisa is now afraid of all dogs. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. preparedness. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 89 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was Answer the rabbit. the rat. the loud noise. the fear reaction. Add Question Here Question 90 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the conditioned stimulus was Answer the rabbit. the rat. the loud noise. the fear reaction. Add Question Here Question 91 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, stimulus generalization was shown when Albert showed the fear response to Answer the rabbit. the rat. the loud noise. his mother. Add Question Here Question 92 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The general principle governing stimulus generalization in classical conditioning is that generalization is greater when Answer stimuli are very similar to the original conditioned stimulus. stimuli are very different from the original conditioned stimulus. tactile stimulation is used rather than auditory stimulation. auditory stimulation is used rather than visual stimulation. Add Question Here Question 93 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Lisa was a child, she was bitten by a German Shepard dog in her backyard. Which of the following stimuli is she most likely to demonstrate stimulus generalization to? Answer horses a white picket fence any dog the grass Add Question Here Question 94 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Continuing to pair a specific CS and US, but periodically presenting stimuli similar to the CS and not pairing them with the US, should result in Answer stimulus discrimination. stimulus generalization. extinction. response attenuation. Add Question Here Question 95 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If a dog salivates to a blue light and not to a yellow light, the dog is showing evidence of Answer spontaneous recovery. conditioned emotional reactions. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 96 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In classical conditioning, a subject can learn to respond to one CS but not to another similar CS. This is the phenomenon of Answer extinction. stimulus generalization. conditioned forgetting. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 97 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Lindsay was nine years old, the neighbor's chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer preparedness. stimulus discrimination. stimulus generalization. negative avoidance. Add Question Here Question 98 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Antonio was sick as a child, his mother would always make him vanilla pudding; to Antonio it seemed like the vanilla pudding made him feel better. Even now, he still gets a good feeling when he starts to prepare some vanilla pudding, but not when he starts to make any other type of pudding. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer stimulus generalization. preparedness. stimulus discrimination. negative avoidance. Add Question Here Question 99 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When an organism that has learned a conditioned response also responds with the same response to a new stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus, it is referred to as Answer extinction. spontaneous recovery. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 100 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If a dog that has been classically conditioned to salivate when shown a square also salivates when shown a rectangle, the dog's behavior illustrates Answer stimulus discrimination. response discrimination. stimulus generalization. response generalization. Add Question Here Question 101 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When an organism responds to a specific stimulus or conditioned stimulus and doesn't respond to another stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus, it is referred to as Answer stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. extinction. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 102 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following statements regarding stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination is correct? Answer the more similar the new stimulus is to the original CS, the greater the likelihood of stimulus discrimination the more dissimilar the new stimulus is to the original CS, the greater the likelihood of stimulus generalization for stimulus discrimination to occur, the organism needs experience with both the original CS and the new stimulus for stimulus generalization to occur, the organism needs experience with both the original CS and the new stimulus Add Question Here Question 103 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If a dog that has been classically conditioned to salivate when shown a square does not salivate when shown a triangle, the dog's behavior illustrates Answer stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. response generalization. response discrimination. Add Question Here Question 104 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In Watson's famous "Little Albert" experiment, Albert was classically conditioned to Answer press a button to receive a cookie. show a positive response to a white rat. show a fear response to a loud noise. show a fear response to a white rat. Add Question Here Question 105 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Watson's famous "Little Albert" experiment demonstrated both classical conditioning and Answer stimulus generalization. extinction. stimulus discrimination. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 106 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A dog is first conditioned to salivate to a tone. Then, a light is paired with the tone for a number of trials. Finally, the light is presented alone, and the dog responds. This procedure is known as Answer chaining higher-order conditioning. compound conditioning. sensory preconditioning. Add Question Here Question 107 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In higher-order conditioning ____ now functions as if it were ____. Answer a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned stimulus an unconditioned stimulus; a conditioned stimulus a conditioned response; an unconditioned response an unconditioned response; a conditioned response Add Question Here Question 108 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You have conditioned a fear response to a 1000-Hz tone. Now the tone is paired with a green light. Later, the green light alone elicits fear. This is an example of Answer stimulus generalization. preparedness. a discriminated conditioned response. higher-order conditioning. Add Question Here Question 109 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Six-year-old Kristen is afraid of balloons because a balloon once popped in her face while she was holding it. Last week she went to the circus and there was a clown holding a huge assortment of helium balloons. Now she is also afraid of clowns, even though none of the balloons the clown was holding popped. Kristen's fear of clowns illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer higher-order conditioning. preparedness. spontaneous recovery. the renewal effect. Add Question Here Question 110 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Ken has been conditioned to be afraid of snow. For a number of weeks during November and December snow is repeatedly presented with Santa Claus; now Ken is also fearful of Santa Claus. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of Answer stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. higher order conditioning. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 111 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate to the sound of a tone. He then paired a light with the tone until the dog salivated to the light alone. This is an example of Answer stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. spontaneous recovery. higher-order conditioning. Add Question Here Question 112 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question To demonstrate higher-order conditioning, it is necessary to Answer pair a new stimulus with the CS. pair the CS with a new US. repeatedly present the CS without presenting the US. employ discrimination training. Add Question Here Question 113 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which Answer responses come to be controlled by their consequences. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others' behavior. involuntary responses are slowly replaced by voluntary responses. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another stimulus. Add Question Here Question 114 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In the 1930s learning that is influenced by stimuli that follow the response was christened "operant conditioning" by Answer Ivan Pavlov. John Watson. B. F. Skinner. Edward Thorndike. Add Question Here Question 115 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Classical conditioning is to ____ responses; as operant conditioning is to ____. Answer voluntary; involuntary reflexive; involuntary involuntary; reflexive reflexive; voluntary Add Question Here Question 116 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Learning to tie one's shoes is most likely acquired via the process of Answer operant conditioning. reflexive conditioning. spontaneous recovery. classical conditioning. Add Question Here Question 117 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Dillon is four years old, and his parents want to teach him to say "please" and "thank you." They will be most successful in altering Dillon's behavior if they use Answer classical conditioning higher-order conditioning non-contingent reinforcement operant conditioning Add Question Here Question 118 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question April wants to teach her cat not to claw at the arms of her couch. She will be most successful in reducing the cat's scratching behavior if she uses Answer classical conditioning. higher-order conditioning. observational learning. operant conditioning. Add Question Here Question 119 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question While ____ is most closely associated with classical conditioning, ____ is most closely associated with operant conditioning. Answer Skinner; Pavlov Pavlov; Skinner Pavlov; Bandura Bandura; Skinner Add Question Here Question 120 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The type of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences is Answer observational learning. classical conditioning. operant conditioning. reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 121 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which Answer an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. a stimulus acquires the capacity evoke to a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences. an organism's tendency to give a response reappears after a period of time. Add Question Here Question 122 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Thorndike's work with hungry cats in a puzzle box lead him to attribute the cat's learning to a principle he called Answer classical conditioning. the law of effect. latent learning. operant conditioning. Add Question Here Question 123 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The law of effect states that ____ lead to ____ of the association between the stimulus and a response. Answer reinforcers; weakening punishers; strengthening strong unconditioned stimuli; quickening satisfying events; strengthening Add Question Here Question 124 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Responses that are followed by satisfying consequences increase in probability. This is a statement of Thorndike's law of Answer exercise. contiguity. effect. operants. Add Question Here Question 125 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The researcher who studied the ability of cats to learn to escape from puzzle boxes was Answer Bandura. Pavlov. Thorndike. Skinner. Add Question Here Question 126 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The statement "if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened" is the definition of Answer reinforcement. the law of effect. latent learning. acquisition. Add Question Here Question 127 Multiple Choice Question The law of effect was developed by Answer Bandura. Pavlov. Thorndike. Skinner. 0 points Modify Remove Add Question Here Question 128 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question According to Skinner, the fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that organisms tend to repeat those responses that. Answer reduce a biological need. are followed by favorable consequences. decrease the probability of the consequence that produced it. increase a biological need. Add Question Here Question 129 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it Answer reduces a biological need. induces a biological need. increases the probability of the response that produced it. decreases the probability of the response that produced it. Add Question Here Question 130 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Cassie asked her father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as Answer a discriminative stimulus. a reinforcer. a conditioned response. a conditioned stimulus. Add Question Here Question 131 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A small enclosure used by psychologists to study learning in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences are systematically controlled is known as a Answer Watson maze. Skinner box. classical conditioning chamber. cumulative recorder. Add Question Here Question 132 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of a reinforcer are called Answer reinforcement contingencies. stimulus contiguities. schedules of reinforcement. antecedents. Add Question Here Question 133 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In a Skinner box, the cumulative recorder Answer permits the experimenter to control the reinforcement contingencies. provides a complete record of everything the animal does. delivers the reinforcers. creates a graphic record of operant responding as a function of time. Add Question Here Question 134 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In the cumulative record, a rapid response rate is indicated by ____; a slow response rate is indicated by ____. Answer a shallow slope; a steep slope a steep slope; a shallow slope an upward slope; a downward slope a downward slope; an upward slope Add Question Here Question 135 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In a cumulative record of responses from a Skinner box, a steep slope in the line indicates Answer poorly planned reinforcement contingencies. slow responding taking place. fast responding taking place. extinction has occurred. Add Question Here Question 136 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a pigeon pecking a disk in a small chamber. There is a cumulative recorder connected to the disk. While you are watching, the pigeon is pecking at a slow, steady rate. Based on this information, you can predict that the line on the cumulative recorder will Answer have a steep, upward slope. have a shallow, upward slope. have a shallow, downward slope. have a steep, downward slope. Add Question Here Question 137 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Nate is watching the cumulative recorder that is connected to a box where a rat is pressing a lever to receive food reinforcement. The slope of the line is becoming flatter and flatter over time. Based on this output, Nate can conclude that the rat's response rate Answer is increasing over time. will soon show spontaneous recovery. is decreasing over time. is caused by inadequate stimulus generalization. Add Question Here Question 138 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a cumulative recorder that is connected to a small disk in a chamber. The pigeon has been trained to peck the disk when a red light is turned on, and not to peck the disk when a green light is turned on. Based on this information, you should observe that when the green light is turned on, Answer the slope of the line on the cumulative recorder will be steeper than when the red light is turned on. the pen on the cumulative recorder will start to move downward. the slope of the line on the cumulative recorder will be shallower than when the red light is turned on. the roll of paper in the cumulative recorder will stop moving. Add Question Here Question 139 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question An event following a response which increases an organism's tendency to make that response again is referred to as Answer a reinforcer. a conditioned stimulus. an unconditioned stimulus. a discriminative stimulus. Add Question Here Question 140 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Food is an example of ____; praise is an example of ____. Answer a primary reinforcer; a primary reinforcer a primary reinforcer; a secondary reinforcer a secondary reinforcer; a secondary reinforcer a secondary reinforcer; a primary reinforcer Add Question Here Question 141 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer? Answer approval food a toy for a child money Add Question Here Question 142 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following is NOT an example of a secondary reinforcer? Answer approval a toy for a child food money Add Question Here Question 143 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Primary reinforcers are effective because Answer they satisfy basic biological survival needs. we inherently want approval for our actions. they have been associated with secondary reinforcers and have become reinforcing. the organism has learned to want them. Add Question Here Question 144 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Primary reinforcers ____, while secondary reinforcers ____. Answer depend on learning; satisfy biological needs satisfy biological needs; depend on learning are associated with classical conditioning; are associated with operant conditioning are associated with operant conditioning; are associated with classical conditioning Add Question Here Question 145 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Chimps are trained to perform a variety of tasks to get coins. The coins could then be traded in for banana chips which could be eaten. The coins served as a Answer primary reinforcer. negative reinforcer. secondary reinforcer. partial reinforcer. Add Question Here Question 146 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat responses that are followed by favorable consequences. Skinner termed these favorable consequences Answer unconditioned stimuli. rewards. reinforcements. bribes. Add Question Here Question 147 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question While out trick-or-treating for Halloween, at first Billy's neighbors had to remind him to say "trick or treat" before they dropped their treats into his bag. As he continued to visit houses in the neighborhood, soon Billy would say "trick or treat" as soon as the neighbors answered the door. The treats he received were the ____ for his saying "trick or treat". Answer conditioned stimulus reinforcement reward discriminative stimulus Add Question Here Question 148 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The key dependent variable measured in operant conditioning studies is Answer the strength of the CR. the strength of the UR. the organism's reinforcement rate. the organism's response rate. Add Question Here Question 149 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In an operant conditioning study, the device that creates a graphic record of an organism's responding and reinforcement over time is a Answer response monitor. cumulative recorder. Skinner Box. Pavlov Box. Add Question Here Question 150 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If the cumulative record for Rat A has a steep slope, while Rat B's has a shallow slope, you would conclude that Answer Rat A has a higher rate of responding than Rat B. Rat B has a higher rate of responding than Rat A. both Rat A and Rat B have high rates of responding. both Rat A and Rat B have low rates of responding. Add Question Here Question 151 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If, after responding at a steady rate for several minutes a rat pauses and does not respond at all for a period of time, this pause would be reflected in the cumulative record by a Answer horizontal line. vertical line. gradually decreasing slope. gradually increasing slope. Add Question Here Question 152 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Reinforcers that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs are called Answer classical reinforcers. operant reinforcers. primary reinforcers. secondary reinforcers. Add Question Here Question 153 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Primary reinforcers are effective because Answer we want approval for our actions. they have been associated with secondary reinforcers. they satisfy biological needs. the organism has learned to desire them. Add Question Here Question 154 Multiple Choice Question Secondary reinforcers Answer satisfy biological needs. 0 points Modify Remove acquire reinforcing qualities through association with primary reinforcers. are reinforced on intermittent schedules of reinforcement. are less important than primary reinforcers. Add Question Here Question 155 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When as a young child you first realized that you could use money to buy candy and soda, money began to become an effective Answer secondary reinforcer. primary reinforcer. operant reinforcer. classical reinforcer. Add Question Here Question 156 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called Answer stimulus discrimination. selection. shaping. step-wise conditioning. Add Question Here Question 157 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Learning to ride a bicycle is most likely acquired via the process of Answer classical conditioning. shaping. spontaneous recovery. innate stimulus release. Add Question Here Question 158 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Danny's skill at hitting a baseball gradually improves as his attempts produce more frequent and longer-distance hits. This is an example of Answer shaping. stimulus generalization. extinction. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 159 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Laura commands her new puppy to "Shake!" lifts his paw, and then reinforces him. After several repetitions, she merely touches the dogs paw and says "Shake!" and then reinforces the dog. Later on, she merely extends her hand near the dog's paw and says "Shake!" The dog now raises his paw to shake. In training her dog Laura has used the technique called Answer shaping. stimulus generalization. extinction. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 160 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Universal Studios wants to train a cat to pull a rope as part of an animal act. The probability that the cat will just pull a rope is very low. What technique would be the best choice to use to help the cat learn to emit the desired response? Answer shaping stimulus generalization extinction stimulus discrimination Add Question Here Question 161 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Nicolas has autistic disorder and he was mute. A therapist working with Nicolas initially gave him a piece of chocolate any time he made a sound with his lips. This slowly changed until Nicolas only received a piece of chocolate for saying complete words, and eventually only for saying complete sentences. In this example, Nicolas developed speech skills through the use of Answer classical conditioning. modeling. shaping. negative reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 162 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Jerome is training to be a vacuum cleaner sales person. Initially, he got paid for each customer he called on, even if the customer did not ask for a demonstration. Currently, he only gets paid for actually demonstrating the product. Eventually, he will only get paid for actually closing a sale. In this example, Jerome's sales skills are being developed through the use of Answer classical conditioning. modeling. negative reinforcement. shaping. Add Question Here Question 163 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Summer is teaching herself to type using a computer software package. The first time she used the program, the sentences she was supposed to type scrolled very slowly across the computer screen and when she finished the computer played a clapping sound. However, now she has to type the material faster than her previous "best time" before the computer plays the clapping sound. This computer software package incorporates Answer classical conditioning. modeling. shaping. negative reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 164 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The technique used to teach animals complex tricks, such as teaching pigeons to play ping-pong, is Answer respondent conditioning. continuous reinforcement. programming. shaping. Add Question Here Question 165 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The gradual disappearance of an operant response that is no longer being reinforced is called Answer extinction. unconditioning. conditioned forgetting. spontaneous remission. Add Question Here Question 166 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When reinforcement for a behavior is removed, the consequence will be Answer an immediate weakening and eventual disappearance of the behavior. a brief increase in the frequency with which the behavior is performed, followed by the weakening and eventual disappearance of the behavior. the emergence of superstitious behavior designed to reinstitute the reinforcement. unpredictable unless more information about the nature of the behavior is provided. Add Question Here Question 167 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Kylee used to bring drawings home from her kindergarten class every day, and her parents would put the pictures on the refrigerator and tell Kylee how nice the pictures were. Lately, her parents haven't been putting her artwork on the refrigerator, and now Kylee has stopped bringing drawings home with her. This example illustrates the operant conditioning process of Answer punishment. avoidance. resistance. extinction. Add Question Here Question 168 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Bart used to go to his health club every day after work because he almost always saw Abigail there. For two full weeks Abigail wasn't at the club when Bart went there for his workout, and now Bart has stopped going to his health club. This example illustrates the operant conditioning process of Answer extinction. punishment. avoidance. resistance. Add Question Here Question 169 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You discover that a phone that has always worked no longer does so. You stop using it. In operant conditioning, this would be an example of Answer extinction. punishment. negative reinforcement. intermittent reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 170 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Organisms typically continue to make operant responses, even when those responses are no longer reinforced. This continued responding is called Answer stimulus generalization. reconditioning. higher-order conditioning. resistance to extinction. Add Question Here Question 171 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Jeremy stops gambling five minutes after his slot machine last paid off; Jessica is still gambling, even though her slot machine hasn't paid off in over an hour. In this example, Jeremy's behavior ____ while Jessica's behavior ____. Answer shows low resistance to extinction; shows high resistance to extinction has been classically conditioned; has been operantly conditioned shows high resistance to extinction; shows low resistance to extinction is controlled by conditioned stimuli; is controlled by unconditioned stimuli Add Question Here Question 172 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When resistance to extinction is high, it means that Answer responding will continue for a long time after reinforcement is discontinued responding will taper off quickly when reinforcement is discontinued responding will fail to show spontaneous recovery following a period of extinction shaping was done incorrectly when the initial response was acquired Add Question Here Question 173 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Operant responses are typically established through a gradual process in which closer and closer approximations of the desired response are reinforced. This process is called Answer modeling. shaping. discrimination. learning. Add Question Here Question 174 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If you are "shaping" a child to pick up all his toys, what would you need to do each time the child does a better job of picking up his toys than he did previously? Answer model the correct behavior by picking up the remaining toys give the child a closer approximation to the reinforcement give the child a US give the child a reinforcement Add Question Here Question 175 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If you wanted to teach your pet parakeet to give you a kiss on the cheek, which technique would be most effective? Answer classical conditioning higher-order conditioning modeling shaping Add Question Here Question 176 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Extinction of an operantly conditioned response occurs when the response Answer is followed by continuous reinforcement. is followed by intermittent reinforcement. is no longer associated with the CS. is no longer followed by reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 177 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If you have finally succeeded in getting your dog to stop begging for food from the table while the family is eating dinner by making sure no one in the family ever gives the dog table-scraps, it is most accurate to say that you have ____ the dog's begging response. Answer shaped punished extinguished reinforced Add Question Here Question 178 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question An operantly conditioned response that is very durable and relatively hard to extinguish is said to show Answer high resistance to extinction low resistance to extinction high association with reinforcement low association with reinforcement Add Question Here Question 179 Multiple Choice Question A discriminative stimulus is Answer the same thing as a reinforcer. 0 points Modify Remove the same thing as a conditioned stimulus. a cue that indicates the probable consequences of an operant response. a cue that indicates whether the unconditioned stimulus will be pleasant or aversive. Add Question Here Question 180 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A pigeon learns to peck at a disk lighted green to receive reinforcement, but not at a disk lighted red. This means that, for the pigeon, the color of the disk is a Answer reinforcer or nonreinforcer punisher or nonpunisher generalization stimulus discriminative stimulus Add Question Here Question 181 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a rat in a Skinner box, and every time a red light comes on the rat presses the lever in the box. However, when a green light comes on the rat never presses the lever. In this case, it appears that the color of the light is acting as Answer a positive reinforcer for bar pressing. a negative reinforcer for bar pressing. an unconditioned stimulus for bar pressing. a discriminative stimulus for bar pressing. Add Question Here Question 182 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Julie has a desk right next to her manager's office. Whenever her manager is in his office, Julie makes sure that she works hard at her computer. However, if the manager is away from his office she often works much more slowly and takes more breaks. In this case, the manager being in his office is acting as Answer a positive reinforcer for working hard. a negative reinforcer for working hard. a discriminative stimulus for working hard. an unconditioned stimulus for working hard. Add Question Here Question 183 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Ronnie is 8 years old and loves candy. He has learned that when his parents are home whining and begging for candy does not work; however when his babysitter is with him the whining and begging always results in candy. In Ronnie's case his babysitter acts as Answer a generalizing stimulus for candy availability. a discriminative stimulus for candy availability. an unconditioned stimulus for candy availability. a positive reinforcer for candy availability. Add Question Here Question 184 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When you approach a traffic light and see a red light, you stop. On the other hand, when you approach that same light and see a green light, you continue driving. This example illustrates Answer stimulus generalization. extinction. stimulus discrimination. spontaneous recovery. Add Question Here Question 185 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A child asks to be allowed to stay up an extra half hour only when his mother is in a good mood. This is an example of Answer acquisition. shaping. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 186 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Micah really liked his mom's homemade apple pie, and he would eat a huge slice whenever she made some. When he went to visit with a friend, he tried some apple pie that the friend's brother had made, and it tasted terrible. Now Micah will only eat his mom's apple pie; if anyone else offers him apple pie he politely turns that person down. Micah's behavior toward apple pie illustrates the concept of Answer stimulus discrimination. stimulus generalization. noncontingent reinforcement. observational learning. Add Question Here Question 187 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question After owning a car with a manual transmission, Don buys a car with an automatic transmission. When first driving his new car, he keeps reaching for the nonexistent clutch and gearshift. This is an example of Answer acquisition. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. shaping. Add Question Here Question 188 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Kristen asks her grandmother for a cookie, her grandmother usually gives her one. Last week at the park, Kristen's mother was embarrassed when Kristen walked up to five different elderly ladies and asked them for cookies. Kristen's behavior illustrates the concept of Answer unconditioned reinforcement. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. observational learning. Add Question Here Question 189 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Warren's cat has learned to purr and rub against him whenever the cat hears the sound of the can opener. Lately, Warren has noticed that his cat behaves the same way when Warren uses his blender. What is Warren's cat is demonstrating? Answer unconditioned reinforcement observational learning stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Add Question Here Question 190 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The basic principles of gradual acquisition, extinction, stimulus generalization, and discrimination apply Answer to both classical and operant conditioning. only to classical conditioning. only to operant conditioning. to learning by animals, but not to learning by people. Add Question Here Question 191 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response are referred to as Answer reinforcement-extinction stimuli. generalization stimuli. discriminative stimuli. operant stimuli. Add Question Here Question 192 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question At preschool, Jessi has learned that she must wash her hands before snack-time in order to get a snack. At home, she has started to wash her hands before eating. Jessi's behavior illustrates the process of Answer stimulus discrimination. stimulus generalization. response generalization. response discrimination. Add Question Here Question 193 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question At preschool, Jessi has learned that she must wash her hands before snack-time in order to get a snack. At home, however, her parents do not check to make sure she washes her hands. When she is home, Jessi does not wash her hands before eating. Jessi's behavior illustrates the process of Answer response generalization. response discrimination. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 194 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A rat is reinforced for responding when a green light is on and is not reinforced for responding when a red light is on. As a result of stimulus discrimination, the rat Answer will stop responding to both the green and red lights. will respond equally to the green and red lights. will respond primarily to the green light. will respond primarily to the red light. Add Question Here Question 195 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Six-year-old Sam only asks his Dad if he can stay up past his bedtime and never asks his Mom. Most likely, his Dad is ____ and Dad can be considered to be a ____. Answer more likely to say "yes"; discriminative stimuli more likely to say "yes"; generalized stimuli less likely to say "yes"; discriminative stimuli less likely to say "yes"; generalized stimuli Add Question Here Question 196 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Continuous reinforcement occurs when Answer reinforcement is delivered continually, regardless of whether or not a response is made. it is not known in advance what responses will be reinforced. every behavior engaged in by the subject is reinforced. every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced. Add Question Here Question 197 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When a researcher does not reinforce every correct response that an organism makes, it is referred to as Answer continuous reinforcement. extinction. intermittent reinforcement. punishment. Add Question Here Question 198 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule? Answer continuous reinforcement fixed-interval variable-interval variable-ratio Add Question Here Question 199 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on Answer a continuous reinforcement schedule. a noncontingent reinforcement schedule. an intermittent reinforcement schedule. a short-delay reinforcement schedule. Add Question Here Question 200 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Slot machines increase gambling behavior through the use of Answer a continuous reinforcement schedule. a noncontingent reinforcement schedule. an intermittent reinforcement schedule. a short-delay reinforcement schedule. Add Question Here Question 201 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Relative to extinction following continuous reinforcement, extinction following intermittent reinforcement Answer proceeds more slowly. proceeds more rapidly. occurs at the same rate. is longer lasting. Add Question Here Question 202 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Behaviors that are acquired through intermittent, or partial, reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement are Answer slower to be established, but more resistant to extinction. faster to be established and more resistant to extinction. slower to be established, but less resistant to extinction. faster to be established, but less resistant to extinction. Add Question Here Question 203 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was Answer reinforced every time it occurred. shaped. reinforced intermittently. reinforced by your parents. Add Question Here Question 204 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Raul's parents make certain they thank Raul every time he clears the dishes from the table without being asked. Sadie's parents try to remember to thank Sadie every time she clears the table without being asked, but about half the time they forget. Based on principles of operant conditioning, you should predict that Answer both children's table clearing will be equally resistant to extinction. Sadie's table clearing will be more resistant to extinction than Raul's. Raul's table clearing will be more resistant to extinction than Sadie's. Raul will develop stimulus generalization, and Sadie will develop stimulus discrimination. Add Question Here Question 205 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A salesperson earns a commission for each item of clothing she sells. Commission on the clothing sales is an example of which type of reinforcement schedule? Answer fixed-ratio variable-interval fixed-interval variable-ratio Add Question Here Question 206 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A worker receives $1.00 for every two units he assembles. He is being paid on a ____ schedule. Answer fixed-ratio schedule variable-ratio schedule fixed-interval schedule variable-interval schedule Add Question Here Question 207 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In terms of reinforcement schedules, interval schedules always relate to the Answer elapsed time between reinforcements. number of responses given. number of reinforcements given. length of the training period. Add Question Here Question 208 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Ratio schedules always relate to the Answer elapsed time between reinforcements. number of responses given. number of reinforcements given. length of the training period. Add Question Here Question 209 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for each three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a Answer fixed-ratio schedule. variable-ratio schedule. fixed-interval schedule. variable-interval schedule. Add Question Here Question 210 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Maxwell runs a lawn care service and he charges his clients based on the square footage of their yard, rather than charging an hourly rate for his services. In this example, Maxwell is working on Answer a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement. a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement. a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 211 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A worker gets paid every Friday for completing his 40 hour work week. He is being paid on a ____ schedule. Answer fixed-ratio variable-ratio fixed-interval variable-interval Add Question Here Question 212 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat is pressing the lever at a very high rate, but it takes a break from lever pressing each time a food pellet is delivered. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is MOST likely Answer a fixed-interval schedule. a variable-ratio schedule. a variable-interval schedule. a fixed-ratio schedule. Add Question Here Question 213 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given Answer after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses. after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. for the first response that occurs after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. for the first response that occurs after a variable amount of time has elapsed. Add Question Here Question 214 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on Answer a fixed-ratio schedule. a fixed-interval schedule. a variable-ratio schedule. a variable-interval schedule. Add Question Here Question 215 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat is pressing the lever at a very high rate, and does not stop, even when a food pellet is delivered. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is MOST likely Answer a fixed-interval schedule. a variable-ratio schedule. a fixed-ratio schedule. a variable-interval schedule. Add Question Here Question 216 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers will have their "watching" reinforced on Answer a fixed-ratio schedule. a variable-ratio schedule. a variable-interval schedule. a fixed-interval schedule. Add Question Here Question 217 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat pauses for a long time after each food pellet is delivered, but slowly increases its rate of lever pressing as more time elapses. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is MOST likely Answer a variable-ratio schedule. a fixed-interval schedule. a variable-interval schedule. a fixed-ratio schedule. Add Question Here Question 218 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on Answer a variable-interval schedule. a fixed-ratio schedule. a fixed-interval schedule. a variable-ratio schedule. Add Question Here Question 219 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat is pressing the lever at a slow, steady rate, but it does not stop, even when a food pellet is delivered. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is MOST likely Answer a variable-ratio schedule. a fixed-interval schedule. a variable-interval schedule. a fixed-ratio schedule. Add Question Here Question 220 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Mary takes a course in which she is tested every two weeks. Her studying falls off right after a test, followed by a gradual increase to a rapid rate of studying as the next test approaches. Her studying conforms to the typical pattern of responding maintained on Answer fixed-ratio schedules. variable-ratio schedules. fixed-interval schedules. variable-interval schedules. Add Question Here Question 221 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Given the same frequency of reinforcement, ____ schedules generate higher rates of responding than do ____ schedules. Answer interval; ratio fixed; variable ratio; interval variable; fixed Add Question Here Question 222 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Your employer gives merit wage increases at the same time each year. This is an example of which schedule of reinforcement? Answer fixed-ratio schedules variable-ratio schedules fixed-interval schedules variable-interval schedules Add Question Here Question 223 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Given the same overall frequency of reinforcement on a fixed and a variable schedule of reinforcement, you should predict that the variable reinforcement schedule will tend to produce Answer more breaks in responding and lower resistance to extinction. steadier response rates but lower resistance to extinction. more breaks in responding but greater resistance to extinction. steadier response rates and greater resistance to extinction. Add Question Here Question 224 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When animals or humans are shifted to higher fixed ratio schedules, which require more responses to obtain each reinforcer, the typical result is Answer a decrease in the overall rate of responding. more pauses between responses. faster extinction of the operant response. an increase in the overall rate of responding. Add Question Here Question 225 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A schedule of reinforcement is Answer the reinforcement of closer and closer approximation of a desired response. a specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time. a pattern of resistance to extinction. a description of whether positive or negative reinforcement is in use. Add Question Here Question 226 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When a researcher reinforces every instance of a designated response, it is referred to as Answer primary reinforcement. secondary reinforcement. continuous reinforcement. intermittent reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 227 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When a researcher only reinforces a designated response some of the time, it is referred to as Answer primary reinforcement. secondary reinforcement. continuous reinforcement. intermittent reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 228 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question While new responses are more easily established with ____ reinforcement, responses maintained with ____ reinforcement are more resistant to extinction. Answer continuous; intermittent intermittent; continuous primary; secondary secondary; primary Add Question Here Question 229 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In a FR schedule, the reinforcement is given Answer after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses. for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed. Add Question Here Question 230 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If an employee of a company that conducts telephone surveys receives $1.00 for every three completed surveys he conducts, he is being paid on a ____ schedule. Answer fixed ratio fixed interval variable ratio variable interval Add Question Here Question 231 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A reinforcement is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses in a(n) ____ schedule. Answer FI FR VI VR Add Question Here Question 232 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If you wanted a rat in a Skinner Box to respond with both a high and steady rate of responding, you should use which type of schedule of reinforcement? Answer fixed ratio variable ratio fixed interval variable interval Add Question Here Question 233 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Many people find it hard to "walk away from" or stop playing a slot machine. This is because slot machines reward playing on a ____ schedule. Answer fixed ratio variable ratio fixed interval variable interval Add Question Here Question 234 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When describing schedules of reinforcement, the key factor in interval schedules is Answer elapsed time. number of responses given. number of reinforcements given. length of the training period. Add Question Here Question 235 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In a FI schedule, the reinforcement is given Answer for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed. after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses. Add Question Here Question 236 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A reinforcement is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed in a(n) ____ schedule. Answer FR FI VR VI Add Question Here Question 237 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Beth goes with her Dad to the grocery store, she always asks him to buy chocolate ice cream. Approximately once a month he will purchase the ice cream. Beth's asking for chocolate ice cream is being reinforced on a ____ schedule. Answer variable ratio variable interval fixed interval fixed ratio Add Question Here Question 238 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Immediately after being reinforced, a rat on which schedule of reinforcement would show the longest pause before its next response? Answer fixed ratio variable ratio fixed interval variable interval Add Question Here Question 239 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Positive reinforcement involves Answer the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus. the removal of a pleasant stimulus. the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Add Question Here Question 240 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Tessa really likes to mow the lawn during the summer months, but her parents will only let her mow the lawn if all the dishes are washed. Consequently, every Saturday Tessa has the table cleared and all of the dishes washed as soon as everyone has finished breakfast. In this case, Answer mowing the lawn is a negative reinforcer for doing the dishes. doing the dishes is a positive reinforcer for mowing the lawn. mowing the lawn is a positive reinforcer for doing the dishes. doing the dishes is a negative reinforcer for mowing the lawn. Add Question Here Question 241 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question When Skyler was first training his dog, Smooches, to heel he would give Smooches a treat when she stayed close during walks. Now Smooches stays right by Skyler's side, even when she is not on her leash. In this case, Answer the dog treats were negative reinforcers for staying close. the staying close was a positive reinforcer for receiving dog treats. the staying close was a negative reinforcer for receiving dog treats. the dog treats were positive reinforcers for staying close. Add Question Here Question 242 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Every time Brianna does the dishes her parents give her a dollar. What type of reinforcement are Brianna's parents using? Answer classical conditioning positive reinforcement punishment negative reinforcement Add Question Here Question 243 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Negative reinforcement involves Answer the presentation of a pleasant stimulus. the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus. the removal of a pleasant stimulus. the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Add Question Here Question 244 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to Answer classical conditioning. positive reinforcement. punishers. negative reinforcement. Add Question Here Question 245 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Nancy has a headache; she takes some aspirin and the headache goes away. Nancy is more likely to take aspirin again. This is an example of Answer negative reinforcement. classical conditioning. positive reinforcement. punishers. Add Question Here Question 246 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? Answer giving a child a sweet dessert as a reward for finishing his dinner paying a child $1 for each "A" received on her report card stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room cutting a child's TV time by 30 minutes each time she "talks back" Add Question Here Question 247 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ____; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for ____. Answer negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement negative reinforcement; negative reinforcement positive reinforcement; positive reinforcement Add Question Here Question 248 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Henry received a bad sunburn on his face when he was skiing last winter. Now, before he starts a day of skiing, he uses a sunscreen on his face to prevent another sunburn. In this case, avoiding a sunburn functions as Answer a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen. a positive reinforcer for using a sunscreen. a conditioned stimulus for using a sunscreen. an unconditioned stimulus for using a sunscreen. Add Question Here Question 249 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question McKenna had an unplanned pregnancy when she was 19 years old. Following her pregnancy, McKenna started taking a birth control pill each day to prevent another pregnancy. In this case, Answer preventing a pregnancy acts as a positive reinforcer for taking birth control pills. taking birth control pills acts as a negative reinforcer for preventing a pregnancy. taking birth control pills acts as a positive reinforcer for preventing a pregnancy. preventing a pregnancy acts as a negative reinforcer for taking birth control pills. Add Question Here Question 250 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Negative reinforcement Answer is the removal of an aversive condition following a response. weakens the preceding behavior. is the onset of an aversive condition following a response. works just the opposite to positive reinforcement. Add Question Here

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ASU - PGS - 11653
Name Chapter 5 B-Variations in Consciousness Description InstructionsModifyAdd Question HereQuestion 1Multiple Choice0 pointsModifyRemoveQuestion Meditation refers to a group of practices that are designed to Answer produce a heightened state of s
ASU - PGS - 11653
Name Chapter 5 A-Variations in Consciousness Description InstructionsModifyAdd Question HereQuestion 1Multiple Choice0 pointsModifyRemoveQuestion Consciousness includes awareness of Answer external events only. internal sensations only. self only.
ASU - PGS - 11653
Name Chapter 4 B-Sensation and Perception Description InstructionsModifyAdd Question HereQuestion 1Multiple Choice0 pointsModifyRemoveQuestion The actual, direct receptors for hearing are the Answer ossicles. cochleas. hair cells. basilar cells. A
ASU - PGS - 11653
Name Chapter 4 A-Sensation and Perception Description InstructionsModifyAdd Question HereQuestion 1Multiple Choice0 pointsModifyRemoveQuestion Technically, your absolute threshold is the point which you can detect Answer a stimulus 50 percent of t
USC - BUAD - 14900
More on Capacity ManagementBUAD311 Operations Management Session 4 Hiroshi Ochiumi1More on Capacity ManagementSo far, we analyzed the process given the capacity. How much capacity do we need to meet the demand?2Capacity Requirement: ExampleKristen
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Waiting Line ManagementBUAD311 Session 6 Hiroshi Ochiumi1ObjectivesUnderstanding the phenomenon of waiting Measures of waiting line systems Waiting time, number of waiting ordersImpact of variability/uncertainty & utilization rate Risk pooling effec
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Waiting Line TheoryBUAD311 Session 7 Hiroshi Ochiumi1ObjectivesClassification of waiting line systems Formula/macro for waiting line calculation2Classification of Waiting LinesThe characteristics of a queuing system is captured by five parameters:
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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Marshall School of Business BUAD 311 - Operations Management Fall 2009 Instructors: Office: Office Hours: Phone: Email: Instructors: Office: Office Hours: Phone: Email: Course Description How do organizations such as fina
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Illustrative Exam 1 Questions1 Solutions BUAD311 Operations Management Fall 2009 Hiroshi OchiumiSection A: Multiple Choices Circle only one. 1. Which of the following statement is correct? a) Make-to-order systems are better than make-to-stock systems. b
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Illustrative Exam 1 Questions1 BUAD311 Operations Management Fall 2009 Hiroshi OchiumiSection A: Multiple Choices Circle only one. 1. Which of the following statement is correct? a) Make-to-order systems are better than make-to-stock systems. b) Make-to-
USC - BUAD - 14900
Name: (please print)Quiz 1 Solutions Process Analysis and Capacity Management BUAD311 Operations Management September 10, 2009 Instructor: Hiroshi Ochiumi20 minutes.There are two pages, including this page. All together the quiz has a maximum of 50 poi
USC - BUAD - 14900
Introduction to Operations ManagementBUAD311 Operations Management Session 1 Hiroshi Ochiumi1Course ReadingsTextbook Jacobs, Chase, and Aquilano, Operations and Supply Management, 12th edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008Case and Article Readings Bookl
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Measures: Capacity, Time, and MoreBUAD311 Operations Management Session 3 Hiroshi Ochiumi1ObjectivesHow do we quantitatively evaluate a process? Capacity Time Other?2Analyzing Business ProcessInputs T Outputs ransformation ProcessOur purpose is t
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Littles LawBUAD311 Operations Management Session 5 Hiroshi Ochiumi1ObjectivesLittles Law A general rule that links various performance measures2MeasurementCapacity Throughput Time Throughput Rate WIP3What is the relationship?Throughput Rate Thr
USC - BUAD - 14900
models How to choose a queueing modelAll models in this workbook are Poisson arrivals, infinite population, and FCFS. The models differ by (1) the service time distribution (exponential, constant or general) (2) the number of servers (single server or mu
USC - BUAD - 350
Chapter 18 Openness in Goods and Financial MarketsMeasure of Openness: Ratio of exports to GDP. In USA, it is11%. Another measure is the ratio of exports to tradable goods. Tradable goods are goods like cars and computers. Tradable goods excludes goods
USC - BUAD - 350
Chapter 19 The good Market in an Open EconomyTrade: Goods we buy from other countries are called imports. Goods we sell to other countries are called exports. If imports > exports, we have trade deficit. If imports < exports we have trade surplus. Goods
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CircularFlowModelTheCircularFlowModeloftheeconomyshowshow interactionsamongparticipantsinaneconomyaffects theeconomy.Assumptions: Foursectorsorparticipantsofeveryeconomyare: Households,Firms,Government,andInternational TheultimateowneroffactorsofProduc
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MacroeconomicsDr.Safarzadeh Chapter7 Chapter8 Chapter9 Chapter10 Chapter11 Chapter12 Chapter13 Chapter14Chapter7:PuttingAllMarketsTogetherTheADASModelAggregatePriceLevel:Keynesian/ClassicalControversy: ClassicalEconomics:Assumptions: FlexiblePricesa
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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Marshall School of Business BUAD 350: The Firm in the National Economy Fall 2006 Prof. Safarzadeh A practice on Chapters 8 and 9 theories Student Name: _Answer the questions in the spaces provided. All the students are r
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Perception & Schemata Assignment The purpose of this exercise is to provide you with a concrete understanding of how you use cognitive schemata to organize your perceptions of others. 1) Provide an example of each of the 4 schemata types as they might app
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Perception&Strategic BusinessCommunication (Introduction)Steven Werber, Ph.D. BUAD 302PerceptionWhat we see or hear is not necessarily what we see or hear. Believe half of what you see and nothing of what you hear.Implications for ManagersTodaywewill
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STAR Homework Please prepare the following using the STAR METHOD of answering questions: Tell me about a time when you encountered a significant problem in your work or life in general. S = situation (describe the situation briefly) T = task (describe the
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10/15/09USCPPD318 FinancialAccountinginPublicandNonProfitOrganizationsSYLLABUSFall2009Monday6:00PMVKC210INSTRUCTOR: RobertSmythesurfsmythe@aol.comorrobert.smythe@probation.lacounty.gov Telephone(562)9402516,cell(562)5057288,Fax(562)8034666 OFFICE:byap
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Epidemiological Research effects of health-related practices and behaviors are based on correlational reserach not on controlled experimentation ex) heavy cell phone use tied to poorer sperm quality, If variable X and Y are correlated, then 1) X is a caus
UCSD - ECON -
Econ 1 ELEMENTS OF ECONOMICS Foster, UCSD TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS A. Terminology 1. Definitions:LECTURE NOTES October 09a) What is Economics? 1) Study of production and distribution of goods and services, and of the distribution and spending o
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Econ 1 ELEMENTS OF ECONOMICS 1 Foster, UCSD TOPIC 2 DEMAND, SUPPLY & ELASTICITY A. Consumer and Market Demand 1. Individual Consumer Demand Functions and Curves: a) Definition of demand.LECTURE NOTES 15-Oct-09b) An individual consumer's demand function
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Econ 1 PRINCIPLES OF MICROECONOMICS Foster, UCSD TOPIC 3 APPLICATIONS A. Price Controls 1. Price Ceilings: a) Defn and effects. [Fig. 1] 1) A price ceiling is a law establishing a maximum legal price that may be charged for some good. 2) If Pmax < P*, res
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Econ 1 PRINCIPLES OF MICROECONOMICS Foster, UCSD TOPIC 4 UTILITY & VALUE A. Utility Functions and Basic Definitions 1. Introduction to Utility:LECTURE NOTES 15-Oct-09a) Utility and purposive behavior. 1) People consume goods and engage in economic activ
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Econ 1 and 2 ELEMENTS OF ECONOMICS 2 Foster, UCSD TOPIC 7 - MONOPOLY A. Review of Profit Maximization Rules (from Topic 5) 1. Revenue Functions: [Fig. 1]LECTURE NOTES 15-Oct-09a) Let xd = d(P) be demand for the output of an individual firm. 1) If firm c
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Econ 1 ELEMENTS OF ECONOMICS Foster, UCSD TOPIC 6 - PERFECT COMPETITION A. Introduction to Industrial Organization and Market Structure 1. Industrial Organization: Definition The IO Paradigm 2. Dimensions of Structure/Conduct/Performance:LECTURE NOTES No
Delaware - PHIL - 102
INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHYLECTURE 16 UTILITARIANISM 21UTILITARIANISM REVIEW Two parts: [1] A Theory of The Good: A theory of what kinds of states of affairs (ways the world could be) are intrinsically good. [2] Impartial Maximizing Consequentialism: Th
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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHYLECTURE 21 MORAL SKEPTICISM1MORAL SKEPTICISM Moral skepticism = the view that we have no good reason to believe any moral claim.Moral nihilism = there are no objective moral truths/facts.2IMPLICATIONS OF MORAL SKEPTICISM If
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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHYLECTURE 20 VARIETIES OF EGOISM1THREE KINDS OF EGOISM Ethical Egoism = morality requires that each person always act so as to maximize their own well-being. Psychological Egoism = each person is always ultimately motivated only
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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHYLECTURE 22 FREE WILL 11DETERMINISM & INDETERMINISM 1 The Garden of Forking Paths - Indeterminism - DeterminismThe Universe Restarted - Indeterminism - Determinism2DETERMINISM & INDETERMINISM 2 Determinism = Given the causal
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UniversityofSouthernCaliforniaBUAD307 LarsPerner,Ph.D.,Instructor MarketingFundamentals Spring,2009PROJECTPROPOSALName: Email: brandnameifnewbrand) Thisprojectinvolves: Thisis: Thisventureisintendedas Ifthisisforanexistingfirm,pleasespecifythefirm: Cli
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Kaplan NOTE: READ ALL PAGES OF THIS GUIDELINE VERY CAREFULLY ANALYTICAL RESEARCH PAPER The research paper is designed to give you the opportunity to apply background information (course themes), analytical skills, and theories learned in class to particul
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AUTHOR: TITLE: SOURCE:Nye,JosephS. SoftPowerandAmericanForeignPolicy PoliticalScienceQuarterly119no225570Summ2004Themagazinepublisheristhecopyrightholderofthisarticleanditisreproducedwithpermission. Furtherreproductionofthisarticleinviolationofthecopyri
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IBISWorld and ACMR China Industry Report27 August 2009Automobile Manufacturing in China: 3721DISCLAIMER This product has been supplied by IBISWorld Inc. ('IBISWorld') solely for use by its authorized licenses strictly in accordance with their license a
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Consumer Lifestyles in China10 Nov 2008CONSUMER TRENDS Chinas grey populationChina has undergone tumultuous changes in the last few decades, many of which have come together to completely transform C hina s age demographics and family composition. Incr
University of Toronto - ECO - eco456
Denial RateBlack 28.3186%Hispanic 20.0000%White 9.2602%Variable pi_rat hse_inc loan_val probunmpBlack 0.3509891 0.2662664 0.8088478 3.4451330Mean Hispanic 0.3401373 0.2632033 0.7906810 3.7853330White 0.3274625 0.2535323 0.7259712 3.8292010 3 Hispan
ASU - CHM - 238
Introduction: Formyl ferrocene is valuable compound in organic chemistry because it is a great compound to use when preparing chiral ligands (Tang). Formyl ferrocene is usually synthesized through a process called the Vilsmeier reaction, however; the yiel
ASU - GPH - 23108
Oceans 7 Global Landforms 8 Rock Types 10 Fluvial Landforms 10 Glacial Landforms 10 Other Landforms 6 Warm Ocean Destabilizes the Atmosphere Fetch Distance over which wind of certain speeds blows Low tides, High tide, Coriolis effect Climate Effects of Oc
ASU - POS - 77401
Anne KriegerPeriod 3 due March 12, 2008I. Introduction to comparative politics A. Purpose and methods to comparison and classification 1. Organization of Chinas Government Communist state, two governments, Chinese Communist Party and Peoples Republic o
ASU - POS - 77401
Iran Study Guide Theocracy (181) The immediate answer to: Is democracy incompatible with Islam? It is a government strictly ruled by religion Secularization (181) Religion and government ought to be separate Zoroastrianism (182) was a state sponsored reli
Catholic University of America - MKT - 77401
Marketing and Law My definition of Law is Rules enforced by the government or administrators, maintains order for a society. Law Three parts System of rules of conduct established by the government of a society to maintain stability and justice, defines l
ASU - ENG - 88404
Porphyrias Lover Explication 1) Rainy and stormy outside 13) She is infatuated: making him 2) Speaker waits for lover happy/worried 3) Porphyria enters, shuts cold out 15) He knows what to do: He strangles 4) Starts fire her with her hair 5) Her actions g
ASU - POS - 77401
CHAPTER THREE : FEDERALISMA. INTRODUCTION Federalism, a central feature of the American political system, is the division and sharing of power between the national government and the states. The balance of power between the two levels of government has s
ASU - POS - 77401
INTEREST GROUPS A. INTRODUCTIONImagine a person with an intense devotion to a social cause. Lets say that he or she believes strongly in animal rights, or is distressed about the deteriorating earth environment. Or think of someone else whose work is ser
ASU - POS - 77401
MASS MEDIAAny study of linkage institutions would be incomplete without a consideration of the role that mass media plays in the American political system. Political parties and interest groups serve as important links between citizens and government, bu