This preview has intentionally blurred parts. Sign up to view the full document

View Full Document

Unformatted Document Excerpt

8 Valuation CHAPTER of Inventories: A Cost-Basis Approach A ASSIGNMENT T Topics Question s 1. Inventory accounts; determini ng quantities, costs, and items to be included in inventory; the inventory equation; balance sheet disclosure . Perpetual vs. periodic. Recording of discounts. Inventory errors. Flow assumptio ns. 10, 11 CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY TOPIC) Brief Exercise s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Problems Exercise s 1, 3 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6 Conceptsfor Analysis 1, 2, 3 1, 2, 3, 5, 11 2. 2 9, 13, 14, 17, 20 7, 8 4, 5, 6 3. 3 4 4. 5. 7 12, 13, 16, 18, 20 4 5, 6, 7 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 18 2 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 5, 6, 7, 8 6. Inventory accountin g changes. Dollarvalue 14, 15, 17, 18, 19 8, 9 7 6, 7, 10 7. 22, 23, 24,25, 26 1, 8, 9, 10, 11 8, 9 LIFO methods. ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY LEARNING OBJECTIVE) Learning Objectives 1. Identify major classifications of inventory. Distinguish between perpetual and periodic inventory systems. 1 Brief Exercises Exercises Problems 2. 2 4, 9, 13, 17, 20 4, 5, 6 3. Identify the 4 effects of inventory errors on the financial statements. Understand the 3 items to include as inventory cost. Describe and compare the cost flow assumptions used to account for inventories. Explain the significance and use of a LIFO reserve. Understand the effect of LIFO liquidations. Explain the dollar-value LIFO method. Identify the major advantages and disadvantages of LIFO. Understand why companies 8, 9 5, 6, 7 5, 10, 11, 12 4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 1, 2, 3 5. 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 6. 21 7. 8. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 1, 8, 9, 10, 11 9. 10. select given inventory methods. ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE Item E8-1 E8-2 E8-3 E8-4 Description Inventoriable costs. Inventoriable costs. Inventoriable costs. Inventoriable costs perpetual. Inventoriable costserror adjustments. Determining merchandise amounts periodic. Purchases recorded net. Purchases recorded, gross method. Periodic versus perpetual entries. Inventory errors, periodic. Inventory errors. Inventory errors. FIFO and LIFO periodic and perpetual. FIFO, LIFO and average cost determination. FIFO, LIFO, average cost inventory. Level of Difficulty Moderate Moderate Simple Simple Time (minutes) 1520 1015 1015 1015 E8-5 Moderate 1520 E8-6 Simple 1020 E8-7 E8-8 Simple Simple 1015 2025 E8-9 Moderate 1525 E8-10 Simple 1015 E8-11 E8-12 E8-13 Simple Moderate Moderate 1015 1520 1520 E8-14 Moderate 2025 E8-15 Moderate 1520 E8-16 E8-17 E8-18 E8-19 E8-20 E8-21 E8-22 E8-23 E8-24 E8-25 E8-26 Compute FIFO, LIFO, average cost periodic. FIFO and LIFO; periodic and perpetual. FIFO and LIFO; income statement presentation. FIFO and LIFO effects. FIFO and LIFO periodic. LIFO effect. Alternate inventory methods comprehensive . Dollar-value LIFO. Dollar-value LIFO. Dollar-value LIFO. Dollar-value LIFO. Various inventory issues. Inventory adjustments. Purchases recorded gross and net. Compute FIFO, LIFO, and average cost. Compute FIFO, LIFO, and average cost. Moderate 1520 Simple 1015 Simple 1520 Moderate Simple Moderate Moderate 1520 1015 1015 2530 Simple Simple Moderate Moderate 510 1520 2025 1520 P8-1 Moderate 3040 P8-2 P8-3 Moderate Simple 2535 2025 P8-4 Complex 4055 P8-5 Complex 4055 P8-6 P8-7 P8-8 P8-9 P8-10 P8-11 Compute FIFO, LIFO, and average costperiodic and perpetual. Financial statement effects of FIFO and LIFO. Dollar-value LIFO. Internal indexes dollar-value LIFO. Internal indexes dollar-value LIFO. Dollar-value LIFO. Moderate 2535 Moderate 3040 Moderate Moderate 3040 2535 Complex 3035 Moderate 4050 ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE (Continued) Item Description Level of Difficulty Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Time (minutes) 1520 1525 2535 1525 CA8-1 CA8-2 CA8-3 CA8-4 CA8-5 CA8-6 CA8-7 CA8-8 CA8-9 CA8-10 CA8-11 Inventoriable costs. Inventoriable costs. Inventoriable costs. Accounting treatment of purchase discounts. General inventory issues. LIFO inventory advantages. Average cost, FIFO, and LIFO. LIFO application and advantages. Dollar-value LIFO issues. FIFO and LIFO. LIFO Choices Ethical Issues Moderate 2025 Simple Simple 1520 1520 Moderate 2530 Moderate Moderate Moderate 2530 3035 2025 SOLUTIONS TO CODIFICATION EXERCISES CE8-1 (a) Inventory is the aggregate of those items of tangible personal property that have any of the following characteristics: a. Held for sale in the ordinary of business b. To process of production for such sale. c. To be currently consumed in the production of goods or services to be available for sale. The term inventory embraces goods awaiting sale (the merchandise of a trading concern and the finished goods of a manufacturer), goods in the course of production (work in process), and goods to be consumed directly or indirectly in production (raw materials and supplies). This definition of inventories excludes long-term assets subject to depreciation accounting, or goods which, when put into use, will be so classified. The fact that a depreciable asset is retired from regular use and held for sale does not indicate that the item should be classified as part of the inventory. Raw materials and supplies purchased for production may be used or consumed for the construction of long-term assets or other purposes not related to production, but the fact that inventory items representing a small portion of the total may not be absorbed ultimately in the production process does not require separate classification. By trade practice, operating materials and supplies of certain types of entities such as oil producers are usually treated as inventory. (b) A customer is a reseller or a consumer, either an individual or a business that purchases a vendors products or services for end use rather than for resale. This definition is consistent with paragraph 280-10-50-42, which states that a group of entities known to a reporting entity to be under common control shall be considered as a single customer, and the federal government, a state government, a local government (for example, a country or municipality), or a foreign government each shall be considered as a single customer. Customer includes any purchaser of the vendors products at any point along the distribution chain, regardless of whether the purchaser acquires the vendors products directly or indirectly (for example, from a distributor) from the vendor. For example, a vendor may sell its products to a distributor who in turn resells the products to a retailer. In that example, the retailernot the distributoris a customer of the vendor. A product financing arrangement is a transaction in which an entity sells and agrees to repurchase inventory with the repurchase price equal to the original sale price plus carrying and financing costs, or other similar transactions. (c) (d) CE8-2 According FASB ASC 605-45-45-19 through 21 [Shipping and Handling Fees and Costs]: 45-19 Many sellers charge customers for shipping and handling in amounts in amounts that exceed the related costs incur. The components of shipping and handling costs, and the determination of the amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling, may differ from entity to entity. Some entities define shipping costs and handling costs as only those costs incurred for a thirdparty shipper to transport products to the customer. Other entities include as shipping and handling costs a portion of internal costs, for example, salaries and overhead related to the activities to prepare goods for shipment. In addition, some entities charge customers only for amounts that are a direct reimbursement for shipping and, if discernible, direct incremental handling costs; however, many other entities charge customers for shipping and handling in amounts that are not a direct pass-through of costs. CE8-2 (Continued) 45-20 For those entities that determine under the indicators listed in paragraphs 605-45-45-4 through 45-18 that shipping and handling fees shall be reported gross, all amounts billed to a customer in a sale transaction related to shipping and handling represent revenues earned for the goods provided and shall be classified as revenue. 45-21 Also, shipping and handling costs shall not be deducted from revenues (that is, netted against shipping and handling revenues). CE8-3 FASB ASC 330-10-35-1 and 15 with respect to adjustments to Lower of Cost or Market: 35-1 A departure from the cost basis of pricing the inventory is required when the utility of the goods is no longer as great as their cost. Where there is evidence that the utility of goods, in their disposal in the ordinary course of business, will be less than cost, whether due to physical deterioration, obsolescence, changes in price levels, or other causes, the difference shall be recognized as a loss of the current period. This is generally accomplished by stating such goods at a lower level commonly designated as market. With respect to Stating Inventories Above Cost: 35-15 Only in exceptional cases may inventories properly be stated above cost. For example, precious metals having a fixed monetary value with no substantial cost of marketing may be stated at such monetary value; any other exceptions must be justifiable by inability to determine appropriate approximate costs, immediate marketability at quoted market price, and the characteristic of unit interchangeability. CE8-4 FASB ASC 330-10-S99-3 (SAB Topic 11.F, LIFO Liquidations) The following is the text of SAB Topic 11.F, LIFO Liquidations. Facts: Registrant on LIFO basis of accounting liquidates a substantial portion of its LIFO inventory and as a result includes a material amount of income in its income statement which would not have been recorded had the inventory liquidation not taken place. Question: Is disclosure required of the amount of income realized as a result of the inventory liquidation? Interpretive Response: Yes. Such disclosure would be required in order to make the financial statements not misleading. Disclosure may be made either in a footnote or parenthetically on the face of the income statement. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. In a retailing concern, inventory normally consists of only one category, that is the product awaiting resale. In a manufacturing enterprise, inventories consist of raw materials, work in process, and finished goods. Sometimes a manufacturing or factory supplies inventory account is also included. 2. (a) Inventories are unexpired costs and represent future benefits to the owner. A statement of financial position includes a listing of all unexpired costs (assets) at a specific point in time. Because inventories are assets owned at the specific point in time for which a statement of financial position is prepared, they must be included in order that the owners financial position will be presented fairly. (b) Beginning and ending inventories are included in the computation of net income only for the purpose of arriving at the cost of goods sold during the period of time covered by the statement. Goods included in the beginning inventory which are no longer on hand are expired costs to be matched against revenues earned during the period. Goods included in the ending inventory are unexpired costs to be carried forward to a future period, rather than expensed. 3. In a perpetual inventory system, data are available at any time on the quantity and dollar amount of each item of material or type of merchandise on hand. A physical inventory means that inventory is periodically counted (at least once a year) but that up-to-date records are not necessarily maintained. Discrepancies often occur between the physical count and the perpetual records because of clerical errors, theft, waste, misplacement of goods, etc. 4. No. Mishima, Inc. should not report this amount on its balance sheet. As consignee, it does not own this merchandise and therefore it is inappropriate for it to recognize this merchandise as part of its inventory. 5. Product financing arrangements are essentially off-balance-sheet financing devices. These arrangements make it appear that a company has sold its inventory or never taken title to it so they can keep loans off their balance sheet. A product financing arrangement should not be recorded as a sale. Rather, the inventory and related liability should be reported on the balance sheet. 6. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Inventory. Not shown, possibly in a note to the financial statements if material. Inventory. Inventory, separately disclosed as raw materials. Not shown, possibly a note to the financial statements. Inventory or manufacturing supplies. 7. This omission would have no effect upon the net income for the year, since the purchases and the ending inventory are understated in the same amount. With respect to financial position, both the inventory and the accounts payable would be understated. Materiality would be a factor in determining whether an adjustment for this item should be made as omission of a large item would distort the amount of current assets and the amount of current liabilities. It, therefore, might influence the current ratio to a considerable extent. 8. Cost, which has been defined generally as the price paid or consideration given to acquire an asset, is the primary basis for accounting for inventories. As applied to inventories, cost means the sum of the applicable expenditures and charges directly or indirectly incurred in bringing an article to its existing condition and location. These applicable expenditures and charges include all acquisition and production costs but exclude all selling expenses and that portion of general and administrative expenses not clearly related to production. Freight charges applicable to the product are considered a cost of the goods. Questions Chapter 8 (Continued) 9. By their nature, product costs attach to the inventory and are recorded in the inventory account. These costs are directly connected with the bringing of goods to the place of business of the buyer and converting such goods to a salable condition. Such charges would include freight charges on goods purchased, other direct costs of acquisition, and labor and other production costs incurred in processing the goods up to the time of sale. Period costs are not considered to be directly related to the acquisition or production of goods and therefore are not considered to be a part of inventories. Conceptually, these expenses are as much a cost of the product as the initial purchase price and related freight charges attached to the product. While selling expenses are generally considered as more directly related to the cost of goods sold than to the unsold inventory, in most cases, though, the costs, especially administrative expenses, are so unrelated or indirectly related to the immediate production process that any allocation is purely arbitrary. Interest costs are considered a cost of financing and are generally expensed as incurred, when related to getting inventories ready for sale. 10. Cash discounts (purchase discounts) should not be accounted for as financial income when payments are made. Income should be recognized when the earning process is complete (when the company sells the inventory). Furthermore, a company does not earn revenue from purchasing goods. Cash discounts should be considered as a reduction in the cost of the items purchased. 11. $60.00, $63.00, $61.80. (Transportation-In not included for discount.) 12. Arguments for the specific identification method are as follows: (1) (2) (3) It provides an accurate and ideal matching of costs and revenues because the cost is specifically identified with the sales price. The method is realistic and objective since it adheres to the actual physical flow of goods rather than an artificial flow of costs. Inventory is valued at actual cost instead of an assumed cost. Arguments against the specific identification method include the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) The cost of using it restricts its use to goods of high unit value. The method is impractical for manufacturing processes or cases in which units are commingled and identity lost. It allows an artificial determination of income by permitting arbitrary selection of the items to be sold from a homogeneous group. It may not be a meaningful method of assigning costs in periods of changing price levels. 13. The first-in, first-out method approximates the specific identification method when the physical flow of goods is on a FIFO basis. When the goods are subject to spoilage or deterioration, FIFO is particularly appropriate. In comparison to the specific identification method, an attractive aspect of FIFO is the elimination of the danger of artificial determination of income by the selection of advantageously priced items to be sold. The basic assumption is that costs should be charged in the order in which they are incurred. As a result, the inventories are stated at the latest costs. Where the inventory is consumed and valued in the FIFO manner, there is no accounting recognition of unrealized gain or loss. A criticism of the FIFO method is that it maximizes the effects of price fluctuations upon reported income because current revenue is matched with the oldest costs which are Questions Chapter 8 (Continued) probably least similar to current replacement costs. On the other hand, this method produces a balance sheet value for the asset close to current replacement costs. It is claimed that FIFO is deceptive when used in a period of rising prices because the reported income is not fully available since a part of it must be used to replace inventory at higher cost. The results achieved by the weighted average method resemble those of the specific identification method where items are chosen at random or there is a rapid inventory turnover. Compared with the specific identification method, the weighted average method has the advantage that the goods need not be individually identified; therefore accounting is not so costly and the method can be applied to fungible goods. The weighted average method is also appropriate when there is no marked trend in price changes. In opposition, it is argued that the method is illogical. Since it assumes that all sales are made proportionally from all purchases and that inventories will always include units from the first purchases, it is argued that the method is illogical because it is contrary to the chronological flow of goods. In addition, in periods of price changes there is a lag between current costs and costs assigned to income or to the valuation of inventories. If it is assumed that actual cost is the appropriate method of valuing inventories, last-in, first-out is not theoretically correct. In general, LIFO is directly adverse to the specific identification method because the goods are not valued in accordance with their usual physical flow. An exception is the application of LIFO to piled coal or ores which are more or less consumed in a LIFO manner. Proponents argue that LIFO provides a better matching of current costs and revenues. During periods of sharp price movements, LIFO has a stabilizing effect upon reported income figures because it eliminates paper income and losses on inventory and smooths the impact of income taxes. LIFO opponents object to the method principally because the inventory valuation reported in the balance sheet could be seriously misleading. The profit figures can be artificially influenced by management through contracting or expanding inventory quantities. Temporary involuntary depletion of LIFO inventories would distort current income by the previously unrecognized price gains or losses applicable to the inventory reduction. 14. A company may obtain a price index from an outside source (external index)the government, a trade association, an exchangeor by computing its own index (internal index) using the double extension method. Under the double extension method the ending inventory is priced at both base-year costs and at current-year costs, with the total current cost divided by the total base cost to obtain the current year index. 15. Under the double extension method, LIFO inventory is priced at both base-year costs and currentyear costs. The total current-year cost of the inventory is divided by the total base-year cost to obtain the current-year index. The index for the LIFO pool consisting of product A and product B is computed as follows: Base -Year Cost Unit $10.2 0 $37.0 0 Current-Year Cost Total $260, 100 382, 950 Unit $21.0 0 $45.6 0 Total $ 535,5 00 47 1,960 $1,007,460 Produ ct A B Dece mber 31, 2010 Units 25,50 0 10,35 0 $643, 050 invent ory Current-Year Cost Base-Year Cost = $1,007,460 $643,050 = 156.67, index at 12/31/10. Questions Chapter 8 (Continued) 16. The LIFO method results in a smaller net income because later costs, which are higher than earlier costs, are matched against revenue. Conversely, in a period of falling prices, the LIFO method would result in a higher net income because later costs in this case would be lower than earlier costs, and these later costs would be matched against revenue. 17. The dollar-value method uses dollars instead of units to measure increments, or reductions in a LIFO inventory. After converting the closing inventory to the same price level as the opening inventory, the increases in inventories, priced at base-year costs, is converted to the current price level and added to the opening inventory. Any decrease is subtracted at base-year costs to determine the ending inventory. The principal advantage is that it requires less record-keeping. It is not necessary to keep records nor make calculations of opening and closing quantities of individual items. Also, the use of a base inventory amount gives greater flexibility in the makeup of the base and eliminates many detailed calculations. The unit LIFO inventory costing method is applied to each type of item in an inventory. Any type of item removed from the inventory base (e.g., magnets) and replaced by another type (e.g., coils) will cause the old cost (magnets) to be removed from the base and to be replaced by the more current cost of the other item (coils). The dollar-value LIFO costing method treats the inventory base as being composed of a base of cost in dollars rather than of units. Therefore a change in the composition of the inventory (less magnets and more coils) will not change the cost of inventory base so long as the amount of the inventory stated in base-year dollars does not change. 18. (a) (b) (c) 19. LIFO layera LIFO layer (increment) is formed when the ending inventory at base-year prices exceeds the beginning inventory at base-year prices. LIFO reservethe difference between the inventory method used for internal purposes and LIFO. LIFO effectthe change in the LIFO reserve (Allowance to Reduce Inventory to LIFO) from one period to the next. December 31, 2010 inventory at December 31, 2009 prices, $1,053,000 1.08 Less: Inventory, December 31, 2009 Increment added during 2010 at base prices Increment added during 2010 at December 31, 2010 prices, $175,000 X 1.08 Add: Inventory at December 31, 2009 Inventory, December 31, 2010, under dollar-value LIFO method $975,000 800,000 $175,000 $189,000 800,000 $989,000 20. Phantom inventory profits occur when the inventory costs matched against sales are less than the replacement cost of the inventory. The costs of goods sold therefore is understated and profit is considered overstated. Phantom profits are said to occur when FIFO is used during periods of rising prices. High inventory profits through involuntary liquidation occur if a company is forced to reduce its LIFO base or layers. If the base or layers of old costs are eliminated, strange results can occur because old, irrelevant costs can be matched against current revenues. A distortion in reported income for a given period may result, as well as consequences that are detrimental from an income tax point of view. SOLUTIONS TO BRIEF EXERCISES BRIEF EXERCISE 8-1 RIVERA COMPANY Balance Sheet (Partial) December 31 Current assets Cash Receivables (net) Inventories Finished goods Work in process Raw materials Prepaid insurance Total current assets 41,000 $1,336,000 335,000 705,000 200,000 $170,000 $ 190,000 400,000 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-2 Inventory (150 X $34) Accounts Payable Accounts Payable (6 X $34) 204 5,100 5,100 Inventory Accounts Receivable (125 X $50) Sales Cost of Goods Sold (125 X $34) Inventory 4,250 6,250 204 6,250 4,250 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-3 December 31 inventory per physical count Goods-in-transit purchased FOB shipping point Goods-in-transit sold FOB destination December 31 inventory $200,000 25,000 22,000 $247,000 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-4 Cost of goods sold as reported Overstatement of 12/31/09 inventory Overstatement of 12/31/10 inventory Corrected cost of goods sold 12/31/10 retained earnings as reported Overstatement of 12/31/10 inventory Corrected 12/31/10 retained earnings $1,400,000 (110,000) 35,000 $1,325,000 $5,200,000 (35,000) $5,165,000 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-5 Weighted average cost per unit Ending inventory 400 X $11.85 = Cost of goods available for sale Deduct ending inventory Cost of goods sold (600 X $11.85) 4,740 $ 7,110 $11,850 = $11.85 1,000 $4,740 $11,850 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-6 April 23 April 15 Ending inventory Cost of goods available for sale Deduct ending inventory Cost of goods sold 350 X $13 50 X $12 = = $4,550 600 $5,150 $11,850 5,150 $ 6,700 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-7 April 1 $2,500 250 X $10 = April 15 1,800 150 X $12 = Ending inventory Cost of goods available for sale Deduct ending inventory Cost of goods sold $4,300 $11,850 4,300 $ 7,550 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-8 2009 2010 $119,900 1.10 = $109,000 $100,000 X 1.00 $9,000* X 1.10 *$109,000 $100,000 2011 $134,560 1.16 = $116,000 $100,000 X 1.00 $9,000 X 1.10 $7,000** X 1.16 **$116,000 $109,000 $100,000 $100,000 9,900 $109,900 $100,000 9,900 8,120 $118,020 BRIEF EXERCISE 8-9 2010 inventory at base amount ($22,140 1.08) 2009 inventory at base amount Increase in base inventory 2010 inventory under LIFO Layer one $19,750 X 1.00 Layer two $ 750 X 1.08 $19,750 810 $20,560 2011 inventory at base amount ($25,935 1.14) 2010 inventory at base amount Increase in base inventory 2011 inventory under LIFO Layer one $19,750 X 1.00 Layer two $ 750 X 1.08 Layer three $ 2,250 X 1.14 $19,750 810 2,565 $22,750 $20,500 (19,750) $ 750 20,500 $ 2,250 $23,125 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES EXERCISE 8-1 (1520 minutes) Items 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 13, 14, 16, and 17 would be reported as inventory in the financial statements. The following items would not be reported as inventory: 1. Cost of goods sold in the income statement. 4. Not reported in the financial statements. 6. Cost of goods sold in the income statement. 7. Cost of goods sold in the income statement. 9. Interest expense in the income statement. 11. Advertising expense in the income statement. 12. Office supplies in the current assets section of the balance sheet. 15. Not reported in the financial statements. 18. Short-term investments in the current asset section of the balance sheet. EXERCISE 8-2 (1015 minutes) Inventory per physical count Goods in transit to customer, f.o.b. destination Goods in transit from vendor, f.o.b. shipping point Inventory to be reported on balance sheet $441,000 + 33,000 + 51,000 $525,000 The consigned goods of $61,000 are not owned by Garza and were properly excluded. The goods in transit to a customer of $46,000, shipped f.o.b. shipping point, are properly excluded from the inventory because the title to the goods passed when they left the seller (Oliva) and therefore a sale and related cost of goods sold should be recorded in 2010. The goods in transit from a vendor of $73,000, shipped f.o.b. destination, are properly excluded from the inventory because the title to the goods does not pass to Garza until the buyer (Garza) receives them. EXERCISE 8-3 (1015 minutes) 1. 2. 3. Include. Merchandise passes to customer only when it is shipped. Do not include. Title did not pass until January 3. Include in inventory. Product belonged to Webber Inc. at December 31, 2010. Do not include. Goods received on consignment remain the property of the consignor. Include in inventory. Under invoice terms, title passed when goods were shipped. 4. 5. EXERCISE 8-4 (1015 minutes) 1. Raw Materials Inventory Accounts Payable 2. No adjustment necessary. Raw Materials Inventory Accounts Payable 4. Accounts Payable 7,500 28,000 28,000 8,100 8,100 3. Raw Materials Inventory 5. Raw Materials Inventory Accounts Payable 19,800 7,500 19,800 EXERCISE 8-5 (1520 minutes) (a) Inventory December 31, 2010 (unadjusted) Transaction 2 Transaction 3 Transaction 4 Transaction 5 Transaction 6 Transaction 7 Transaction 8 Inventory December 31, 2010 (adjusted) (b) Transaction 3 Sales Accounts Receivable (To reverse sale entry in 2010) Transaction 4 15,630 Purchases (Inventory) 15,630 Accounts 12,800 12,800 $234,890 10,420 0 0 8,540 (10,438) (11,520) 1,500 $233,392 Payable (To record purchase of merchandise in 2010) Transaction 8 Sales Returns and Allowances Accounts Receivable 2,600 2,600 EXERCISE 8-6 (1020 minutes) 2009 Sales Sales Returns Net Sales Beginning Inventory Ending Inventory Purchases Purchase Returns and Allowances Transportation -in Cost of Good Sold Gross Profit $290,000 6,000 284,000 20,000 32,000* 247,000 5,000 2010 $360,000 13,000 347,000 32,000 37,000 260,000 8,000 2011 $410,000 10,000 400,000 37,000** 34,000 298,000 10,000 8,000 238,000 46,000 9,000 256,000 91,000 12,000 303,000 97,000 *This was given as the beginning inventory for 2010. **This was calculated as the ending inventory for 2010. EXERCISE 8-7 (1015 minutes) (a) May 10 Purchases Accounts Payable 19,600 ($20,000 X .98) 19,600 May 11 Purchases Accounts Payable 14,850 14,850 ($15,000 X .99) May 19 Accounts Payable Cash May 24 Purchases Accounts Payable 11,270 ($11,500 X .98) 11,270 19,600 19,600 EXERCISE 8-7 (Continued) (b) May 31 Purchase Discounts Lost Accounts Payable 150 ($15,000 X .01) (Discount lost on purchase of May 11, $15,000, terms 1/15, n/30) 150 EXERCISE 8-8 (a) Feb. 1 Inventory [$12,000 ($12,000 X 10%)] Accounts Payable Feb. 4 Accounts Payable [$3,000 2,700 10,800 10,800 ($3,000 X 10%)] 2,700 Inventory Feb. 13 Accounts Payable ($10,800 $2,700) Inventory (3% X $8,100) Cash (b) Feb. 1 Purchases [$12,000 ($12,000 X 10%)] Accounts Payable Feb. 4 Accounts Payable [$3,000 ($3,000 X 10%)] Purchase Returns and Allowance s 2,700 10,800 7,857 8,100 243 10,800 2,700 Feb. 13 Accounts Payable ($10,800 $2,700) Purchase Discounts (3% X $8,100) Cash 8,100 243 7,857 EXERCISE 8-8 (Continued) (c) Purchase price (list) Less: Trade discount (10% X $12,000) Price on which cash discount based Less: Cash discount (3% X $10,800) Net price $10,476 $12,000 1,200 10,800 324 EXERCISE 8-9 (1525 minutes) (a) Jan. 4 Accounts Receivable Sales (80 X $8) Jan. 11 Purchases ($150 X $6.50) Accounts Payable Jan. 13 Accounts Receivable Sales 1,050 1,050 975 640 640 975 (120 X $8.75) Jan. 20 Purchases (160 X $7) Accounts Payable Jan. 27 Accounts Receivable Sales (100 X $9) Jan. 31 Inventory ($7 X 110) Cost of Goods Sold Purchases ($975 + $1,120) 600 Inventory (100 X $6) *($600 + $2,095 $770) 770 1,925* 900 900 1,120 1,120 2,095 EXERCISE 8-9 (Continued) (b) Sales ($640 + $1,050 + $900) Cost of goods sold Gross profit Jan. 4 Accounts Receivable Sales (80 X $8) Cost of Goods Sold Inventory (80 X $6) Jan. 11 Inventory Accounts Payable (150 X $6.50) Jan. 13 Accounts Receivable Sales (120 X $8.75) Cost of 1,050 1,050 975 975 640 640 $2,590 1,925 $ 665 (c) 480 480 770 Goods Sold 770 Inventory ([(20 X $6) + (100 X $6.50)] Jan. 20 Inventory Accounts Payable (160 X $7) Jan. 27 Accounts Receivable Sales (100 X $9) Cost of Goods Sold Inventory [(50 X $6.50) + (50 X $7)] (d) Sales Cost of goods sold ($480 + $770 + $675) Gross profit $2,590 1,925 900 900 1,120 1,120 675 675 $ 665 EXERCISE 8-10 (1015 minutes) Current Year No effect Subsequen t Year No effect No effect No effect No effect No effect No effect No effect Understate d No effect No effect No effect Understate d 1. Working capital Current Overstated ratio * Retained No effect earnings Net income No effect Working capital Current ratio Retained earnings Net income Overstated Overstated Overstated Overstated 2. 3. Working capital Current ratio Retained earnings Net income Overstated Overstated Overstated Overstated *Assume that the correct current ratio is greater than one. EXERCISE 8-11 (1015 minutes) (a) $390,000 $200,000 $390,000 + = $22,000 $13,000 + $3,000 = 1.95 to 1 (b) $402,000 = 2.23 to 1 $200,000 $20,000 (c) Evenfst Effect of Error Underst atement of ending inventor y Overstat ement of purchas es Overstat ement of ending inventor y Overstat ement of advertisi ng expense ; understa tementof cost of goods sold $180,000 1. Decreas es net income Adjust Income Increase (Decrease) $22,000 2. Decreas es net income Increase s net income 20,000 3. (13,000) 4. 0 $29,000 EXERCISE 8-12 (1520 minutes) E Errors in Inventories Year Net Income Per Books 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 $ 50,000 52,000 54,000 56,000 58,000 60,000 $330,000 2,000 10,000 $5,000 9,000 $11,000 2,000 Add Overstate -ment Jan. 1 Deduct Understa te-ment Jan. 1 Deduct Overstate -ment Dec. 31 $5,000 9,000 $11,000 Add Understa te-ment Dec. 31 Correcte d Net Income $ 45,000 48,000 74,000 45,000 60,000 48,000 $320,000 EXERCISE 8-13 (1520 minutes) (a) Cost of Good s Sold 1. LIFO 500 @ $13 = 450 @ $11 = Ending Inventory $ 6,500 4,95 0 $11,45 0 $ 3,000 7,15 0 $10,15 0 300 @ $3,000 $10 = 350 @ 3,850 $11 = $6,850 2. FIFO 300 @ $10 = 650 @ $11 = 500 @ $6,500 $13 = 150 @ 1,650 $11 = $8,150 (b) LIFO 100 @ $ $10 = 300 @ $11 = 250 @ $13 = 1,000 3,300 3,25 0 $ 7,550 EXERCISE 8-13 (Continued) (c) Sales Cost of Good s Sold $24,05 = ($24 X 200) + ($25 X 500) + ($27 X 250) 0 10,15 0 Gross $13,90 Profit 0 (FIFO) Note: FIFO periodic and FIFO perpetual provide the same gross profit and inventory value. (d) LIFO matches more current costs with revenue. When prices are rising (as is generally the case), this results in a higher amount for cost of goods sold and a lower gross profit. As indicated in this exercise, prices were rising and cost of goods sold under LIFO was higher. EXERCISE 8-14 (2025 minutes) (a) 1. LIFO 600 @ $3,600 $6.00 = 200 @ $6.08 = 1,216 $4,816 2. Avera ge cost Total cost = $33,655* = $6.35 average cost per unit Total units 800 @ $6.35 = $5,080 5,300 EXERCISE 8-14 (Continued) *Units 600 1,500 800 1,200 700 500 5,300 (b) 1. FIFO 500 @ $3,395 $6.79 = 300 @ $6.60 = 1,980 @ @ @ @ @ @ Price $6.00 $6.08 $6.40 $6.50 $6.60 $6.79 = = = = = = Total Cost $ 3,600 9,120 5,120 7,800 4,620 3,395 $33,655 $5,375 2. LIFO 100 @ $ 600 $6.00 = 200 @ $6.08 = 500 @ $6.79 = 1,216 3,395 $5,211 (c) Total $33,65 merch 5 andis e availa ble for sale Less invent ory (FIFO) 5,37 5 Cost $28,28 of 0 goods sold (d) FIFO. EXERCISE 8-15 (1520 minutes) (a) ESPLANADE COMPANY Computation of Inventory for Product BAP Under FIFO Inventory Method March 31, 2010 Units March 26, 2010 February 16, 2010 January 25, 2010 (portion) March 31, 2010, inventory 600 800 100 Unit Cost $12.00 11.00 10.00 Total Cost $ 7,200 8,800 1,00 0 $17,00 0 1,500 (b) ESPLANADE COMPANY Computation of Inventory for Product BAP Under LIFO Inventory Method March 31, 2010 Units Unit Cost $8.00 Total Cost $ 4,800 8,10 0 $12,90 0 Beginnin g inventory January 5, 2010 (portion) March 31, 2010, inventory (c) 600 900 9.00 1,500 ESPLANADE COMPANY Computation of Inventory for Product BAP Under Weighted Average Inventory Method March 31, 2010 Units Beginnin g inventory January 5, 2010 January 25, 2010 February 16, 2010 March 26, 2010 600 Unit Cost $ 8.00 Total Cost $ 4,800 9,900 13,000 8,800 7,20 0 $43,70 0 1,100 1,300 800 600 4,400 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 Weighted average cost ($43,70 0 4,400) March 31, 2010, inventory *Rounded off. 1,500 $ 9.93* $ 9.93 $14,89 5 EXERCISE 8-16 (1520 minutes) (a) 1. 2,100 units available for sale 1,400 units sold = 700 units in the ending inventory. 500 @ $2,290 $4.58 = 200 @ 920 4.60 = 700 $3,210 Ending inventory at FIFO cost. 100 @ $4.10 = 600 @ 4.30 = 700 $ 410 2,580 $2,990 Ending inventory at LIFO cost. $9,324 cost of goods available for sale 2,100 units available for sale = $4.44 weightedaverage unit cost. 700 units X $4.44 = $3,108 Ending inventory at weighted-average cost. LIFO will yield the lowest gross profit because this method will yield 2. 3. (b) 1. the highest cost of goods sold figure in the situation presented. The company has experienced rising purchase prices for its inventory acquisitions. In a period of rising prices, LIFO will yield the highest cost of goods sold because the most recent purchase prices (which are the higher prices in this case) are used to price cost of goods sold while the older (and lower) purchase prices are used to cost the ending inventory. 2. LIFO will yield the lowest ending inventory because LIFO uses the oldest costs to price the ending inventory units. The company has experienced rising purchase prices. The oldest costs in this case are the lower costs. EXERCISE 8-17 (1015 minutes) (a) 1. 400 @ $12,000 $30 = 110 @ $25 = 2,750 $14,750 2. 400 @ $ 8,000 $20 = 110 @ $25 = $10,750 (b) 1. FIFO $14,750 [same as (a)] $ 2,000 250 12,00 0 $14,25 0 2,750 2. LIFO 100 @ $20 = 10 @ $25 = 400 @ $30 = EXERCISE 8-18 (1520 minutes) First-in, first-out Sales Cost goods sold: of $1,000,000 Last-in, first-out $1,000,000 Invento ry, Jan. 1 Purcha ses Cost of goods available Invento ry, Dec. 31 Cos t of goods sold Gross profit Operating expenses Net income $120,000 592,000* 712,000 $120,000 592,000 712,000 260,000** 452,000 186,000** * 526,000 548,000 200,000 $ 348,000 474,000 200,000 $ 274,000 *Purchases 6,000 @ $22 = 10,000 @ $25 = 7,000 @ $30 = $132,000 250,000 210,000 $592,000 **Computation of inventory, Dec. 31: First-in, first-out: 7,000 units @ $30 = 2,000 units @ $25 = $210,000 50,000 $260,000 ***Last-in, first-out: 6,000 units @ $20 = 3,000 units @ $22 = $120,000 66,000 $186,000 EXERCISE 8-19 (2025 minutes) MICKIEWICZ CORPORATION Schedules of Cost of Goods Sold For the First Quarter Ended March 31, 2010 Schedule 1 First-in, First-out Beginning inventory Plus purchases Cost of goods available for sale Less inventory ending $ 40,000 150,600* 190,600 65,700 $124,900 Schedule 2 Last-in, First-out $ 40,000 150,600 190,600 61,000 $129,600 Cost of goods sold *($33,600 + $25,500 + $38,700 + $52,800) Schedules Computing Ending Inventory Units Beginning inventory Plus purchases Units available for sale Less sales ($150,000 5) Ending inventory 10,000 35,000 45,000 30,000 15,000 The unit computation is the same for both assumptions, but the cost assigned to the units of ending inventory are different. First-in, Firstout (Schedu Last-in, First-out (Schedule 2) le 1) 12,000 3,000 15,000 at $4.40 = at $4.30 = $52,8 00 12,9 00 $65,7 00 10,000 at $4.00 = 5,000 at $4.20 = 15,000 $40,000 21,000 $61,000 EXERCISE 8-20 (1015 minutes) (a) FIFO Ending Inventory 12/31/07 76 @ $10.89* = 34 @ $11.88** = $ 827.64 403.92 $1,231.56 *[$11.00 .01 ($11.00)] **[$12.00 .01 ($12.00)] (b) LIFO Cost of Goods Sold2007 76 @ $10.89 = 84 @ $11.88 = 90 @ $14.85* = 5@ $15.84** = $ 827.64 997.92 1,336.50 79.20 $3,241.26 *[$15.00 .01 ($15)] **[$16.00 .01 ($16)] (c) FIFO matches older costs with revenue. When prices are declining, as in this case, this results in a higher amount for cost of goods sold. Therefore, it is recommended that FIFO be used by Tom Brady Shop to minimize taxable income. EXERCISE 8-21 (1015 minutes) (a) The difference between the inventory used for internal reporting purposes and LIFO is referred to as the Allowance to Reduce Inventory to LIFO or the LIFO reserve. The change in the allowance balance from one period to the next is called the LIFO effect (or as shown in this example, the LIFO adjustment). LIFO subtracts inflation from inventory costs by charging the items purchased recently to cost of goods sold. As a result, ending inventory (assuming increasing prices) will be lower than FIFO or average cost. (b) EXERCISE 8-21 (Continued) (c) Cash flow was computed as follows: Revenue Cost of goods sold Operating expenses Income taxes Cash flow $3,200,000 (2,800,000) (150,000) (75,600) $ 174,400 If the company has any sales on account or payables, then the cash flow number is incorrect. It is assumed here that the cash basis of accounting is used. (d) The company has extra cash because its taxes are less. The reason taxes are lower is because cost of goods sold (in a period of inflation) is higher under LIFO than FIFO. As a result, net income is lower which leads to lower income taxes. If prices are decreasing, the opposite effect results. EXERCISE 8-22 (2530 minutes) (a) 1. Endi ng inven tory Spec ific Ident ificati on Date Dece mber 2 July 20 No. Units 100 Unit Cost $30 Total Cost $3,00 0 75 0 $3,75 0 30 130 25 2. Endi ng inven tory FIFO Date Dece mber 2 Sept embe r4 No. Units 100 Unit Cost $30 Total Cost $3,00 0 84 0 $3,84 0 30 28 130 3. Endi ng inven tory LIFO Date Janu ary 1 Marc h 15 No. Units 100 30 130 Unit Cost $20 24 Total Cost $2,00 0 72 0 $2,72 0 EXERCISE 8-22 (Continued) 4. End ing inve ntor y Ave rag e Cos t Dat e Jan uar y1 Exp lana tion Beg inni ng inve ntor y Pur cha se Pur cha se Pur cha se Pur cha se No. Unit s 10 0 Unit Cos t $20 Tot al Cos t $ 2,00 0 Mar ch 15 July 20 Sep tem ber 4 Dec em ber 2 30 0 30 0 20 0 24 7, 200 7, 500 5, 600 25 28 10 0 30 3, 000 1,00 0 $25, 300 $25, 300 1,00 0= $25. 30 Ending InventoryAverage Cost No. Unit s 130 Unit Cos t $25. 30 Double Extension Method C Current Costs Total Cost $3,289 (b) Base Year Cost s Unit s Bas eYea r Cos t Per Unit $20 Tot a al Unit s Cur rent Yea r Cos t Per Unit $30 $28 Tot al 130 $2,6 00 100 30 $3,0 00 8 40 $3,8 40 Ending Inventory for the Period at Current Cost Ending Inventory for the Period at Base-Year Cost = $3,840 = 1.4769 $2,600 Ending inventory at base-year prices ($3,840 1.4769) Base layer (100 units at $20) Increment in base-year dollars Current index Increment in current dollars Base layer (100 units at $20) Ending inventory at dollarvalue LIFO $2,600 2,000 600 1.4769 886 2,000 $2,886 EXERCISE 8-23 (510 minutes) $98,000 $92,000 = $6,000 increase at base prices. $99,200 $92,600 = $6,600 increase in dollar-value LIFO value. $6,000 X Index = $6,600. Index = $6,600 $6,000. Index = 110 EXERCISE 8-24 (1520 minutes) (a) 12/31/10 inventory at 1/1/10 prices, $151,200 1.12 Inventory 1/1/10 Inventory decrease at base prices Inventory at 1/1/10 prices Less decrease at 1/1/10 prices Inventory 12/31/10 under dollar-value LIFO method (b) 12/31/11 inventory at base prices, $195,500 1.15 12/31/10 inventory at base prices Inventory increment at base prices Inventory at 12/31/10 Increment added during 2011 at 12/31/11 prices, $135,000 160,000 $ 25,000 $160,000 25,000 $135,000 $170,000 135,000 $ 35,000 $135,000 40,250 $35,000 X 1.15 Inventory 12/31/11 $175,250 E EXERCISE 8-25 (2025 minutes) Price Index Base Year $ Chan ge from Prior Year + $26,00 0 (16, 000) +4, 000 +11, 000 +17, 000 Curre nt $ 2007 2008 $ 80,000 111,3 00 108,0 00 122,2 00 147,0 00 176,9 00 1.00 1.05 $ 80,000 106,0 00 90,0 00 94,0 00 105,0 00 122,0 00 2009 2010 2011 2012 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.45 EXERCISE 8-25 (Continued) Ending InventoryDollar-value LIFO: 2007 $80,000 2011 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = 2008 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 26,000 @ 1.05 = 27,30 0 $107,30 0 2009 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = $ 80,000 10,50 0 $ 90,500 2012 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = 4,000 @ 1.30 = 11,000 @ 1.40 = 2010 $80,000 @ 1.00 $ 80,000 17,000 @ 1.45 $ 80,000 4,000 @ 1.30 = 11,000 @ 1.40 = 15,40 0 $111,10 0 $ 80,000 10,500 $ 80,000 10,500 5,200 5,200 15,400 24,65 0 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = 4,000 @ 1.30 = 10,500 = $135,75 0 5,20 0 $ 95,700 EXERCISE 8-26 (1520 minutes) D Date Curr ent $ Price Index Chan ge from Prior Year Base -Year $ $70,0 00 84,0 00 82,0 00 90,0 00 80,0 00 Dec. 31, 2007 Dec. 31, 2008 Dec. 31, 2009 Dec. 31, 2010 Dec. 31, 2011 $ 70,00 0 88, 200 95, 120 108, 000 100, 000 1.00 1.05 + $14,0 00 (2 ,000) +8, 000 (1 0,00 0) 1.16 1.20 1.25 EXERCISE 8-26 (Continued) Ending InventoryDollar-value LIFO: Dec. 31, 2007 Dec. 31, 2008 $70,000 $70,000 @ 1.00 = 14,000 @ 1.05 = $70,000 14,700 $84,700 Dec. 31, 2009 $70,000 @ 1.00 = 12,000 @ 1.05 = $70,000 12,600 $82,600 Dec. 31, 2010 $70,000 @ 1.00 = 12,000 @ 1.05 = 8,000 @ 1.20 = $70,000 12,600 9,600 $92,200 Dec. 31, 2011 $70,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = $70,000 10,500 $80,500 TIME AND PURPOSE OF PROBLEMS Problem 8-1 (Time 3040 minutes) Purposeto provide a multipurpose problem with trade discounts, goods in transit, computing internal price indexes, dollar-value LIFO, comparative FIFO, LIFO, and average cost computations, and inventoriable cost identification. Problem 8-2 (Time 2535 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with eight different situations that require analysis to determine their impact on inventory, accounts payable, and net sales. Problem 8-3 (Time 2025 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to prepare general journal entries to record purchases on a gross and net basis. Problem 8-4 (Time 4055 minutes) Purposeto provide a problem where the student must compute the inventory using a FIFO, LIFO, and average cost assumption. These inventory value determinations must be made under two differing assumptions: (1) perpetual inventory records are kept in units only and (2) perpetual records are kept in dollars. Many detailed computations must be made in this problem. Problem 8-5 (Time 4055 minutes) Purposeto provide a problem where the student must compute the inventory using a FIFO, LIFO, and average cost assumption. These inventory value determinations must be made under two differing assumptions: (1) perpetual inventory records are kept in units only and (2) perpetual records are kept in dollars. This problem is very similar to Problem 8-4, except that the differences in inventory values must be explained. Problem 8-6 (Time 2535 minutes) Purposeto provide a problem where the student must compute cost of goods sold using FIFO, LIFO, and weighted average, under both a periodic and perpetual system. Problem 8-7 (Time 3040 minutes) Purposeto provide a problem where the student must identify the accounts that would be affected if LIFO had been used rather than FIFO for purposes of computing inventories. Problem 8-8 (Time 3040 minutes) Purposeto provide a problem which covers the use of inventory pools for dollar-value LIFO. The student is required to compute ending inventory, cost of goods sold, and gross profit using dollar-value LIFO, first with one inventory pool and then with three pools. Problem 8-9 (Time 2535 minutes) Purposethe student computes the internal conversion price indexes for a LIFO inventory pool and then computes the inventory amounts using the dollar-value LIFO method. Problem 8-10 (Time 3035 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with the opportunity to compute inventories using the dollar-value approach. An index must be developed in this problem to price the new layers. This problem will prove difficult for the student because the indexes are hidden. Problem 8-11 (Time 4050 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to write a memo on how a dollar-value LIFO pool works. In addition, the student must explain the step-by-step procedure used to compute dollar value LIFO. SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS PROBLEM 8-1 1. $175,000 ($175,000 X .20) = $140,000; $140,000 ($140,000 X .10) = $126,000, cost of goods purchased $1,100,000 + $69,000 = $1,169,000. The $69,000 of goods in transit on which title had passed on December 24 (f.o.b. shipping point) should be added to 12/31/10 inventory. The $29,000 of goods shipped (f.o.b. shipping point) on January 3, 2011, should remain part of the 12/31/10 inventory. 2. 3. Because no date was associated with the units issued or sold, the periodic (rather than perpetual) inventory method must be assumed. FIFO inventory cost: 1,000 units at $24 $ 24,000 1,000 units at 23 23,000 Total $ 47,000 LIFO inventory cost: 1,500 units at $21 500 units at 22 Total Average cost: 1,500 at $21 2,000 at 22 3,500 at 23 1,000 at 24 8,000 $ 31,500 11,000 $ 42,500 $ 31,500 44,000 80,500 24,000 $180,000 Totals $180,000 8,000 = $22.50 Ending inventory (2,000 X $22.50) is $45,000. PROBLEM 8-1 (Continued) 4. Computation of price indexes: $264,000 $240,000 12/31/11 $286,720 $256,000 Dollar-value LIFO inventory 12/31/10: Increase $240,000 $200,000 = 12/31/10 price index Increase in terms of 110 Base inventory Dollar-value LIFO inventory $ 40,000 X 1.10 44,000 2010 Layer = 112 = 110 12/31/10 200,000 $244,000 Dollar-value LIFO inventory 12/31/11: Increase $256,000 $240,000 = 12/31/11 price index Increase in terms of 112 2010 layer Base inventory Dollar-value LIFO inventory 5. $ 16,000 X 1.12 17,920 2011 Layer 44,000 200,000 $261,920 The inventoriable costs for 2011 are: $909,400 Merchandise purchased Add: Freight-in Deduct: Purchase returns Purchase discounts Inventoriable cost $16,500 6,800 22,000 931,400 23,300 $908,100 PROBLEM 8-2 DIMITRI COMPANY Schedule of Adjustments D December 31, 2010 Invento ry Initial amount s Adjustm ents: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. $1,520, 000 Accou nts Payabl e $1,200, 000 Net Sales $8,1 50,0 00 NONE 76,000 30,000 32,000 26,000 27,000 NONE 4, 000 195, 000 $1,715, 000 NONE 76,000 NONE NONE NONE NONE 56,000 8, 000 140, 000 $1,340, 000 (40,0 00) NON E NON E (47,0 00) NON E NON E NON E NON E (8 7,000 ) $8,0 63,0 Total adjustm ents Adjuste d amount s 1. 00 The $31,000 of tools on the loading dock were properly included in the physical count. The sale should not be recorded until the goods are picked up by the common carrier. Therefore, no adjustment is made to inventory, but sales must be reduced by the $40,000 billing price. The $76,000 of goods in transit from a vendor to Dimitri were shipped f.o.b. shipping point on 12/29/10. Title passes to the buyer as soon as goods are delivered to the common carrier when sold f.o.b. shipping point. Therefore, these goods are properly includable in Dimitris inventory and accounts payable at 12/31/10. Both inventory and accounts payable must be increased by $76,000. The work-in-process inventory sent to an outside processor is Dimitris property and should be included in ending inventory. Since this inventory was not in the plant at the time of the physical count, the inventory column must be increased by $30,000. 2. 3. PROBLEM 8-2 (Continued) 4. The tools costing $32,000 were recorded as sales ($47,000) in 2010. However, these items were returned by customers on December 31, so 2010 net sales should be reduced by the $47,000 return. Also, $32,000 has to be added to the inventory column since these goods were not included in the physical count. The $26,000 of Dimitris tools shipped to a customer f.o.b. destination are still owned by Dimitri while in transit because title does not pass on these goods until they are received by the buyer. Therefore, $26,000 must be added to the inventory column. No adjustment is necessary in the sales column because the sale was properly recorded in 2011 when the customer received the goods. The goods received from a vendor at 5:00 p.m. on 12/31/10 should be included in the ending inventory, but were not included in the physical count. Therefore, $27,000 must be added to the inventory column. No adjustment is made to accounts payable, since the invoice was included in 12/31/10 accounts payable. The $56,000 of goods received on 12/26/10 were properly included in the physical count of inventory; $56,000 must be added to accounts payable since the invoice was not included in the 12/31/10 accounts payable balance. Since one-half of the freight-in cost ($8,000) pertains to merchandise properly included in inventory as of 12/31/10, $4,000 should be added to the inventory column. The remaining $4,000 debit should be reflected in cost of goods sold. The full $8,000 must be added to accounts payable since the liability was not recorded. 5. 6. 7. 8. PROBLEM 8-3 (a) 1. Purchases Accounts Payable 8/10 12,000 12,000 Accounts Payable Purchase Returns and Allowance s 8/13 1,200 1,200 Purchases Accounts Payable 8/15 16,000 16,000 Purchases Accounts Payable 8/25 20,000 20,000 Accounts Payable Cash 2. 8/28 16,000 16,000 Purchasesaddition in cost of goods sold section income of statement. Purchase returns and allowancesdeduction from purchases in cost of goods sold section of the income statement. Accounts payablecurrent liability in the current liabilities section of the balance sheet. (b) 1. Purchases Accounts Payable ($12,000 X .98) 8/13 1,176 8/10 11,760 11,760 Accounts Payable Purchase Returns and Allowance s 1,176 ($1,200 X .98) PROBLEM 8-3 (Continued) 8/15 15,840 15,840 Accounts Payable ($16,000 X .99) 8/25 19,600 19,600 Accounts Payable ($20,000 X .98) 8/28 15,840 160 Purchases Purchases Accounts Payable Purchase Discounts Lost Cash 2. Purchase Discounts Lost Accounts Payable (.02 X [$12,000 $1,200]) 16,000 8/31 216 216 3. Same as part (a) (2) except: Purchase Discounts Losttreat as financial expense in income statement. (c) The second method is better theoretically because it results in the inventory being carried net of purchase discounts, and purchase discounts not taken are shown as an expense. The first method is normally used, however, for practical reasons. PROBLEM 8-4 (a) Purchas es Total Units April 1 (balance on hand) April 4 April 11 April 18 April 26 April 30 Total units Total units sold Total units (ending inventor y) 100 Sales Total Units April 5 300 400 300 200 600 200 1,800 1,450 April 12 April 27 April 28 Total units 200 800 150 1,450 350 Assuming costs are not computed for each withdrawal: 1. Date of Invoice April 30 April 26 First-in, first-out. No. Units 200 150 Unit Cost $5.80 5.60 Total Cost $1,160 840 $2,000 2. Date of Invoice April 1 April 4 Last-in, first-out. No. Units 100 250 Unit Cost $5.00 5.10 Total Cost $ 500 1,275 $1,775 PROBLEM 8-4 (Continued) 3. Date of Invoice April 1 April 4 April 11 April 18 April 26 April 30 Total Availabl e Average cost. Cost of Part X available. No. Units 100 400 300 200 600 200 1,800 Unit Cost $5.00 5.10 5.30 5.35 5.60 5.80 Total Cost $ 500 2,040 1,590 1,070 3,360 1,160 $9,720 Average cost per unit = $9,720 1,800 = $5.40. Inventory, April 30 = 350 X $5.40 = $1,890. (b) Assuming costs are computed for each withdrawal: 1. First-in, first out. The inventory would be the same in amount as in part (a), $2,000. PROBLEM 8-4 (Continued) 2. Last-in, first-out. Pu rch as ed Dat e Apri l1 Apri l4 No. of uni ts 10 0 40 0 Sol d Uni t co st $5. 00 5. 10 No. of uni ts Uni t co st B Balance* No. of uni ts 10 0 10 0 40 0 Uni t co s st $5. 00 5. 00 5. 10 5. 00 5. 10 5. 00 5. 10 5. 30 5. 00 5. 10 5. 30 5. 00 5. 10 Am ou nt $ 50 0 2, 54 0 Apri l5 30 0 $5. 10 10 0 10 0 1, 01 0 Apri l 11 30 0 5. 30 10 0 10 0 30 0 2, 60 0 Apri l 12 20 0 5. 30 10 0 10 0 10 0 1, 54 0 Apri l 18 20 0 5. 35 10 0 10 0 2, 61 0 10 0 20 0 Apri l 26 60 0 5. 60 10 0 10 0 10 0 20 0 60 0 Apri l 27 80 0 60 0 @ 20 0 @ 5. 60 5. 35 10 0 10 0 10 0 Apri l 28 15 0 Apri l 30 20 0 5. 80 10 0 @ 5 0 @ 5. 30 5. 10 10 0 5 0 10 0 5 0 20 0 @ 5. 30 5. 35 5. 00 5. 10 5. 30 5. 35 5. 60 5, 97 0 5. 00 5. 10 5. 30 5. 00 5. 10 5. 00 5. 10 5. 80 1, 54 0 75 5 1, 91 5 Inventory April 30 is $1,915. *The balance on hand is listed in detail after each transaction. PROBLEM 8-4 (Continued) 3. Average cost. Pu rch as ed Dat e Apri l1 No. of uni ts 10 0 Sol d Uni t co st $5. 00 No. of uni ts Uni t co st B Balance No. of uni ts 1 00 Uni t co s st* $5. 00 00 5. 08 00 5. 08 00 5. 21 20 5. 21 20 5. 26 72 5. 44 87 5. 44 Am ou nt $ 50 0.0 0 2, 54 0.0 0 1, 01 6.0 0 2, 60 6.0 0 1, 56 3.6 0 2, 63 3.6 0 5, 99 3.6 0 1, 63 Apri l4 40 0 5. 10 5 00 Apri l5 30 0 $5. 08 00 2 00 Apri l 11 30 0 5. 30 5 00 Apri l 12 20 0 5. 21 20 3 00 Apri l 18 20 0 5. 35 5 00 Apri l 26 60 0 5. 60 1,1 00 Apri l 27 80 0 5. 44 3 00 87 Apri l 28 15 0 5. 44 87 1 50 87 5. 44 87 5. 64 95 4.7 2 81 7.3 3 1, 97 7.3 3 Apri l 30 20 0 5. 80 3 50 Inventory April 30 is $1,977.33 *Four decimal places are used to minimize rounding errors. PROBLEM 8-5 (a) Assuming costs are not computed for each withdrawal (units received, 5,700, minus units issued, 4,700, equals ending inventory at 1,000 units): 1. Date of Invoice Jan. 28 2. Date of Invoice Jan. 2 3. Date of Invoice Jan. 2 Jan. 10 Jan. 18 Jan. 23 Jan. 28 Total Availabl e First-in, first-out. No. Units 1,000 Last-in, first-out. No. Units 1,000 Average cost. Cost of goods available: No. Units 1,200 600 1,000 1,300 1,600 5,700 Unit Cost $3.50 Total Cost $3,500 Unit Cost $3.00 Total Cost $3,000 Unit Cost $3.00 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 Total Cost $ 3,600 1,920 3,300 4,420 5,600 $18,840 Average cost per unit = $18,840 5,700 = $ 3.31 Cost of inventory Jan. 31 = 1,000 X $3.31 = $3,310 (b) Assuming costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal: Under FIFOYes. The amount shown as ending inventory would be the same as in (a) above. In each case the units on hand would be assumed to be part of those purchased on Jan. 28. Under LIFONo. During the month the available balance dropped below the ending inventory quantity so that the layers of oldest costs were partially liquidated during the month. PROBLEM 8-5 (Continued) Under Average CostNo. A new average cost would be computed each time a withdrawal was made instead of only once for all items purchased during the year. The calculations to determine the inventory on this basis are given below. 1. First-in, first-out. The inventory would be the same in amount as in part (a), $3,500. Last-in, first-out. Re cei ve d Dat e Jan. 2 Jan. 7 Jan. 10 6 00 3. 20 No. of uni ts 1,2 00 Iss ue d Uni t co st $3. 00 7 00 $3. 00 No. of uni ts Uni t co st 2. B Balance No. of uni ts 1,2 00 5 00 5 00 6 00 Uni t co s st* $3. 00 3. 00 3. 00 3. 20 3. 00 3. 20 3. 00 3. 20 3. Am ou nt $3, 60 0 1, 50 0 3, 42 0 Jan. 13 5 00 3. 20 5 00 1 00 1, 82 0 Jan. 18 1,0 00 3. 30 3 00 3. 30 5 00 1 00 7 4, 13 0 00 Jan. 20 7 00 1 00 3 00 Jan. 23 1,3 00 3. 40 3. 30 3. 20 3. 00 2 00 2 00 1,3 00 Jan. 26 8 00 3. 40 2 00 5 00 Jan. 28 1,6 00 3. 50 2 00 5 00 1,6 00 Jan. 31 1,3 00 3. 50 2 00 5 00 3 00 30 3. 00 3. 00 3. 40 3. 00 3. 40 3. 00 3. 40 3. 50 3. 00 3. 40 3. 50 60 0 5, 02 0 2, 30 0 7, 90 0 3, 35 0 Inventory, January 31 is $3,350. PROBLEM 8-5 (Continued) 3. Average cost. Re cei ve d Dat e Jan. 2 Jan. 7 Jan. 10 Jan. 13 Jan. 18 Jan. 20 Jan. 23 Jan. 26 Jan. 28 Jan. 31 1,6 00 3. 50 1,3 00 3. 46 26 1,3 00 3. 40 8 00 3. 37 73 1,0 00 3. 30 6 00 3. 20 5 00 3 00 1,1 00 3. 10 91 3. 22 81 3. 22 81 No. of uni ts 1,2 00 Iss ue d Uni t co st $3. 00 7 00 $3. 00 00 No. of uni ts Uni t co st B Balance No. of uni ts 1,2 00 5 00 1,1 00 6 00 1,3 00 2 00 1,5 00 7 00 2,3 00 1,0 00 Uni t co s st* $3. 00 00 3. 00 00 3. 10 91 3. 10 91 3. 22 81 3. 22 81 3. 37 73 3. 37 73 3. 46 26 3. 46 26 Am ou nt $3, 60 0 1, 50 0 3, 42 0 1, 86 5 4, 19 7 64 6 5, 06 6 2, 36 4 7, 96 4 3, 46 3 Inventory, January 31 is $3,463. *Four decimal places are used to minimize rounding errors. PROBLEM 8-6 (a) Beginning inventory Purchases (2,000 + 3,000) Units available for sale Sales (2,500 + 2,200) Goods on hand Periodic FIFO 1,000 X $12 = 2,000 X $18 = 1,700 X $23 = 4,700 1,000 5,000 6,000 4,700 1,300 $12,000 36,000 39,100 $87,100 (b) Perpetual FIFO Same as periodic: Periodic LIFO 3,000 X $23 = 1,700 X $18 = 4,700 Perpetual LIFO Purc hase d Sold Balance $87,100 (c) $69,000 30,600 $99,600 (d) Date 1/1 1,00 0 X } $12 = $12, 000 $48, 000 2/4 2,00 0 X $18 1,00 0 X $12 = $36, 000 2,00 0 2/20 2,00 0 X 50 0 4/2 3,00 0 = $69, 000 3,00 0 11/4 2,20 0 X $23 ____ __ $92, 600 0 = $50, 600 0 X 50 } X 80 X $23 $12 $24, 400 $23 X 0 $23 X 0 $12 $18 50 X 50 } X $12 $12 = $ 6,00 0 $75, 000 } $42, 000 X $18 PROBLEM 8-6 (Continued) (e) Periodic weighted-average 1,000 X $12 = 2,000 X $18 = 3,000 X $23 69,000 = $117,000 6,000 = $19.50 $ 12,000 36,000 4,700 X $19.50 $91,650 (f) Perpetual average Purch ased Sold moving Date Balance 1/1 1,000 X = $12,00 $12 0 48,00 2/4 2,000 X = $36,00 0 $18 3,000 X = $16 0 2/20 2,500 X $16 = $40,00 0 X = 500 $16 0 8,00 4/2 3,000 X = $69,00 0 $23 3,500 X $22 = a 77,00 0 11/4 2,200 X $22 = 0 48,40 1,300 X = $22 0 28,60 $88,40 0 a 500 X = 8,000 3,000 X = 69,000 3,500 $77,00 0 $23 $16 $ ($77,0 00 $22) 3,500 = PROBLEM 8-7 The accounts in the 2011 financial statements which would be affected by a change to LIFO and the new amount for each of the accounts are as follows: Account (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cash Inventory Retained earnings Cost of goods sold Income taxes New amount for 2011 $176,400 120,000 226,400 792,000 101,600 The calculations for both 2010 and 2011 to support the conversion to LIFO are presented below. Income for the Years Ended Sales Less: Cost of goods sold Other expenses Income before taxes Income taxes (40%) Net income Cost of Good Sold and Ending Inventory for the Years Ended Beginning inventory ( 40,000 X $3.00) 12/31/10 12/31/10 12/31/11 $900,000 525,000 $1,350,000 792,000 205,000 730,000 170,000 68,000 $102,000 304,000 1,096,000 254,000 101,600 $ 152,400 12/31/11 $120,000 ( 40,000 X $3.00) $120,000 Purchases (150,000 X $3.50) 525,000 645,000 (180,000 X $4.40) 792,000 912,000 Cost of goods available Ending ( 40,000 X inventory $3.00) Cost of goods sold Determinati on of Cash at Income taxes under FIFO Income taxes as calculated under LIFO Increase in cash Adjust cash at 12/31/11 for 2010 tax difference Total increase in cash Cash balance under FIFO Cash balance under LIFO 12/31/10 120,000 $525,000 ( 40,000 X $3.00) 120,000 $792,000 12/31/11 $ 76,000 $116,000 68,000 101,600 8,000 14,400 8,000 8,000 22,400 130,000 154,000 $138,000 $176,400 PROBLEM 8-7 (Continued) Determinati on of Retained Earnings at Net income under FIFO Net income under LIFO 12/31/10 12/31/11 $114,000 102,000 $174,000 152,400 Reduction in retained earnings Adjust retained earnings at 12/31/11 for 2010 reduction Total reduction in retained earnings Retained earnings under FIFO Retained earnings under LIFO 12,000 21,600 12,000 12,000 33,600 200,000 260,000 $188,000 $226,400 PROBLEM 8-8 (a) 1. Ending inventory in units Portable 6,000 + 15,000 14,000 = Midsize 8,000 + 20,000 24,000 = Flat-screen 3,000 + 10,000 6,000 = 7,000 4,000 7,000 18,000 2. Ending inventory at current cost Portable 7,000 X $110 = Midsize 4,000 X $300 = Flat-screen 7,000 X $500 = $ 770,000 1,200,000 3,500,000 $5,470,000 3. Ending inventory at baseyear cost Portable 7,000 X $100 = Midsize 4,000 X $250 = Flat-screen 7,000 X $400 = $ 700,000 1,000,000 2,800,000 $4,500,000 4. Price index $5,470,000 $4,500,000 = 1.2156 Ending inventory $3,800,000 X 1.0000 = 700,000* X 1.2156 = *($4,500,00 0 $3,800,000 = $700,000) 6. Cost of goods sold Beginning inventory Purchases [(15,000 X $110) + (20,000 X $300) + (10,000 X $500)] Cost of goods available Ending inventory Cost of goods sold 5. $3,800,000 850,920 $4,650,920 $ 3,800,000 12,650,000 16,450,000 4,650,920 $11,799,080 PROBLEM 8-8 (Continued) 7. Gross profit Sales [(14,000 $15,420,000 X $150) + (24,000 X $405) + (6,000 X $600)] Cost of 11,799,080 goods sold Gross $ 3,620,920 profit Ending inventory at current cost restated to base cost Portable $ 770,000 $ 700,000 1.10 = Midsize 1,200,000 $1,000,000 1.20 = Flat-screen 3,500,000 $2,800,000 1.25 = Ending inventory Portable $ 600 ,00 0X 1.0 0= 1 00, 000 X 1.1 0= (b) 1. 2. $ 600,000 110,000 Midsize Flat-screen 1,0 00, 000 X 1.0 0= 1,2 00, 000 X 1.0 0= 1,6 00, 000 X 1.2 5= 1,000,000 1,200,000 2,000,000 $4,910,000 3. Cost of good sold Cost of good available Ending inventory Cost of goods sold Gross profit Sales Cost of goods sold Gross profit $16,450,000 4,910,000 $11,540,000 4. $15,420,000 11,540,000 $ 3,880,000 PROBLEM 8-9 (a) BONANZA WHOLESALERS INC. Computation of Internal Conversion Price Index for Inventory Pool No. 1 Double Extension Method Current inventory at currentyear cost Product A Product B Current inventory at base cost Product A Product B 2010 17,000 X $36 = 9,000 X $26 = $612,000 234,000 $846,000 13,000 X $40 = 10,000 X $32 = 2011 $520,000 320,000 $840,000 17,000 X $30 = 9,000 X $25 = $510,000 225,000 $735,000 13,000 X $30 = 10,000 X $25 = $390,000 250,000 $640,000 Conversion price index $846,000 $735,000 = 1.15 $640,000 = 1.31 $840,000 (b) BONANZA WHOLESALERS INC. Computation of Inventory Amounts Under Dollar-Value LIFO Method for Inventory Pool No. 1 at December 31, 2010 and 2011 Curren t Invento ry at base cost Inventory at LIFO cost Conver sion price index Decemb er 31, 2010 Base inventor y 2010 layer ($735,00 0 $525,00 0) Tota l Decemb er 31, 2011 Base inventor y 2010 layer (remaini ng) Tota l (a) (b) $525,0 00 210,0 00 1.00 $525,0 00 (a) 241,5 00 1.15 $735,0 00 (a) $766,5 00 $525,0 00 115,0 00 (b) 1.00 $525,0 00 (a) 132,2 50 1.15 $640,0 00 (a) $657,2 50 Per schedule for instruction (a). After liquidation of $95,000 base cost ($735,000 $640,000). PROBLEM 8-10 BaseYear Cost Decembe r 31, 2009 January 1, 2009, base Decembe r 31, 2009, layer Index % DollarValue LIFO $45,000 100 $45,000 11,000 112* 12,320 $56,000 Decembe r 31, 2010 January 1, 2009, base Decembe r 31, 2009, layer Decembe r 31, 2010, layer $57,320 $45,000 100 $45,000 11,000 112 12,320 12,400 128** 15,872 $68,400 Decembe r 31, 2011 $73,192 January 1, 2009, base Decembe r 31, 2009, layer Decembe r 31, 2010, layer Decembe r 31, 2011, layer $45,000 100 $45,000 11,000 112 12,320 12,400 128 15,872 1,600 130*** 2,080 $70,000 *$62,70 0 $56,000 **$87,30 0 $68,400 ***$90,80 0 $70,000 $75,272 PROBLEM 8-11 (a) Schedule A A Curre nt $ B Price Index C BaseYear $ D Chan ge from Prior Year + $26,00 0 (16, 000) +9, 000 +6, 000 +15, 000 2006 2007 $ 80,000 111,30 0 108,00 0 128,70 0 147,00 0 174,00 0 1.00 1.05 $ 80,000 106,0 00 90,0 00 99,0 00 105,0 00 120,0 00 2008 2009 2010 2011 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.45 Schedule B Ending Inventory-Dollar-Value LIFO: 2006 $ 80,000 2010 $80,000 @ $1.00 = 10,000 $ 80,000 2007 $80,000 $ 80,000 10,500 @ $1.00 = 26,000 @ 1.05 = 27,300 $107,300 @ 1.05 = 9,000 @ 1.30 = 6,000 @ 1.40 = 11,700 8,400 2008 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = $ 80,000 $110,600 10,500 $ 90,500 2009 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = 9,000 @ 1.30 = $ 80,000 10,500 11,700 2011 $80,000 @ 1.00 = 10,000 @ 1.05 = 9,000 @ 1.30 = 6,000 @ 1.40 = 15,000 @ 1.45 = $ 80,000 10,500 11,700 8,400 21,750 $102,200 $132,350 PROBLEM 8-11 (Continued) (b) To: From: Subject: Richardson Company Accounting Student Dollar-Value LIFO Pool Accounting Dollar-value LIFO is an inventory method which values groups or pools of inventory in layers of costs. It assumes that any goods sold during a given period were taken from the most recently acquired group of goods in stock and, consequently, any goods remaining in inventory are assumed to be the oldest goods, valued at the oldest prices. Because dollar-value LIFO combines various related costs in groups or pools, no attempt is made to keep track of each individual inventory item. Instead, each group of annual purchases forms a new cost layer of inventory. Further, the most recent layer will be the first one carried to cost of goods sold during this period. However, inflation distorts any cost of purchases made in subsequent years. To counteract the effect of inflation, this method measures the incremental change in each years ending inventory in terms of the first years (base years) costs. This is done by adjusting subsequent cost layers, through the use of a price index, to the base years inventory costs. Only after this adjustment can the new layer be valued at current-year prices. To do this valuation, you need to know both the ending inventory at yearend prices and the price index used to adjust the current years new layer. The idea is to convert the current ending inventory into base-year costs. The difference between the current years and the previous years ending inventory expressed in base-year costs usually represents any inventory which has been purchased but not sold during the year, that is, the newest LIFO layer. This difference is then readjusted to express this most recent layer in current-year costs. PROBLEM 8-11 (Continued) 1. Refer to Schedule A. To express each years ending inventory (Column A) in terms of base-year costs, simply divide the ending inventory by the price index (Column B). For 2006, this adjustment would be $80,000/ 100% or $80,000; for 2007, it would be $111,300/105%, etc. The quotient (Column C) is thus expressed in base-year costs. Next, compute the difference between the previous and the current years ending inventory in base-year costs. Simply subtract the current years base-year inventory from the previous years. In 2007, the change is +$26,000 (Column D). Finally, express this increment in current-year terms. For the second year, this computation is straightforward: the base-year ending inventory value is added to the difference in #2 above multiplied by the price index. For 2007, the ending inventory for dollar-value LIFO would equal $80,000 of base-year inventory plus the increment ($26,000) times the price index (1.05) or $107,300. The product is the most recent layer expressed in current-year prices. See Schedule B. 2. 3. Be careful with this last step in subsequent years. Notice that, in 2008, the change from the previous year is $16,000, which causes the 2007 layer to be eroded during the period. Thus, the 2008 ending inventory is valued at the original base-year cost $80,000 plus the remainder valued at the 2007 price index, $10,000 times 1.05. See 2008 computation on Schedule B. When valuing ending inventory, remember to include each yearly layer adjusted by that years price index. Refer to Schedule B for 2009. Notice that the +$9,000 change from the 2009 ending inventory indicates that the 2007 layer was not further eroded. Thus, ending inventory for 2009 would value the first $80,000 worth of inventory at the base-year price index (1.00), the next $10,000 (the remainder of the 2007 layer) at the 2007 price index (1.05), and the last $9,000 at the 2009 price index (1.30). These instructions should help you implement dollar-value LIFO in your inventory valuation. TIME AND PURPOSE OF CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS CA 8-1 (Time 1520 minutes) Purposea short case designed to test the skills of the student in determining whether an item should be reported in inventory. In addition, the student is required to speculate as to why the company may wish to postpone recording this transaction. CA 8-2 (Time 1525 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with four questions about the carrying value of inventory. These questions must be answered and defended with rationale. The topics are shipping terms, freightin, weighted-average cost vs. FIFO, and consigned goods. CA 8-3 (Time 2535 minutes) Purposeto provide a number of difficult financial reporting transactions involving inventories. This case is vague and much judgment is required in its analysis. Right or wrong answers should be discouraged; rather emphasis should be placed on the underlying rationale to defend a given position. Includes a product versus period cost transaction, proper classification of a possible inventory item, and a product financing arrangement. CA 8-4 (Time 1525 minutes) Purposethe student discusses the acceptability of alternative methods of reporting cash discounts. Also, the student identifies the effects on financial statements of using LIFO instead of FIFO when prices are rising. CA 8-5 (Time 2025 minutes) Purposeto provide a broad overview to students as to why inventories must be included in the balance sheet and income statement. In addition, students are asked to determine why taxable income and accounting income may be different. Finally, the conditions under which FIFO and LIFO may give different answers must be developed. CA 8-6 (Time 1520 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with the opportunity to discuss the rationale for the use of the LIFO method of inventory valuation. The conditions that must exist before the tax benefits of LIFO will accrue also must be developed. CA 8-7 (Time 1520 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to discuss the cost flow assumptions of average cost, FIFO, and LIFO. Student is also required to distinguish between weighted-average and movingaverage and discuss the effect of LIFO on the B/S and I/S in a period of rising prices. CA 8-8 (Time 2530 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with the opportunity to discuss the differences between traditional LIFO and dollar-value LIFO. In this discussion, the specific procedures employed in traditional LIFO and dollar-value LIFO must be examined. This case provides a good basis for discussing LIFO conceptual issues. CA 8-9 (Time 2530 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to discuss the concept of a LIFO pool and its use in various LIFO methods. The student is also asked to define LIFO liquidation, to explain the use of price indexes in dollar-value LIFO, and to discuss the advantages of using dollar-value LIFO. Time and Purposes of Concepts for Analysis (Continued) CA 8-10 (Time 3035 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to analyze the effect of changing from the FIFO method to the LIFO method on items such as ending inventory, net income, earnings per share, and year-end cash balance. The student is also asked to make recommendations considering the results from computation and other relevant factors. CA 8-11 (Time 2025 minutes) Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to analyze the ethical implications of purchasing decisions under LIFO. SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS CA 8-1 (a) Purchased merchandise in transit at the end of an accounting period to which legal title has passed should be recorded as purchases within the accounting period. If goods are shipped f.o.b. shipping point, title passes to the buyer when the seller delivers the goods to the common carrier. Generally when the terms are f.o.b. shipping point, transportation costs must be paid by the buyer. This liability arises when the common carrier completes the delivery. Thus, the client has a liability for the merchandise and the freight. (b) Inventory Accounts PayableSupplier Inventory Accounts PayableTransportation Co. 35,300 35,300 1,500 1,500 (c) Possible reasons to postpone the recording of the transaction might include: 1. Desire to maintain a current ratio at a given level which would be affected by the additional inventory and accounts payable. 2. Desire to minimize the impact of the additional inventory on other ratios such as inventory turnover. 3. Possible tax ramifications. CA 8-2 (a) If the terms of the purchase are f.o.b. shipping point (manufacturers plant), Strider Enterprises should include in its inventory goods purchased from its suppliers when the goods are shipped. For accounting purposes, title is presumed to pass at that time. (b) Freight-in expenditures should be considered an inventoriable cost because they are part of the price paid or the consideration given to acquire the asset. (c) Theoretically the net approach is the more appropriate because the net amount (1) provides a correct reporting of the cost of the asset and related liability and (2) presents the opportunity to measure the inefficiency of financial management if the discount is not taken. Many believe, however, that the difficulty involved in using the somewhat more complicated net method is not justified by the resulting benefits. (d) Products on consignment represent inventories owned by Strider Enterprises, which are physically transferred to another enterprise. However, Strider Enterprises retains title to the goods until their sale by the other company (Chavez Inc.). The goods consigned are still included by Strider Enterprises in the inventory section of its balance sheet. Often the inventory is reclassified from regular inventory to consigned inventory ( Note to instructor: There is no reason why the student will know this last point given that only Chapter 8 has been covered.). The other company reports neither inventory nor a liability in its balance sheet. CA 8-3 (a) According to FASB ASC 330-10-30-1: As applied to inventories, cost means in principle the sum of the applicable expenditures and charges directly or indirectly incurred in bringing an article to its existing condition and location. The discussion includes the following: Selling expenses constitute no part of the inventory costs. To the extent that warehousing is a necessary function of importing merchandise before it can be sold, certain elements of warehousing costs might be considered an appropriate cost of inventory in the warehouse. For example, if goods must be brought into the warehouse before they can be made ready for sale, the cost of bringing such goods into the warehouse would be considered a cost of inventory. Similarly, if goods must be handled in the warehouse for assembly or for removal of foreign packaging, etc., it would be appropriate to include such costs in inventory. However, costs involved in storing the goods for any additional period would appear to be period costs. Costs of delivering the goods from the warehouse would appear to be selling expenses related to the goods sold, and should not under any circumstances be allocated to goods that are still in the warehouse. In theory, warehousing costs are considered a product cost because these costs are incurred to maintain the product in a salable condition. However, in practice, warehousing costs are most frequently treated as a period cost. Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, warehousing and off-site storage of inventory, including finished goods, are specifically included in the production and resale activities that are to be capitalized for tax purposes. (b) It is correct to conclude that obsolete items are excludable from inventory. Cost attributable to such items is nonuseful and nonrecoverable cost (except for possible scrap value) and should be written off. If the cost of obsolete items was simply excluded from ending inventory, the resultant cost of goods sold would be overstated by the amount of these costs. The cost of obsolete items, if immaterial, should be commingled with cost of goods sold. If material, these costs should be separately disclosed. (c) The primary use of the airplanes should determine their treatment on the balance sheet. Since the airplanes are held primarily for sale, and chartering is only a temporary use, the airplanes should be classified as current assets. Depreciation would not be appropriate if the planes are considered inventory. FASB ASC Glossary entry for Inventory (Prior literature: Accounting Research Bulletin No. 43, Chapter 4, Inventory Pricing Statement No. 1), states in part that the term Inventory excludes long-term assets subject to depreciation accounting, or goods which, when put into use, will be so classified. (d) The transaction is a product financing arrangement and should be reported by the company as inventory with a related liability. The substance of the transaction is that inventory has been purchased and the fact that a trust is established to purchase the goods has no economic significance. Given that the company agrees to buy the coal over a certain period of time at specific prices, it appears clear that the company has the liability and not the trust. CA 8-4 (a) Cash discounts should not be accounted for as financial income when payments are made. Income should be recognized when the earnings process is complete (when the company sells the inventory). Furthermore, cash discounts should not be recorded when the payments are made because in order to properly match a cash discount with the related purchase, the cash discount should be recorded when the related purchase is recorded. CA 8-4 (Continued) (b) Cash discounts should not be accounted for as a reduction of cost of goods sold for the period when payments are made. Cost of goods sold should be reduced when the earnings process is complete (when the company sells the inventory which has been reduced by the cash discounts). Furthermore, cash discounts should not be recorded when the payments are made because in order to properly match a cash discount with the related purchase, the cash discount should be recorded when the related purchase is recorded. (c) Cash discounts should be accounted for as a direct reduction of purchase cost because they reduce the cost of acquiring the inventories. Purchases should be recorded net of cash discounts to reflect the net cash to be paid. The primary basis of accounting for inventories is cost, which represents the price paid or consideration given to acquire an asset. CA 8-5 (a) 1. Inventories are unexpired costs and represent future benefits to the owner. A balance sheet includes a listing of unexpired costs and future benefits of the owners assets at a specific point in time. Because inventories are assets owned at the specific point in time for which a balance sheet is prepared, they must be included in order that the owners financial position will be presented fairly. 2. Beginning and ending inventories are included in the computation of net income only for the purpose of arriving at the cost of goods sold during the period of time covered by the statement. Goods included in the beginning inventory which are no longer on hand are expired costs to be matched against revenues earned during the period. Goods included in the ending inventory are unexpired costs to be carried forward to a future period, rather than expensed. (b) Financial accounting has as its goal the proper reporting of financial transactions and events in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Income tax accounting has as its goal the reporting of taxable transactions and events in conformity with income tax laws and regulations . While the primary purpose of an income tax is the production of tax revenues to finance the operations of government, income tax laws and regulations are often produced by various forces. The income tax may be used as a tool of fiscal policy to stimulate all of the segments of the economy or to decelerate the economy. Some income tax laws may be passed because of political pressures brought to bear by individuals or industries. When the purposes of financial accounting and income tax accounting differ, it is often desirable to report transactions or events differently and to report the deferred tax consequences of any existing temporary differences as assets or liabilities. (c) FIFO and LIFO are inventory costing methods employed to measure the flow of costs. FIFO matches the first cost incurred with the first revenue produced while LIFO matches the last cost incurred with the first revenue produced after the cost is incurred. (This, of course, assumes a perpetual inventory system is in use and may not be precisely true if a periodic inventory system is employed.) If prices are changing, different costs would be matched with revenue for the same quantity sold depending upon whether the LIFO or FIFO system is in use. (In a period of rising or falling prices FIFO tends to value inventories at approximate market value in the balance sheet and LIFO tends to match approximately the current replacement cost of an item with the revenue produced.) CA 8-6 (a) Inventory profits occur when the inventory costs matched against sales are less than the replacement cost of the inventory. The cost of goods sold therefore is understated and net income is considered overstated. By using LIFO (rather than some method such as FIFO), more recent costs are matched against revenues and inventory profits are thereby reduced. CA 8-6 (Continued) (b) As long as the price level increases and inventory quantities do not decrease, a deferral of income taxes occurs under LIFO because the items most recently purchased at the higher price level are matched against revenues. It should be noted that where unit costs tend to decrease as production increases, the tax benefits that LIFO might provide are nullified. Also, where the inventory turnover is high, the difference between inventory methods is negligible. CA 8-7 (a) The average-cost method assumes that inventories are sold or issued evenly from the stock on hand; the FIFO method assumes that goods are sold or used in the order in which they are purchased (i.e., the first goods purchased are the first sold or used); and the LIFO method matches the cost of the last goods purchased against revenue. (b) The weighted-average cost method combines the cost of all the purchases in the period with the cost of beginning inventory and divides the total costs by the total number of units to determine the average cost per unit. The moving-average cost method, on the other hand, calculates a new average unit cost when a purchase is made. The moving-average cost method is used with perpetual inventory records. (c) When the purchase prices of inventoriable items are rising for a significant period of time, the use of the LIFO method (instead of FIFO) will result in a lower net income figure. The reason is that the LIFO method matches most recent purchases against revenue. Since the prices of goods are rising, the LIFO method will result in higher cost of goods sold, thus lower net income. On the balance sheet, the ending inventory tends to be understated (i.e., lower than the most recent replacement cost) because the oldest goods have lower costs during a period of rising prices. In addition, retained earnings under the LIFO method will be lower than that of the FIFO method when inflation exists. CA 8-8 (a) 1. The LIFO method (periodic) allocates costs on the assumption that the last goods purchased are used first. If the amount of the inventory is computed at the end of the month under a periodic system, then it would be assumed that the total quantity sold or issued during the month would have come from the most recent purchases, and ordinarily no attempt would be made to compare the dates of purchases and sales. 2. The dollar-value method of LIFO inventory valuation is a procedure using dollars instead of units to measure increments or reductions in inventory. The method presumes that goods in the inventory can be classified into pools or homogenous groups. After the grouping into pools the ending inventory is priced at the end-of-year prices and a price index number is applied to convert the total pool to the base-year price level. Such a price index might be obtained from government sources, if available, or computed from the companys records. The pools or groupings of inventory are required where a single index number is inappropriate for all elements of the inventory. After the closing inventory and the opening inventory have been placed on the same base-year price level, any difference between the two inventories is attributable to an increase or decrease in inventory quantity at the base-year price. An increase in quantity so determined is converted to the current-year price level and added to the amount of the opening inventory as a separate inventory layer. A decrease in quantity is deducted from the appropriate layer of opening inventory at the price level in existence when the layer was added. CA 8-8 (Continued) (b) The advantages of the dollar-value method over the traditional LIFO method are as follows: 1. The application of the LIFO method is simplified because, under the pooling procedure, it is not necessary to assign costs to opening and closing quantities of individual items. As a result, companies with inventories comprised of thousands of items may adopt the dollar-value method and minimize their bookkeeping costs. 2. Base inventories are more easily maintained. The dollar-value method permits greater flexibility because each pool is made up of dollars rather than quantities. Thus, the problem of a LIFO liquidation is less possible. The disadvantages of the dollar-value method as compared to the traditional LIFO method are as follows: 1. Due to technological innovations and improvements over time, material changes in the composition of inventory may occur. Items found in the ending inventory may not have existed during the base year. Thus, conversion of the ending inventory to base-year prices may be difficult to calculate or to justify conceptually. This may necessitate a periodic change in the choice of base year used. 2. Application of a year-end index, although widely used, implies use of the FIFO method. Other indexes used include beginning-of-year index and average indexes. 3. Determination of the degree of similarity between items for the purpose of grouping them into pools may be difficult and may be based upon arbitrary management decisions. (c) The basic advantages of LIFO are: 1. MatchingIn LIFO, the more recent costs are matched against current revenues to provide a better measure of current earnings. 2. Tax benefitsAs long as the price level increases and inventory quantities do not decrease, a deferral of income taxes occurs. 3. Improved cash flowBy receiving tax benefits from use of LIFO, the company may reduce its borrowings and related interest costs. 4. Future earnings hedgeWith LIFO, a companys future reported earnings will not be affected substantially by future price declines. LIFO eliminates or substantially minimizes write-downs to market as a result of price decreases because the inventory value ordinarily will be much lower than net realizable value, unlike FIFO. The major disadvantages of LIFO are: 1. Reduced earningsBecause current costs are matched against current revenues, net income is lower than it is under other inventory methods when price levels are increasing. 2. Inventory understatedThe inventory valuation on the balance sheet is ordinarily outdated because the oldest costs remain in inventory. 3. Physical flowLIFO does not approximate physical flow of the items except in peculiar situations. 4. Real income not measuredLIFO falls short of measuring real income because it is often not an adequate substitute for replacement cost. 5. Involuntary liquidationIf the base or layers of old costs are partially liquidated, irrelevant costs can be matched against current revenues. 6. Poor buying habitsLIFO may cause poor buying habits because a company may simply purchase more goods and match the cost of these goods against revenue to insure that old costs are not charged to expense. CA 8-9 (a) A LIFO pool is a group of similar items which are combined and accounted for together under the LIFO inventory method. (b) It is possible to use a LIFO pool concept without using dollar-value LIFO. For example, the specific goods pooled approach utilizes the concept of a LIFO pool with quantities as its measurement basis. (c) A LIFO liquidation occurs when a significant drop in inventory level leads to the erosion of an earlier or base inventory layer. In a period of inflation (as usually is the case) LIFO liquidation will distort net income (make it higher) and incur substantial tax payments. (d) Price indexes are used in the dollar-value LIFO method to: (1) convert the ending inventory at current year-end cost to base-year cost, and (2) determine the current-year cost for each inventory layer other than the base-year layer. (e) The dollar-value LIFO method measures the increases and decreases in a pool in terms of total dollar value, not by the physical quantity of the goods in the inventory pool. As a result, the dollarvalue LIFO approach has the following advantages over specific goods LIFO pool. First, the pooled approach reduces record keeping and clerical costs. Second, replacement is permitted if it is a similar material, or similar in use, or interchangeable. Thus, it is more difficult to erode LIFO layers when using dollar-value LIFO techniques. CA 8-10 (a) FIFO (Amounts in thousands, except earnings per share) 2010 Sales Cost of goods sold Begin ning inventory Purch ases Cost of goods available for sale 1. Ending $11,000 2011 $12,000 2012 $15,600 8,000 7,200 9,000 8,000 16,000 9,900 17,100 12,000 21,000 7,200 9,000 9,000 inventory * Cost of goods sold Gross profit Opera ting expense (15% of sales) Depre ciation expense Incom e before taxes Incom e tax expense (40%) 2. Net income 8,800 8,100 12,000 2,200 (1,650) 3,900 (1,800) 3,600 (2,340) (300) (300) (300) 250 1,800 960 100 720 384 $ 150 $ 1,080 $ 576 CA 8-10 (Continued) 3. Earnings per share 4. Cash balance Begi nning balance Sale s proceeds Purc hases Ope rating expenses Pro perty, plant, and equipmen t Inco me taxes Divi dends Endi ng balance $ 0.15 $ 1.08 $ 0.58 $ 400 $ 1,300 $ 530 11,000 12,000 15,600 (8,000) (1,650) (9,900) (1,800) (12,000) (2,340) (350) (350) (350) (100) (150) $ 1,150 $ (720) (150) 420 $ (384) (150) 906 *2010 = $ 8 X (1,000 + 1,000 1,100) = $7,200. 2011 = $ 9 X ( 900 + 1,100 1,000) = $9,000. 2012 = $10 X (1,000 + 1,200 1,300) = $9,000. LIFO (Amounts in thousands, except earnings per share) 2010 Sales Cost of goods sold Begin ning inventory Purch ases Cost of goods available for sale 1. Ending inventory ** Cost of goods sold Gross profit Operat ing expense Depre ciation expense Incom e before taxes $11,000 2011 $12,000 2012 $15,600 8,000 7,200 8,100 8,000 16,000 9,900 17,100 12,000 20,100 7,200 8,100 7,200 8,800 9,000 12,900 2,200 (1,650) 3,000 (1,800) 2,700 (2,340) (300) (300) (300) 250 900 60 Incom e tax expense 2. Net income 100 360 24 $ 150 $ 540 $ 36 CA 8-10 (Continued) 3. Earnings per share 4. Cash balance Begi nning balance Sale s proceeds Purc hases Ope rating expenses Pro perty, plant, and equipmen t Inco me taxes Divi dends Endi ng balance $ 0.15 $ 0.54 $ 0.04 $ 400 $ 1,300 $ 890 11,000 12,000 15,600 (8,000) (1,650) (9,900) (1,800) (12,000) (2,340) (350) (350) (350) (100) (150) $ 1,150 $ (360) (150) 740 (24) ( 150 ) $ 1,626 **2010 = $8 X (1,000 + 1,000 1,100) = $7,200. 2011 = ($8 X 900) + ($9 X 100) = $8,100. 2012 = $8 X 900 = $7,200. (b) According to the computation in (a), Harrisburg Company can achieve the goal of income tax savings by switching to the LIFO method. As shown in the schedules, under the LIFO method, Harrisburg will have lower net income and thus lower income taxes for 2011 and 2012 (tax savings of $360,000 in each year). As a result, Harrisburg will have a better cash position at the end of 2011 and especially 2012 (year-end cash balance will be higher by $360,000 for 2011 and $720,000 for 2012). However, since Harrisburg Company is in a period of rising purchase prices, the LIFO method will result in significantly lower net income and earnings per share for 2011 and 2012. The management may need to evaluate the potential impact that lower net income and earnings per share might have on the company before deciding on the change to the LIFO method. CA 8-11 (a) Major stakeholders are investors, creditors, Wilkens management (including the president and plant accountant), and other employees of Wilkens Company. The inventory purchase in this instance reduces net income substantially and lowers Wilkens Companys tax liability. Current stockholders and company management benefit during the current year by this decision. However, the purchasing department may be concerned about inventory management and complications such as storage costs and possible inventory obsolescence. Assuming awareness of these benefits and possible complications, the plant accountant may follow the presidents recommendation without violating GAAP. The plant accountant also must consider whether this action is in the long-term best interests of the company and whether inventory amounts would provide a meaningful picture of Wilkens Companys financial condition. (b) No, the president would not recommend a year-end inventory purchase because under FIFO there would be no effect on net income. FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS CASE 1 (a) Sales Cost of goods sold* Gross profit Selling and administrative expense Income from operations Other expense Income before income tax *Cost of goods sold (per annual report) LIFO effect ($5,263,000 $3,993,000) Cost of goods sold (per LIFO) $618,876,000 474,206,000 144,670,000 102,112,000 42,558,000 (24,712,000) $ 17,846,000 $475,476,000 (1,270,000) $474,206,000 (b) $17,846,000 income before taxes X 46.6% tax = $8,316,236 tax; $17,846,000 $8,316,236 tax = $9,529,764 net income as compared to $8,848,000 net income under LIFO. This is $681,764 or about 8% different. The question as to materiality is to allow the students an opportunity to judge the significance of the difference between the two costing methods. Since it is less than 10% different, some students may feel that it is not material. An 8% change in net income, however, is probably material, but this would depend on the industry and perhaps on the companys own past averages. No, the use of different costing methods does not necessarily mean that there is a difference in the physical flow of goods. As explained in the text, the actual physical flow need have no relationship to the (c) cost flow assumption. The management of T J International has determined that LIFO is appropriate only for a subset of its products, and these reasons have to do with economic characteristics, rather than the physical flow of the goods. FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS CASE 2 (a) The most likely physical flow of goods for a pharmaceutical manufacturer would be FIFO; that is, the first goods manufactured would be the first goods sold. This is because pharmaceutical goods have an expiration date. The manufacturer would be careful to ship the goods made earliest first and thereby reduce the risk that outdated goods will remain in the warehouse. Noven should consider first whether the inventory costing method will make a difference. If the prices in the economy, especially if the raw materials prices, are stable, then the inventory cost will be nearly the same under any of the measurement methods. If inventory levels are very small, then the method used will make little difference. Noven should also consider the cost of keeping records. A small company might not want to invest in complicated record keeping. The tax effects of any differences should be considered, as well as any international rules that might dictate Novens measurement of part of its inventory. This amount is likely not shown in a separate inventory account because it is immaterial; that is, it is not large enough to make a difference with investors. Another possible reason is that no goods have yet been offered for sale. This amount might be in the Inventory of supplies account, but it is more likely to be included with Prepaid and other current assets, since it clearly is not just an article of supplies. This will definitely be shown separately as soon as Noven begins to sell its products to outside customers. (b) (c) FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS CASE 3 Revenu es Cost of sales Ending inventor ies at FIFO Ending inventor ies at LIFO Differen ce FIFO adjuste d cost of sales (a) (i) Feb. 26 2005 $19,543 16,681 $1,181 Feb. 25 2006 $19,864 16,977 $1,114 Feb. 24 2007 $37,406 29,267 $2,927 1,032 954 2,749 (149 ) $16,532 (160 ) $16,817 (178 ) $29,089 (ii) Inventor y turnover @LIFO Inventor y turnover @FIFO 2006 17.10 2007 15.81 14.66 14.40 Recall that the formula for computing inventory turnover is Cost of Sales/Average Inventory (b) (i) Inventor y turnover using sales and LIFO 2006 20.00 2007 20.20 Recall that the formula for computing inventory turnover in part (b) is Sales/Average Inventory (ii) Inventor y turnover using sales and FIFO 17.31 18.51 (c) It appears that Supervalus calculates its Inventory Turnover using LIFO inventory with the standard formula of Cost of Sales/Average Inventory. Using sales instead of cost of goods sold accounts for the mark-up in the inventory. By using cost of goods sold, there is a better matching of the costs associated to inventory, and should result in more useful information. (d) FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING RESEARCHFASB CODIFICATION (a) According to FASB ASC 605-15-15: 15-2 The guidance in this Subtopic applies to the following transactions: a. Sales in which a product may be returned, whether as a matter of contract or as a matter of existing practice, either by the ultimate customer or by a party who resells the product to others. The product may be returned for a refund of the purchase price, for a credit applied to amounts owed or to be owed for other purchases, or in exchange for other products. The purchase price or credit may include amounts related to incidental services, such as installation. However, exchanges by ultimate customers of one item for another of the same kind, quality, and price (for example, one color or size for another) are not considered returns for purposes of this Subtopic. b. Sales by a manufacturer who repurchases the product subject to an operating lease with the buyer. (b) The guidance in this subtopic (FASB ASC 605-15-15) does not apply to the following transactions: a. Revenue in service industries if part or all of the service revenue may be returned under cancellation privileges granted to the buyer. b. Transactions involving real estate or leases c. Sales transactions in which a customer may return defective goods, such as under warranty provisions. (See Topic 460 regarding warranty obligations incurred in connection with the sale of goods or services that may require further performance by the seller after the sale has taken place.) FASB CODIFICATION (Continued) > Right of Return (FASB ASC 605-15) 05-3 It is the practice in some industries for customers to be given the right to return a product to the seller under certain circumstances. In the case of sales to ultimate customer, the most usual circumstance is customer dissatisfaction with the product. For sales to customers engaged in the business of reselling the product, the most usual circumstance is that the customer has not been able to resell the product to another party. (Arrangements in which customers buy products for resale with the right to return products often are referred to as guaranteed sales.) (c) Yes, different industries should be allowed to make different types of policies. (FASB ASC 605-15-05). 05-4 Sometimes, the returns occur very soon after a sale is made, as in the newspaper and perishable food industries. In other cases, returns occur over a longer period, such as with book publishing and equipment manufacturing. The rate of returns varies considerably from a low rate usually found in the food industry to a high rate often found in the publishing industry. (d) According to FASB ASC 605-15-25: 25-3 The ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of future returns depends on many factors and circumstances that will vary from one case to the next. However, any of the following factors may impair the ability to make a reasonable estimate: a. The susceptibility of the product to significant external factors, such as technological obsolescence or changes in demand b. Relatively long periods in which a particular product may be returned FASB CODIFICATION (Continued) c. Absence of historical experience with similar types of sales of similar products, or inability to apply such experience because of changing circumstances, for example, changes in the selling entitys marketing policies or relationships with its customers d. Absence of a large volume of relatively homogeneous transactions. 25-4 The existence of one or more of the factors in the preceding paragraph, in light of the significance of other factors, may not be sufficient to prevent making a reasonable estimate; likewise, other factors may preclude a reasonable estimate. PROFESSIONAL SIMULATION Explanation To: From: Re: Norwel Management Student Advantages of LIFO The major advantages of the LIFO inventory method include better matching of costs with revenues, deferral of income taxes, improved cash flow, and minimization of the impact of future price declines on future earnings. Better matching arises in the use of LIFO because the most recent costs are matched with current revenues. In times of rising prices, this matching will result in lower taxable income, which in turn will reduce current taxes. The deferral of taxes under LIFO contributes to a higher cash flow. As illustrated in the analysis above the switch to FIFO resulted in a higher ending inventory, which leads to a lower cost of goods sold and higher income; thus, Norwels reported income will be higher but so will its taxes. Note that under LIFO, future taxes may be higher when lower cost items of inventory are sold in future periods and matched with higher sales prices. ... View Full Document

End of Preview

Sign up now to access the rest of the document