PSYC110_Lectures
18 Pages

PSYC110_Lectures

Course Number: PSYC PSYC110, Spring 2008

College/University: DeVry Chicago

Word Count: 8149

Rating:

Document Preview

Week 1: Psychological Research, Neurotransmitters, & Stress Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page Psychological Research, Neurotransmitters, and Stress Psychological Research| Neurotransmitters | Stress In Week 1 we begin with taking a look at how psychology conducts research. For better or worse, psychology is...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Illinois >> DeVry Chicago >> PSYC PSYC110

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

1: Week Psychological Research, Neurotransmitters, & Stress Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page Psychological Research, Neurotransmitters, and Stress Psychological Research| Neurotransmitters | Stress In Week 1 we begin with taking a look at how psychology conducts research. For better or worse, psychology is presently using the methods of the physical sciences and thus we will start there. From here will get a bit more practical with a look at neurotransmitters. We will conclude this week with a topic that so many of us can directly relate to these days - stress. Psychological Research Psychologists use the scientific method when conducting research. This allows the field to follow the same standardized scientific procedures that have worked so well for other scientists. This would entail the six steps of the scientific method: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. reviewing the literature formulating a testable hypothesis designing the study and collecting the data analyzing the data and accepting or rejecting the hypothesis publishing, replicating, and review theory-building The best research will be experiments since that is the only form of research that can show a cause and effect relationship. Experiments are however subject to various problems such as experimenter bias, ethnocentrism, sample bias and participant bias. A good research study will account for these by using a variety of techniques like single or double "blind" studies, placebos, cross cultural sampling, random assignment to groups, etc. Regarding experiments, the concept that students have the most difficulty with is often differentiating between the dependent variable and the independent variable. The text defines the dependent variable as the "experimental factor measured; it is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable." (p. 25) The independent variable is defined as "experimental factor manipulated to determine its causal effect on the dependent variable." (p. 25) Perhaps an example would help clarify things. A group of researchers at Yale University did an experiment that was published in the Journal of Pediatric Research (Oct. '95) looking at the effect of a glucose rich meal on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and children without the disorder. They gave the children a glucose rich meal (glucose is a simple sugar that the brain needs to function) and then monitored the children. They found that within three hours the glucose and insulin levels dropped in both groups - as expected. (Insulin moves glucose form circulation system into the cells.) The neurotransmitters (more on neurotransmitters below) epinephrine and norepinephrine now kick in to step up glucose entry into the brain. The surprising thing was that in the ADHD children, the rise in epinephrine and norepinephrine was about half that of the nonADHD children. (Note: This is NOT to say that all of ADHD children's problems are caused by sugar.) In this experiment, what is the independent and dependent variable? Well, the variable that is manipulated is this experiment is that of the children. They are divided into ADHD and non-ADHD children. The dependent variable is that of the epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. Research is certainly far superior to guess work - if the research is good, but this may not always be the case. The famous behavioral psychologist J. B. Watson even once said about research: "I hated to serve as a subject. I didn't like the stuffy, artificial instructions given to subjects. I was always uncomfortable and acted unnaturally." There are times that research is flawed and those students who can see through the hype about a study will be in a better position to make decisions for their company and/or family. How many of us recall the debate between which is better for you butter or margarine? A few years ago, it seemed that the research studies kept going back on forth on this. Students would do well to remember that ONLY an experiment can show a cause and effect going on. Other forms of research are indeed helpful and have their advantages as well, but they do not show the cause and effect relationship that experiments do. The tutorial goes into this in greater depth. Experiments are not always practical or ethical. It would be nice to know the effects of large scale long term marijuana use by adolescents, but this would certainly be an unethical experiment. In an effort to answer this question and others that can't be addressed in an experiment, psychologists turn to naturalistic observation (ex: Dian Fossey - the movie "Gorilla's In The Mist" was about her), surveys (we hear A LOT about them during election time - exit polls are an example of a survey), case studies (ex: studies of why Rudolph Giuliani was such a successful leader in the aftermath of 9-11) and correlation studies (these are the studies that you hear about noting things like how long someone lives and how many fruits and vegetables they eat). While science (the pursuit of knowledge) is indeed valued in our culture, we need to beware that we don't slip completely into ignoring that which we have trouble studying. When John F. Kennedy challenged America to put a man on the moon, the country did not have the technology. As a result of the quest, it was developed. The scientific method has limitations. Former American Psychological Association president Abraham Maslow wondered aloud if a human science like psychology should be forced to always be using the tools of the physical sciences? The scientific method has many wonderful applications, yet should it be the sole criterion for evaluating something? Critics of its overuse contend that the scientific method has no means of proving that it is the sole means of proving something - for that it relies on logic. Neurotransmitters How many of us have actually seen a neurotransmitter? Probably not many, yet their importance can hardly be overstated. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that the body manufactures in the neurons and when released, alter activity in other neurons. Dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine are all neurotransmitters. Dopamine problems play a role in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and possibly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Problems with serotonin levels are often found in people with depression. norepinephrine level problems are indicated in sleep disorders and also perhaps in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (particularly the inattentive type as this neurotransmitter seems to impact attention). Acetylcholine problems is a possible cause of alzheimer's disease. It would seem that most people in our society are relatively unconcerned with neurotransmitters, but if they knew how vital they were, they might receive more attention. Neurotransmitter levels are undoubtedly influenced greatly by genetics, but this is not to say that they are "cast in stone." Can continuous negative thinking adversely impact neurotransmitter levels? What impact do diet and exercise have? What damage do illegal drugs do? These are all areas that are ripe for future research as we seek to unravel the connection between drugs, brains, & behavior. Stress Most of us are well aware of how losses, frustrations, hassles, disappointments, etc can lead to the feeling of stress. It should be remembered that even positive events like marriage or the birth of a child cause stress as well. Change causes stress. Individuals may also differ in the amount of stress that they can handle. Stress affects the body. It causes bodily changes such as higher blood pressure, increased heart rate and hormone levels. Prolonged stress hinders the ability of the body to sleep and the functioning of the immune system. It leaves the body more susceptible to a host of diseases and heart problems. Lots of people face stress on a daily basis. Psychologists have taken an increasing interest in how while some people crumble, others in the same situation seem to excel and rise above it all. Psychologists have come to call this resilience. It is seen as being composed of commitment (to work and personal life as well at the "intentional commitments to purposeful activity and problem solving"), control (a feeling of being in control of their life rather than as a victim of circumstances) and challenge (not threatened by change or adversity, but seeing them as an opportunity for growth). Personality factors such as Type A or Type B may also factor into how well a person deals with stress. Stress management is an area that has received a great deal of attention in our culture. Students taking this class are often feeling a degree of stress with all of the demands that family, work, school, etc. make on a person. The effective dealing with this will make the class a smoother experience. To do this, students will want to utilize emotion focused coping strategies which as reminding oneself to keep things in perspective and problem focused coping strategies like taking direct action to deal with the stressor (ex: setting and keeping to a balanced study schedule). Teaching Psychology In Action: Instructors Resource Guide by Kathleen Weatherford (2002) was used in preparing this lecture. Week 2: Learning, Memory, & Intelligence Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page Learning, Memory, & Intelligence Classical Conditioning| Operant Conditioning | Cognitive Social Learning | Memory | Intelligence | Emotional Intelligence Now that we have established how good research is psychology is conducted (Week 1) and we have dealt with stress, it is time to start to learn about how we learn. This material is presented early in this class because of the great value it can hold for the student who can and will properly apply these principles. We will start out this week's lecture with a look at how we learn things. Three different theories are presented. Master these and they can hold great value as you seek to teach things to others. Most think of this as children or subordinates, but much of this can be applied to others as well. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning is all around you. Prejudices, phobias, advertising influences, and politician's messages are all examples of classical conditioning. How does this work? Classical conditioning is when "an organism involuntary learns to associate stimuli; a previous neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response that is identical or very similar to the unconditioned response." In the case of advertising, you may note that advertisers will often pay huge amounts of money to athletes and celebrities to advertise products. The athlete / celebrity acts as the unconditioned stimulus. As a public figure they have certain qualities that we associate with them. By repeatedly pairing the athlete / celebrity (unconditioned stimulus) with the product (neutral stimulus), people begin to associate the qualities of the celebrity / athlete with the product. When this is done, the product becomes a conditioned stimulus which produces a conditioned response. Does this really work? Well, how much money are celebrities getting for endorsements these days? How much celebrities know about politics is debatable, yet politicians have long been appearing on the campaign trail with celebrities. It is the same principle. Stand side by side with the celebrity enough and the two are associated together. Now of course there is a downside to this for the celebrity as well. If the politician shows them self to be corrupt or the product of advertisers be of poor quality, the negative qualities can be turned around and associated with the celebrity. (See text Module 15 for material on how classical conditioning factors into the development of prejudice and phobias.) Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is conditioning that is "based on consequences; behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and diminished if followed by punishment." It's most famous practitioner was B.F. Skinner. Students often get confused between classical and operant conditioning. You should remember that in classical conditioning, you are "taught" without ever really doing anything. The conditioning takes place involuntarily. In operant conditioning, the process is more voluntary. You make specific choices and the consequences of those choices lay the ground work of the learning. It is a powerful tool and used by animal trainers. Operant conditioning can also factor into the development of prejudice. Suppose someone makes a slightly racist comment. If others laugh or in some way show they approve of the comment, then the person that made the remark is more likely to make similar comments in the future - they were reinforced for it. Cognitive Social Learning Cognitive-Social Learning is based on "the role of thought and social learning in behavior." Its most famous practitioner is Albert Bandura. This is the theory that leads parents to be so concerned about all television violence that children see. If a child is watching their favorite superhero on television they may be engaged in what Bandura calls observational learning. The child is attending to the television (its flashy colors, propensity for movement and action, and engaging music draw many children in) they are already doing the first stage in the process (paying attention). The second stage is remembering the behavior they see. This may occur naturally, but with the repeating of episodes and/or commercialization of the hero it is even more likely. (How many things can you find in the store with Spiderman on it? How many of these items are for elementary school children? How many for preschoolers? Note: the first two Spiderman movies were rated PG-13.) The third process is actually being able to do the behavior. (Children won't be able to fly like Superman, have Batman's gadgets, or Spiderman's web, but how do these superheroes solve their problems?) The fourth process is deciding if they want to repeat the behavior based on what they saw happen to the model. (Reinforced or punished) Now superheroes have admirable qualities as well, but at what age are children able to discern these? Lionel Tate was 13 when he killed a girl imitating "prowrestlers." Psychologists use the observational learning theory to caution parents to use good judgement about what they allow their children to be exposed to. This goes beyond television (which does indeed have many wonderful programs on it). Columbine murderers Eric Harris and Dlyan Klebold as well as 14 year old school shooter Michael Carneal certainly had issues, but did playing the violent video games Doom & Quake help things? Another study raises concerns about the effects of violent music. Memory Many students will find the material on memory among the most valuable in the course. It specifically shows how to improve your memory and get more out of your time studying WITHOUT spending more time studying. The trick is in how you go about trying to remember things. Psychologists divide memory into short-term memory and long-term memory. Short term is called such because it contains what the person is consciously thinking about, has a capacity of 5 to 9 items and its duration is about 30 seconds. Students who want to be able to keep more information in short term memory will want to master the art of chunking ("the process of grouping information into units to store more information in short-term memory"). Long-term memory is the part of your memory that "functions as storage of information for long periods of time; its capacity is limitless and its duration is relatively permanent." The higher achieving students are those who are able to move information from short term memory into long term memory the most successfully. The good news is that there are specific techniques that you can use to do this. One way to effectively store information in long-term memory is with elaborative rehearsal. This calls for generating new, personal examples of the concept. So for a student working to remember observational learning, they might recall an example of when they saw a child imitate them. Another technique of elaborative rehearsal is to expand (elaborate) on the information. So for our example of observational learning, one might note positive examples of the principle or how many religious figures have influenced generations. A third technique would be to actively explore and question the new information. This might entail trying to figure out the limits of observational learning, what happens when two individuals in the same situation model opposite behaviors, etc. A fourth way is by trying to find meaningfulness - how observational learning can be specifically related to you. How you can effectively use it in your life. Intelligence Are you intelligent? Most of us would like to think so, but does it in part depend on how one defines intelligence? This is no easy task. Should intelligence be limited to "reading, writing, and arithmetic?" Howard Gardner has proposed a theory of multiple intelligences which notes that artists, musicians, athletes, and poets as well as people who excel at talking/communicating with others and people who attuned to nature are considered to be displaying a type of intelligence as well. The traditional I.Q. test is designed to measure only verbal and quantitative abilities. I.Q. Tests are not designed to measure overall intelligence. They are designed to measure the verbal and quantitative abilities to succeed in school. To be maximize predictive ability, a test has to be standardized, reliable, and valid. Standardization is the process of giving the test to a large number of people in order for the norms for the test to be developed and ensuring the procedures for administering the test are formalized so that all people who administer the test do so in exactly the same way. Reliability is a measure of the stability of test scores over time. Good tests will return similar scores when given to the person at different times. Validity refers to how well the test measures what it is intended to measure. An I.Q. test is considered valid if it predicts grades in school. Intelligence is indeed influenced by environment and heredity, but one factor not commonly accounted for is that of the stereotype threat. The famous blue eyes / brown eyes experiment adds further credence to this effect. Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman once made the claim that E.Q. (emotional intelligence) is TWICE as important as things such as I.Q. or technical expertise in determining who is the top performer in any given field. The good news here is that E.Q. is not fixed at birth, but can be built over the course of a lifetime. This is of course not to say that the early years are not important! There is a lot that can be done to build emotional intelligence in children. Teaching Psychology In Action: Instructors Resource Guide by Kathleen Weatherford (2002) was used in preparing this lecture. Week 3: The Psychology of Leadership & Motivation Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page The Psychology of Leadership & Motivation Motivation| Workplace Motivation | Leadership How many of us know a child or co-worker that is quite intelligent, but is not living up to their ability? Now that we have studied how people learn (Week 2), it is time to help motivate them to do so. This can also go for motivating ourselves as wee seek to achieve our own goals. Those who can motivate them self and others have much leadership potential and we will go into that this week as well. Motivation One of the theories on motivation holds that people seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance. Sensory deprivation studies show we all need a minimum amount of stimulation for our brains to function properly. There are, however, individual differences in this need. According to Zuckerman, some people are high sensation seekers and are biologically "pre-wired" to need higher levels of stimulation. The reverse is true of low-sensation seekers. As expected, both high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers will feel most comfortable with others of the same type. If you want to see where you stand as a sensation seeker, there is an inventory in on page 426 (Chapter 12) that you may be interested in taking. Another theory on motivation is that of the need for achievement. This achievement motivation is largely learned and can be taught. Chapter 12 (page 435) even has a quiz you can take to see if you are one of the achievement motivated people. The theory of extrinsic and intrinsic intrinsic motivation shows that trying to use operant conditioning to motivate SOME individuals in SOME situations can actually have a reverse effect. There are biological theories to motivation as well. The drive reduction theory notes that individuals have needs such as food, water and air. When these are not met, an individual will feel a sense of tension which they seek reduce it. Another theory which has gathers a great deal of attention is from Abraham Maslow. He developed the hierarchy of needs which holds that people will seek to fill certain basic physiological and survival needs before higher needs like self-actualization. Workplace Motivation Workplace motivation is exactly what it appears to be - how to get people motivated at work. It will include theories such as positive and negative reinforcement (we studied this in Week 2) and Maslow's hierarchy of needs (introduced in preceding section), but go beyond these as well. One of these theories that applies strictly to workplace motivation deals with how things like company policies, salary, and co-workers can truly lead to dissatisfaction with a job. On the other hand, things such as achievement, growth, responsibility and even the work itself can motivate a person. This is Herzberg's two-factor theory and despite its critics, it is still quite popular. Another theory holds that people are best motivated when the demands of the job best match their personality. This is a very popular theory frequently used by career counselors. Other theories look at the balance between what a person puts into the workplace and what they get out of it (equity theory), a person's goals (goal setting theory), and their feelings of self-efficacy (self-efficacy theory). Leadership Without the leadership of Abraham Lincoln, what would the United States look like today? Fortunately, we don't have to answer that question. His leadership was vital to preserving the union. Yet, what exactly is leadership? There is a difference between leadership and management. Many note the relationship between leadership and charisma but others would argue that leadership is at least in part a function of situation and a man like Lincoln might not rise to as high an office in today's society. The most famous model of leadership that looks at the impact of situation on style is Hershey & Blanchard's situational leadership model. This would call for the leader to adapt to the situation. It would help explain why some people can be successful leaders in some situations, but unless they change their style, won't be effective in other situations. This can even apply to leadership styles with children. Parents may need to treat children differently depending on the child's age, maturity, motivation, ability, etc. Teaching Psychology In Action: Instructors Resource Guide by Kathleen Weatherford (2002) was used in preparing this lecture. Week 4: Dreams & Altered States Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page Dreams and Altered States Consciousness| Dreams | AlteredStates | This week we take a tour the into world of consciousness, dreams, and altered states. These become rather interesting topics as while there is much we know, there is also a lot we don't. There is also a great deal of interest in the topic. How many of us are not sleeping peacefully through the night and really wish they were? Why are so many people in America seeking to alter their consciousness by turning to drugs and alcohol when the dangers are well known? Consciousness The text defines consciousness as "an organism's awareness of its own self and surroundings." The rationale for this is that doing it this way allows it to be defined and studied scientifically. The text further notes how critics ponder how the mind's awareness can study itself? (This will mirror some eastern philosophies which believe that the observed cannot be the observer.) All that being said, consciousness has left us some information to ponder in the form of states of consciousness that aren't our normal waking state of consciousness. Dreams Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that affect many aspects of people's lives. They are the biological changes that occur on a 24 hour cycle and affect not only the sleep and waking cycle, but fluctuations in blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, blood sugar and cell growth. Disruption in sleep cycles can cause problems such as accidents or fatigue from shift work and jet lag. When a person lays down and rests for the night, the body will go through various sleep stages. A typical night's sleep consists of four to five 90 minute cycles. The cycle begins in Stage 1 and then moves through Stages 2, 3, and 4 with each stage producing characteristic brain wave patterns. After reaching the deepest level of sleep, the cycle reverses itself up to the REM (rapid eye movement) state. In REM sleep, the eyes dart about under the eyelids, the brain pattern of the sleeper is similar to the waking state and the person is often dreaming while the body is in muscle "paralysis". REM sleep may also play an important role in learning and memory. Non-REM sleep is important to our biological functioning and it is nature's first need over REM sleep. The two most prominent theories of why we sleep are the repair restoration theory and the evolutionary/circadian theory. There are also theories about why we dream. Do dreams have meaning? Sigmund Freud believed that dreams are disguised symbols of repressed desires. One of Freud's early associates - Carl Jung - felt that there was much more to it than that. There is also the biological theory which holds that dreams are an unimportant by product of random stimulation of brain cells. The cognitive view sees dreams as information. Altered States Drugs will impact the central nervous system in a variety of ways. Depressants (sometimes called "downers") are drugs that depress the central nervous system. causing relaxation, sedation, or even possibly loss of consciousness. They include barbiturates, anti anxiety drugs, and alcohol. Some people are surprised that alcohol is a depressant, but it does depress the central nervous system and in a large enough quantity, it can lead to death. As it is, alcohol is involved in nearly half of all murders, suicides, spousal abuses, and accidental deaths in the United States each year and almost half of all highway fatalities. It is also the third leading cause of birth defects. Alcohol may also lead to damage in the teenager's brain beyond what it does to adults. Stimulants such as nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine all increase the overall activity and responsiveness of the central nervous system. Caffeine is not the world's most widely used drug. Nicotine not only affects the smokers, but the bystanders who breathe it second hand. Nicotine is considered the single most preventable cause of death in the U.S. Cocaine is well know for its potential for physical damage, severe addiction, and psychological dependence. Opiates include drugs such as morphine and heroin numb the senses and are used to relieve pain. They produce their effect by mimicking the brains own natural painkillers, called endorphins and they are highly addictive. Hallucinogens include LSD and marijuana. They produce sensory distortions, including visual, auditory, or kinesthetic hallucinations. Negative consequences of marijuana include impaired memory, attention and learning. Marijuana has also been shown to help treat glaucoma and alleviating the nausea associated with chemotherapy. It remains a highly controversial drug. Teaching Psychology In Action: Instructors Resource Guide by Kathleen Weatherford (2002) was used in preparing this lecture. Week 5: The Psychology of Personality & Communication Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page The Psychology of Personality & Communication Trait Theories| Psychoanalytic Theory | Humanitic Theory | Social/Cognitive Theory | Biological Theory | Communication | Conflict Resolution Getting a group of people to function together as a team is often a great challenge for a manager. Each person has their own personality. People don't always march to the same music. Understanding another can be a challenge. Understanding the various personality theories can offer the manager insight into others. It can also help couples understand each other or parents understand children. The theories each have a different way of looking at things and each has their own merits and shortcomings. Even armed with understanding, keeping a relationship, family, organization, etc. functioning smoothly will require communication and conflict resolution skills. Psychology has much to offer in terms of helping people learn to be better communicators and resolvers of conflict. Of course, knowing the basic theories can help, but it takes time and effort to put this all into practice. There is a payoff for those who can - in a couple it translates to more harmony; in a family, a peaceful home; in the organization, advancement. Trait Theories Trait theories content that personality consist of relatively stable and consistent characteristics. The "Big 5" (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), that can be used to describe most individuals. This may reflect a biologically based set of universal human personality characteristics. Various applications of this extend into personal relationships and vocations. Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) The psychoanalytic approach to personality was founded by Sigmund Freud. He emphasized the power of the unconscious and believed that the mind (or psyche) functioned on three levels, the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. In Freud's theory, personality had three distinct parts: the id, ego, and superego. The ego struggles to meet the demands of the id and superego, and when these demands are in conflict the ego may resort to defense mechanisms to relieve the resultant anxiety. (For more on defense mechanisms, please see the tutorial under the Week 5 tab.) Many of Freud's associates such as Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney went on to have quite distinguished careers of their own. Humanistic Theory Humanistic theories emphasize internal experiences, thoughts, and feelings that create the individual's selfconcept. The two major theorists are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Rogers emphasized the concepts of self-esteem and self-concept. He believed people with low self-esteem had generally poor congruence between their self-concept and life experiences. Maslow emphasized the basic goodness of human nature and a natural tendency towards self-actualization. Social/Cognitive Theory The major theorists of the Social/cognitive approach are Albert Bandura and Julian Rotter. Bandura focused on self-efficacy theory and reciprocal determinism. Rotter advanced the theory of locus of control. Biological Theory Biological theories emphasize the role of the brain, neurochemistry, and genetics on personality. Research on specific traits such as sensation seeking and extroversion, strongly support the biological approach. Recent research also suggests that certain brain areas may account for certain traits such as sociability (extroversion) and shyness (introversion). Along these same lines, certain neurotransmitters that affect the level of arousal may be the source of some personality traits. While studies have shown a strong hereditary factors on personality, further studies are needed before a cohesive biological theory can be formed. As it stands now, the interactive approach remains popular as it suggests that the major theories overlap and each contributes to our understanding of personality. Communication There are three major dimensions to communication: verbal, non-verbal, and contextual. The verbal dimension is the words them self but also the paralanguage. Paralanguage is the way the words are spoken. Thus, one person could say to another "I want to go home" and depending on the way it is said, could mean that the person is angry, sad, tired, being sarcastic/wants to stay, etc. Th non-verbal dimension of communication is things like eye contact, facial expressions, kinesics (body language and gestures) and proxemics (the way people use space in communicating). The contextual dimension is the background or setting in which the communication occurs. We need to pay particular attention to the non-verbal dimension as (according to the text) over half of the overall message and 90% of the emotional content comes via the nonverbal dimension. Students may note how comedians use these three dimensions to create humor. As important as communication is, barriers to it remain. The effective communicator will eliminate or minimize these. They can include physical distractions, selective perception, semantic problems, mixed messages, lack of feedback, status differences and communication overload. The ability to give effective feedback is especially important for people who aspire to move up within an organization. Good listening skills in general and being a good active listener in particular can be a great asset as well. Conflict Resolution There are five main strategies for resolving a conflict: avoidance, accommodation, compromise, authoritative command, and collaboration. It may surprise some to see avoidance listed, but under certain conditions it is indeed effective. The situation would have to be one in which things will 'blow over" with time and patience. An example might be in the case where one person is a bit of a "hot head" - always blowing up at something. Others may learn not to get "into it" with this person as it will all blow over and they'll be off on the next thing. If one avoids a situation out of a feeling of weakness or inability to effectively assert them self, avoidance will not be a productive conflict resolution strategy as it will only postpone the problem, often allowing it to grow bigger. The ability to be effective in dealing with a conflict usually requires that the individual have a degree of assertiveness without crossing over into aggressiveness. An overly aggressive person will perhaps "win the battle" but their lack of emotional intelligence generally leaves them "losing the war." Overly aggressive people will also often find that individuals won't "take them on" out in the "open," but rather will subtly seek to undermine them behind their back. Teaching Psychology In Action: Instructors Resource Guide by Kathleen Weatherford (2002) was used in preparing this lecture. Week 6: Mental Illness & Psychotherapy Lecture Help JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Print This Page Mental Illness & Psychotherapy Anxiety Disorders| Mood Disorders | Schizophrenia | Other Disorders | Cognitive Therapy | Humanistic Therapy | Behavioral Therapy Anxiety Disorders People with anxiety disorders have persistent feelings of threat are unreasonable and often paralyzing. There are five major types. Generalized anxiety disorder is one in which there is a persistent free floating anxiety. In panic disorders, the fear or discomfort arises abruptly and peaks in about 10 minutes or less. Phobias are exaggerated fears of specific objects or situations, such as agoraphobia, a fear of being in open spaces. In obsessive-compulsive disorder, persistent anxiety arousing thoughts (obsessions) are relieved by ritualistic actions (compulsions) such as hand washing. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTST) is a disorder in which a person who has experienced an overwhelming trauma, such as rape, has recurrent maladaptive emotional reactions, such as exaggerated startle responses, sleep disturbances, and flashbacks. Research on the causes of anxiety disorders have focused on learning, biology, and cognitive processes. Learning theorists suggest that anxiety disorders result from classical and operant conditioning, as well as modeling and imitation. The biological perspective suggests that genetic pre-dispositions, disrupted biochemistry, or unusual brain activity influence the development of anxiety disorders. The cognitive approach emphasizes distorted thinking that magnifies ordinary threats and failures, resulting in anxiety disorders. Mood Disorders Mood disorders are characterized by extreme disturbances of emotional states. The hallmark of major depressive disorder is a pervasive feeling of deep sadness which interferes with a person's basic ability to function, feel pleasure or maintain an interest in life. Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes similar to major depressive disorder alternating with episodes of mania in which speech and thinking are rapid, and the person may experience delusions of grandeur and engage in impulsive behaviors. Biological theories of mood disorders indicate areas of the frontal lobe may be involved. Other research emphasizes disruptions in neurotransmitters (especially noerpinephrinee and serotonin). Research into the causes of bipolar disorders also implicates certain brain areas that may trigger episodes. There is also evidence of a genetic predisposition for both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Some individuals suffer the symptoms of depression in the winter months only. This is called seasonal affective disorder. Psychological theories of mood disorders emphasize disturbed interpersonal relationships, faulty thinking, poor self-concept, and maladaptive learning. Learned helplessness theory suggests that depression results from repeated failures at attempted escape from the source of stress. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a very serious disorder that afflicts about 1% of the adult population. Its major symptoms include disturbances in perception, language and thought disturbances, emotional disturbances, emotional disturbances, and behavioral disturbances. Researchers aren't completely certain what causes schizophrenia. Biological theories of the causes of schizophrenia emphasize genetics, disruptions in neurotransmitters (primarily dopamine), and abnormalities in brain structure or function. Psychosocial theories of schizophrenia focus on stress as a trigger for initial episodes and for relapse. Studies of family environments suggest that highly expressed emotionality may be linked to a worsening and relapse of schizophrenic symptoms. Other Disorders In dissociative disorders, critical elements of personality split apart from significant aspects of experience, memory, or consciousness. This splitting is manifested by failing to recall or identify past experiences (dissociative amnesia), by leaving home and walking off (dissociative fugue), or by developing completely separate personalities (dissociative identity disorder). There are many types of personality disorders. In this class we focus on two: antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by egocentrism, lack of guilt, impulsivity, and superficial charm. (Would Laci Peterson's killer fit this description?) Some research has suggested this disorder may be related to defect in brain waves and arousal patterns, genetic inheritance, and disturbed family relationships. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) characteristics are impulsivity and instability in mood and relationships, and self-image. A history of childhood neglect, emotional depravation, and physical, sexual or emotional abuse are frequently associated with BPD. Cognitive Therapy Cognitive therapy places great emphasis on correcting faulty thought processes and beliefs. Cognitive therapists see these two as responsible for problematic behaviors. Two of the most famous cognitive therapists are Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis. Aaron Beck emphasizes changes in thought processes and behavior. He has identified problematic thinking patterns such as overgeneralization, magnification, all-or-nothing thinking. Albert Ellis founded rationalemotive therapy. This type of therapy works to cognitively restructure a person's belief system Ellis feels that problematic behaviors can be traced back to irrational beliefs. Among these would be: "I must do well," "you must treat me well," and "the world must be easy." Beck's techniques have been shown to be helpful in treating depression. Ellis has had success with a wide variety of disorders. Both Beck and Ellis have been criticized for ignoring the importance of unconscious processes and the client's history. Some critics have suggested that when cognitive therapies are successful it is because they also change behavior. Humanistic Therapy Humanistic therapy is based on the premise that problems stem from an individual's growth being blocked. Its most famous practitioner is Carl Rogers who founded client-centered therapy. In this approach, the therapist seeks to create an environment conducive to the personal growth of the client. The therapist offers empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening. Humanistic therapies are difficult to evaluate scientifically and research on specific therapeutic techniques has had mixed results. Nevertheless, the therapy seems to have helped people. Behavior Therapy Behavior therapies use learning principles (discussed in Week 2) to change maladaptive behaviors. Classical conditioning such as is used to replaced associations. Systematic desensitization is a behavioral therapy technique that has been successfully used to treat phobias. In behavioral therapy, modelling is also used. This entails having clients watch and imitate positive role models. The shaping, reinforcement, punishment, and extinction techniques of operant conditioning are used based on the principles of contingency between behaviors and consequences. Teaching Psychology In Action: Instructors Resource Guide by Kathleen Weatherford (2002) was used in preparing this lecture. Week 7: Social Psychology Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences. Help Print This Page Social Psychology Attribution & Attitude| Prejudice | Attraction & Love | Conformity & Obedience | Group Process | Perception Ithasbeensaidthatloveisblindandignoranceisbliss.Youcanmakeyourownestimateofthe numberofpeoplethatactasiftheyareblindandignorantandyetaren'tinloveorfullofbliss. Peopledosomestrangethings.Whatmakesusconformtonorms,obedient,andfallinlove? Thesearejustsomeoftheissueswetacklethisweek. Attribution & Attitude Attributions are statements that are designed to explain why people behave as they do. The basic question is whether their actions are due to internal dispositions (derived from their own internal traits and motives) or external situations (derived from the environment or situation). The two main attributional errors that people make are the fundamental attribution error and the self-serving bias. The fundamental attribution error is when a person overestimates internal, personality influences and underestimate external influences when judging the behavior of others. The self-serving bias is when a person finds positive reasons to explain their own behavior, but attributes negative behaviors and outcomes to external causes. Attitudes are learned pre-dispositions to respond cognitively, affectively, and behavior ally (the three components of an attitude) to a particular object. One may at times find discrepancies between their attitudes or their attitudes and their behavior. At this point, the individual feels a tension and a compulsion to resolve it by altering an attitude. This is called cognitive dissonance. Prejudice Prejudice is a generally negative attitude (i.e. it has cognitive, affective, and behavioral elements) directed at a person or group of people solely because of their membership in a specific group. Discrimination is NOT the same thing as prejudice. Discrimination is the behavioral component of prejudice. Prejudice can be learned via classical and operant conditioning and social learning. Prejudice can also be acquired acquired through cognitive processes (in-group favoritism, out-group negativity, out-group homogeneity effect, and blaming the victim), economic and political competition, and displaced aggression. Prejudice can be reduced through cooperation, superordinate goals, increased contact, cognitive retraining, and cognitive dissonance. Attraction & Love Attraction is influenced heavily by physical attractiveness, proximity and similarity. The emphasis our culture puts on being physically attractive speaks volumes for this component. Proximity influences things as well too. The nearer you live or work with someone, the more likely you will like the person. Similarity is important too. We like people who have similar backgrounds, interests, attitudes, etc. (need compatibility) as well as people who provide important resources (need complimentarity). One of the reasons that romances can spring up at work is that two of the three factors in attraction are frequently present. The people are already in the same proximity. They also have some things in common the organization. The extent that the organization brings people of similar educational levels, interests, backgrounds, etc. would only add to the similarity component. Should the individuals feel a physical attraction to each other, a romance can bloom. Conformity & Obedience Conformity is when people alter their behavior as a result of real or imagined pressure from others. The Asch conformity experiments show just how real this phenomena is. People conform for approval and acceptance (normative social influence), out of a need for more information (informational social influence), and to match the behavior of those they admire (reference groups). Obedience is giving in to a command from another. The Milgram obedience experiments showed how people will follow orders even when another human being is being physically threatened. There were several factors in the participant's obedience. Two of the most important were the assignment of responsibility and the presence of disobedient models. Group Process Whether or not they are explicitly state - or even that you know them, groups have norms. These are the rules of behavior that members of the group are expected to adhere to. Many companies look to committees to perform tasks, solve problems, give direction on certain issues, etc. within the organization. This has advantages, but has its dangers as well. One of those dangers is groupthink - a group's desire for agreement overrules its tendency to critically evaluate the information. Another problem can be that of the risky shift. In this people of the group feel less personal responsibility in a group and may take risks that they would not take on their own. Group decision making can be improved through brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and the delphi technique. Perception

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

DeVry Chicago - PSYC - PSYC110
Add New Entry EntriesSort by: date| category|submitter Category Submitte r DVUOAmerican Psychological Association < www.apa.org/ > General [27 Nov 06] Here is the homepage for the American Psychological Association. National Institute of Mental Health <
DeVry Chicago - PSYC - PSYC110
QUIZ & EXAM STUDY GUIDEPSYC 110 Principles of PsychologyThequizzesandfinalexaminPsyc110isopenbook,opennotes.Whilesomestudentsare anticipatingthattheseopenbookexamswilleasierthanpaperandpencilexams,theseexams aretypicallyjustaschallenging,ifnotmorechalle
DeVry Chicago - PSYC - PSYC110
Grade for Jeffrey Welter: Week 2 Homework Numeric grade: 33/60 Letter grade: Comments: good effort Close Window Autograde Summary These are the automatically Date Taken: 1/20/2007 11:32:40 AM computed results of your exam. Time Spent: 0:03:11 Grades for e
DeVry Chicago - PSYC - PSYC110
Week 1: Introduction to Astronomy Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences.HelpPrint This PageBasic Concepts and Historical PerspectiveBasics of Science | The Night Sky and Coordin
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter BUS-115 Week 5 Assignment1. 2. 3.What marketing opportunities are evident at sporting events in general? Can you picture the four Ps of marketing (product, price, place, and promotion) in action at your favorite sports venue? Explain. Whi
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter BUS-115 23AUG061. Calculate the current ratio for each company. Comparing the ratios, which company is more likely to get the loan? Why? 2. The quick (acid-test) ratio is considered an even more reliable measure of a businesss ability to r
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
_QuickTake fromplanOnline.orgConductingaSWOTor(OTSW)Whatisit?ThegranddaddyoffocusgroupdatagatheringprocessesisthetraditionalSWOTanditsupdated offspring,OTSWAnalysis.YoucanSWOT(orOTSW)aconcept,aprogram,adepartment,aschool,ora newinitiative.YoucanevenS
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
29 This video features The Container Store, a national retailer headquartered in Dallas, Texas that was voted the best company to work for in America twice and was runner-up two other times. The companys two co-founders discuss the management philosophy,
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
This video illustrates the importance of technology to Matt Hoffman, a professional freestyle bicyclist and entrepreneur. As a professional cyclist, Matt found that the bicycles on the market were not sturdy enough to handle the rigors of his competitive
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter 23JUL06 BUS-115Encouraging Americans to buy American made products could be considered patriotic in one sense. On the other hand, America is the land of the free and there arent any laws regarding where or what we purchase. Many American c
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter 12JUL06 BUS-115Explain how the interaction of supply and demand in a market economy determine 1) which goods and services get produced, 2) in what quantities and, 3) at what price.In mixed economies suppliers determine what products and o
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Final Exam Study GuideTCOs Chapters Weeks 1 1 and 2 1 and 2 Givenadescriptionofatypicalbusiness,demonstratehowthat businessactswithinoureconomicsystemtoachieveitsgoalsaswell asthoseofsociety,alongwithanunderstandingofhowthefuture mayimpactthesegoals. Gui
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter BUS-115 Week 6 Assignment1.Does Hershey use process manufacturing or the assembly process? Is the production of Hersheys chocolate an example of an intermittent or continuous production process? Justify your answers. What location factors
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter BUS-115 02AUG06Is it a good idea for a company to have attitude of giving to the community when it starts? What conflicts might arise? How do the advantages and disadvantages of franchising compare to other forms of the business? Having an
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
IBM is truly a global company. Half of its employees are scattered across 160 various nations outside of the United States, and its annual revenues are greater than the GDP of many of the nations in which it transacts business. Its primary means of intern
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
Jeffrey Welter BUS-115 26JUL06InventoryInventory is an important part of my job as with all others. During inventory we are required to physically see the equipment and check it off on an inventory sheet. We inventory many things and completing a thorou
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
This video chronicles the success story of Jerry Andrews, the entrepreneur who developed and marketed the original Joe-to-Go disposable thermos. Andrews idea for this product was derived from necessity he volunteered to supply the coffee at an early morni
DeVry Chicago - BUSN - BUSN1115
The mid-term will consist of 40 m/c questions worth 3 points each and 2 essay questions worth 10 points each.TCO1 Given a description of a typical business, demonstrate how that business acts within our economic system to achieve its goals as well as tho
DeVry Chicago - COLL - COLL148
What are in-text citations also known as parenthetical documentation? Parenthetical documentation is the link between your sources of information and the place or places in your paper that you have used the words, ideas, or facts provided in your sources.
DeVry Chicago - COLL - COLL148
NASCAR was founded in 1948 when Bill France, whose family still owns and runs the organization, had the vision and grasped the opportunity to develop a central, sanctioning body for stock car auto racing. Stock car auto racing is now the fastest growing s
DeVry Chicago - COLL - COLL148
OverviewSouthwest Airlines is an example of a company in which management and the labor union peacefully coexist. This is because the labor union and management have the same objective, according to Elizabeth Bryant, Southwests Manager of Facilitation. B
DeVry Chicago - COLL - COLL148
THE BEST LAID PLANS OFTEN GO AWRYKatherine Potter knew a good thing when she saw it. At least, it seemed so at first. She was traveling in Italy when she spotted pottery shops that made beautiful products ranging from ashtrays to lamps. Some of the potte
DeVry Chicago - COLL - COLL148
This video focuses upon the ethics program and socially responsible activities of Abbott Laboratories, one of the worlds largest and most respected pharmaceutical companies. Through its compliance-based ethics program, Abbott has developed a set of standa
DeVry Chicago - COLL - COLL148
Week 1: Your Learning Commitment Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences.HelpPrint This PageWhat is Online Learning? Introduction What Can You Expect From Your Online Experience a
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Week 1: Intro to Professional Writing Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences.HelpPrint This Page1. Introduction 3. Five Characteristics of Effective Business Messages 5. A Note Ab
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Overcoming Writer's BlockBrought to you by the Purdue University Online Writing Lab at h ttp:/owl.english.purdue.edu For more advice on getting started writing, see the Purdue OWL handout Coping with Writing Anxiety at http:/owl.english.purdue.edu/handou
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Grade AIdeas/ContentThesis statement includes authors assertion/opinion on topic; purpose clearly established and sustained; details effective, specific, relevant; may contain order ot main points; writing is lively, original, insightful, imaginative Pu
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Smith 1 Bob Smith Michelle James English Composition 112 May 12, 2005 Starting Over New Years is a holiday that is celebrated worldwide. Different countries, as well as different cultures, have many traditions in which to celebrate this holiday. Some cele
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Smith 1 Betty Smith Professor Michelle James ENG112 Composition July 6, 2004 Our Foundation Every family has its own unique foundation. Some families include single parents, stepparents, or grandparents; while a few still have the biological mother and fa
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Joe Jones Professor James English 112 June 10, 2005 The Importance of Animal Testing Imagine a society where there was a cure and medication for cancer, diabetes, blindness, and even Parkinsons disease. Such a society is possible through the effective use
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
Smith 1 Mary Smith Professor James English 112 April 15, 2006 Planting a Garden Imagine coming home from a long day at work and walking outside to a serene and beautiful retreat. There are many different shades of green and colors everywhere; lime green,
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
COHERENCE Developed by: Prof. Kin NormanHOW TO ACHIEVE COHERENCE IN YOUR PARAGRAPHS 1. Combine shorter, single-clause sentences into compound, complex, or compound-complex sentences. 2. Use transitional expressions (however, also, first, next, on the oth
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
During the summer of 1996, I decided to lead a student tour to Europe. The students chose two countries to visit that year: France and England. During this first international trip, I learned a lot about traveling and myself. Flying over the Atlantic Ocea
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
SEVENMajorSituationsWhereCommasAreNeeded DevelopedbyProfessorKinNorman1 1 Introductoryelements Unexpectedly,thedressfitquitewell.1Withoutadoubt,thatsagreatstory. 1AfterIgotup,Ilefttheroomquickly. 2 2 2InterruptersMary,myoldestfriend,iscomingwithus. 2
DeVry Chicago - ENGL - ENGL227
WEEK 1Excerpts from Aristotles Poetics Translated by Ingram Bywater Epic poetry and Tragedy, as also Comedy, Dithyrambic poetry, and most flute-playing and lyre-playing, are all, viewed as a whole, modes of imitation. But at the same time they differ fro
DeVry Chicago - MATH - MATH114
Add New EntryEntries math.com < www.math.com/school/subject1/lessons/s1.u4l5gl.html General > [14 Nov 06] Graph Paper n/a < www.incompetech.com/beta/plaingraphpaper/ > [25 General Nov 06] This website allows you to print off graph paper online. It also a
DeVry Chicago - MATH - MATH114
Salaries LA 72 85 91 90 88 98 75 100 80 68163LB 3 7 10 10 8 15 4 16 5 780 7095 216 595 910 900 704 1470 300 1600 400 Mean Deviation Median Fst Quartile Scnd Quartile Thrd Quartile Frth Quartile Range min max sumLA 86.56 21527.66 91 81.25 89 96.25 28 72
DeVry Chicago - MATH - MATH114
POPULATIONCollection of ALL dataSAMPLESubset of POPULATIONPARAMETERNumerical description of POPULATIONSTATISTICNumerical description of SAMPLE
DeVry Chicago - LAWS - LAWS310
2. (TCO 11) - A restaurant claims that its speed of service time is less than 18 minutes. A random selectionof 36 service times was collected, and their mean was calculated to be 17.1 minutes. Their standard deviation is 3.1 minutes. Is there enough evid
DeVry Chicago - LAWS - LAWS310
Jeffrey Welter LAWS 310 Course ProjectPERCY v. DARBYSpecific performance is available when the contract involves property which is unique or possesses special value. ( SEVERSON v. ELBERON ELEVATOR, INC.) Specific performance is required only where the s
DeVry Chicago - LAWS - LAWS310
Week 1: Business Ethics Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences.HelpPrint This PageBusiness and Ethics Business Ethics What Business Ethics Covers Ethical Approaches Corporate Pow
DeVry Chicago - LAWS - LAWS310
Add New EntryEntries Findlaw Findlaw.com < www.findlaw.com > [29 Nov General 06] FindLaw is the highest-trafficked legal Web site, providing the most comprehensive set of legal resources on the Internet for legal professionals, corporate counsel, law stu
DeVry Chicago - LAWS - LAWS310
Grade for Jeffrey Welter: Week 1 Quiz Numeric grade: 16/20 Letter grade: Comments: (none) Close Window Autograde Summary These are the automatically computed Date Taken: 1/12/2007 4:11:39 PM results of your exam. Grades for essay Time Spent: 0:15:34 quest
DeVry Chicago - LAWS - LAWS310
1)Jackweighs160poundsandhissisterweighs110pounds.Ifthemeanweightformenhisageis175withastandarddeviationof14poundsandthemeanweightfor womenis145withastandarddeviationof10pounds,determinewhoseweightiscloser to"average."Writeyouranswerintermsofzscoresandar
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Statistics Lab 4 Part 1. 1. What is the probability of a cereal being high calorie? High Calorie = 53 Total = 84 53/84 = 0.63095238163%2.What is the probability of a cereal being high fiber? High Fiber = 22 Total = 84 22/84 = 0.261904762 26% What is th
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
2. (TCO 11) - A restaurant claims that its speed of service time is less than 18 minutes. A random selectionof 36 service times was collected, and their mean was calculated to be 17.1 minutes. Their standard deviation is 3.1 minutes. Is there enough evid
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
2. (TCO 11) - A restaurant claims that its speed of service time is less than 18 minutes. A random selection of 36 service times was collected, and their mean was calculated to be 17.1 minutes. Their standard deviation is 3.1 minutes. Is there enough ev
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
2. (TCO 11) - A restaurant claims that its speed of service time is less than 18 minutes. A random selectionof 36 service times was collected, and their mean was calculated to be 17.1 minutes. Their standard deviation is 3.1 minutes. Is there enough evid
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Week 1: Introduction and Descriptive Statistics Lecture JavaScript is required for your course. Please ensure JavaScript is enabled in your browser preferences.HelpPrint This PageIntroduction and Descriptive StatisticsALittleHistory|Graphs|ExcelTutori
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Autograde SummaryDate Taken: 11/25/2007 8:59:48 PM These are the automatically computed results of your exam. Grades for essay questions, and comments from your instructor, are in the "Details" section below. Question Type: # Questions: # Correct: True/F
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
z-Score -3.50 -3.25 -3.00 -2.75 -2.50 -2.25 -2.00 -1.75 -1.50 -1.25 -1.00 -0.75 -0.50 -0.25 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50Area to the Left 0.00023 0.00058 0.00135 0.00298 0.00621 0.01222 0.02275 0.04006 0.06681
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Week7 Practice Problems Solutions 1. What is the critical value that corresponds to a confidence level of 88% a. approximately 1.48 b. approximately 1.55 CORRECT ANSWER c. approximately 1.75 d. none of these 2. Compute the margin of error for a 95% confid
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Grade Details 1. Question: Your Answer: How many ways can a committee of 5 be chosen from 25 people? 100 125 6375600 15504 CORREC 53130 T use the formula nCr because order doesn't matterInstructor Explanation: Points 4 of 4 Received: 2. Question: Which o
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Week 4: Discrete Data Probability Distributions - Practice Quiz Script for displaying headers.HelpScript to run spell checker. 1. State whether the variable is discrete or continuous. The # of keys on each student's key chain. (Points: 2)2. State wheth
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Statistics Lab 4 Part 1. 1. What is the probability of a cereal being high calorie? High Calorie = 53 Total = 84 53/84 = 0.63095238163%2.What is the probability of a cereal being high fiber? High Fiber = 22 Total = 84 22/84 = 0.261904762 26% What is th
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Name ID Age John Smith 222963 Mary Jones 785586 Alice Kearns 109063 Ralph Overman 522354 Harlan Adams 422965 Mary Williams 386756 Andy Brooks 245636 Andrew Moore 784625 Elizabeth Bennett 956866 Stephanie DuBois 126584 Samuel Jones 349765 Erin Young 682534
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Fiber TypeCost (cents)Weight (oz. per serving)Sugar (grams)CaloriesCalorie LevelHigh Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Fiber TypeCost (cents)Weight (oz. per serving)Sugar (grams)CaloriesCalorie LevelHigh Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Fiber TypeCost (cents)Weight (oz. per serving)Sugar (grams)CaloriesCalorie LevelHigh Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High Fiber High
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
Numeric grade: 4 Letter grade: F Comments: (none) Close Window Autograde Summary These are the automatically Date Taken: 6/17/2007 10:55:10 PM computed results of your exam. Time Spent: 0:56:43 (1:30 allowed) Grades for essay questions, and Points Receive
DeVry Chicago - STATS - STATS430
1.Question:MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion. Solvetheproblem:Arandomsampleof56fluorescentlightbulbshasameanlifeof645hourswithastandarddeviationof31hours.Constructa95%confidence intervalforthepopulati