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Washy George Washington 1st President of the United States Reputation for honesty, bravery, and leadership, and extremely well respected Very reluctant to run for President in 1792- afraid he would die in office and set precedent for life in office Set many precedents for President, generally deferred domestic issues to Congress Generally favored Federalist policies (i.e., well educated enlightened elite would rule for the people but remain independent of popular influence) but tried to stay above factional politics Proclamation of Neutrality (1793), favored strong central govt, natl bank Farewell address stern warning against parties and factionalism Washingtons Cabinet Four positions- Secretary of War (Henry Knox) Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson, eventually resigned) Attorney General (Edmund Randolph), Secretary of Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) Hamilton + Jefferson always at odds with each other Alexander Hamilton More or less leader of Federalist party, represented federalist ideals Created ambitious financial program At odds with Jefferson on Washingtons cabinet Eventually killed in duel with Aaron Burr Hamiltons Financial Plan Consolidate debt by funding it with new bonds issued at lower rates (controversial b/c rich speculators would get rich of buying bonds at low prices) Creating permanent national debt, pay only interest, thus maintaining debt at low cost Take on all state debts and combine with national debt (unpopular in South, where most of the state debt had already been paid) Only managed to get it passed by allowing the Capital to be in the south (Washington, D.C.) National Bank Republicans argued it was unconstitutional Hamilton argued elastic clause allowed for the creation of a national bank 20 year charter- 1791-1811- mainly helped North Public Debt Debt at this time enormous -$54 million +$25 million in state debts Hamiltons plan was to first pay off foreign debt to secure credit, and consolidate federal and state debt Debt would become permanent, with only interest payments paid each year It would be financed by excise taxes on goods, such as whiskey Whiskey Rebellion (1794) Whiskey taxes favored large distillers- only paid 6 cents per gallon tax, compared to 9 cents per gallon on small distillers Western Pennsylvanian farmers didnt like the idea of a distant government collecting taxes from them Harassed tax collectors, tar and feathered them, etc. Washington and Hamilton, remembering Shays Rebellion, decided it would be a good test to show the new Federal govts authority, so Washington personally took 15,000 troops to W. Pennyslavania- as the troops arrived, it collapsed, and Washington pardoned two of its leaders who were set to be executed Manufacturing American manufacturing was still in its infant stage Biggest threat from low cost British competition, especially since some British manufacturers were selling below cost to stifle American industry Protective tariffs to protect industry Democratic-Republicans, especially Thomas Jefferson (Uncle TJ) were opposed to manufacturing, seeing it as a threat to the ideal agrarian society Ohio Country Western frontier, still widely inhabited by native Americans and sparsely by Native Americans Fighting between settlers and Native Americans Battle of Fallen Timbers Final Battle in the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795) Western Confederacy (confederacy of NA tribes) had won several battles over the US General Mad Anthony Wayne marched over 4,000 troops near present day Toledo, Ohio, and easily routed the Native Americans Defeat lead to Treaty of Greenville(1795) Treaty of Greenville (1795) In exchange for $20,000 worth of goods, Native Americans ceded much of the Ohio Territory to the Americans Created Greenville Treaty Line, though many white settlers ignored it and settled in supposedly protective NA lands Citizen Genet Affair (1793) Genet sent by France to try to get American support for French Revolution After arriving in SC instead of Philadelphia, hired American privateers to fight for France, and raised a militia Washington issued a letter of complaint and request for recall for Genet, who had endangered American neutralityeventually, it would become unsafe for him to return, so Genet was granted political asylum in the US Conflict with French and British While the French and British were at war with each other, they saw any countries that traded with the other as an enemy British West Indies trade closed off British impressments of American citizens, interfering with trade, as did France Washington tried his best to make sure the US was not sucked into another war Washingtons Proclamation of Neutrality Washington proclaims neutrality, siding with neither the British nor French John Jay Treaty Eliminated Britains NW forts still in US territory, granted US most favored nation status and allowed limited trade with British West Indies French saw it as Americans breaking neutrality Americans upset because it did not end impressments, etc., and didnt get compensation for slaves, i.e. **** John Jay. **** Everyone that won't **** John Jay. **** everyone that won't put up the lights in the windows and sit up all nights ****ing John Jay. Thomas Jefferson Democratic Republican candidate elected for 2 consecutive terms. An accomplished well educated man whom had children with his slaves. Was completely against race mixing. Disliked strong centralized governments. Cut national debt in half during his term as president. Democratic Republican Party Created my Thomas Jefferson mainly to oppose the Federalist Party created by Alexander Hamilton, believed in loose interpretation, along with states rights being asserted over the national government. Were Pro-French. Federalist Party Created by Alexander Hamilton, where in favor of a strong centralized government and hated democracy. Tyranny of the Majority thought that too much democracy would lead to oppression by the people. Pro-British. Elastic Clause/ Implied Powers Elastic clause is stated in the Constitution and is there for the Government to whatever is necessary and proper to fulfill its duties. Implied Powers are powers that the government has but is not necessarily stated in the Constitution. th 10 Amendment The Tenth Amendment restates the Constitution's principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states or the people. Loose/strict interpretation of Constitution John Adams the Federalist wanted a loose interpretation meaning that he did not follow the wording of the Constitution strictly, where as Thomas Jefferson was a Republican and followed the Constitution to the letter. Citizen farmers The majority of voters during this time period Washington Farewell Address (1796) Warned America to stay out of European affairs Election of 1796 Republicans cultivated a large body of loyal voters. Immigrants were the prime targets of Republican recruiters. Federalist candidate was John Adams, Republican candidate was Thomas Jefferson. Swing states were Pennsylvania and New York. Republicans expected to win the souths electoral votes and Federalists counted on New England, New Jersey, and South Carolina. John Adams administration Federalist whom believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Followed the idea of Alexander Hamilton of funding the national debt by replacing old bonds with new ones, and then only paying interest to keep wealthy investors involved. Also pay off 12 million owed to foreign nations as soon as possible. Election of 1786 controversy After 6 years under the Articles of Confederation, the United States had made enormous strides in establishing itself as an independent nation. A national convention called to consider amendments to the Articles instead proposed a radical new frame of government, the Constitution XYZ Affair (1798) America sent delegates to France, trying to create peace, but 3 officials demanded bribes in order to talk to any officials. The delegates refused and left, began distrusting France. Quasi-War with France (1798-1800) A minor unofficial naval war with France Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) In the 1790s Federalist dominated Congress, and their insistence was that the U.Ss biggest threat was open war with France. Passed 4 controversial laws. Alien Enemies Act Outlined procedures for determining whether citizens of a hostile country posed a threat to the United States. Alien Friends Act A temporary peacetime statue authorized the president to expel any foreign residents whose activities he considered dangerous. Naturalization Act This measure increased the residency requirement for U.S. citizenship from five to fourteen years. Sedition Act Distinguishes between free speech, and inciting violence and treason. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798) More in favor of states rights and a strict interpretation of the Constitution, Written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, they opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts. Election of 1800 -Thomas Jefferson vs. John Adams. Jefferson and Madison discouraged radical activity that most likely prevented a civil war. Adams rejected demands by High Federalists that he declare war on France and other things. Since there had been no war, taxpayers grew angry with the 33% tax hike and blamed the Federalists and support for the Republicans soared as voter turnout increased from about 15 to 40 percent. Federalist tried to play on Jeffersons religious freethinking by making slogans such as Jefferson and no God. Adams lost election by 8 electoral votes out of 138. However, there was a deadlock tie for both Jefferson and Aaron Burr and the Constitution failed to anticipate organized rival parties. The decision then fell to the House of Representatives, but again, no results came out. Burr then tried to gain some Federalist support, but Hamilton threw in his support of Jefferson, which convinced one Federalist representative to abandon Burr and made Jefferson win by one vote. Revolution of 1800 -Jefferson sought to reverse many Federalist policies and he and his secretary of the treasury induced Congress to repeal many taxes, slashed expenditures, and reduce the army. Jefferson also sought to gain respect for America and stopped the Barbary Pirates from blackmailing America anymore. The fight cost about half of what America had been paying annually. Louisiana Purchase -Jefferson realized that to avoid foreign entanglements, European powers couldnt have a stake in America. He was especially worried about New Orleans, so he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, which needed the money as it had failed to retake Santo Domingo after a slave revolt and Bonaparte wanted to restart the war in Europe. America paid 15 million and doubled its territory, although Jefferson worried about the constitutionality of the purchase Midnight Appointments -Judiciary Act of 1801 reduced the number of judges on the Supreme Court to stop Jefferson from appointing a new judge and it also created 16 new Federal judgeships, but in 1802, he won congressional repeal of it. Marbury v. Madison John Adams had appointed William Marbury as justice of the peace in the District of Columbia, but failed to deliver the letter, and Madison, Jeffersons Secretary of State refused to deliver it. Marbury then petitioned the Supreme Court to issue a writ compelling delivery, but Chief Justice Marshall said he was under no obligation to deliver it because the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. Chief Justice John Marshall -Was appointed by John Adams in 1800 and was seen as Jeffersons antagonist. Was Chief Justice for many years. Pinckney-Monroe Treaty (1806) -Jefferson sent Monroe and Pinckney to London to negotiate the end of impressment of American sailors in return for the repealment of the the non-importation act, but British declined, instead offering extended trading rights to America, but Jefferson did not accept this offering. USS Chesapeake -British warship, HMS Leopard fired on American naval vessel, forcing it to surrender, and seized 4 supposed deserters and hung the one that was actually a deserter. This was called the Chesapeake Affair and it enraged Americans. Embargo Act Made Jefferson, by this act prohibited vessels from leaving American ports for foreign ports and although it technically only stopped exports, it stopped imports as well as a form of peaceable coercion. It did not have the intended effect with Americans being hurt the most and the British simply finding new trade partners. Peaceable Coercion This was a way to make other countries comply with American demands peacefully such as the Embargo Act, although this Jeffersonian policy did not work and hurt America more than its intended targets. James Madison also tried it with the Non-intercourse Act, which fell short as well. Non-Intercourse Act This was a weaker replacement of the Embargo Act, which opened trade to all countries save Britain and France, unless they complied with American demands, which neither did. Congress then tried Macons Bill #2, which said that the first of these two countries that complied with US demands to stop interfering in US shipping, America would not trade with the other, although this did not work either. Election of 1808 Jefferson had announced that he would not be running for reelection and the Republican Party nominated James Madison and George Clinton for presidency and vice-presidency. The Federalists countered with Charles Pinckney and Rufus King, however, despite making a slight comeback, Madison won the election with 122 of 175 electoral votes War Hawks Congressmen from western and southern parts that advocated all-out war with Britain in response to economic hardships and impressment and in response pro-British Native Americans in western frontier. Were mostly concerned with alleviating economic pressures on farmers and with western expansion. John C. Calhoun A southern politician who served as VP under John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. He advocated states rights, slavery, limited government, nullification and (eventually) secession. Proposed to fund roads and canals to bind the republic but was defeated by Monroes veto. Henry Clay A war hawk who was the Speaker of the House preceding the War of 1812. Proposed the American system. William Henry Harrison The governor of the Indiana Territory; he tried to attract settlers to achieve statehood by negotiating a treaty with a coalition of Indian leaders which ceded several acres. This led to conflict with leaders like Tecumseh. He later served as a general in the War of 1812. Tecumseh An aggressive Shawnee chief who was angered by the Treaty of Fort Wayne and launched an offensive against Governor Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe River. He later served with the British army and was killed at the Battle of the Thames. The Prophet Tecumsehs brother (Lalawethica) who provided spiritual comfort for Native Americans who had been demoralized and had turned to alcoholism. He led the attack at Tippecanoe River. Battle Tippecanoe River An attack by Native American tribes, led by The Prophet, on Governor Harrisons encampment. The Native Americans were defeated and Harrison became a national hero. The battle convinced Tecumseh to ally himself with the British. Battle of Lake Erie A small fleet of vessels engineered by Captain Oliver Perry defeated British base at Lake Erie in order to gain entrance into Canada. Battle of the Thames General Harrison pushed up into Canada after defeating the British at Lake Erie and defeated a combined British and Native American force. Tecumseh was killed. Andrew Jackson War general during the War of 1812. Was famous for defeating Indian forces and defeated a large veteran British force at New Orleans after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed (the news did not reach him). He later became a President. Creek Indians A group of Indians concentrated mainly in the Southeast United States. They were convinced by Tecumseh to resist American expansion which resulted in the Red Stick War in 1813 during the War of 1812. Battle of Horseshoe Bend A battle during the War of 1812 where General Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians (Red Sticks) in Alabama. Occupation of Washington, D.C. A British army, originally sent as a distraction, sailed to the Chesapeake and quickly defeated American forces which fled without firing a single shot. They took control of DC and burned down the White House. Bombardment of Fort McHenry British forces bombard Fort McHenry at Baltimore but are pushed back by American forces and cannot progress further into the mainland. Francis Scott Key Writes Star-Spangled Banner upon seeing bombardment of Fort McHenry. Battle of New Orleans General Andrew Jackson defeated large veteran British force even though the treaty had been signed. Boosted American morale and nationalism. Treaty of Ghent (1814) Took place in Ghent, Belgium. John Quincy Adams represented the US and the treaty restored status quo ante bellum (the ways things were before the War of 1812). A boundary was established between US and Canada. Hartford Convention (1814) In 1814, Federalists meet at Hartford, Connecticut, where they wanted to abolish 3/5 slaves clause in Constitution, wanted to require 2/3 vote in congress to declare war or admit new states, limit presidents to one term, no election of two consecutive presidents from same state, and bar embargoes lasting more than 60 days. Era of Good Feelings The Era of Good Feelings was tacked to the two administrations Monroe held (1817 to 1825) because he wanted nothing more than to heal political divisions, but these were only superficial because Madisons 1817 veto of the internal-improvements bill revealed the persistence of disagreements about the role of the federal government under the Constitution. Madison post-war economic proposals James Madison called for federal support for internal improvements, tariff protection for the new industries that had sprung up during the embargo, and creation of a new national bank. Henry Clays American System Henry Clay proposal was devastatingly similar to Madisons except his major goal was not for internal improvement, but to further America from European dependence. Second National Bank In 1816, the Second National Bank was chartered along with a moderate tariff. It was proposed to be a safe place to deposit money, a good way to promote monetary stability, and it refused to accept notes from private banks. National Road This was a proposed road that was set to expand farther into the west. Election of 1816 This election was a major showing of the fact that the Federalist party had crumbled because Monroe won by a landslide and carried all but three states. James Monroe James Monroe was a very dignified, formal, and peaceful man that wanted to end the political strife between the Americas and ecool it down with an Era of Good Feelings. Monroe was also the last president to don the fashions of the 18th century. Tariff of 1816 The purpose of this tariff was to protect the foreign industries from overtaking the infantile American industries. This was the first tariff thats primary cause wasnt to build revenue. Internal Improvements proposals John Calhoun proposed that they bind the republic by creating a system of roads, but the proposal was shot down by Madison who stated that the proposal was unconstitutional. Chief Justice John Marshall John Marshall greatly expanded the powers, prestige, and independence of the Judicial Branch and the Supreme Court. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) This was the first Supreme Court review of the contract clause of Article 1, Section 10. Basically, a contract was settled on between Georgia Legislature and speculators in which land was granted to the speculators on the frontier. This Yazoo grant outraged the Georgia voters and caused them to remove all of the bribed legislatures and work to repeal the grant, but Marshall ruled that it would be unconstitutional to do so. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) In McCulloch v. Maryland, the problem to be addressed was whether or not Maryland could tax the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the United States and he finally concluded that any power of the national government, expressed or implied (in this case implied), was supreme within its sphere and Maryland, therefore, could not tax them. The main controversy that arose from John Marshalls decision was that he was placing the bank beyond regulatory power of any state government. Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) In Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Marshall concluded that the original charter of the school was a contract and if the state of New Hampshire were to make Dartmouth a state college, it would be considered unconstitutional because contracts must be respected. He said that once a state had chartered a college or business, it surrendered both its power to alter the charter and its authority to regulate the beneficiary. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) In this trial, federal power was broadened over interstate commerce, in which a man, Aaron Ogden, operated his ferry under a monopoly granted by New York state legislature. Thomas Gibbons secured a license under the federal government, and when Ogden sued Gibbons, it was ruled that Gibbonss license was superior in this case. Cohens v. Virginia (1821) This case established the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court over cases in which the State is a defendant. Barbary pirates pirates in Mediterranean Sea near North Africa/Algiers held American pirates for ransom if they did not pay tribute money to the pirates. So, Thomas Jefferson decides to send military to defeat the pirates, which is successful. Pirates stop bothering American sailors. Rush-Bagot agreement (1817) treaty between US and Britainit demilitarized the Great Lakes/Lake Champlain region, and would eventually lead to a boundary between the US and Canada Convention of 1818 agreement between US and Britainestablished a boundary between US and Canada (the 49th parallel), and allowed for JOINT American/British occupation of Oregon. Also allowed American fishermen to fish in waters off of eastern Canada Jackson and the Seminoles in Florida Jackson viciously attacked Seminole villages and overthrew the local Spanish governor, and he executed two Britishers whom he accused of inciting the Indians. Adams-Ons Treaty (1819) US gains Florida from Spain in return for $5 million, Spain gives up its claims to Oregon, US relinquishes Texas (temporarily) Monroe, Russia and Spain Under President James Monroe, Russia claimed control of the entire Pacific Coast from Alaska to Oregon and closed the area to foreign shipping. There were rumors that Spain was going to reconquer its former colonies in Latin America. Monroe Doctrine (1823) British foreign minister George Canning issued opposition to European intervention in Americas, but president Monroe made independent statement known as Monroe Doctrine: western hemisphere closed to European intervention, and that US would not interfere in internal European affairs. Noah Websters American Dictionary changed spelling of many words such as color instead of colour. Credited with writing first dictionary in America. Believed that every child born in America should be able to learn rich history of independence and of founding fathers. Washington Irving first American to make his living solely off of writing books. Admired George Washington. Wrote legend of sleepy hollow. He wrote about New York State a lot. Mason (Parson) Weems Life of Washington emphasized the goodness of George Washington and Founding Fathers, some of which were exaggerated. Panic of 1819 because of disruption of European agriculture because of Napoleonic wars, American agriculture prices increased. Loans were given out too easily to people. State banks fail, National Bank starts to foreclose on properties. Missouri crisis there were eleven free states And eleven slave states, North held majority in House of Reps, Senate was equally balanced between north and south. Missouri applied for statehood, and wanted slavery to be legal. Tallmadge Amendment would gradually eliminate slavery in Missouri. Maine Henry clay proposes that Maine be allowed to enter statehood as a free state and Missouri would be a slave state, thus keeping the balance equal. Missouri Compromise (1820) prohibited slavery north of parallel 3630', Maine enters United States as free state and Missouri enters as a slave state. ... View Full Document

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