Psych notes - term one
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Psych notes - term one

Course Number: PSYCHOLOGT 1000, Fall 2009

College/University: UWO

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HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Psychology - The brain The mind Learning 93.5% of cartoons contain violence Good-Guys as violent as Bad-Guys Pain and suffering rarely shown About 50$ of killer do not suffer Psychosurgery Brain surgery in the absence of obvious organic damage Moniz (1935) Radical prefrontal lobotomy has calmingeffect of...

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pg. HOMEWORK 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Psychology - The brain The mind Learning 93.5% of cartoons contain violence Good-Guys as violent as Bad-Guys Pain and suffering rarely shown About 50$ of killer do not suffer Psychosurgery Brain surgery in the absence of obvious organic damage Moniz (1935) Radical prefrontal lobotomy has calmingeffect of violent emotional behaviour in chimps Supervises about 100 prefrontal lobotomies Over next 20 years HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Explanations of behaviour schools of psychology pioneers - September 15, 2009 What are the different approaches to psychology? What do psychologists do? Who were the pioneers to psychology? Psychology was established in 1871 - Explanations of behaviour Cultural factors - Value system Social system Individual factors - Learning, cognitive processes Biological factors - Basic mechanism Neural, hormonal Tells what individual is doing and how he/she doing it Psychologys concept - Is why do people do things they do? The scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it - Schools of psychology o Functionalism - Focus on the function or significance of behaviour How does a behaviour (or mental process) help us to adopt HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Primarily biological Example: - Psychobiology neuroscience Ethnology Research why are ions aggressive? - Psychodynamics - Focus on unconscious experience... the mind - Look for unresolved conflict Importance of personality Example: - Brief psychodynamics therapy Unconscious processing - Behaviourism - Focus on behaviour ... forget the mind - Discuss how behaviour changes under various conditions Primarily environmental HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Focus on behaviour per se Forget the mind simply discuss how behaviour changes under various conditions Example: Biological Foundations September 24, 2009 HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 More Research Design The Neuron Action Potential Questions to keep in mind: - How do you design an experiment? What is the basic structure of a neuron? How do neurons work? Dr. Jung argues that increase in temperature cause increase on aggression. To support his claim, he recorded the tem-re each date and noted the number of reported assaults. More assaults were reported on hotter days. He claims Answer: Correlation Research methods: - Observation Survey Case study Correlation - Experiment Two basic ways: - Between groups Going to manipulate independent variable between different groups Group 1-> Watch Violent Show-> measure aggression Group 2-> Watch nonviolent show -> measure aggression(dependent) HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Group 3-> No TV (control )-> measure aggression (dependant) - Within Groups desigh All subjects exposed to all conditions All watch violent shows Measure aggression All watch nonviolent shows Measure aggressions Problem? - No control/ contrast You should wait five days and wait for the effect to wear off Potential order effect Need to counterbalance - Measuring aggression How to measure aggression in a meaningful way? Self- report HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Verbal attack Ex. You might provoke you to get aggressive and then evaluate Physical attack Safe attack Ex. Allowing kids to attach each other Letting them beat up a doll An experimenter has to come up with a measure to achieve the best results - Frequently Asked Questions - David Myers What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life? - Nothing, just helps examine things in a controlled manner Doesnt behaviour depend on ones culture/gender/personality? - Sure it does; everything makes a difference; everybody is different What do animal experience tell us about human behaviour? - They dont provide a direct answer, but they give a answer that suggests direction Is it ethical to experiment on humans? - Make sure youre not causing harm. If you are causing harm, you gotta come up with justification Dont do anything harmfull unless its for the common good - ``` challenges to validity``` end of chapter STUDY- end of chapter But how do I determine whether my study worked? Look at the data and statistics - The Nervous System HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 1) Descatrs Reflex Arc - Stimuli (someone hitting you) transferred from periphery to brain and reflected back How? holotubes called Animal Spirits Importance of pineal gland it controls some hormones 2) Swammerdams Frog Experiment - Figured that nervous system has to do with electricity 3) Bell types of nerves - Sensory motor Afferent fibres Efferent fibres (go to effectors? 4) Bell and Muller - Specific nerve energy Each sensory has a specific energy- wrong theory Every nerve impulse is that same 5) Speed of impulse Muller -> 9000 Ft/min to 57 Billio Ft/Sec Helmholtz 50-100 meters/ second - some nerves are faster than others at sending signals 6) Reaction Time Maskelyne and Kinnebrook - There is no right or wrong - people have difference response times HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Neuron - Million of dendrites - Axon - single - Sending portion - Branched at the end - Neruons that have vioin - Nodes of Ranvier - have breaks and are open to the envornment HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Nerons can be classified ny shape Bipolar unipolar multipolar (FIND PICTURES) Classify my function: 1) Sensory Neurons - Afferent 2) Motor neurons - Efferent 3)Inter neurons - Realay stations Nerons dont touch each other- they dont physicly touch-theres space Synapse HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Synaptic Communication How do neurons work? Neural Communication September-29-09 HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 The Synapse - How do neurons produce an electrical signal? How does a neuron code electricity? How does one neuron communicate with another? A new viral disease had been found that actually destroys the myelin sheath around a neuron. What is the likely result? Answer: Slower neural conduction How do neurons work? -Packed over the place and try to communicate with each other - Neurons work by electricity But does a cell produce an electrical signal? Due to the Positive charge on the outside and negative on the inside DIAGRAM Extracellular Fluid Cell Membrane (semi permeable) - Action Potential (important /exam) +40 0 -70_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ Resting Potential (at rest) Time ion msec After the stimulation the potential becomes more positive depolarazation Every neuron has a point where its going to fully depolarize HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Once it reaches threshold all the pores open up and sodium comes out Once it heats +40 it comes back to its resting potential repolarisation (K+ outflow) By kicking out K the charge start to drop and drops below -70(resting potential) and then it comes back And neuron is hyperpolarisation is when its below its resting potential. This process took 6-7 msec Absolute Refractory Period occurs when we re repolarising The cell will not respond to anything at this stage Relative Refractory Period you can stimulate it but it will require a much intense stimulus - NEURAL COMMUNICATION Action potential only occurs in the axon- Axon Hillock Graded Potential is a general change - Coding Intensity Neuron fires on all-or-none fashion Height of spike a (change from negative to positive)fixed How to code intensity? 1) Neurons have different thresholds 2) Strong stimulus -> more neurons 3 ) Intensity directly is derectly proportiona; to frequency of firing aI I I I I I I I I I I aI I I II I I II I I I I I I I I HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 aIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII - Certain firing rate - How do cells communicate? Sensory Motor Interneron - Inferring the Synapse Sherringtons experiment Flexor response: 200 ft/sec Reflex arc: 2 ft. Latency: 10 msec. The must me a gap: something generating Neurons cant be touching The gap was called a synapse Example: Dogs experiment -Neurotransmitters - Receptor sites have a specific shape that matches a neurotransmitter meaning that this neur. Can lock in into this site - Re- uptake the presynaptic sucks up all the neurotransmitters that are left HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Even after uptake there are still some chemicals left MAO clean up agent - Comes to get the remaining chemicals leftovers Presynaptic Postsynaptic Na+ channels open... Depolarazation -> EPSP Presynaptic Postsynaptic K+ channels open... Hyperpolarisation -> IPSP The Brain Cortical Organization Neural Disorders Lateralization Split Brain October 6, 2009 - How are the cortical areas organized? What happens if these areas are damaged? Is there a separate consciousness in each hemisphere? HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Neuron a and Neuron B synapse with neuron C. You are measuring the electrical activity in Neuron C. When Neuron A fires, an action potential is generated in Neuron C. But when both A and B are stimulated, there is no action potential Observed in C. How can you explain this? Answer: Neuron B IPSP - Lobes (Picture 18) Full development is not developed till the age of 25 Parietal lobe the second largest in terms of amount of tissue Occipital Lobe is responsible for vision Temporal lobe These are seen on both sides - Projection Area (Picture 19) Motor area Somatosensory area Visual area primary visual cortex - All visual are decoded here Auditory area - responsible for auditory perception Properties of Projection Areas: 1) Topographic representation map-like 2 ) Contralateral Control - Things are handled by the opposite sides of the brain If you wanna control a movement on the left side of the body a right hemisphere is responsible opposite control because it is more functionally important 3 ) Functional Assignment of Space amount of cortex one devotes to a body part is HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Area devoted to face is large because its important How do we get this information? Scan intact brain MRI Evidence from brain damage Direct stimulation of cortex -touching various areas of cortex trying to find a seizure Scans: Angiogram - gives limited information X- rays enhanced with dye Good for finding stroke CAT scan - X-rays from 360 degree rotation A round scan Good for brain damages Ventricles - are hollow space in the brain - You dont want them to big because then one is going to lose a lot of brain tissue HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 MRI Magnetic residence imaging A huge magnet Expose to strong magnetic field Shows a lot of information PET scan - Enables one to see what parts of brain works under certain condition Inject radioactive glucose The brighter the colour the more activity The amount of radiation is less then X-ray What are the rest of stuff in the cortex? Association areas Motor association area Somatosensory association area Visual association area Auditory association area - Located very close to primary progection area Association Areas Integrate and Interpret Neural Disorders HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Apraxia Inability to perform smooth actions One just cant put it together Is seen in a particular location frontal areas- motor association area Agnosia Inability to interpret sensory information You can have it in any association area Aphasia Speech, inability to communicate Brocas -> Expressive - Difficulty in stringing words together Speech becomes telegraphic Wernickes -> Receptive (understanding) Difficulty in understanding what one or others are saying Indication of movement of pieces of apparatus or intomating the cost of apparatus in various forms? Where would you expect to find: Brocas Area frontal lobe HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Wenickes Area temporal lobe - Laterization and Split Brain Left Verbal Language Reading Logical thought Right Nonverbal Space Form Synthesis of information Emotion Hemispatial neglect Results from damage (stroke) to right hemisphere (P & T) Ignore contralateral special field - Usually visual in fact you would be able to see it ( individuals dont pay attention to things on the left side) If you have a stroke you would not be able to move the left side of your body but The things on left dont exists HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Almost unheard of with damage to left - Only found in humans Lower animals have bilateral spatial representation As humans evolved, the language centres crowded out the spatial in left Split Brain - Cutting the corpus callosum disconnects the two hemispheres Sometimes people are born without corpus callosum Genetics Gene action Dominant and recessive traits Polygenetic effects October-8-09 - How to genes work? What is the outcome with recessive genes? How is m ore complex behaviour coded? We would expect a 1 year old child recover from traumatic brain damage more quickly than an adult. Why? Answer: Young children have more synapses Split brain - Because the image is isolated in the right hemisphere you cant say it verbally HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 The left hemisphere is responsible for language BE able to answer spit brain questions - Genetic of behaviour Nature something were born with Vs. Nurture something we learn Interactions ends up being the behaviour Genes Strand like molecules of DNA Linked on chromosomes Karyotype: genetic blueprint - You can what kind of genes make up you Humans have 23 pairs 22 autosomes + sex chromosomes Male Xy and females XX ( y is shorter because maybe theres not as much information there) Genes (DNA) gene for coding different things (eye/hair colour) - There is actually a template that codes of RNA With RNA we are creating protein molecules (sequence of amino acids) which are going to affect the behaviour particular attribute The influence of genes is through protein synthesis- there are no gens for a Gene for intelligence? - Reaction time HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 The faster you can react to something the faster you are Environment must have an effect on behaviour as well So why not just answer Nature? Environment can influence protein synthesis as well Genes determine range of possibilities, but nit degree of expression - whether im gonna be tall or not -> genes (range) not the actual degree - Critical period - envorinmental explosure at specific interval is critical E.g white- crowded sparrow must hear adult song between 7th and 60th day - Importance of distinguish o Genotype: set of genes inherited Vs. o Phenotype: put ward expression of genotype (characteristics, behaviours, etc.) Can not infer genotype from phenotype Outward characteristics may not indicate underlying genetic contribution - Hair colour you can your hair, so you dont know for sure that this person has genes for brown hair Locus 1) 2) Heterozygous Alleles Dominant produces effect in either homozygous or heterozygous mode Recessive produces effect only in homozygous mode Homozygous HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 Homozygous alleles th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Eye colour... Brown in dominant Blue recessive Hair colour Dark hair dominant Light recessice Other dominant trait - Dimples Curly hair Unattached ear lobes Faesightedness Behaviour genetics HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Genetics Heritability Genetic Base of Intelligence Genetic Disorders October 13, 2009 [Video] Genetic variation and environmental factors... - How do I estimate heritability? Is intelligence heritable? What is the cause of genetic disorders? You have dark hair (a dominant trait). If we examined you karyotype, we would find that your alleles for hair colour? Homozygous or heterozygous Genotype: set of genes inherited Vs. Phenoytype: outward expression of genotype (characteristics, behaviour) Dominant produces effect in either homozygous or heterozygous traits Not always sometimes a blend Sickle cell anemia... heterozygous yields both - Polygenetic effects Traits related to action of more than 1 gene or chromosome Heritability h^2 = variance due to genes/total variance HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Estimate of how much observed variability due to genetic factors alone H^2= 0.0 (due to environment) = 1.0 (due to genes) Does not indicate extent to which genes are responsible for expression of trait Taps relative contribution of genes to overall variation in population Applies to groups, not to individuals Consider: Calculation of area Group A: - Area is mostly due to the variation on the length of the rectangle Group B: - Any changes are to the changes in width In both groups A = length x width Consider: Calculation of area Hair colour on Iniut - Under genetic control H^2, but genes are responsible for expression of hair colour If everybody has a black hair trait there is no variability If there is no variability there is no heritability H^2 increases as genetic diversity increases H^2 decreases as environmental diversity increases Example: difference type of corn - Differences between groups due to the environment HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Difference in height due to genetic variation Differences within groups due entirely to genes - Heritability of Intelligence notion seems reasonable Family relationship studies Identical Twins have 100% genetic material Fraternal Twins Parent, siblings Grandparents, Uncle, aunt 1st cousin 25% 12.5% 50% 50% Family relationship studies Bouchard - Wants identical twins who never saw each other There are many similarities even when twins come from different envorinments Consider: Jim Lewis & Jim Springer - Both liked math but hated spelling Many similarities Brought together 40 years later, separated at birth Oskar Stohr & Jack Yufe - Both had the same temperament, tempo Same moustaches Wore rubber bands HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Galton: Hereditary Genius 1869 - Relatives of intelligent people Relatives of intelligent people were intelligent Adopted sone were not Measure simple motor and sensory abilities Believes that intelligence was unitary (mental quickness) Develops Correlation Coefficient Results were disappointing no correlation Sir Cyril Burt Large scale study of twins reared apart Measure intellegice of twins Reports h^2 approaching 1 A lots of IQ is to genes Faked his data Bouchards Twin Studies - Measured IQ 0.72 0.86 0.60 0.47 0.34 0.87 Identical twins, apart Identical twins, together Fraternal twins, together Siblings, together Adopted siblings together Same person H^2 = 0.72 HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Not saying that I.Q os genetically determined Of the observed variability in measured I.Q., we can attribute 72% to genetic factors Some other facts may be involved - Scarr & Carter Saltzman (1979) Important assumption: No environmental differences for identical versus fraternal Absolute Difference Scores Cognitive Tests Identical Fraternal 0.68 0.81 Personality Tests 0.82 0.91 The smaller the numbers the closer are people to each other Identical twins are more similar - Not sure whether they are identical or fraternal genetic testing is needed Cognitive Tests Tests Identical twins who though they were identical Identical twins who though that they were idenical 0.68 0.81 Personality 0.82 0.91 Cognitive Tests Tests Fraternal twins who though they were fraternal Fraternal twins who though that they were idenical 0.81 0.78 Personality 0.93 0.77 Incorrect beliefs of monozygosity (identical) leads to greater similarity - Genetic Disorders HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 - How many genes? - early estimate 100.000 Genome project 25.000 - Five to seven PKU - Recessive gene on autosome 12 Occurrence: 1 in 101000 Lack of enzyme that converts Phenylalanine ( can lead to death) to Tyrosine Results in brain damage and severe mental retardation Effectively treated by diet Proper gene testing needs to be done Tay Sachs Disease - Recessive gene on pair 15 Occurrence: 1 in 3, 600 (E. Europe) Lack of enzymes that breaks down fatty acids Easy to diagnose by looking at the ratina (because of the hole increases in size) 1 in 30 French Canadians are carriers Normal development then... blind, deaf, unable to swallow Muscle atrophy, mental impairment Fatal by age 4 HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Evolution October 15, 2009 Adaptation and Selection Aggression Weapons Effect Questions: - Isnt behaviour due to genes ultimately? How does adaption work? Is aggression innate? Professor Buss reports that h^2 the personality trait of envy is -1.8. This suggests that: e. Buss made an error Huntingtons Disease Rare dominant gene on autosome pair 4 Occurance: 1 in 16.000 Onset: 25 45 years old A lot of brain damage - Cortical degeneration a lot of space in between Enlarged ventricles HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Note: 1) Dominant -> Offspring has 50% chance of acquiring - Careful at considering having children 2) Detection possible through gene mapping Sex-linked disorders Found on XX or Xy - Men are more susceptible than women... why? Less information on y Baldness Red-green colour blindness Hemophilia Chromosome Disorders - Sex chromosomes Normal is XX or Xy Can get: XXX Xo XXy male- Xyy - As long as there is one y, youre going to be phenotypically male Probably does not have an aggressive effect Down Syndrome One extra chromosome on 21st pair Is not an inherited disease Marked by: - Nervous system abnormality Mild to moderate retardation HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Shorter life expectancy Physical appearance (Mongolism) Due to accumulation of Amyloid Protiem (... also in Alzheimers patients) Not hereditary... due to faulty meiotic division Incidence related to mothers age (risk increases dramatically past 40) and dads age as well Note: 1) Can alleviate symptoms with intense cognitive stimulation - Evolution Darwin 1838 the theory of evolution was written Adaptation Changing to meet environmental needs - Functionalist Poximal vs. Distal causes Immediate mechanisms Tinbergen: What causes aggression? evolutionary processes Given that an adult animal fights now an then, what makes each outburst happen? How has the animal, as it grew up, developed this behaviour? P How has the species we observe today acquired the particular behaviour systems during evolution? D Note: Functional approach very powerful Ultimately, everything due to genes HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 But... Phenotype does not equal genotype Just because you see a behaviour does not mean its based on genetic traits No Natural Selection Genetic Drift - Founder effect... chance If a group is isolated they might end up with a... Correlated of Structure - Other related trait selected Aggression - Innate? Freud -> Eros vs. Thanatos - Thanatos was more probablamity because it is such a strong drive Aggression is something that you cant get rid of unless you do something about it As you get more and more aggressive redirect it punch the walls Lorenz -> Hydraulic model - Aggressive instinct builds up over time until triggered by external stimulus Lorenz Releaser or Sign Stimuli - Triggers aggressive response Fixed-action patterns - Stickleback start to mark their territory Their turn red to show aggression If you give an egg to a guise hell tackle it under his belly HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Leonard Merkowitz Frustration Aggression Hypothesis The Weapons Effect - The weapon is a releaser, it reminds of an aggression Berkowitz & LePage (1967) Turner (1975) o One is more likely to honk more at the person with guns - Boyanowsky (1982) o Asking questions with either a new/old gun o How much would you like to attack the officer? o The ones with the open case made people more aggressive HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Review Taking the exam Important points Whats on our midterm October 22, 2009 Points in Chapter 1 - Explanations of behaviour Schools of psychology Approaches to behaviour o differences - Areas of psychology and Freud, Wundt, Skinner, Piaget, Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, James, Rogers, Maslow Be familiar what do they suggest about varius behaviours? - Points in Chapter 2 - Scientific Method Types of studies Sampling Random sampling vs. Representative - Correlations Independent vs. Dependant HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Designing an experiment Idependant vs dep variables - Statistics Mean, median, mode, range - Pitfalls in research Demand characteristics Double bind cure - Ethics Who makes decisions Points in chapter 3 - Structure of neurons Action potential Synaptic transmission Neurotransmitter five names, what they do, what kinds, actions Drug effect Nicotine always work at the level of synapse/ how they work Multiple neurons whats gonna happern - Brain structure Cortex IMPRTANT 0 Progection areas Association areas - Lateralization and Split-brain Right handed person only, visual field, very rapid flash HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Plasticity kids are more plastic than adults more synapses (know) Immune system Points in chapter 3 - Gene action Dominant vs. Recessive - Poplygenetic Effects Heritability Twin studies H^2 of intelligence varies between 0 and 1 H^2 is 0 environmental - Evolution and adaptation Mating system Parental investment Mate preference - Altuism Kin selection the most important things about survival is the gene/ i will more likely to help my relatives rather than a stranger - Aggression Freud Lorenz Releasers & FAPS - Weapons Effect EXAM: - 75 question ( 15 question per chapter) In Sequence HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 - th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Broad/ general questions Know facts In general, theoris/predictions/ concepts 27/10/09 Sensation Psychophysics Subliminal Perception Visual System Not everything is not the way we see it The way visual systems works, the surroundings must be taken into a consideration Perception is not equal to sensation, its constructed from sensation - What do Weber fractions tell you about sensations? Can we perceive subliminal Subliminal messages? How does the visual system work? - Sensation - How do we perceive the world around us? Psychophysics and psychophysiology\ Psychophysics: relation between physical stimulus and psychological response Fechner: Father of Psychophysics Can determine a just noticalble difference JND just noticeable difference Determine the difference in the lighting sensations of light HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Threshold: Value of the stimulus characteristic required to produce some response Absolute: lower limit Difference: amount of change for JND - how much perfume do i need to put before noticing the difference Absoulute Thresholds Visions: the most sensitive sense - Candle flame at 50 km. Hearing - Tick of a watch at 6 m. Taste: Tsp. Of sugar on 8 L of water Smell: 1 drop of perfume in a 6 room apt. Touch: Wing of a fly falling on check 1 from cm So whats the relation? Example: Brightness and perceived brightness Not a 1 to 1 relation - Webers Law Size of difference threshold relative to physical intensity of test is constance Delata I I =C For testing hearing ability: - If I= dp and a JND is reported at 55 db 1 = (delata) I = C HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 10 50 1) I can use this number to make predictions and other JNDs Example: Whats a JND @ 100 dp? (delta) I 100 Solving: 10 (delta) I =100 (delta) I = 10 A JND would occur @ new test + 10 =110 db OR New test 10 = 90 db Value of JND not constant 1 10 The relative difference is 2) Can compare sensitivity of difference systems |The smaller EQUATION the better - Vision (brightness) 1/60 Kinesthesis (weights) 1/50 Pain (thermal) 1/30 Audition (mid. Pitch; mod. Loud) 1/10 Pressure (skin) 1/7 Smell (india rubber) Taste (salt) 1/3 - Fechners Law Sensation increases with the logarithm of intensity S= k log I HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 Compare: (delta) I = CI More general & cognitively economic - Stevens Power law S = k log I ^ N More predictable across a variety of sensations - Subliminal Perceptions - Can we perceive stimuli that are below threshold? Is our behaviour affected by subliminal stimuli James vicary (1957) Claimed 50% increases in popcorn sales - Concern about the use of subliminal cuts Concern: does it influence ones behaviour? IN general, no evidence that subliminal cuts influence consumer behaviour But, consider Bruce & Valentine (1986) Priming task - I prime by showing a picture very fast, no memory Related to the target, or not to the target you have to name Influences ability to do something Thus, we are sensitive to cues that are below threshold So cues have an effect - Sensory systems 1) Accessory Structures e.g. outer ear, eyeballs, HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 - structure is important 2) Transduction -> receptor that takes information and turns it into a neural imfomation 3) Coding e.g. frequency 4) Interation -> physiological that can have a psychological effect - The Visual System (know the sturucture of eyes) - the most sensitive, the dominant system, the one we rely on the most - Iris, sphincter that increases/ decreases - Pupil is in the middle - Cornea binds sideways - Lens important for focusing/ behind pupil Vitreous humer Retine- covers the entire back of the eyeball/ very sensitive part of the eye/ has three layrs/ receptors are at the end/ and by the time it get there the light is not as bright Fovea the image directs right here Optic Nerve the axons of neuros Blood vessels Blind spot- you cant see anything because theres nothing there to decode the image Output to Optic Nerve Ganglion Bipolar Receptor All have specific shapes The images needs to be cleaed HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Visual Processing October 29, 2009 The Retina Single sell recording Lateral Inhibition - How do rods and cones work? How dies the visual system enhance images? How can we explain phantom spots? Ganglion -> Bipolar -> Cone -> Rod -> Horizontal -> Amacrine Rods and Cones Duplex Theory in each retina there millions of receptors 120 Million rods 7 million Cones Rods Operate at low intensity - Sensitive for brightness None in Fovia Monochrome they are responsible for black and white vision Ex. Looking at stars at night Cones HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18 211- 342ALUMIN 201 Operates at higher intensities th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 - Insensitive for brightness Concentrated in fovea Full colour But how do rods and cones work? Visual pigments Rods: Rhodopsin produces several chemicals and generates action potential As you expose ratina to light it loses its colour\ Cones Chlorolabe... green Erythrolabe... red Cyanolabe... blue Some people are colour blind because they are missing one of these pigments How to demonstrate this? 1) Dark Adaptation The reason why you cant see is because the flash bleaches retina Cell pictire)))) Over time the rods get more sensitive than cones Rod-cone break How to demonstrate this? 1) Dark adaptation 2) Spectral sensitivity But how do you explain phantom spots HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Visual system is making things up - Single cell recording Isolate single retinal ganglion cell (very big cells) Attach microelectrode record output Project spot of light on screen and move until output maximum This is retinal area served by that ganglion cell Movement in any direction decreases firing rate - Receptive Field EG Outside receptive field -> no effect Receptor Bipolar AB A B B Ganglion A HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Horizontal cells are inhibitory McCollough Effect (copy these notes) COPY THE NEXT TWO HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Consciousness - November-10-09 Circadian Rhythms Consciousness Seep Stages What are the daily rhythms affecting humans? What is consciousness? What happens when we sleep? The fact that reading is an automatic process provides an explanation for: - The scoop effect Circadian rhythms Daily cycles HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Blood pressure Body tem-re Chemical concentrations 25- hour Clock Peak levels in late afternoon (Best time for physical tasks) Suprachiasmatic nucleus - Controls daily rhythms Internal timing mechanism in hypothalamus gland Daylight stimulates the SCN, which inhibits production of melatonin in pineal Darkness removes the inhibition, resulting in more melatonin... we feel tired Photosensitive Ganglion Cells Melanopsin sensitive to blue light Disturbances Jet lag and shift work Phase advance more difficult than phase delay, e.g., flying Vancouver to Halifax more problematic than east to west... pushes the time Take melatonin Jury still out... - Seems safe More effective for delay Probably works by relieving daytime fatigue HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Avoiding Jet Lag - Hydrate on plane Avoid alcohol Get up and stretch Light meals Expose self to sunlight upon arrival Consciousness - Awareness of the relationship between seld and the external world Monitoring- keeping track of self Control- planning Preconscious Level - Ingot not currently available, but could be What does your parents house look like? Tip-of-the-tongue stop thinking about it and then go back Subcounscious - Info not accessible, but may leak out from time to time How to interpret it? Freudian Slips - Unconscious Leakage Consciousness Freud (1908) - A happy person never fantasize, only an unhappy person. For Frued everyone was unhappy Most of daydream... Roughly every 90 min HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Failure of success (failure more frequent theme) Sex or romance Quilt Problem solving Why Daydream? Safety valve - Escape from life Alters mood in positive direction Low- risk way to deal with problems... imagine reality Increase arousal - Can be helpful Hours of sleep Animal Brown Bat 19.9 Python 18 Human infant16 Rabbit11.4 Chimp 9.7 Human adult 8 Cow 3.9 Giraffe 1.9 Stages of Sleep During Sleep, body begins to Shut down - Heart rate lowered HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Respiration lowered Minimum of muscle activity Temperature Drops Stages of Sleep Marked decrease in sensitivity to external stimulation EEG Recordings Awake Eyes Open Alpha (10 cps) Stage 1 Beta (40 cps) Theta (6 cps) Stage 2 K Complex when you hear something Spindle Sleep Spindle Burst of 12- 16 cps K-complex HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Triggered externally Relation to RLS and Epilepsy Stage 3 Delta (1 cps) Stage 4 Delta (1cps) REM Theta - Beta Going into REM all over again Brain is very active Each cycle gives more Over the course of the evening you spent time in the REM REM is something that one wants HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Why do we sleep? Dreaming Theories of sleep Sleep disorders Dream content November-12-09 Why do we sleep? What causes sleep disorders? What do we dream about? - Delta is dominant in stage 4. Why do we sleep? - A restorative Function Sleep deprivation Attention lapse HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Irritability But ... Little effect on task performance - B Evolutionary Benefit Webb (1975) - C Learning and Memory REM deprived subjects show reduced ability to retain new information Note: REM specific I only deprive you during REM - D Mood Adjustments Berry and Webb Speed of cycling into REM correlated with positive mood on following day Note: Depressed individuals tend to cycle into REM very quickly ... perhaps this helps improve mood in some fashion Sleep Disorders About 15% of adults complain 1) Insomnia - Most common Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep For some expectations fall short Sleep 5 hours, but expect 8 hours like other people Situational insomnia - Specific stessor Chronic insomnia - Possibly circadian rhythm problem HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Thermoregulation problem - Failure to lower your body tem-re Activation remains high and normal sleep cycle fails to develop Hot drinks help... 2) Sleep Apnea - Interruption in breathing during sleep Normal... but people with this disorder do not start breathing again unless they wake up Severe - May stop for about one minute, hundreds of times in the night Insomnia Cause? - Obstruction of air passage (loud snores) Abnormal brain function SID 3) Narcolepsy - Affects 2-8% Persons suddenly falls aseep at odd times Muscle weakness Begins with REM Cause? - Abnormal timing cycle for REM Depleted supply of hypocretins Often triggered by strong emotions 4) Parasomnia HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Various sleep related problems 5) Sleepwalking - 15% of children and adolescents Rare in adults Many waking actions performed out of awareness Occurs in stage 4 - Not a part of a dream Difficult to wake up Confused and disoriented Tends to run in families Happens in stage 4 Sleep Talking Occurs in lighter stages (1 or 2) Sometimes in REM Sensitive to external world Night Terrors 4% of children When asleep, child suddenly sits up, scream Dilated pupils Heart rate and breathing high Panic Note: Not associated with dreams... occurs in stage 3 or 4 Difficult to wake Disappears with age HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Dreams Occurs mostly during REM (80% - 90%) 2 or more per REM period Duration: 1-15 minutes Content: Students Falling 83% Being pursued 77% School, studies 71% Sex 66% Arriving late 64% Finding money 56% Snakes 49% Content Familiar settings Real peole (usually dreamers) Monsters, etc, rare Failure and misfortune outnumber success 3 to 1 Strong emotions Can incorporate external events Overt seual activity rare (1%) Can incorporate external events (water on face) Sex Differences? Men Stragers Cars, weapons Woman Children Clothing, jewlery HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Act aggressively Attractive stangers Targets Significan others Structure Mostly visual Mostly in colour Duration directly related to duration of REM Eye movements related to action NOTES HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Learning II Factors affecting conditioning Instrumental Model Law of Effect What are the factors that influence condition? November-19-09 What is the difference between classical and instrumental condition? How is behaviour maintained by its consequences? Classical conditioning of Love? Don Byrne: Reinforcement Affect Model Arousing stimulus (music) -> positive feeling -> Positive evaluation (like music) Neural Stimulus ( Stranger) -> Positive Evaluation (like stranger) May and Hamilton (1980) Female students listen to: - Negative (classical) Neutral Positive (rock) Rated attractiveness on the photos Classical conditioning affect Acquisition Curves Response strength HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 1) Latency (CS CR) Trials -> Graph is negatively accalarated You are learning more at the begging rather than the end 2) Output Measure Temporal Contiguity 1) Forward pairing CS UCS 2) Simultaneous paring HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 CS UCS 3) Backward pairing CS UCS Forward pairing is the best when doing classical conditioning Higher Order conditioning Pair primary CF with another neutral stimulus (secondary CS) Not very effective... CS UCD bond is no longer reinforces The CR extinguishes is disappears Extinction CS no longer paired with UCS Decrease in response strength CS loses cue value Note: 1) Index of strength 2) CS UCS bond not unlearned 3) saving and spontaneous recovery HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Generalization Degree of responding to stimuli similar to training stimulus Strength Loudns Loudness Instrumental or Operant Conditioning - Thorndike Skinner Instrumental oe Operant Conditioning Association of a stimulus and a response S-R bond is strengthened by reinforcement - Law of effect Model HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 1) Stimulus situation dominant response - One that one has to do in almost all similar stimulus 2) Choose and reinforce some target response 3) Stimulus situation -> target response Response contingent Consequences of Behaviour (KNOW) - Rat Presses Bar Reward( food) is delivered Bar pressing increases Negative reinforcement - Rat presses bar Aversive stimulus (shock) removed Bar pressing increases Positive Punishment Rat Presses Bar Aversive stimulus (shock) //// HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Negative Punishment ( i take away smthing that you dont want) Rat presses bar Pleasant stimulus /// Reinforcement Positive Negative Gold stars, Money Headache medications Punishment Detention Take away allowance/ Grounding Whats the best? Not ppunishment ... unless swift, consistent and aversive Discrimination training actually works the best HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Learning - Schedules of reinforcing - Cognitive Approach - Behaviour Therapy Is there more that association to learning? How important is control to psychological health? - November-24-09 Critical How can conditioning help us to treat psychological disorders? Higher Order Conditioning Why? 1) Primary S-R bond still reinforced S (tone) -> R (turn) S (light) -> R(Peck) Food 2) Secondary Reinforcement -> Stimuli that have been associated with primary reinforces Ex. Verbal conditioning Temporal Relationship Can reinforcement be delayed? You can delay it, but most effective if the reward is given immediately - The maximum delay is 20 seconds HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Operant conditioning B. F. Skinner B.F> Skinner - notion of operants - Response-reinforcement bond is critical... responses that get reinforced are more likely to occur - Shaping the idea of a success approximation Schedules of Reinforcement 1) Continuous reinforcement CR Reinforce every correct response 2) Fixed Ration FR Reinforce every n^th response Ex. FR5 -> reinforce every 5^th correct repose FR5 = CR 3) Variable Ration VR On average, reinforce Every n^th response correct response Ex. VR% might include: a) 3, 7, 6 b) 13, 1,1 c) 4,4, 7 - In each case the mean is 5 4. Fixed Interval FI -> Reinforce first correct reponse after a certain time has elapsed Ex. FI 1 minute Reinforce first correct response after 1 minute 5. Variable Interval VI HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 -> reinforce first correct response after 1 minute Ex. VI 1 min. Might included a) 2, 30, 30 sec The response of FI is not as steep, its much lower VI schedule produces a longer lasting response Fixed Ratio Interval Piece work Paycheck Variable Slot machine Good jokes in comedy These things... Partial Reinforcement Effect Experience with extinction maintains responding because reinforcement is unpredictable Partial better than continuous - VR or VI are most resistant to extinction Isnt all this Conditioning stuff just common sense? -Punishment is not effective - Cognitive Approach HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Learning not mechanical stamping-in process Involves formation of cognitions... the internal processing of information (thoughts, beliefs, etc.) Ex. When a rat presses on a bar it has a thought about it Kohler... insight Tolman... cognitive maps Traditional S-R approach cant explain very well I cantt isolate what was reinforced... - Avoidance Learning Escaping a shock Jumping as long as the light is on, you receive no electric shock - 2- Factor Theory of Avoidance 1) Classical Conditioning UCS (shock) -> UCR (fear, pain) CS (light) -> CR (fear) 2) Operant Conditioning Termination od light acts as negative reinforce for the jump response Nice, but.. exactly what is this conditioned fear response? Organism learns contingency Given some event, one outcome is more likely to occur that another Ex. If you study there os greater chance of passing SHOCK LIGHT NO LIGHT 90% 20% NO SHOCK 10% 80% HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Animal expects shoock to occur more often when light is present The CS (light) allows us to predict that the UCS will occur - PREDICTION AND CONTROL Essential for survival How are we able to use this Martin Seligman and Learned Helplessness - Learned to be helpless Animals who previously has no control over their environment learned that there was nothing they could do to stop shock Clinically depressed people also believe that they have no contol over what happens to them No contingency between reponse and reinforcement Perception of Control - - Class and Singer (1972) No noise and noise environment - On the second time (control) people have more errors Just thinking that you have a control is as good as having it Illusion of Control Langer (1975) People who found the ticket wanted more money for it Lotto 649 uses illusion of control - Relation to deperession Seligman and Abramson ( 1988) Pet therapy and plant therapy HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 People live longer Behaviour Therapy Psychotherapy based on principles of classical is operant conditioning Problem is viewed as error or failure in learning Cure is to relearn Treatment of Fear - Simple Phobia Intense, irrational fear of object or situation Relatively common Anxiety disorder - Patient is still in touch with reality You know that there is not reason for that to happen... BUT Treatment - Explosure Fear viewed as CR, so extinguished by repeated presentation Specific done HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Memory Behaviour Therapy Memory Quiz Information Processing Model November 26, 2009 How are memories acquired? How do we remember? Why do we forget? Note: - Over 200 recognized phobias Some phobias easy to del with Stay away from zoo if you fear animals - BUT... can generalize Treatment Explosure Fear viewed as condition response, so extinguish by repeated presentation A) Flooding patient is continuously presented with fearful object, until it no longer produces a response Note: - Limited value Patient must be willing to expose self to fear for prolonged intervals Not always possible - Ex. For people who are trying to quit smoking B) Implosion HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Patient must coninuosly imagine fearful situation Ex. Think about being in a room full of snakes C) Counter - conditioning Replace CR of fear with a more pleasant response 1. Identify a positive UCS UCR 2. Pair the feared object (low) with the positive UCS UCR 3. Gradually increase intensity of the feared object 4. Feared object now results in positive CR The problem: must build it up slowly Gotta make sure that the positive reponse overcomes negative one D) Systematic Desensitization Wolpe (1958) 1. Train client in muscle relaxation on cue 2. Client imagined fearful situation; receives relaxation cue 3. Client imagines even more fearful situation; receives cue 4. Client progresses to actual experience of fearful situation; receives cue (in vivo desensitization) E) Aversion Therapy Behaviour maintained because of reinforcement contingency - Alcohol relaxes body Staying in house avoids fear Gambling produces a thrill Ex. the same pleasure/thrill as a herion usage To change behaviour, change contingency Punishment Ex. alcoholic given antabuse (drug) drinking illness HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Effective? Wiens and Menustir (1983) I yr 2/3 abstinent 3 yr 1/3 abstinent Memory Acquisition - encoding - Getting info into memory Memory trace Retention (storage) Retrieval decoding - Getting info out of memory Recall... spontaneously generate information Recognition... identify information - Easier to use, easier to identify Information (visual or auditory) Sensory Register Short term memory (Rehersal) Output Long term memory HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Sensory Register Info held for fraction of a second Trace fades quickly ... attend to the dot on screen Info held for fraction of a second Trace fades quickly Visual icon Auditory echo Other registers very poor ... smell of a rose HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Memory Information Processing STM vs. LTM What is Memory December-1-09 - How is memory organized? What exactly is memory What evidence is there for different memory systems? Short term memory -STM -> Working memory -> Material held by Rehearsal No rehearsal Info lost ... forgetting Short term memory has a short capacity Short term/ working memory Shelf-life of 20 seconds Rapidly lost unless we actively do something with it NOTE: 1) Limited capacity HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 7+/_ 2 items Chunking helps secret to remembering stuff 2) Forgetting Decay... material gets old ...fades away over time Interference - New material pushes old out Study: Jenkins and Dallenbach - One group stays awake and remembers later in the day One group learns at night and then goes to bed => People that are awake remembered less due to interference 3. Accounts coding Cook Book Car Dish Bar Dish HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - 3 Components of STM Phonological lool auditory storage Visual- spatial sketchpad images and spatial information Central executive directs attention, recall from LTM, and integration of input ~ prefrontal cortex Long Term Memory LTM Hard storage Unlimited capacity Semantic coding- coded my meaning Codes in long term memory are stored there are by meaning - You have to link to other things and understand it How to get info from STM into LTM Consolidation.... LTP (Long term potentiating) neurons need to get connected Rehearsal - Maintenance ( keeps item in STM) Active (organizing) What evidence is there that STM and LTM exist? - Evidence from cases of brain damage, e.g. Clive Wearing H.M improved on task http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HM_(patient) Could remember how to do it No memory of doing the task - Evidence from recalled tasks HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Serial Position Curve People remember stuff that are at the begginging (primacy) and the end (recency) If there is some kind of task in between, there is no time to practices the task What is memory? - A biochemical event The engram HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Penfieldss data At psychological Level: - Learning Approach Ebbinghaus (Classical) Thorndike (S-R) Savings, transfer Forming to the impression Organization is important Memory as a Network Associative Networks - Network of related ideas and concepts Each concept represented by a node Spreading Activation - Activation of one concept lead to activation of other concepts Priming = Importance of memory organization HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Memory III Memory Organization Cognition and Effect Eyewitness Identification December-3-09 How does organization improve memory? Is eyewitness testimony accurate? Does mood influence memory? The memory coding for material contributing to a recency effect is auditory... ~ Organization Subjective we impose structure Hamilton (1989) If you have a way to structure something is better than memorizing it Semantic encoding - Coding things in meaningful ways HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Recall clustering (Bousfield 1953) - Information comes out in clusters The more organazed it is... the more information is going to come out What will help to improve my memory? ~ Cognition and Affect How feelings influence memory Bower (1981)... mood congruity State Dependent Retrieval Eich et. Al (1975) You need to be in the same state to enhance recall State Dependant Retrieval (Eich et al. 1975) Study No pot No pot Pot Pot Test No pot Pot No pot Pot 9.9 6.7 10.5 Free recall 11.5 Cued Recall 24 23 22 22 Cued recall gets more information out of the system rather than free recall Mood influences the kind of info we acquire and retrieve Seems to be consistent ~ Eye witness Identification Everything changed... resulting in very poor witness identification - Memory is not perfect Shocking events disrupts memory disrupted in shocking situations We reconstruct partial memories we make a memory complete (make up stuff) because of incomplete memories HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 - Expectations False retrival cues 1) Loftus Studies Did you see the broken headlight? - More likely to say yes due to the THE Vs. Did you see a broken headlight? 2) Smashed 40.8 39 38 34 32 Collided Bumped Hit Contacted ... have to be important with suggesting question.. influence to make up... 20% of identified are not the right people... There should always be a control group - So how accurate is eyewitness testimony? Under 50% Brigham et. Al. (1982) - Makes oneself noticeable Pays in pennies Ability to identify cross rationally is bad HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 ~ Growing old- must face the possibility of : Senile( old) Dementia ( undoing of the mind) - The turn over point where everything is going down is 18 ~Alzheimers Disease 5% of population 20 30% of those in mid 80s 50% risk due to genetics Recent events fade first short term memory Ultimately old memories go and patient becomes mentally vacant HOMEWORK pg. 169-240 EXAM: December 18th Friday 9AM finish pg. 265-275 289-305 211342ALUMIN 201 Bedridden, helpless, death in about 10 years Produces severe degeneration of hippocampus and cortex Association area of frontal and temporal lobes Easily observed on autopsy - Dont know for sure until death Severe amount of degeneration Increase in folds indicates the loss of brain tissue Nerve degeneration in ACL tracts Reduction in ACL produces memory loss NE. Serotonin, and DA also involved As you start to lose these nerves tracts... almost impossible to get any functioning back CAUSE? Chromosome 21 defect ( 1 case in 3) Build up of protein results in plaques and tangles chokes the nerve cells Viral damage to blood brain barrier Excess aluminum? it has no effect! Our memory is going to fade... its probably there, but you cant retrieve it.
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