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37 Pages

### siggen

Course: ENG 413, Fall 2009
School: SUNY Buffalo
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Word Count: 980

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Generation Signal and Conditioning Passive Components Complex Amplitude and phase Impedance Resistor Z = R Inductor Z = j L Short at DC Capacitor Z = 1/( j C) Short at high frequency Series: Z=Z1+Z2 Parallel:1/Z=1/ Z1 + 1/Z2 In Series Z=Z1+Z2 Voltage Divider R1 51ohm V1 1V 1000MHz 0Deg R2 51ohm Maximize Power Delivered to Load VL = VO Z L ZO + Z L VL2 PL = ZL Z L = ZO Impedance Matching LC...

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Generation Signal and Conditioning Passive Components Complex Amplitude and phase Impedance Resistor Z = R Inductor Z = j L Short at DC Capacitor Z = 1/( j C) Short at high frequency Series: Z=Z1+Z2 Parallel:1/Z=1/ Z1 + 1/Z2 In Series Z=Z1+Z2 Voltage Divider R1 51ohm V1 1V 1000MHz 0Deg R2 51ohm Maximize Power Delivered to Load VL = VO Z L ZO + Z L VL2 PL = ZL Z L = ZO Impedance Matching LC Resonator LC in parallel 1/Z=1/ Z1 + 1/Z2 R1 100kohm V1 1V 1000Hz 0Deg Frequency Response Resonance frequency fR = 1 2 LC L1 3.0mH C1 1.0nF Z at fR Effect of R Bandwidth Q What about LC in series? Making Inductors Cylindrical inductor, N turns of wire; The ideal inductance is given by ( 0 N rc ) L= Henries d 2 2 when d is much greater than the diameter http://hibp.ecse.rpi.edu/~connor/education/EIexp-proj-lect/exp03.ppt http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Workshop/advice/coils/ Circuit Practice At high frequencies no circuit elements are simple. Capacitor has series stray inductance, parallel leakage resistance. The junction capacitances of transistors must be considered. A wire has stray inductance and capacitance causing unexpected feedback. Connecting wire is a transmission line. Ground plane and isolation are extremely important. Use decoupling capacitors and negative feedback. Amplifiers Class A CE Amplifier Tuned Inductor (choke) or transformer Configuration Gain vs ZC A(f) Linear C3 V1 1.0uF 1.5V 100kHz 0Deg R1 10kohm R3 47kohm L1 3.0mH Q1 2N3904 C1 1.0nF C2 1.0uF R2 100kohm R4 1.0kohm Amplifiers Other Configurations Common base amplifier (http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/collinst/walkthroughs/cb-amp/) Class B amplifier Class C amplifier No base bias No dc current High efficiency Nonlinear Harmonic frequency amplification L1 3.0mH C3 1.0uF V1 1.5V 91kHz 0Deg C1 1.0nF C2 2N3904 Q1 R1 1.0kohm 1.0nF R2 100kohm Class C Amplifier Bode Plot Waveform fR Class C Amplifier Waveform fR/2 http://hem.passagen.se/communication/clc.html Feedback Control Neutralization: cancel unwanted feedback Power Amplifier - Efficiency DC Power Signal Power Efficiency Amplifiers Class A resistor Class A inductor Class B Class C Class D, ... <25% <50% <78.5% <100% http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Electrical-Engineering-and-Computer-Science/6-776Spring-2 Amplifier Design Impedance Matching Gain and Frequency Dependence Bandwidth Uniformity Distortion Crosstalk Noise Device Circuit Low Noise Amplifier Designs http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Electrical-Engineering-and-Computer-Science/6http://www-smirc.stanford.edu/papers/aacd98p-tom.pdf RF Amplifiers RF Connectors Power Control Surface Mount Transmission Line Shield Oscillator Positive Feedback With Gain Amplifier Operational amplifier Bipolar junction transistor amplifier FET GaAs HEMT In phase feedback 0-degree for op amp with non-inverting input 180-degree for CE BJT RC Feedback Feedback Loop Bode Plot Amplitude Phase Circuit Diagram Wien Bridge Oscillator Characteristics 1 2RC A3 fR = Sine wave Low Q http://webapps.calvin.edu/~pribeiro/courses/engr332/Handouts/Wein%20Bridge% LC Feedback Feedback Loop Capacitor divider Inductor tap L1-C2 Divider Resonator Characteristics Capacitors in series resonate with inductor fR = 1 180-degree phase change at resonance Feedback factor Q 2 LC LC Oscillators Hartley Oscillator (http://www.geocities.com/neveyaakov/electro_science/hartley.html) Oscillator Colpitts Reference (http://www.du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect16.htm) Colpitts Oscillators Common Source Common Base ftp://ftp.ni.com/pub/devzone/tut/3_lab_fm_colpitts.doc R&D Topics on Oscillators Phase Noise http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4/17940/00826814.pdf?tp=& arnumber=826814&isnumber=17940 GHz Voltage Controlled Oscillator IC Chaos Tunability Varactor Voltage dependent capacitance Tunable Oscillators Clapp Oscillator Using Varactor VCO XR-2207 LM556 Function Generators XR-2206: Monolithic function generator Crystal Oscillator http://www.npc.co.jp/ja/general/icmt2002_npc.pdf Crystal Oscillator High Q Piezoelectric Effect Crystal Cuts Working Range 50kHz-40MHz Temperature Coefficient 10 Hz/MHz/C f = k f0 T (C) http://www.txc.com.tw/en/d_support/01.html Analysis Equivalent Circuit Equation s = j Zero R Z = 1 sC p + 1 sL +1 / sCs 1 2 -2 s Z = -j ( 2 ) 2 C p - p s = Serial Z=0 1 LCs 1 CsC p L( ) Cs +C p p= Parallel Z=h Non Zero R? Crystal Oscillator Typical Values Resonance Characteristics Large, low loss inductor Cp (pF) >> Cs (fF) High Q circuit fs very close to fp Operating Frequency fs < f < fp Crystal Circuits Oscillator Circuits Logic Gate L, Cs Cp C1, C2 CB L, Cs fs http://www.northcountryradio.com/PDFs/column007.pdf http://www.caliberelectronics.com/oscillator-design.htm Crystal Filter http://www.aade.com/filter32/dishal.htm Mixers Combinations of Input Frequencies Nonlinear Devices Diode, Transistor, FET Intrinsic Response New Frequencies 1 2 2 1 ,2 2 2 1 2, 1 2 2 3 1 ,3 2 vi = sin 1t + sin 2t vo = Avi + Bvi2 + Cvi3 + ... Effects of Nonlinearity New frequency generation In band interference Balanced Mixer Characteristics Input vo = Avi1vi 2 vi1 = sin 1t vi 2 = sin 2t Output Frequencies 1 2 Gilbert Cell Differential Amplifier Implementation (http://members.tripod.com/michaelgellis/gilbert.html) MOS Implementation (http://eesof.tm.agilent.com/adsdemo/seminar4/abstrac...

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