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Science Political 101 Practice Midterm #2 1. The technological change that began the decline of the partisan press was a. the invention of television. b. the invention of the high speed rotary press. c. the invention of radio. d. the development of chain newspapers. e. the invention of computers. Broadcasting revolutionized the American media because it a. was the first truly national mass medium. b. opened a direct, instantaneous channel between a leader and the people. c. reached millions of people simultaneously. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. Freedom of the press is substantial in the United States because a. the libel laws favor the press over a public figure. b. of the country's tradition of free expression. c. of the judiciary's position that prior restraint of the press by government is rarely permissible. d. it is a First Amendment liberty. e. all of the above. Major news organizations differ mainly in a. which news stories they choose to report. b. the varying interpretations they place on stories about the same topic. c. the way in which they present stories about the same topics. d. which side they support in the partisan debate. e. which side they support in an ideological debate. The media perform the signaler role by a. informing the public of important news developments as quickly as possible. b. serving as an open channel for leaders to express their opinions. c. exposing officials who violate accepted performance and moral standards. d. acting as the public's representative. e. all of the above.
The Watergate scandal illustrates the a. futility of media attempts to forecast political events. b. inadequacy of the media as a common-carrier to the public. c. power of the media to serve as watchdog to safeguard against abuse of power. d. ability of the press to serve as the public's representative in political disputes. e. abuse of power by journalists in the United States. The American press serves most importantly as a key link between a. parties and interest groups. b. the three branches of government. c. the public and its leaders. d. the United States and other nations. e. the national and the state governments. Yellow journalism contributed to public support for the a. Spanish-American War. b. Civil War. c. War of 1812. d. Mexican War of 1848. e. American Revolution. Which statement has been shown by scholarly research to be most true of the U.S. news journalists? a. Journalists have a very substantial liberal bias. b. Journalists have a very substantial conservative bias. c. Journalists have a clear Republican bias. d. Journalists have a clear Democratic bias. e. Journalists tend to be negative. Historically, the American press has shifted from a. a partisan orientation to a journalistic orientation. b. objectivity to accuracy. c. a journalistic orientation to a partisan orientation. d. partisan to very partisan. e. negative to positive. The news media's favored position in the law means that the media a. have unchecked authority to print anything at all, whether it is true or not. b. are the only private institution to enjoy special constitutional protection. c. are acknowledged as a better representative of the public than are the officials elected by the public. d. have a very positive relationship with the president and Congress. e. all of the above.
The highest priority for most members of Congress is a. ensuring that the constitutional system of checks and balances works properly. b. supporting his or her party's legislative platform. c. getting reelected. d. gaining a reputation among other members of Congress as an effective legislator. f. working with the president to get things done. Legislation whose tangible benefits are targeted solely at a particular legislator's constituency is a. pork-barrel legislation. b. logrolling. c. gerrymandering. d. private legislation. e. public interest legislation. A standing committee in the House or Senate a. is a permanent committee. b. has jurisdiction over a particular policy area. c. has authority to draft, amend, and recommend legislation. d. is usually organized according to the seniority principle. e. all of the above. When the House and Senate pass different versio ns of a bill, the differences are resolved by a a. conference committee. b. standing committee. c. select committee. d. rules committee. e. joint committee. The author states that successful candidates now run two campaigns-- a. one campaign for newspaper endorsements and a second for neighborhood and ethnic support. b. one campaign in the free television news and a second campaign in paid television advertising. c. one campaign in Washington raising campaign funds and a second back home appealing for votes. d. one campaign for votes and another for media support. e. none of the above.
Campaign spending tends to be greatly more important a. for challengers and non-incumbents rather than incumbents. b. for Republican candidates. c. for Democratic candidates. d. for candidates in urban areas than candidates in rural areas. f. for men rather than women. Most of the legislative work of Congress is performed by a. the standing committees and subcommittees with jurisdiction over particular policy areas. b. the joint committees chosen to coordinate actions between the two chambers of Congress. c. the select committees chosen to study special problems on a temporary basis. d. the steering committees that decide party stands on particular bills. e. party leaders in both chambers. On broad issues of national significance, Congress is ordinarily most responsive to the initiatives of a. the president. b. special interest groups. c. the national and state party organizations. d. the committee leadership in Congress.
e. bureaucratic agencies.
By and large, partisanship is a. irrelevant to the work of Congress. b. the main source of cohesion and division within Congress. c. relevant only in the context of local representation. d. important in lawmaking and representation but not in oversight. e. more important in foreign policy than domestic policy. Bills are formally introduced in Congress by ________. a. members of Congress only. b. executive agencies. c. interest groups. d. the Supreme Court. e. a, b, and c There are currently ________ voting members of the U.S. House of Representatives and ________ voting members of the U.S. Senate. a. 300; 50 b. 435; 100 c. 150; 50 d. 300; 100 e. 600; 300
For a bill to pass in either chamber of Congress, a. it must receive the support of a third of its members. b. it must receive the support of a simple majority of its members. c. it must receive the support of two-thirds of its members. d. it must be passed within two weeks of its passage by the other chamber. e. it must be passed within a month of its passage by the other chamber. The trading of votes between members of Congress so that each gets the legislation he or she wants is a. gerrymandering. b. pandering. c. logrolling. d. pork-barreling. e. cloturing. The president's role in foreign policy increased largely because a. Congress proved so inept in foreign affairs that the American people demanded a change. b. America became more of a world power. c. of the need to coordinate national economic policy and foreign policy, a task to which the presidency was well-suited. d. of the desire of U.S. business to expand into Latin America and Asia, which required executive action at the highest level. e. of attitudes by the American public. According to the U.S. Constitution, if no one candidate receives a majority vote of the Electoral College, who chooses the president? a. the U.S. Senate b. the U.S. House of Representatives c. both the Senate and House in joint session d. the Supreme Court e. the people in a runoff election ________ has the most votes in the Electoral College in presidential elections. a. Texas b. California c. New York d. Pennsylvania e. Florida
Which of the following is part of the Executive Office of the President? a. Office of Science and Technology Policy b. Council of Economic Advisers c. National Security Council d. Office of the Vice President e. All of the above The presidency has been a consistently activist office since the administration of a. Andrew Jackson. b. Abraham Lincoln. c. U.S. Grant. d. Franklin e. Roosevelt. Richard Nixon. A reason why the nation did not routinely need a strong president during most of the nineteenth century was a. the small policy making role of the federal government. b. the sectional nature of the nation's major issues. c. the U.S. government's small role in world affairs. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. Presidents' accomplishments have largely depended on a. their margin of victory in the presidential campaign. b. whether circumstances favor strong presidential leadership. c. their ability to come up with good ideas. d. their skill at balancing the demands of competing groups. e. mid-term elections. The two presidencies thesis holds that a president is likely to be most successful with Congress on policy initiatives involving a. social welfare policy. foreign policy. tax policy. economic policy. e. environmental policy. A president's policy initiatives are significantly more successful when the president a. has the strong support of the American people. b. is a former member of Congress. c. is on good terms with other world leaders. d. is in office when the economy goes bad, which creates a demand for stronger leadership. e. none of the above.
________ is the largest threat to the president's ability to control the news media. a. World hunger b. Scandal c. Homelessness d. AIDS e. Environmental degradation Which is normally the best thing a president can do to ensure political success? a. maintain strong public schools b. preside over a healthy economy c. manipulate the mass media d. visit many foreign nations e. focus on human rights abroad. The strongest records of most presidents have been established during their a. early years in office. b. middle years in office. c. final two years in office. d. final year in office. e. final months in office. A principle of bureaucratic organization is a. hierarchical authority. b. job specialization. c. formalized rules. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. Whenever Congress has a perceived need for ongoing control of an economic activity, it has tended to create a a. regulatory agency. b. cabinet department. c. presidential commission. d. government corporation. e. blue ribbon panel. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are a. all agencies within cabinet departments. b. all independent agencies. c. all regulatory agencies. d. all cabinet departments e. respectively, an agency within a cabinet department, an independent agency, and a regulatory agency.
Policy implementation refers to the bureaucratic function of a. executing the authoritative decisions of Congress, the president, and the courts. b. regulating the distribution of funds to individuals and corporations. c. delegating legislative authority to smaller operating units of the bureaucracy. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. The functions of the bureaucratic agencies include all of the following except a. regulation of industries, such as meat and poultry. b. development of public policy. c. delivery of services as provided by laws. d. confirmation of those nominated by the president to head the agencies. e. implementation of public policy. Career bureaucrats tend to follow a. the wishes of the president. b. the wishes of Congress. c. their own agency's point of view. d. the expectations of the general public. e. the wishes of federal judges. The special interests that benefit directly from a bureaucratic agency's programs are called a. clientele groups. b. pressure groups. c. entitlement groups. d. programmatic groups. e. recipient groups. In terms of holding the bureaucracy accountable, the most important unit within the Executive Office of the President is the a. Office of Policy Development. b. Office of Management and Budget. c. Council of Economic Advisors. d. White House Office. e. Office of the Vice President. The courts have tended to support administrators so long as their agencies a. choose rules that save money. b. can apply a reasonable interpretation of a statute. c. follow what the president demands of them. d. have adequate funding. e. don't come into conflict with state governments.
The chief way that administrative agencies exercise real power is through a. rule making, or deciding how a law will operate in practice. b. judicial interpretation, or mandating the constitutionality or unconstitutionality of a new statute. c. hiring and firing government personnel in the name of efficiency and effectiveness. d. testifying before Congress on the merits or demerits of a proposed regulation or law. e. lobbying the White House for more independence in their decisions.. The Postal Service and Amtrak are examples of a. cabinet departments. b. government corporations. c. independent agencies. d. regulatory agencies. e. presidential commissions. Congress oversees the bureaucracy by using a. sunset laws. b. the Government Accounting Office. c. the Congressional Budget Office. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. ________ is/are most likely to understand the complexities of U.S. trade policy. a. The president b. Members of the Senate c. Career bureaucrats in the Department of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission d. Members of the House e. Federal mediators A concurring opinion a. explains the chief justice's position on a case. b. is delivered when a justice agrees with the majority's decision, but for different reasons. c. is delivered when the Court interprets a constitutional issue. d. is delivered when at least two justices, but less than a majority, hold the same opinion in a case. e. explains why the Court accepted the case in the first place.
A written Supreme Court opinion that, in the absence of a majority opinion, represents the reasoning of most of the justices who side with the winning party is a a. plurality opinion. b. concurring opinion. c. leading opinion. d. prevailing opinion. f. per curiam. The appointment of federal judges is influenced most substant ially by a. partisanship. b. logrolling. c. pork barreling. d. affirmative action. e. personal friendships. The United States has federal courts and state courts because of a. the separation of powers. b. citizenship laws. c. precedent. d. judicial review. f. federalism. The facts of a case a. are largely irrelevant, in that the judiciary has wide freedom with decisions. b. affect which law or laws will apply to the case. c. are important only if the case involves a statutory dispute. d. are important only if the case involves a constitutional dispute. e. are important about half of the time. Precedent, while not an absolute constraint on the courts, is needed to a. preserve the courts as a counter majoritarian institution. b. maintain legal consistency over time, so that confusion and uncertainty about the meaning of the law can be avoided. c. check the president in the area of public law. d. balance the policy making authority of Congress. f. check the president in the area of foreign policy. The term stare decisis refers to a. adherence to precedent. b. judicial activism. c. judicial restraint. d. judicial review. e. excessive partisanship.
The debate about the proper role of judicial authority in a political system based on majority rule is the issue of a. judicial restraint. b. legitimacy. c. amicus curiae. d. writ of certiorari. e. judicial activism. The debate of whether a court's decision will be respected and obeyed is the issue of a. legitimacy. b. precedent. c. judicial review. d. compliance. e. credibility. If Congress disagreed with a Supreme Court ruling on a federal statute, it could possibly a. rewrite the statute. b. express its displeasure with the ruling. c. modify the scope of the Court's appellate jurisdiction. d. amend the Constitution. e. all of the above. The Supreme Court is most likely to grant a hearing when a case involves a. an issue of state law as opposed to an issue of federal law. b. an issue of private law as opposed to an issue of public law. c. an issue that is being decided inconsistently by the lower courts. d. the possibility that an innocent person has been wrongly convicted of a crime. e. an issue dealing with state constitutional law.