Test 1 Note Compilation
108 Pages

Test 1 Note Compilation

Course Number: HIST 320P, Fall 2009

College/University: University of Texas

Word Count: 29778

Rating:

Document Preview

TheTexasRevolutionClassNotes(Day1) 20:23:00 28/09/2009 Coursewillbegininthe1820swiththeAnglosmovingintTexasarea A. AnglosAmericas CametoAmericamainlyinsearchofland Austinwasagreatdiplomat FatherofTexas Lifelongbachelor Dealtw/badhealthhiswholelife SonofaonetimeMissourileadminer;MosesAustin o Mosestriedtoreversehissetbackbysponsoring300familiesin SpanishTexas o MexicogainedindependencefromSpainin1821...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Texas >> University of Texas >> HIST 320P

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

20:23:00 28/09/2009 Coursewillbegininthe1820swiththeAnglosmovingintTexasarea TheTexasRevolutionClassNotes(Day1) A. AnglosAmericas CametoAmericamainlyinsearchofland Austinwasagreatdiplomat FatherofTexas Lifelongbachelor Dealtw/badhealthhiswholelife SonofaonetimeMissourileadminer;MosesAustin o Mosestriedtoreversehissetbackbysponsoring300familiesin SpanishTexas o MexicogainedindependencefromSpainin1821 Sontookoverasleadertocolonizearea CongressofMexicoapprovedAustinscolony Mostofthesettlerswouldbegiven4,605acreseach Notofthecolonistswouldhavetopaytaxesfor6yrs Austincouldcharge12centsanacretogetmoneyforsurveyingandwhat not HeandhisfollowersbecameMexicancitizens(alongwithothercolonists fromUnitedStates October10th,1835 o BeganpublishingaweeklynewspaperinSanFelipedeAustin(only newspaperinTexasattimeofrevolution) TexasRangers ExistedbeforetherepublicofTexasexisted ImmigrantsfaceddevastatingraidsfromtheIndians Mexico,inordertoprotectscivilianscalledforvolunteerstohelpprotectthe plains Thesecitizenssoldiersweretoprotectisolatedfarmsandranches Rangercompaniesthatwereformedin1823weretheancestorsoftodays TexasRangers(MeninWhitehats) Forthefirst40yrstheywereneitherorganizednoreffective FredonianRebellionof1826 Disputesoverlands,customsdutiesandfees,disagreementb/tstateandnatl govtofMexico StartedbyciviliansofNacogdoches StartedbyHaydenEdwardswhotriedtoseparatehiscolonyfromMexico RebelsfledwithMexicantroopsapproachedthetownin1827 Rebellionfailed Fromthisrevolt,MexicanswereconcernedabouttheUSacquiringland BoththejohnqadamsandJacksontermsandtherapidgrowthofwhite populationledtotheLawofApril6,1830 LawofApril6,1830 OutlawedandmoreimmigrationintotheMexicanterritory Totalpopoftexasin1830excludingIndianswasabout15,000withanglos outnumberingtejanosabout4:1 Lawrelaxedin1834 ProtestsandSkirmishingatPortofAnahuacatGalvestonBay/ClashatVelasco in1832 Taxesandduties Constitutionof1824federalism o Centralizedorder GeneralSantaAnnareversedhisdecisionanddeclaredhimselfdictator Astrongercentralgovernment Anglosettlerscamemostlyfromthesouthandwereconvincedthatthe institutionwasessentialforsettlementoftexas o Texasmustbeempireforslavery CausesofTexasRevolution 1835 battlebetweenslaveryandantislavery slaverywasnottheprimarycausethough resistancetocentralism firstAnglosettlersassimilatedMexicanculturesinmanyways o StephenFEsteban BloodlessconfrontationatAnahuacinlateJune1835 WilliamBarretTravis MeanwhileAustinwasreleasedfromcaptivityinMexicocity o Heproposedthecreationforseparatestategovernment o Austinthrewhisinfluencebehindawarhorse ComeandTakeIt:GonzalestheLexingtonofTexas Mexicantroopsononesideofriverandthe18Gonzalezmenontheother Castanedademandthattheferriesberestoredandthatthecannonbe returned o Onlythroughforce Cannonwasburiedinapeachorchidforsafety October118men160men o ReinforcementsarrivedfromotherAnglocommunities Texansdugoutcannonandgatheredtogetherchainandscrapironforammo TheyusedwhiteweddingdresstocreatetheComeandTakeItFlag Thecomeandtakeitcannonasfired,onlyoneMexicansoldierkilled,rest retreated ThisbecamethefirstbattleofTexasRevolution(inGonzales),(sameas Lexington) Cannonwasthematchthatfiredthemine OnOctober13th,soldiersmarchedtowardsMexico o Tookcomeandtakeitcannonwiththem(onlyartillery) o CannonallegedlyburiedbeforeTexasarmygothalfwaytoMexico LateJune1936,cannonwaswashedup o AcquiredbyMexicanguncollector o DisplayedatNRAconvention o Identifieditasthecomeandtakeitcannon o LaterloanedtoGonzalesmemorialmuseum o ThomasRicksLindleydoesnotbelievethatthatcannonisthe authenticoneusedinthemarchtoGoliad www.drudgereport.com TheTexasRevolutionClassNotes(Day2) 20:23:00 A. SiegeoftheAlamo 28/09/2009 SantaAnna SweptNorthwiththeMexicanarmy MexicaninvasionintoTexaswastobe2pronged ByFeb21,1836,themainMexicanarmy(sufferinghardshipfromwinter weather)arrived21milesfromSanAntonio(unawaretotheTexans) Texanswerentpreparedforsuchanarmy Gen.SamHoustonorderedJimBowietoSanAntonioinordertodemolish theAlamomission,abandonSanAntonio,andrequestedthattroopsmove easttoGonzales BowiearrivedanddeliveredHoustonsorderedtoCol.JamesCNeill(leftin chargeofSanAntoniow/80men) Bowieestimatedthatitwouldtake1000mentoholdupAlamowalls NeitherBowienorNeillwerewillingtocarryoutHoustonsorders o Why? officiallytheystatedtherewasnotransportationfortheartillery (1821cannons) includingtheComeandTakeItcannon theybelievedthefutureofTexasdependedonkeepingSan Antoniooutoftheenemieshands JamesButler,foundahomeattheAlamo o OnFeb2, Col.Neillandmyselfwouldratherdieintheseditchedthengive ituptotheenemes o THEnextdayWilliamB.TravisarrivedinSanAntoniow/30men (totaling130_ o DavyCrockett(TennesseeCompanyofMountedVolunteers)came with12men Defeatedinthecongressionalseatwithamanwithawooden leg Hisdefeatledtohisfamoustoast Sinceyouhaveelectedamanwithatimbertoeto succeedme,youmayallgotohell,IamgoingtoTexas Feb23,1836 o Mexicanarmy,underSantaAnnabeganarrivinginSanAntonio o ThegarrisonhadwithdrawninthewallsofAlamo o Abloodredflagmeaningnoquarter/nomercywasunveiledinthe churchtower o Travis(takingfullcommandafterbowiesillness) Ishallneversurrenderorretreatandendinginvictoryordeath 32menfromGonzalestolendaid(March1,1836)whilemexicowas attacking 189menoftheAlamowereoutnumbered15:1or20:1 morningofMarch6th(13daysin),SantaAnaarmyplayedasongasan attacksignal o before1stlighttheMexicanarmystormedtheAlamoin4columns, numbering1800men o onthethirdtrysurgedoverthewalls HowdidDavydie? o Manydifferenttheories Thereweresomesurvivors SantaAnnalostaround600men(1/3ofassaultforce) SantaAnnadoesnotimmediatelymovetotheEast FANNINATGOLIAD THEBATTLEOFSANJACINTO TheTexasRevolutionClassNotes(Day3) 20:23:00 B. LastStand FamousBattlesAgainsttheOdds o Thermopolae o Waterloo o TheAlamo o Cemerone o LittleBigHorn o ArnheimsBridge DidTravisDrawaLineintheSand? 28/09/2009 AlamoVietnamanalogy(LBJ) DyingLegends:ThreeGreatHeroes(Crockett,Bowie,Travis) HowdidDavyDie? TexasHistory 28/09/200920:23:00 TaylorbecamealikelyWhigcandidateforpresident PerseveredandpushedfurtherintoMexico Tayloronlyhad6600men(outnumbered) Sufferedmorethan500casualties Tiredanddemoralize AmmunitionwasinshortsupplyandTaylorhadnowayofimmediately restocking Polkorderedthearmisticecancelled TaylorwonderedinPolkwastryingtodiscredithimforpoliticalreasons History 320P 1826- Anglo pop. Growing rapidly, Indian threat eradicated The South- eager to annex Texas because of opportunity to expand cotton fields and slavery New England talked of seceding because of this 1836- Van Buren wins Presidential election 1841- President Lamar launched Santa Fe expedition vs. Mexico William Henry Harrison died one month after taking office. Got pneumonia after record-long inauguration speech. Tyler takes over opposed to Texas annexation, would be a slave state Republic of Texas joined the US because it was bankrupt, could not pay $10 million debt. Bargain of 1844 Mexican troops cross Guadalupe. Polk wanted to declare war with Mexico U.S. entered US-Mexico war without plan of operations Jumanos, Caddos, major Texas tribes After 1700- Apaches controlled west Texas, acquired horses 1750- Comanches moved South from Utah. Barrier from all westward expansion for nearly 100 years Sam Houston- East Texas was for him, West Texas was against him Easily defeated Stephen F Austin, 50k to 5k. Austin named Secretary of State in October, died in December at 43. Houston couldnt succeed himself, Lamar favored in 1836 Lamar became second President of Texas Republic after main compeition committed suicide Houston beat Burnett in round 2 First Senators from Texas were Sam Houston and Thomas Rusk Pierce Bill- resolved New Mexico boundary despute. Gave Texas 33k square miles. Texas History: Alamo 2 days later Bowie arrived in San Antonio delivered Houstons orders and James C. Neil who was in charge of san Antonio with 80 men it would take 1000 men to defend the Alamo walls neither Bowie or Neil were willing Houstons orders to demolish the Alamo and abandon the townwhy? officially no transportation for the artillery 17-21 cannons largest artillery in the SW feelings were much deeper they believed that the history of texas relied in San Antonios hands. James Bonom- wanderer found peace at the ALAmo didnt want to leave they agreed and on Feb 2. Governor Henry Smith they would rather die in these ditches than give it up to the enemy William Barratt Travis arrived in San Antonio with 30 men Davy Crocket- Tennessee 12 men left Tennessee in disgust he was an anti Jacksonian- elected a man with a timber toe you may all go to hell and Ill go to texas Defend the liberties of our common country from Tennessee on Feb 11th colonel neil was stricken with cholera and stuck Travis in chargeTravis and Bowie kept their own commands but would act together on matters the Alamo is the key of texas with water and vast mission compound best area for large concentrations of troops. Fortify the Alamo and skilled Mexican engineers worked on feb. 23rd 1836 the Mexican army under Santa Ana arrived in San Antonio- they were not going to try to defend San Antonio a blood red flag was waved over the church the Bowie sick- aid from Goliad people of texas and all the people of the world I will never surrender or retreat endin in death 3 legged willy Williamson letter- reinforcements to the Alamo were on their way and texas settlers were trying to reach the alamo but were turned away- concluded almost all things written had been from the inside looking out- people were trying to reinforce the garrison didnt have time if they would have known that no reinforcements were on the way would they have defended it to the death. There are no back doors to the Alamo thats why there are so many heroes March 1st 1836 189 men of the Alamo 9 mexican texas outnumbered 15/20- 1 the newly revised said 257 men were in the Alamo- we keep coming up with a number of bodies he had left to seek reinforcements was juan seguin at served honorably at San Jacinto- because they might have trouble distinguishing Mexican Texans from the enemy. The siege lasted 13 days el duegello throat cutting the Alamo defenders knew the haunted blood tomb no prisoners would be taken. At first light on the morning of march 6th in 4 columns in 1800 men and on the 3rd try surged over the walls all defenders were killed during the battle except 7 men- Davy Crocket- according to Mexican Colonel how did Davy Crocket? Was he taken prisoner and than executed? There were some survivors Texas History Text book one Tejano Soldier survived served under coertion and black servants and more than a dozen women and children suzanna Dickenson and her daughter the babe of the Alamo- they would spread the word. Santa Ana while looking over the Alamo it was but a small affair he lost 600 men- 1/3rd of his assault force De la pena diary- there were some survivors- many did die valantly but survival is a powerful instinct- some attempted escape but were killed by mounted Mexicans. Did travis draw a line? And say all that want to leave should go? The Alamo has fallen but Santa Ana does not resume his advance to the east- magnifys the achievements of the Alamo- because it gave Sam Houston an opportunity to gather more men. Government of Texas- by Feb it nearly collapsed under its own failures resulted quarry general council and the Governor leaving both sides claiming power but neither could exercise Governor smith suspended the council and than impeached the governors and the efforts fizzled the provisional government was failing. Washington in an unfinished building without doors and windows framed few delegates recognized the pro independence forces and they made a token show of resistence and had been growing. Supposedly vigor of the decendents of the north with never mix with the flem of the invalent Mexicans March 2nd abandoning their stance delegance approved the remaining 7 signed a new constitution 3 mexicans Luis, and Navarro- zevalo was a native in interior mexico- 1822 and 1824 first congress in the republic and temporarily in an empire governor of the state of mexico zevalo revolted against santa ana and fleed to texas he was elected a delegate to the convention of Washington on the brazos and wrote a constitution. News of the fall of the Alamo arrived at March 19th According to witnesses spread like fire and high grass and caused panic- the delegate remained long enough to adopt a constitution and provisional government Burnet President MARCh 17th 4 am 1st cabinet meeting the delegates were in terrible condition. Sam Houston had taken command of 375 men in Gonzales on the 11th faced with the loss of the ALAmo no choice but to leave his mutinous army eastward nearly anglo for texas headed eastward for safety News of the massacre of Fanins men in Goliad increased panic. Santa Ana laid siege to the Alamo- general Ze lerea he marched north feb 27th surprised Frank Johnson and 35 men- launched an attack on matamoris and 20 miles up aguaduche of james Grant killed and continued up. On march 14 william ward and his men were captured at Victoria Fanin at Goliad headed to the Alamo- he had problems with his wagons continued to display indecisiveness and he should fall back on victory and delayed his retreat but he quit moving 2miles short and ureas calvary surrounded the next morning surrendered his helpless men subject to the general disagreement of his men. In this battle the Texans 9 killed the prisoners and 80 other men kept in confinement. On Santa Anas order the foreigners were shot on palm Sunday. 342 were taken out and shot. Foiled Santa Ana turned his eyes on Houston- before the army could reach the Sabine riverHouston the fork- nachadoches or Harrisburg and they went Harrisburg towards the Mexicans first texas commandor who could plan beyond the next battle Santa Ana was captured wearing a privates uniform and brought to Houston who was wounded San Jacinto was the deciding battle followed his order to take the troops acrosse the Rio Grande and it was done. What if? The texas revolution is the second most important thing in history of the United states - Annexation The Annexation of Texas Issue in American Politics During the John Tyler Admin. Andrew Jackson recognized but did not push for texas annexation because of jeopardizing Van Burens administration and Van Buren- ignored Texas. Texas sough protection elsewhere-great Britain welcomed independent texas as cotton exports for british and French mills and an independent texas imported british manufactured goods without tariffs- with regard to texas we wish to see slavery abolished west Indian islands oceans of blood1841 Harrison longest inaugural address ever- he cought cold and got pneumonia on april 4th John tyler of Virginia succeeded Harrison and was the 1st vice president due to death- he supported annexation and he broke the WIG party over chartering a 3rd national bank- they read him out of the party- his entire cabinet resigned with the exception of Daniel Webster he submitted his resignation in 1843- ordered Upsure to negotiate treaty of annexation with the Texas annexation- gain favor with democrats and southerners- and opened nomination with democrats- described to Calhoun in a letter britains want to abolish slavery- but this created an asylum of texas as a free land for slaves from Louisiana and Alabama- this would be followed by a force of attempts a war with texas rupture with the union. Treaty of Annexation- require approval by 2/3rd of the congress of US- Texas Tylers rep. gave Houston the assurance at this point Upsure was killed presidential party- warship Princeton and several cabinet officers were standing next to a peace maker and the gun blew up and killed secretary of state. This interrupted negotiations with an annexation treatyTyler appointed John C. Calhoun- concluded a treaty of annexation with the treaty of texas by its terms Texas was annexed as a territory with slavery her public lands surrendered to the US ten million dollars of texas public debt- Texas was bankrupt. A former opponent of annexations John Q. AdamsWrote in diary the treaty for the annexations was sent into the senate and with it went the freedom of the Human race- didnt want the slave state. Calhoun- replied to Aberdeen letter- that slavery was a positive good for blacks as well as for whites and cited the miserable condition of free negros in the US that free blacks could not prosper with freedom because they plunged into poverty declared that the southern states couldnt handle the state to be abolitionized and it was a safeguard to southern civilization- Texas would be a slave haven- the Aberdeen letter was so worded that it drove off every northern man away from support of Texas- not only did the treaty fail to gain 2/3rds vote 35 senators voted NO and 16 voted Yes only senators who approved were southern Democrats. Texans were angry and embarrassed and America missed a great opportunityPresidential Election of 1844- clearly fought over the issue of National Expansion. Clay vs. Van Buren both wanted to avoid taking a stand on the issue of annexation- because they did not want to lose votes- similar in tone both favored annexation but only with the consent of Mexico the statements had little or no meaning. Clay its his Raleigh letter appeared on april 27th 1844- this position was summed up I considered the annex at this time without the consent of mexico jeopardizes our reputation around the world Van Buren- opposed immediate annexation Washington globe same day as the WIG letter suspicion arises about collision between the two- story without foundation- clay and Van Buren did not consciously do this. Expansion was mild in the WIG party and Clay got a nomination despite his refusal to take a standSoutherners outraged by the Van Burens stance this jeopardizes his win. The Democrats nominated Polk on the 9th ballot- Van Buren had a majority of delegates but some of them no longer favored his nomination- and how could they avoid choosing him and they voted to reaffirm the 1832 rule and he couldnt get the 2/3rds vote due to Texas- dark horse canidate James A. Polk Tennessee- wasnt obscure Who is James K. Polk? born in North Carolina served in the house of representatives and 4 of those years speaker of the house and governor of Tennessee but couldnt win relection his nomination was unexpected- the bargain of 1844 The reoccupation of Oregon and the reannexation of Texas are great American necessity- they were only firming up territories that belonged it- appease both the north and the south south would get texas north would get Oregon. The Senate 27-25 for the annexation of texas by treaty as a slave state there were conditions Texas could be subdivided into no more than 4 additional states- in addition my hereafter by the consent of said state- be formed out of there of Edwards Everett Halen Pamplet- How to Conquer Texas before Texas Conquers us- he was angry of the prospects of the extension of slavery- another danger would be the creation of an enormous state- this insulted Confederate Heroes Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the United states. How did Davy Die 300 and thermopolae and its alikeness to the Alamo. Story of the 36th division of WWII colonel William barrat traviss last messageHow did Davy Crocket Die? Did he really wear a coonskin hat? The most famous scene of Davy Crocket- the fade out shot the last survivor swinging his rifle at the Mexican soldies. His sidekick was Buddy Epston John waynes version of crockets death- near the end of the 1960 film trying to torch the remaining gunpowder to kill the Mexicans. Major Robert Evans ignited the texas magazine but was killed before he completed the task. PatriotismThe Dilapinia diary- history details on the Alamo collection of field notes- while he was in prison he wrote this he vowed from prison that its publication would see the Santa Anas crueltyhis memoirs disappear and it goes a wry- 1950 publishes the diary- bought the manuscript and gave it to UTSA chief librarian untook the translation she published her work as a personal narrative other accounts that Crockets surrender to Mexicans. shortly before Santa Anas speechan episode and since it occurred after the scurmish was looked upon as murder 7 men had survived and under the protection of general castillian among them great stature there was the imprint of adversity and nobility he was the naturalist Davy Crocket- undertaken to explore the country at the very moment of surprise fearing he was viewed as a foreigner- innocent passer by and took refuge in the Alamo- Santa Ana on Crockets behalf and ordered his execution the commanders and officers were outraged did not want to do it- fell upon defenseless men- they died without complaining and without humility- I turned away in horrification the very memory of it makes me tremble. Historians disagree on the authenticity- it was a 20th century forgery we dont know about the diarys whereabouts for 100 yearsInk and paper seem to be right for the time period. He never donated the Diary to the UTSA it was only on loan and it put up for auction- don went out to bid for it- and was outbid by phone bidders- the successful bidders were graduates at UT Austin and donated it to the history department- Tom Hicks bought it over the phone subject on a daily texas. There is an account of his death. Evidence for the capture and execution is great Kilgore how did davy die clear semation of various documents immediate reports and contemporary accounts and was executed after the battle- 7 men surrendered and called for Santa Ana3 weeks after the battle New Orleans port Crocket and others surrendered but were told there was no mercy for them. He was either surrendered or captured- and in the final moments of the Alamo- specifically Davy Crocket was one of thoseHow did Jim Bowie die? Feb 24th severe illness TB thyphoid pnemonia or a disease of obscure nature- left travis Soon died delirious in his cot- dr. john Sutherland in a spot where bowies cot had been his slave boy Joe and Mrs. Dickenson several balls went through his headWhile soldiers looking around cast over a live fire- Mexican soldiers enter Bowies room- still breathing over the plaza- Bowie shot in himself Died with Bowie knife in hand he claimed to rally enough strength and killed two with pistol and knifed one and was overthrown- climax of hand to hand combat. Bowie wanted to defend the Alamo he had instructions from general sam Houston and retreat eastward and to protect a stolen treasure of Mexican silver- if there is hidden treasure to be found it is of a cannon found in the river- no silver and no cannon- there is also some disagreement on how many defenders and who they were189 official number 250-70- by Mexican dead The Alamo Flag- Republic of Texas The real issue of bringing Texas into the union was they did not want to bring into the Union another slave state. Lundy the war in texas a review in facts and circumstances and a crusade against mexico in order to re-establish. The Nueces strip these plans are dashed and texas of course claimed the rio grande and the republic of texas- 1836 texas independence election year in the US- president Andrew Jackson he favored Texass annexation but did not want immediate annexation Jackson had dumped his first vice president and replaced him with martin van buren it raised a spector to Mexico who refused to acknowledge the republic of texas. Consequently Jackson rebuffed Texass appeal for immediate annexation. Van Buren shyed away from the issue of annexation during his term because he wanted to avoid war with Mexico- this policy would cost Van Buren his political career- this caused the dark horse to be chosen over him he had a majority of delegates he did not have 2/3rds and you had to have 2/3rds and this was put into effect- and this was because of his opposition polk of Tennessee was chosen. Texas formally withdrew their annexation offer- Houston was succeeded was president of the republic by Bonaparte Lamar- made for peace neither Britain nor france wanted to see Texas annexed to the US this would limit the US expansion- but no Mexican government acknowledged that Texas was Lost- the president of mexico- the war of texas was the first obligation- not aware of the existence of the Republic mexico- the Mexican border patrol remained inactive because they were broke. Switched and became a centralists many problems beset the republic Indian relations were significant. To the frontier white all native Americans were vermon they are red niggers farronbocker the frontier proverb the only good Indian is a dead Indian in the winter of 1820- there was the trail of tears- and Cherokees migrated to texas 1836 the natives treaty remained neutral and the Cherokees would remain autonomous the Cherokees remained neutral and the senate refused to ratify the treaty 1838 lamars policy set out to expel defeat or exterminate all natives in Texas- the white man and the red man cant dwell in harmony together if peace can be attained only by the sword let the sword do its work. 1839 documents reveal Cherokees entered into an alliance with Mexico against Texas- president Lamar launched a Cherokee war- to Bowls- explaining the impossibility if you remain in friendship with wild Indians we will be forced to kill your people. Chief Bowls J.H. Regan confederacy- eye witness to bowls death on the nueces- chief bowls displayed great courage he wore the gift from President Houston- he dismounted and was wounded ran toward him with a pistol and fired and killed Bowls instantly they scalped the chief. The natives that remained had to flee to Indian territory across the Red River- the Comanchees raided isolated frontier settlementsIn the summer of 1840 band of 600 warriors pushed into Guadalupe and central texas sacking of Victoria and lindville they rode entirely across the republic of texas- on August 12- mounted volunteers of Tonkawa and mounted texas battle of plumb creek- October Texans raided comanchee territory- and 34 women and children were taken- the battle of plumb creek never again did a tribe attack a town only did the natives do small raids. 3 Native American reservations in Texas- kikapoo and antiguas. September 1845 annexation was in progress- Washington ordered American army into texas to protect texas from mexico- Zach Taylor 12th president- ordered to take station on or near the rio grande and he stopped at nueces and went into camp near corpus Christi Napolean Jackson Dana write his wife sue on the Nueces- we had a visit from the texas secretary of war ordinary men enough- the best looking man captain hayes daring and remarkable man- he was an outlaw for killing a man in the US Isthmus of Darian- Panama canalHuston hoped to be president of the United StatesTexas Pioneer Women- annie done pickeral 1929 Pioneer women of texas 1992 reprint- these women had plenty of gumption and were not frailed scared women- kept the home fires burning buried scalped bodies- held off native attacks single handedly. President Lamar illfated santa fe trade relations- wanted to trade with new mexico the 350 man expedition and started too late in june and everything went wrong and native new Mexicans would be eager to be apart of texas. The Texans go lost twice were low on supplies harassed by Indians- retreat back to texas or continue on- he split into several parties the locals were friendly but the Mexicans took them prisoner- they suffered from sickness the hazards of traveling in new mexicos desert. Seguin served mexico was a traitor and in 1858 published a defense against the treasonous accusations. The black bean episode held in prison. Texas History 320P 9/24/09 Exam October 1st(12:30-1:45) BRING BLUE BOOK. Optional review session Wednesday September 30th in Os Caf Business School (11:30-1:30) Politics in the Republic of Texas 1836-1845 (Presidential Election of 1836, 1838, *1841,1844)Sam Houston vs. SFA (most popular in East Texas) Austin in a landslide and then soon after died after being named to a state position (Sec. of State). Smith took Austins place and would die in 1851. The President was only able to run in one term, but could be re-elected after another governors term. Most of Houstons followers who would run seemed to all commit suicide.Lamar would win the election and would be the second president of Texas. David G. Burnett (Lamars VP) would run against Houston in the third election. This would become an ugly election. Both would accuse each other of alcoholism. Houston would win the election handily against Burnett. The 1844 election would be Jones (backed by Houstons party but did not get along with Houston) versus Burleson (who was said to not be able to handle the job). Burleson carried the west and Jones carried the east and the rest of the republic. Jones would later see the republic join the Union of the U.S. The newspaper and press would become a major influence in the republic before it would finally join the union The Texas Gazette and press would become a major player in Texas politics 1857 would be the only election that Houston would lose during his political career First state elections would be held in 1845. Houston and Thomas J. Rusk would become the first two senators of the new state. Henderson would be the first Governor. 1849 Bell would become the Governor and speak for states rights. U.S. Pres. Taylor had to choose what the New Mexico and California territory would become free or slave. Taylor would later come to the conclusion to skip territory stages and just become free (Whig) states. The probable last battle of Texas Independence was after Texas joined the Union and there was controversy between Texas border and the New Mexico territoryBut Taylor would die in office and this would end the feud. Compromise of 1850would allow Texas to have land the size of Maine. (Pearce Bill)Helped preserve the Union for another 10 years. Now the present boundary of today was the figured out with the compromise. Also Texas was given 10 million in money to repay debts. Henry Clay would help negotiate this bill to stop a then feared war. Whigs and Knownothing parties finally gained some power by 1853. This caused the Democrats to finally form a party together. The Texas Revolution Lecture 1 1820's - Empresarios (like Steven F Austin) begin entering Texas looking for land. Newly independent Mexico wanted settlers in hopes of making the state productive and also wanted Texas to serve as a buffer zone between mexico and hostile indians, USA Austin believed his lifelong goal was the Americanization of Texas. Father, Moses, had a colonizing contract with 300 families, but dies. All colonists must become mexican citizens and Roman Catholic. SFA formed close bonds with elite Tejano families like the Seguin's who faught for Texas in the revolution Texas rangers start as voluntary milita to fight indians in 1823. for 40 years they were not organized or lawmen Fredonian Rebelion of 1826 - Haden Edwards starts it. when mexican troops approached the rebels fled Rapid anglo population led to law of April 6 1830 - Mexico forbids any more immigratiion into Texas -ignored until repeal in 1834 SFA gets jailed for 1 year because he suggested an independent state government for Texas First battle is in Gonzalez over the "come and take it" cannon; 1 mexican killed Santa Anna marches north with 5,000 troops with inadequate provisions , 2 priests and indian recruits. The Mexican War in 1846 Zachary Taylor moves South from Corpus Christi and gets attacked by Mexican troops in the nueces strip, which was disputed Polk tells congress that American blood was spilled on american soil and congress declares war July 1846 - Taylor plus 12,000 men march into northern Mexico from Camargo. 1500 troops die of dystentery and other diseases in camargo- filthy place Taylor took Monterrey on sept 6. he granted an 8 week armistace with Mexico in return for the city. Polk cancels the Armistace - he might have been politically motivated by Taylor's growing political popularity - opposite party Taylor wins at Buena Vista without many of his regulars and then goes home Scott sieges Veracruz then defeats a trap set by Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo thanks to help from scout Robert E Lee this defeat hurt mexican morale 1/2 of Scott's troops leave after occupying Puebla and he had to wait for reinforcements Most soldiers died from disease not mexican bullets. US acquired 500,000 square miles of land. last annexation of land besides the Gaston Purchase First successful offensive war/amphibious landing/occupation of a foreign capital/declaration of martial law in foreign territory/ westpoint grads commanding in the battlefield Sam and Anti-Sam politics East Texas - pro houston West texas - anti houston Houston defeats Austin in first election Austin named Sect. of State, Lamar - VP Smith Sect. of Treasury 1838 Election - Lamar wins. there were 3 pro sam candidates, the first 2 committed suicide 1841 Houston defeats VP Burnet 1844 Jones defeats Burleson 1845 - Houston and Rusk are first 2 state senators Pearce Bill compromises the New Mexico boundary dispute, giving texas 33,000 square miles and extending West to El Paso. the bill was part of the compromise of 1850 and gave Texas its current borders Federal government gave texas $10million to forgive its public debt in exchange for giving up the bulk of new mexico political parties did not exist before annexation and Democrats mostly controlled Texas, Whigs opposed annexation and thus were not powerful LastWeek Dec1835 Closeof1835withnoMexicantroopsremainingnorthoftheRioGranderiver SantaAna DecidedtimewasrightsweepnorthacrosstheRioGrande MovedtowardsSanAntonioduringwintermonthsw/opropersupplies ManyrecruitswereIndians Anajealousofofficers TheMexicanInvasionofTexaswastobe2pronged Feb211836,mainMexicanarmyarrivedatMedinaRiver,unbeknownstto theTexans Jan1836,JimBouieorderedtoSanAntoniotodemolishAlamo,and withdrawaltotheEasttoGonzalez o 2dayslater,BowiegaveorderstoNeillwhowasinchargeofSan Antoniomenwith80men o Bowieest.thatitwouldtake1000mentodefendAlamowalls o NeitherBowieorNeillwouldcarryoutHoustonsorders o BenProctorsaidtheysaidtherewasnotransportationfortheartillery, largeststockpileinSWatthattime.Feelingranmuchdeeperthough, thoughtfutureofTexaswasdependentuponSanAntonio o JamesButler,hadbeenawanderer,hedidntwanttoleave Feb2Bowie,SentGovSmiththattheywouldratherdieintheditchesthen giveuptheAlamo WilliamTravisarrivedinSanAntoniowith30men,nowabout130men DavidCrockettrolledintotownwith12men,Tennesseemountedvolunteers. Feb11Neilltooka20dayLeaveofAbsenceandplacedTravisincharge insteadofBowie,fixedproblembyjointleadership Feb13TraviswroteSmithitistheKeyofTexas Feb23,1836MexicanArmyBeganArrivinginSanAntonio,garrisonhadwithdrawn intothewallsofSanAntonio BloodredflagwasrevealedbySantaAnna TravisnowassumedfullcommandbecauseofBowiesillness ReinforcementsfortheAlamowereontheirway,onlyonesthatdidarrive were32menfromGonzalezledbyKimballandMartin o ArrivewhileMexicanarmywasbesiegingtheAlamo o Outnumbered15to1 MorningofMarch6,1836,13thday EldeguellowasplayedbySantaAnna,whichsignifiestheactofthroat cutting o BloodtunethatreachedbacktoMoorishtimes BeforefirstlightthearmystormedtheAlamonumbering18men,onthe3rdtry surgedoverthewall Only7mensurvived,someofwhomwereexecuted,includingDavyCrockett whichissuggested o 1tejanosoldiermayhavebeenswayed,convinceAnnathathehad servedundercoercion o Somemenandwomenwerespared,senttoGonzaleztotellofhow theAlamohadfallen o SantaAnnainAlamo,saysitwasbutasmallaffair SantaAnnadidnotimmediatelymoveeastward ProvisionalGovernmentofTexas ByFebgovformedinNovhadnearlycollapsed o BitterdisputesbetweenGovSmithandtheGeneralCouncil,leaving bothsidesclaimingpower MidJanSmithsuspendedcouncil,whoimpeachedSmith March1st,52delegatesgatheredatWashingtonontheBrazos,inabuilding, recognizedthatproindependencewereinthemajority SupposedlyHoustonsaidthatthevigorofthedescendentsofthenorthwill nevermixwiththeflamoftheMexicans March3rdDeclarationofindependence March15thfalloftheAlamoisfoundout Adoptaconstitution March17that4amofficersweresworninthenhadfirstcabinetmeeting SamHoustononMarch11thhadtakencontrolof375men,withthelossofthe Alamo,leadhisbitterarmyeastward,acrossColoradoandtheBrazos Runawayscrapewaswildflight GeneralJoseLorea Ranasuccessfulmilitarycampaign 28/09/200920:23:00 Within40yearsoffall Mostenduringlegend o StartedwithZuber,EscapefromAlamo1873Texasalmanac o Travisgatheredcommandanddrewalineinthedirt o AlldidbutonesaysZuber MosesRose,nativeofFrance Rosewas45in1830 o RoseleftAlamo,thenwenttoEastTexas,wherehewascaredfor after o ThenZuberclaimedtohaveheardthestory o J.FrankDobey,inanotherpublicationtherehadbeennoevidenceof this o PaulHutton,statesZubersclaimdeniedbymostwasverifiedbyBlake whofoundcourtrecords 1953Movie,ManfromtheAlamo GroupofAlamodefendersselectmantogohometowarnandprotect 1906StarkYoung Blindmanatthewindow AlamoShrineisTexasmainattraction Around2millionpeopleayear JohnsoninvokeslineinsandforVietnam VietnamisjustlikeattheAlamoMcNamara LBJsgranddaddidntdieinAlamoorSanJacinto HowdidDavyCrockettdie? Didhegodownasinthepainting Disneyshow? Ordidhedie/surrender? Captured? Didhereallywearacoonskincap? MostfamoussceneinendofDisneycrocket,fadeoutshotshowscrocket swingingrifleatdefendingattackers JohnWaynesversion o Tryingtotorchremaininggunpowdersupply,whichhedoes o Sometruth? o SusanaDickinsonsaidRobertEbbinsdidtrytoignitetheTexas magazine o WaynesaysrepublicIlikethesoundoftheword DeLaPenadiaryshroudedmystery o Collectionoffieldnotes,andmemoirswrittenwhileinprisonduetohis opposition o SantaAnnascrueltyandincompetence o Penadisappearedalongwithmemoirs,in1935itwaspublished o 1974translationbegan,WithSantaAnnaInTexas o SimilaraccountstoldofCrockettssurrender ContHistorians o AgreethatCrockettwasprobablycapturedandexecuted o Firstnewsshowthatmenwereexecuted KilgoresHowdidDavyDie o Eithersurrenderedorcapturedthenexecuted Delapena o ShortlybeforeAnnasspeech,7menbroughtbeforeAnna,Crockett amongthem,saysthatCrockettsaidhewasaninnocentpasserby o Torturedandkilledthemen o Historianshavesubsequentlydisagreed Someargueditwasa20thcenturyforgery Hitlerdiariesguysaiditwasafake Analyzedandseemstobecorrectinkandpaper HowdidJimBowiedie SevereillnessTB,pneumonic,venerealdiseaseputBowieonacot,which leftTravisincommand o Bowiefounddeadinbed o Mexicansaid,hediedlikeawomanunderamattress o Ordiedwithaknifeinhishand WhyBowiewantedtodefend? o Onestory,toprotectastolentreasurehiddeninawellatthemission, neverfoundsilver Somedisagreementastohowmanydefenderswerethere o Dr.Williamsdissertationimportant o Maybeasmanyas250 AlamoFlag 1824onflaginsteadofEagle NewOrleansGraysflags o ThinkmaybeonlyflagflyingwhenAlamofell o Mexicanauthoritieswouldnotreturnaflag o Wantedtochangeout3MexicancapturedflagsfortheoneTexasflag o o o Ryansofficehours o 1112tth o rrfield1@gmail.com o officehoursinOscaf3rdfloorinthemccombsschoolorby appointment 28/09/200920:23:00 FollowingSanJacinto,Texansratifiedaconstitution,electedSamHoustonand voted600093forAnnexationtotheUS AmericansoutheagertoannexTexasfortheUS Ifanyabolitionofslavery,Texaswouldhavebecomeahavenforrunaway slaves Texasofferedafieldforasmanyas5slavestatesinall 1845resolutiononannexation,allowedTexastodivideintoasmanyas5 states o couldhavebeenareservoiroffutureslavestates o Admissionofaslavestaterequiresafreestate NewEnglandershostileofwestwardexpansion ContemplatedNewEnglandsuccessionfromunionalongwithNewYorkand Jerseyoriginatedamongfederalists Texasregardedasaslaveholderconspiracy BenjaminLundy,abolitionist,madethischargeinan1936PamphletAWarin Texas o Slaveholderconspiracy o Hadaplantoest.afreecolonyforblacksinTX,plansdashedby TexasRevolution JohnQuincyAdamsandLundyplottheorybecamestandard 1836wasapresidentialelectionyearPres.AndrewJacksonopposed immediateannexationbecauseworriedaboutVPVanBurenwinningnew election VanBurenwontheelection,shiedawayfromtheissueofannexation Cot1838Texaswithdrawalitsannexationoffer HoustonisrepublicofTexas,LamarmadeseveraloverturesofMexicoto peace Winterof18191820 CherokeesmigratedwestandsettledinEastTexas InCherokeetreatetyin1836,indianspledgedtoremainneutrol Promisedindianswouldhaveautonomyinlandsandexemptfromtaxation, publicsenaterefusedtoratifyHoustonstreaty Expell,defeat,orterminateallindiansresidingintexasLamarsaddress PrincapleCherokeechief,Bowls, LamarLaunchedaCherokeewar Mayof1838wrotetobowls EarlyJuly1839,battleoftheNachesamongIndianslainwasChiefBowls, Summerof1840ChiefBuffaloHump,killedsettlers,stolehorses August121840, WashingtonhadorderedAmericanArmyintoTexas,whileTexansconsidered Annexation StoppedontheNuecessomemetHayes,whohadGTTforkillingaman Morewavesofmercenariesandarmiesarrived o FelixHustonarrived,describedbyasambitiousasCortesbyhismen WantedtomarchaconquestintothehallsofMontezuma CommanderandChiefAlbertHenryJohnstonacceptedchallengetoduel Huston Feb51837,onthe5thexchange,Johnstonwasshotinthehipbutsurvived TexasPioneerWomen Scalpedbodies Fought Bornandraidedchildren 1841afterunsuccessfulwithMexico expeditionwithMcCloudwenttoNewMexicotoattempttostarttrading SantaFeexpedition o Localswerefriendly,thoughGarrisonstheyweretakenprisonerand hadtoMarchtoMexicocity o DiplomaticpersuadedAnnatoreleaseprisonersin1842 SantaAnnareadytostartwaragainagainstTexas o StatuewitharmpointingtowardsTexas 1842AdrianWall,mercenariessuddenlyagainattackedandcapturedSan Antonioagain JuanSegin 1836escapedsiegeofAlamo CommandedonlyMexicancompanyonTexassideduringSanJacinto ServedasmayorinsanAntonio EnduredsocialhardshipasaTejano Vasquezinvasionin1842assistedandwentbacktoMexico Prisonershadtodrawawhitebean,ifdrewblackwerekilled BigFootWallacedrewawhitebean SurvivorsheldinPerodePrison 8escaped restwerereleasedin1844bytherequestofsantaAnnasdeathbedwife MonumenthilloverlookingColoradoriver TexaswouldneedhelpoftheUS Mierfiascowasasoberingexperience Heavyoptimismwasgone 1839CapitalmovedtoWaterloo(Austin)Texas7thcapitol MostofarchivesloadeddiscoveredbyAustinites CanonfiredatHoustonsmentakingarchives Apossecaughtupwiththethievesandwiththecanonpersuadedhoustons mentogivethearchivesback ArchiveWar PigWar 1839FranceRecognizedtexasindependence ConstructionofFrenchNegation,stillstandsonSanMarcosstreet OneservanthadsufferedanattackfromBullock,whocomplainedthat Frenchemployeeshadbeenkillinghishogs,whothensaidhogsattackedhis things GovernmentofFrancesustainedpositionandrelationswerebrokenoff DiplomacyofAnnexation 28/09/200920:23:00 PresJacksonrecognizedRepofTexonlastdayofofficebeforegivingitawayto vanBuren HadnotpursuedtheannexationafterAnnexation,Jacksonafraidof jeopardizationofintroductionofTexasasnotaslavestate MexicorefusedtorecognizeTexas GreatBritainwelcomedanindependentTexas,alternativesourceofcotton, couldimportBritishmanufacturedgoods Britainopposedslavery,wishedtoseeitabolished 1833GBhadabolishedslaveryinwesterncolonies PresenceofSlavery BritishareinCanada,Conventionof1818, WishedtogetCaliforniafromnewMexico JacksonwishedtopreventGBinTexas Worriedofa3rdwar AnnexationlaydormantuntilWilliamHenryHarrisondeathon1881,arawcoldwet dayduringhisinauguraladdress JohnTylerofVirginiasucceeded Tylerbrokewithwigpartyoverissuessuchasathirdnationalbank,Tyler twicevetoedabankrecharterbill TylersentirecabinetresignedexceptforWebsterwhowasworkingwithGB overCanadianborderissue AblePUpsurereplacedWebsterwhowastoldtosecretlybeginannexation talkswithTexas August141843UpsuredescribedtoViginiaGBsintentionsofremoving Slavery,runawayslavehaveninTX,leadtoawarinTX,followedbyrupture oftheUnion o SaidhowtheyhadnooptionbuttoallowTXinUS o PresHouston,assumedanindifferentattitude,onthepointofgetting BritainandFrancetomakeMexicorepresentTX o SohedemandedUSarmyprotectTX WSMurphy,TylersRepinTXgaveassurancetoHouston UpsurekilledFeb20th1844wereinspectingthewarshipPrinceton,standing nearabiggunthepeacemakerthegunblewupandkilltheSecofState o Interruptedthenegotiations o TylerappointedJohnCCalhounofS.Carolina o Tylerdislikedhim o April12th1844Tylerapprovedannexation TXannexedasaterritory PublicLandsgiventoUS,topayfordebt Fmr.PresJohnQuincyAdamsrepincongressopposed Calhounmadeaseriousblunder ExplainedtoLordAberdeenthatslaverywasgoodandcitedconditionof miserableblacks o Usedfalsifiedcensusinformation o SaidthatannexationofTexaswasnecessaryasasafeguardto SouthernCivilization o PlayedanimportantroleinthedefeatoftheAnnexation o 35senvotednoonly16votedyes,16theSouthernDemocrats o Texanswereangryandembarrassed Sen.HenryClaywaseuphoric WidelyexpectedelectiontobebetweenHenryClayforwigsandforVanBurenfor theDemocrats Neitherwantedtotakeastandonannexation Bothissuedstatementsonsameday,bothfavoredannexationbutonlywith theconsentofMexico,sosimilarthatitisthoughtherewascollaboration RaleighLetter,writtenfromS.Carolina 28/09/200920:23:00 TothehallsofMontezumatotheshoresofTripoli MexicanWaranditsLegacy March1st1849,3daysbeforeleavingofficeJohnTylersignedjointresolution ofannexation,enteringTexasasaslavestate PresPolk,didntwanttofightMexico,ifhecouldpurchaseland o AsaprecautionasTexasconsideredofferaswellasonebyFrance andGreatBritain.PolkorderedZacharyTaylortoenterTexasinJuly toprotectTexas o MexicoinsistedboundarywasNuecesrivernottheRioGrande,area betweenriversknownasNuecesstrip PolkauthorizedSlidelltocanceldebtifinreturnMexicowouldrecognizethe AnnexationwiththeRioGrandeastheboundary o Slidellalsoempoweredtooffer30millioniftosellNewMexicoand California o Polksinstructionsmayhavebeencondescendingbuttheywere peaceful o SlidellneverevenmetwithMexican Abolitionistbelievethatthewarwasasouthernplottoextendslavery PacifistsarguedwarviolatedChristianprinciples WhigpoliticianthoughtPolkintentionallyprovokedtheWar Lecture2 TristchiefclerkofstatedeptsentbyPolktonegotiateTexastreaty MissourianabasisAlexanderDonovansmarchwith1stregimentofMissouri volunteers o HeroofanationsecondonlytoZacharyTaylor HallsofMontezuma TaylorsbattleinNorthernMexico(MonterreyandBuenaVista) o BothCaliforniaandNewMexicotakenoverbyUSforces o WaitedfornewmenandammunitionmovedoutJuly1846with12000 men,fromoriginal4000 o Failuretotakeadequatesanitaryrequirements,leftcampinruins 1500diedatCarMargofromdysenteryandotherdisease o HeadedsouthforMonterrey Defendedby7000underPerdroAnpudia o ManyMir,blackbeanAnpudia o Sept25,1846tookafterbattleandMonterrey Taylorofferedarmisticefor8weeksandinreturnMexicanArmy wouldevacuateandheadtoSouth Polkwasnothappy,thoughthewastoopassive,hadhe pushedfurtherPolkfeltitwouldprobablyhaveendedthewar withMexico TaylorsoutnumberedArmysuffered500casualties,ammunitioninshort supply,nowayofrestocking o Polkorderedarmisticecancelled TayloradvancetoSaltillo,didnotwanttogofurtherbecause 300milesthroughdeserttonextcapturer SantaAnnacalledtofightFranceinPastrywar LostleginVeraCruz,Frenchwithdrawal AnnaGotwordtoPolkthatifhewasallowedtogetthroughtoMexicohe wouldnegotiatetreaty 1846AnnagotthroughintoVeraCruzandagainbecamepresident Oct1846PolkdecidedtomovethroughVeraCruztowardsMexicoCity PolkwouldhavepreferredademocratgeneralbutonlyhadWinfieldScott Jan1847TaylorrequiredtogivemostregularstojoinScottsinvasionvoice Taylororderedtoremainondefensive,wantedthe1848wignomination o Disobeyedordersandresumedhisadvance o Hisuntestedvolunteers,alreadylostregular,meta15000armyledby SantaAnna o BuenaVistaFeb1827,theMexicanarmywasrepulsed o Davisvformation o SantaAnnaretreated o Bragshowedupandshotthemup TaylorgrantedleaveinOct SecuredthewignominationforPres WingfieldScot March91847,landedonbeachsouthofVeraCruz, o Firstmajormilitarymarineactivity Mexicansdidnotcontestthelanding VeraCruzsurrenderedonmarch27 ThensetoutontheroadofCortes SantaAnnatriedtosetatrap o RELee,concludedthattheonlywaytoattackwastoskirtMexican flank o ScottsarmyroutedtheMexicansonApril18 o Illinoistroopssuckersfoundartificiallegandwasdisplayedatillinois statecapitalinSpringfield CerroGordomtnthingearlier o Afterbattlecomparisonstotheconquestgrewstarkerandmore disheartening o Captured2000andevenhadAnnasleg May151847,ScottEnteredPueblo o Lostabout1/3ofarmy,wenthome o LeavingScottwithjust7000meninheartofMexico o Nothingtodobutwaitforreinforcementandsupplies o EarlyAugust10,700effectives o Scottabandonedsupplycommunicationlines o GuerillasbegantobeinregionsontheroadbetweenVeraCruzand pueblo,toliveoffcountry Isolated o GeneralScottresumingadvance,flankfollowed ScottsarmyoverwhelmedMexicaninContrerasandChurubuscothisis aroundlavaflats o 72takenfromChurubuscowhohadjoinedMexarmy,StPatricksarmy 40%wereirish o thosewhohaddesertedwerebrandedwithaD,whippedand imprissioned o 50werehanged After2cbattlessantaanna,agreedtosentreps,toapeacconference TristofferedtoacceptasouthernboundaryinCalifornia,andalsoagreedto fixMexicanboundaryinTexasattheNueces Sept6negotiationscancelled Scottresumeddefensiveinseptataflowermillonsept8th1847,Molinadel rey o Hadreceivedreportsthatyoucouldmakecannonsinside,false Chapultepeccastle,protectedbycadetsand700men?Heroicbehaviorof youngtersisproudinMexico o Tookfirstlessonsinrealwar o Shortlybeforassaultsantaannaorderedboysremoved o Theyignoredandremainedtodefendcastle o 6leapttodeathratherthansurrender o Namesarepreservedonfaceinmonument,exactlocationofgraves unknown ColonelWilliamHarneysignifies,byexecutingdeserters,weretherefortwo hours WilliamJenkinsadvancedtowardsgate Americanamryfewerthan7000thensept14th1847occupiedMexico,fighting continuedinstreetsfortwodays Wellingtonlearnedofscottsvictory,claimedhewasgreatestlivinggeneral ScottusuallyflankedbuyfrontalattackonMexicocity Rebelactivitiescontinuesalongscottsroute Annaranintojosephlane,annaretiredtohaciendaandpreparedtoleave country Hayesmen,letAnnaPass Arpil4th1847annaleftmexico June20th1876,diedat84 MighthavebeenadeadlockinMexicanGovernment EndofNov,TristpersuadedMexicanstosendrepstoMexCity PolkdecidedhewantedmoreterritoryfromMexico,andbelievedTristhad performedbadly Tristrefusedtocomehomeandcontinuedwithnegotiations Tristwantedtocontinuenegotiating Feb2nd1848TreatyofGuadalupeHidalgowassigned o Mexicogaveupallclaimstotexas o Riograndasboundary o CededCaliforniaandNewMexicotoUS o Lost50%ofnationalterritory o UsgivesMex50million o And2.5million Tristshamefuloftreaty Polksubmittedtreatytosenate ProblemswithtakingallofMexico,iswewouldhavetotakeallofthe Mexicans March10th1848treatywasratified July1848lastofamericanshadleftveracruz Tristorderedhomeandfired,wasnotevenpaid 1871congressawardedhimthesumof14519dollars Legacyofwar 1721meninaction 14102wounded 11000diedofdisease 97,7millionspent acquiredmorethan500,000squaremilesofterritory Federalgovernmentdidlittletocommemoratesoldiers GaveUSafarwest,Texasnowhad2provincestowest Texasbecameapassageforthewest Importantus1st Successfuloffensivewar Marineoccupation Occupationofenemycapital Inwhichmartiallawdeclearedinforeignsoil Nationalconflictinwhichamericansnationalsymbols(flag,eagle)playedan imppart Daguereotypes(earliestphotogrpahsofwar) Polklostbattletowhig Taylorwaselected Playedasignigicantroleinshatteringthenation(slavelandornot?) Mexicowillpoisonus MarkeduglyturningpointinrelationswithSouthAmerica Gringo(Greengrowsthegrass,favyanksong) PoorMexicosofarfromgodandsoclosetotheUS MoreLegacy Exam1 28/09/200920:23:00 FirstExamNextThursday,October1st BringBluebook ReviewSessionNextWednesday,September30th OsCampusCaf,BusinessSchoolAtrium(11:30AM1:30PM) MexicanLegacy PoliticsofTexasRepublic 28/09/200920:23:00 Basedonpersonalitiesratherthanprinciples o Hadnothingtodowithparties o SamHoustonorantiSamHouston o EastTxforvsWestTxlargelyagainst Preselectionof1836,followeddefeatofSantaAnnaandwithrawalofforces belowRioGrande o Houstonranforpresafterglowofvictoryfrom o EasilydefeatedStephenFAustin o HoustonhumiliatedAustin5000to500 AustinnamedSecofStateinOct,butdiedinDecemberofthatyearatthe ageof43 HenrySmith(PresofprovisionalrepofTexas) o InballotingforTxheoutpolledHouston o SmithnamedSecofTreasury o SmithServedinTxcongressbeforecontractinggoldfever o DiedafterillnessinCaliforniain1851 o OutrightFailuresasGovernors MirboLamar HardonReynolds RichardHubbard JimFerguson PapyoDaniel Prescouldonlyserveoneterm,butintermittently MirboLamarwasfrontrunnerforpresin PeterGraysontookhisownlife JamesWCollingsworthcommittedsuicide BobWilsondidnotcommitsuicidelosttoLamar AtLamarinauguration,Houstonshowedupandspokelongabouthis successes,Lamarwasspeechlesswithanger,Aidhadtodeliveraddressfor him PresRacein1841Houstonvs.Burnett BurnettalludedtoHoustonsincompetenceandcowardlybehavioratSan Jacinto MademuchoverHoustonsdrinking HoustonaccusedBurnettofDebauchery o GstandsforGrog o Alsocalledhimahogthief TexasSentinel,publishedinAustin,HoustonclaimedAustinwouldgobackto landofIndian Houstonwonelectionbyalargemajority7,000to3,000 PresRacein1844:HoustonVpBurlesonvsJones Lackedintensepartisanship JoneswasconsideredtobeastandinforHouston JoneswonelectionwithHoustonssupport BurlesoncarriedwestandJonescarriedeast JonesoversawannexationofTexasintotheunion FirstGovernorHenderson RoleofPressinTxPolitics MoorewriteforTexasNewspaper JohnFMarshalleditorofJacksonMississippian,movedtoAustinwhere purchasedhalfofTexasStateGazette o Extremesouthernstatesrightsviews o Hadatemperandafondnessfordueling o ArecognizedleaderofDempartyinTexas o AdvocatedAnnexationofCubatoUS Severalslaves o FavoredreopeningtheAfricanSlavetrade o PaperthemouthpieceofDemParty 1858Marshallcreatedaschismforallthosetonominatepartisanpolitics Dec1845FirstStateElections HortonLtGovernor,HendersonGov LegislatureassembledinAustinandnamedHoustonandRusktorepTxin theUSSenate DavidGBurnettwaschosenasSecofState HendersonServedinMExwarunderTaylorinCampainginN.Mex o Afterreturn,refusedtobeacandidateforreelectionbecause administrativeworeonhim o VanZantfavoreddividingthestateandranonthisin1847,diedbefore election WoodJr.waselectedgovin1847suceedingHenderson,participatedin battleofMonterreyunderZach o Woodwasstatesonlygovwhorefusedtowearsocks o Dresswascareless o MrsWoodneverbotheredtojoinhusbandinAustin o Chiefwerepublicanddefense,publicdebtandNewMexicoBoundary dispute 1848JohnMWashingtonrefusedtorecognizeTxclaim Nativenewmexdidnotwanttobepartoftexas May15,1850conventionmetanddrewupaantislaveandwentto Washingtonforstatehood Bellelectedgov SpecialsessionfiredoffalettertoZachTaylorinWashington(pres),Taylor decidedtohaveNewMexandCaliforniabypassandenterunionimmediately asfreewhigstates TaylorsresponsedtoclaimtonewmexwastoinstructUSarmytoprotect Newmex PeopleofTxheardtaylorwasaskingcongresstoadmitcaandNMasstates, peoplepresssandpoliticswentintoafrienzy Texastalkedofawartothedeath TaylorattendeddedicationofWashingtonMonument o satforseveralhoursthendevelopedanintestinaldiseaseanddied5 dayslaterafterneatingcherries Followingtaylorsdeathandfilmoresoffice Pearcebill resolvednwJamesaPearceofMaryland o GaveTxsome30squaremiles o Extendedtxwestwardmostpointtoelpaso,thebaoundariesasthey standtoday o Txwasguaranteed10milliondollars o Entiretxdelegationendorsedthepearcebill o Perceplanpassed3to1 Bellreelectedin1851 afewweeksbeforeheresignedtofillcongressinthehousetoserve1853to 1851 nopartiesexistedintherepublic VotersalignedgenerallywithHoustonornot whigswereunorganized neverfullyorganized prescampaignof1848sedSamHoustoninformedaudiencehatthereare butsixmeninthewhigparty nationaldempartyhadarguedforannexation Knowknowthingsthreateneddempartyintexas o leaddemtonomiatebystateconvention Houstongroupreferredtothemselvesasjacksoniandemocratsorunionists opposedwerecalledCalhoundemocrats StephenaDouglasofIllinois The Texas Revolution 1: 1820s: Anglo American migration into Texas. Ending in 1928 with election. Anglos came in search of land, authorized for pioneering. Wanted a buffer between Mexicans and fierce plane Indians- thus Anglo Texans. Austin was a diplomat and lifelong bachelor. Wanted only the Americanization of Texas. Father (named Moses) brought 300 families into Spanish Texas. Steven took over fathers contract. Settlers got 4,605 acres each and no colonist had to pay taxes for 6 years. Austin got 100,000acres for his own use. He and his followers became Mexican citizens, agreed to accept Mexican law, and the Roman Catholic faith. Though their location left them relatively untouched. Became Mexican settler elite. In October 1823, picked place for capitol- Behar (central location and fresh water) named San Felipe del Austin. Oct 1835, Borden (milk fame) began producing a newspaper Telegraph and Texas Registry- only one at the time of revolution. Texas Rangers were to help protect against Indian attack and outlaws of small landsthey are the ancestors of the modern rangers. Rangers were neither organized nor lawmen, rarely had horses. Austin was willing to draw attacks against Carackawas (cannibals). Fredonia Rebellion. 1826 Led by Hayden Edwards. Met resistance by Austin and the Mexican government. Mexican concern about the US acquiring Texas and the rapid growth of Anglo pop. 1830: prohibited anymore Anglo entry into Texas- this was pretty much ignored. First illegal immigrants. Relaxed law in 1834. 4:1 Anglos to Mexican population in Texas. 1830s trade Duties port of Anahuac. Santa Ana- Napoleon of the west. Favored Federalism not Centralism. Reversed the position in 1834-5, and established self as a dictator. Anglo settlers were mostly from the South and they thought that Texas must be an empire for slavery. Austin was anti-slavery. Not the primary cause of the Texas Revolution. However, it was resistance of centralism. First Anglo settlers had much assimilated to Mexican culture, however newer settlers had made few adjustments and viewed Mexicans as inferior. Austin spent one year in prison, and then 6 months house arrest because he proposed a separate kind of government for Texas. Austin threw his influence behind a war party. Man wanted to regain cannon as a way of making Santa Anas resistance more difficult. Gonzalez men, immortal 18 waited for the men trying to seize cannon on opposite sides of the river. Only through force will they relinquish the cannon. 18 men grew to 116. Cannon buried in peach orchard. Wedding dress turned into a battle flag, reading come and take it. This is that cannon from that flag. Texas people fired off the cannon, one Mexican killed, the rest retreated to San Antonio. First battle of the Texas Revolution. Gonzalez became famous. The cannon was the match that fired the mind that was already ready and loaded. This cannon was the only piece of artillery that Texas had. Somehow sunk to the bottom of Sandies creek. June 1846, flood waters wash it to shore. Gun refurbished and put on tour and loaned to the Gonzalez memorial museum. Santa Anas brother in law did something? 49 men marched towards Goliad (inhabited by Mexican troops), got there October 9th and met Ben Milam! Hed just been released from prison! Texans killed 1 men, injured 3. Only Texan causality was a black man. News of the victory spread quickly. Delegates organized at San Felipe del Austin. Members worked for army supplies. Sent man to appeal to US for money and aid. Delegates assembled to form the consultation. Should the delegates declare for complete separation from Mexico or fight for rights as a federalist state. They decided not to declare outright independence at that time. Texas revolution was one of 5 revolts happening in Mexico, were the only one that succeeded, the others were put down by force. Henry Smith shall be the governor. Houston was thought to follow Old Hickory resigned from governor of Tennessee. Settled with Indians and moved to Texas. The Texan Loan (from New Orleans) was $280,000 offered cheap land and low interest. Land only $0.50 per acre. The Alamo was only one of several missions on the Mexican river. Bowie and Fannin ran into trouble from Mexican troops in San Antonio at another mission. 300 people volunteered to go with Ben Milam to San Antonio. December 5th-9th multiple days of fighting, Mexicans surrendered and gave cannons etc to the Texans. Goliad declaration of Independence. Wanted a free sovereign and independent state. Stephen F. Austin wanted outright independence from Mexico. However, alienated other federalist supporters. Texas Revolution 2: 5,000 soldiers were to march to San An under Santa Ana. Bulk of forces though more troops were coming. Texas wasnt prepared for such an army. Only 80 men. Bowie estimated that it would take 1,000 men to defend the Alamo walls (though it was much larger than it is today). 17-21 cannons at the Alamo (largest amount of artillery). Everyone was drawn to the Alamo- its such a nice home. Travis brought up total to 140 men. Tennessee company of mountain volunteers come with Crockett (Crockett had just been beat by a man with a wooden leg in Ten.?). You will all go to hell and I will go to Texas. Blood red flag revealed from church from the Mexicans. Meant he wouldnt allow the Texans to surrender. Texans swore to victory or death. 32 men come from Gonzalez, arrive March 1st, 1836. No prisoners would be taken! (Travis fell at the North wall). Only 7 men werent killed at the Alamo-including Crockett who were executed at Santa Anas order. How did Davy die- such a mystery? Some survivors: potentially one Tejano as a sky, two black servants, more than a dozen women and children including Susanna Dickenson and daughter. Were suppose to spread news that the Alamo had fallen and that Santa Ana was coming all the way to the Seguin river. Several people tried to escape by leaping over the walls but were met by Mexican troops. Santa Ana does not immediately resume his movement to the east. Houston broke all remaining ties with Mexico. Something was signed- Texas Declaration of Independence- this seems important- 3 Mexicans (Tejanos) even signed. Took 9 days to hear about the fall of the Alamo. Officers sworn into something of the new Republic of Texas. Then they met however, they were in some poor shape. Houston had 375 men in command, led army eastward (across the Colorado and Brazos). Houstons army went towards the Mexican army! Was he timidly uncertain or coolly confident? Texas is cannon-less. Yet we receive a gift from Cincinnati, Ohio of a CANNON! Cannons were dubbed the twin sisters. Santa Ana was ahead of Houston with only some of his troops. Must remember the Alamo! Two armies faced each other at the San Jacinto river. April 21, 1836. Sisters were used. Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad! Mexicans were taking a siesta. Santa Ana was in his tent with a mulatto girl named Emily West, she is the original yellow rose of Texas. Battle lasted 18 minutes. Carnage lasted much longer. Fleeing Mexicans were killed and thrown to the river. The next day Santa Ana was captured wearing a privates uniform and brought to Houston under an oak tree to talk to Houston (Houston is currently wounded). Ana commanded that the Mexicans would flee to like Victoria-area. Texas claimed the boundaries of the Rio Grande. If Texas had lost they were never going to lose. Duh. Mexico could not control Texas because it could not populate it. Also couldnt handle all the illegal immigration from the USA. Texas Republic 1: Only one man did not cross the line in the sand. WPA: Works Progress Administration- job employments Controversy how did Davy Crockett die? Die going down swinging and fighting as depicted in art and film? Or did he surrender and then be tortured and executed under Mexican officer? Did he actually wear a coon skin cap? Often depicted that he was the last was alive in the battle. In John Waynes movie: has him trying to torch the Alamo with remaining supply and he dies lighting the fire. Susanna Dickenson says her hubby tried to light the fire, but died before he could. 1955, diary published in Spanish, manuscript bought in 70s to translate. This became a personal tale of the revolution. Mexican soldiers told the tale of Crockett after their Mexican surrender at San Jacinto. Evidence to the capture and execution. Crockett and others might have tried to surrender but were told that there was no mercy. Immediately killed by Santa Anas order. Others were tortured and killed. Historians often disagree on the authenticity of the diary- could be a 20th century forgery! However, ink and paper is appropriate Bowie was found dead in his bed, deliriously on his cot, just before a big attack. Several bullets went throw his brain. Died like a woman, almost hidden under his mattress. Mexicans cut out his tongue and then burned him. Died with a Bowie knife in hand. Maybe killed 2 Mexicans with pistol and 3 with knife until overwhelmed. Susanna Dickenson survived with her daughter the babe of the Alamo. Only 15years old at the time of the Siege. Would marry 4 times. Moved to Austin. $500,000 to restore her home here. Tri-colored Mexican flag flew over the Alamo over the siege. Some flag is lost/destroyedoh no, cant be found. Bush declared an interest in the Alamo flag. TA email: rrfield1@gmail.com Texas Republic 2: President Andrew Jackson recognized Texas on his last day in term- though did not annex it after San Jacinto. Van Buren didnt want a slave state. Great Britain loved us because we could export cotton- wanted us to stay independent. And we would also import British goods without tariffs. William Harrison died and then we talked about annexing Texas- he had pneumonia- one year to the day after taking office. John Tyler (from Virginia) then was the new president! He wanted to charter a 3rd National Bank. Questions were raised about whether Texas should enter the Union as a slave holding or nonslave holding state. President Houston was pretty indifferent about this because of his ongoing talking with Great Britain. Houston demanded that the US army protect Texas during any negations of annexation from Mexico- on the Rio Grande border. Any treaty of annexation would need a 2/3rds vote. Secretary of State killed on accident, negations stopped for a little. JOHN C. CALHOUN! Texas was to be annexed as a territory- with slavery. Its public lands were to be surrendered to the US and the US would pay a 10 million dollar debt. Apparently we were bankrupt and couldnt pay our outstanding debts? Issue fought over national expansion. Oregon and Texas are great American occupations! Clay Versus Polk election. Congress accept Texas into the Union by joint-resolution. Did not need 2/3rds then. The votes passed (though wouldnt have been there in the Senate if it was by treaty)! There were conditions! Texas could be subdivided into no more than four more additional states. There would be no new taxes!! Texas could hold 6 New Yorks. ANDREW JACKSON DIIIEEED! Texas approved annexation by an overwhelming vote. There is no clause that says that Texas can succeed. Mexico Legacy: Dysentery and other diseases killed the occupying American army. Mere prisoners- Black V episode? Beans in hats. Texans told to draw 4. Every man who got a black bean was shot. Samuel Walker was a black bean kid. The survivors swore vengeance. President Polk is not happy about this- he had granted an 8 week armistice if they surrendered Monterrey. Polk hated Taylor- because Taylor was very popular with the American people. Taylors army was very outnumbered and suffered 500 causalities- few supplies with no way of restocking. Polk ordered the armistice CANCELLED. Fort Worth named after William J. Worth- he is buried in NYC. Pastry war? French pastry chef wanted money for property from Mexico, 1838, civil disorder. Santa Annas amputated leg was buried in a mausoleum, someone stole this leg and brought it around town yelling death to a cripple. Santa Anna was sent to exile. HOWEVER, some native Indians were going to boil him and make him into a tamale. A local priest however, found and saved him. Was sent to exile in Havana. 1846, he entered Veracruz. Reentered army and was promptly president once more. Raised new armies and forgot all promises with the US. Wanted to get gringos out of Mexico! Cinco de Mayo!!! 9/1 Texas Revolution: -Settlers get 4605 acres each, no taxes for 6 years -Austin gets 100,000 acres for own use; changes name to Esteval and his followers become Mexican citizens -settlers agreed to obey mexi law and be catholic, but untouched -formed bonds with Tejanos; made great strides in racial relations -Austin and Bastrop chose a site for the unofficial capital at Bexar/ San Felipe de Austin -Texas rangers before texas existed to protect from indians; voluntary militia companies; not organized and not lawmen at start -Fredonia rebellion, met resistance from Austin and Mexico -Mexican law of 1830:prohibits further immigration into Texas from the US; relaxed in 34 -slavery question -if abolitionized, then slave refuge -slavery was not the primary cause of the TX revolution -undercurrent of cultural and racial differences -some of the first Anglos assimilated, but new Anglos rebuked Mexican culture as inferior -Travis(member of the war party) and group forced a Mexican garrison to surrender at Anahuac -after being imprisoned for being for a joined state of tx/couhuila, Austin through his weight behind the war party Come and Take Itthe immortal 18; dug up a cannon; turned a white wedding dress into a battle flag with a cannon, star, and come and take it -cannon fired and one Mexican soldier killed, but the rest went back to SA town; -Gonzales is the Lexington of Texas -first battle of the texas revolution -the match that started the war -army of 300 volunteers started from Gonzales and took the cannon with them, but the cannon was buried at the bottom of a sandy creek? Found many years later -capture of goliad -texans wanted the Mexican troops out of goliad -reached on oct 9th and joined up with Milam and called on the mexi garrison to surrender and attacked -the texans gained valuable military supplies and boosted confidence among anglos -authorized privateering to control the coast, kept texans informed by committies of correspondence -should the delagates declare for independence or should they fight for the rights of a state in the Mexican federation? -voted to not declare for outright independence at that time Sam Houston -wounded at Horseshoe Bend -resigned as gov. of Tenn, raven, big trunk, Indian wife -moved to texas appeal to the US to help Texas -dangers of the natural enemies of whites The Battle for San Antonio in 1835 -detachment of texas troops were attacked near concepcion mission along the san Antonio river -mexicans suffered large losses and withdrew -grass fight- found bags of grass, thought money -Burleson new general said to retreat to Goliad -Milam mad and wants to go to SA, and gains 300 volunteers -Milam killed -5 days of fighting -mexis surrender and withdraw below the rio grande -forced mexis completely out of texas Goliad Dec of Ind -91 men -free, soverign, independent state -still unclear on meaning -alienated federalists in other Mexican states 9/3 -Santa Anna decided after suppressing revolts, to sweep north toward SA without adequate supplies and repress the rebellion in Texas -5000 marched with him and another 1000 from another general in 2 prongs -main army arrives at Medina river unbeknownst to the Texans who were unprepared Siege of the Alamo -orders to Bowie to demolish the Alamo and find new place to secure the army -80 men to defend, Bowie thought they needed 1000, neither Bowie or Neal were needed to carry out Houstons orders -they thought the future of Texas depended on the occupation of SA -the men disobeyed orders to evacuate and decided to stay and fight to defend it -more volunteers joined the forces to make it around 150 -Travis/Bowie leadership squabble -defending the Alamo was the key of texas -the garrison maintained in the Alamo no attempt to defend the rest of SA -appeal to Fanin for more help -the 32 from Gonzales were the only reinforcements -the men were outnumbered 15 or 20/1 -Seguin was not in the Alamo when it fell because the left for reinforcements -Santa Annas army signaled that no prisoners would be taken -March 6th, the Mexicans stormed in 4 columns and finally surged over the walls where all the defenders were killed except Crockett and 6 others -the women were sent to Gonzales to spread the news that the Alamo had fallen -it was but a small affair lost 1/3 of his force -Provisional govt of Texas -almost collapsed -quarrel bet Gov Smith and the general council -both sides claiming power; Smith suspends council, council votes to impeach Smith -51 delegates gather at Washington-on-the-Brazos -pro-independence forces were in the clear majority -conflict had become a race war; Tejanos v Anglos -March 3 TX Dec of Independence signed -news of the Alamo finally reached them and caused a large amount of panic -Burnett pres, de Zavala vice pres Fannin at Goliad -Sam Houston had 375 men at Gonzales and led them eastward-runaway scrape -many escapes and assaults -Fannin and his men attempted to help at Alamo but turned back toward Goliad -quickly surrounded by Urreas calvary -strategy fails when artillery arrives and surrenders without guarantees for the safety of his men; 342 men shot despite Urreas desire for clemency Battle of San Jacinto -texan army turned toward it of his own volition -guns presented to Texan army at buffalo bayou twin sisters guns -guns contributed to victory at san jac -remember the Alamo and Goliad battle cry -twin sisters against the sleeping Mexican camp -battle only 18 minutes -the fleeing soldiers were killed by the vengeful texans 730 taken prisoner -Santa Anna was captured the next day in a privates uniform and brought under an oak tree -he readily agreed to make the rest of the troops to retreat to Bexar and to pledge to allow the independence of texas and to retreat below the rio grande -once captured he lacked the authority to carryout his promises What if? -tx revolution is the 2nd most important event in tx history behind dec of ind -the mexicans couldnt have kept a hold of texas even if they won the battle of san jac -couldnt control it, bc it couldnt populate it 9/8 Myths and mystery -among the most famous last stand battles, like waterloo and Cameroon -mythical status -reversed the victory of Santa Anna with Alamo with San Jac -provides with legitimacy and gives us pride, sets us apart, our independence, commitment to principle Last Stand -300 spartans, Did Travis draw a line in the sand? -Zuber says, all but Moses Rose crossed the line to fight to the death for the Alamo; -Rose left and made his way to east texas and told Zuber the story -before zubers story there was no discussion about someone leaving and there was no last speech -mixed reviews of his story -Dickinson woman confirms that someone left -if it didnt happen doesnt really matter bc the myth is so great How did Davy die -did he get pinned against the Alamo or go down fighting? Or surrender? Or be later executed and tortured? Really wear a coonskin cap? -in the movies there is a fade out doesnt let you know how he actually dies, just infers it -John Wayne: used the Alamo to preach his views of patriotism and anti communism; republic -De La Pena diary: collection of his notes; resistance against santa anna -gives a riveting account of Crocketts death -historians believe he was captured and executed -crockett and others tried to surrender and they werent given mercy De La Pena account -7 men survived the carnage including Davy (took refuge in the Alamo fearing his status as a foreigner might not be respected-rationale to explain his way out of death) santa anna ordered his execution, but many officers didnt want that to happen -historians disagree with the authenticity of de la penas account How Did Jim bowie Die? -a disease of a peculiar nature left him sick on a cot in the barracks and was killed helpless by he soldiers / or unable to rise and fight he shot himself -most by a mythical admiration picture him dying only in combat Santa anna wanted to return to Alamo to get a cache of silver ; search found nothing 9/10 Missing 9/15 The Annexation of Texas Issue in American Politics During the John Tyler Admin -the brits wanted to have an independent, slave free texas; very good for its trade and would be an obstacle to the US western expansion -issue dormant in the US until death of Harrison and Tyler succeeded him -chartered a 3rd national bank - whigs got together and wrote Tyler out of the whig party and his cabinet resigned except Webster, who later resigned -texas question allowed a pres without a party to get support by the southerners and democrats -Treaty of Annexation -Houston was on the point of getting mexico to recognize its independence and hoped the US would protect texas -Tylers rep to texas said the Us would protect Texas -death of Upshire sec of state interrupted negotiations; John C Calhoun then appointed -the gov would pay $10 million of Texas public debt -Adams (opponent of annexation) didnt like the idea of a slave-holding Texas -Calhouns Aberdeen letter: slavery was a positive good for anyone black and white; necessary safeguard to southern way of life -The treaty was voted AGAINST by 2/3rds of the senate (S. Dems were the only ones who voted for) -Texans were angry and embarrassed and the Brits and Clay were pleased at the failure of mr. tylers abominable treaty Presidential Election of 1844 -Van Buren v Polk for nom for Democratic nom -not eager to take a stand on annexation bc would lose some votes -both favored annexation but only with the consent of mexico -Clay and Van Buren didnt collude to stop the annexation -Dems voted Polk to face off against Clay; Van Buren couldnt get the 2/3rd vote -Polk was first dark horse candidate -Reoccupation (Oregon) and Reannexation (texas) hope to appeal to northern and southern expansionists -54/40 or fight! -Bargain of 1844 north gets Oregon south gets texas -170 to 105 ; but very close popular vote; Polks slight edge in NY proved decisive -not real turning point election; but still kind of a turning point bc if the other outcome had happened the US would have been fundamentally altered=no texas, no civil war etc.. -mandate for annexation of texas..? -Congress should be annexed by a Joint Resolution of Congress which would just require simple majorities; passed only narrowly and Texas allowed in as a slave state -couldnt be admitted as more than 4 states -retain responsibility of public debts -had to submit to US any boundary disputes with Mexico How to Conquer Texas Before Texas Conquers Us -Edward Everett Halen -angered at the addition of a new slave state -Texas was too big, could soon overrule all opposition -wanted the north to flood the southern states to civilize them -before Polk succeeded him, Tyler signed the joint resolution; Mexico felt it was an aggressive act -British officials tried to form a peace agreement; with Texas being independent from mexico, but not join US and mexico agreed -both propisitions were placed in front of the senate; texas denied the agreement with mexico and approved annexation -Polk ordered troops into Texas on the rio Grande; Rough n Ready stayed on the Nueces -manifest destiny -oct 13, texas approves annexation by an overwhelming majority Statehood Ceremony in Austin -Jones pres. -1846 9/17 Origins of the Mexican War, Opposition to the War in the US: -While TX considered the offer of annexation by joint resolution; Polk ordered Taylor to cross into TX to protext the border on or near the Rio Grande(disputed region) -TX/US=Rio; Mexico=Nueces ; area between Nueces Strip -Polk sent Slidell to mexico to get the territory by negotiation -mexico in debt -wanted mexico to sell new mexico and Arizona; money no object -peaceful negotiations; polk didnt want war; effort unsuccessful -mexican troops crossed into the nueces strip -polk was prepared to declare war on mexico soley based on its refusal of slidell; scraped plans and now planned to declare war on basis of Mexican aggression -Texas, Wyoming, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Arizona etc..Texans say were gained bc of Houston;s defeat of the Mexican army? -though polk had no military experience and was an effective commander in chief he exercised tight control over the war effort, which later presidents modeled off of -Scott and Taylor (generals) -Scott wanted to be president; great general and his troops were great because of it -volunteers from Tennesse -significant pacifist movement going on at the time -whigs thought polk deliberately provoked mexico to get into the war -Lincoln and adams thought it was an unjust war; spot resolutions precise spot where the blood had been shed on American soil -no draft; taxes werent used for the war; polk never suppressed critics-so critics of the war had a hard time protesting Preparing for Battle/Texas Troops in the Mexican War: -by strengthening their troops in Oregon, almost provoked war with Britain, which mexico was counting on -polk settled the Oregon question by treaty; allowed brits to have Vancouver and up -us army was barely over 7000 men; Mexican army had been trained by the French and had 32,000; American force later drew 104000 most volunteers from the west -the troops were gritty armed with sabers, bowies and revolvers; the troops oftern breached military discipline -attacks by Mexican guerillas, where the troops would attack the civilians of mexicans which wasnt right -Texas: -gov Henderson led a troops -5000 texans served and many earned praise -fought like devils, behaved like wild men -remember the Alamo, remember goliad, black bean episode -the mention of texas was enough to scare mexicans -Mexico was difficult to penetrate bc of the arid deserts, the water/yellow fever of Veracruz; scrappy troops; backwoods -mexico seemed powerful; the troops seemed well trained and polished; -polk first named scott to be in charge and then appointed taylor( who scored victories at palo alto and rosaco de la palma) Taylor Wins Two Battles North of the Rio Grande and Occupies Matamoras -Palo Alto and rosaco de la palma -may 18th crosses the river and occupies Matamoras -never put on a uniform -never panicked, very handsome -polk appointed 9 volunteer generals -freemont moves into the sacramento valley; made the bear flag and went to monterrey -proclaimed CA to be in the US; republic of CA only lasted a month -then Stockton went to southern ca and declared himself gov -occupied santa fe without firing a shot b/c army of the west came in and the Mexican army fled -battle of san pascual: Mexican rebels defeated American troops in California -indian revolts; indians defeated at taos pueblo revolt of 1847 9/22 Missing 9/24 Pres election of 1836 Sam Houston- eastern tx was for him; western tx was against him -ran for pres in his victory glow of the defeat of Santa Anna -easily defeated Stephen F Austin -smith-sec of treasury; Austin-sec of state Houston could not succeed himself; TX const said only one year -so VP Lamar was the front runner in 38 -anti Houston Candidate: Burnet- platform was outlining Houstons incompetence -Houston won by a large majority 1841 -Houston had to sit out another year -Jones (Houston candidate) Burleson (commander of the TX Rangers) -Houstonians said he was a bad idea for president Texas Annexation: causes deep sectional rift; the Trojan horse of the democratic party Marshall: advocated Cuba, and reopening of slave trade; chair of state dem party in tx Van Zandt- wanted to divide the state Tyler Jr. (pro Houston) won in 47 and succeeded Henderson New Mexico Boundary Dispute (Pearce bill) Under President Taylor -_Congress____ wanted Cali and New Mexico to bypass the territory stage and enter as free states -when texas found out , the people went in a frenzy; didnt want to lose 1/3 of its territory; didnt want to surrender -impending clash between invading texas forces and the defending American troops -pres taylor got an intestinal disease in office and died and Fillimore succeeded him -Taylor had been threatening veto to Clays omnibus bill -Douglass took over the omnibuss bill as 5 separate measures (comp of 1850) one of them was the pearce bill which compromised the disputed territory east of the MS river -gave tx a territory the size of maine extending the west to el paso del norte; the present day boundaries -cali came in as a free state -new mexico and __utah___ remained as territories not yet slave or free -agreed to pay Texas $10 mill for giving up new mexico to pay off its debt -Texas delegation endorsed the pearce bill -bill approved by a popular majority and gov Hansborough ?signed the bill Gov Bell was re-elected and resigned and served in the house -no parties existed in the republic -whigs never posed a problem with the control of texas Nativists and Know nothings -later threatened dem control of texas which led dems to nominate through conventions -Houstonites-Jacksonian Democrats -to win southern backing for the Kansas-nebraska___ bill, but to win southern support Douglass had to repeal the mizz compromise line repealed and the area was open to slavery Kansas-Nebraska bill -rights of territorial govts were subject only to const -passed in both houses -Houston voted against -US took its greatest single step toward civil war -slap in the face to the northern people; sacred sectional compact -modern GOP organized as a direct result of this and finished off the weakened Whig party -nativists started to take control in texas where the whig party left off, but dems still dominant The Texas Revolution: Lecture One 1) Anglo American Migration into Texas a) Under leadership of SFA & other emperasarios, Anglo-Americans came to TX in 1820 in search of land. b) Newly independent government Mexico (from Spain in 1821) authorized immigration to make province more productive i) Hoped settlers would be buffer between MX & Indians (Comanches) c) Stephen F. Austin i) Master diplomat, workaholic, and lifelong bachelor who dealt with recurring with ill health while driven to Americanize texas ii) Son of Moses Austin, who tried to reverse his financial setback by sponsoring 300 Anglo-Americans in then-Mexican territory. Stephen took over colonizing contraction 1821; Mexico approved colony in () & no colonists had to pay taxes for 6 years. iii) Austin could charge his settlers .12/acre, received free land & changed his name to Esteban. Austin & settlers became Mexican citizens; Anglo-Americans agreed to accept law & Roman-Catholic faith. iv) October 1823Austin & Barron D. Bastrop chose site for unofficial capital (San Felipe de Austin). v) October 1835 Borten began publishing newspaper (Texas Telegraph & Register) in San Felipe de Austin; only newspaper in TX during the Revolution d) Origins of the Texas Rangers i) Immigrants from Europe & Mexico were threatened by Indians; MX offered protection by enlisting voluntary militia companies (1) May 1823first group created, followed by another company in August (regarded as ancestors of modern rangers) ii) Job Protecting people from Indian attack & outlaws; not organized nor lawmen in 40 years; lacked weapons, ammo 2) Conflicts between the American Settlers& Mexican officials a) Fredonian Rebellion of 1826 i) By 1826, Anglo population was increasing rapidly; still evidence of disputes over land titles, customs duties & fees, military authority over civilians. ii) Conflict over land claims over original Mexican settlers & immigrants in the Nacogdoches area Fredonian Rebellion (1) December 21declaration of independence of the republic of Fredonia signed at the old stone fort in Nacogdoches b) Law of April 6, 1830 i) Fredonia revolt made MX concerned about the US interest of purchasing land; rapid growth of Anglo Americans led to the Law of April 6, 1830 ii) Prohibited any further immigration from US into Texas iii) Relaxed in 1834 3) Protests and Skirmishing at Anahuac on Galveston Bay a) Collection of trade duties in the 1830s led to these protests b) Clash at Velasco in 1832 i) 10 Texans & 5 mexican soldiers were killed, Santa Anna threw out military leader of Mexico ii) Constitution of 1824: Mexico was made of semi-autonomous states (1) Santa reversed this in 1834-1835; established himself as a dictator. 4) Causes of the Texas Revolution a) Santa Anna establishes himself as dictator Texans feeling uneasy b) 1829 presidential decree abolished slavery in Mexico i) August 21 1835 Texas must be a slave country; its no longer a matter of doubt. ii) Slavery wasnt primary cause of Texas Revolution c) Resistance to centralism in Mexico & Texas d) Racial differences caused more unrest between AA & Mexican government i) Anglo-Americans assimilated into Mexican culture (ex: Stephen Esteban) e) Bloodless confrontation at Anahuac in late June 1835 i) 25-30 Texans under William Barrett Travis forced Mexican garrison of 40 men to surrender (1) Austin was released from captivity in Mexico City; in prison because he had proposed creation of separate state government for Texas (2) To halt protests, ordered the arrest of several outspoken critics against military trials 5) Come and Take It: Gonzalesthe Lexington of Texas a) Castaneda arrived at W. Bank of Guadalupe River on Sep 29; couldnt cross because Americans had removed all of the boats; 18 Gonzales men (immortal 18) waited for Mexicans on the other side of the bank. C demanded that the cannon be restored, and was told that only through force, they would yield. Cannon was hidden for safe keeping b) October 1: more Anglo-Americans arrived i) 2 women turned white wedding dress into flag; Come & Take It stitched on flag c) October 2 TX v. Mexicans met & began fighting. Cannon was fired & after brief skirmish & one Mexican death, the rest retreated towards San Antonio. The first battle of the TX Revolution was over. Gonzales became known as Lexington of Texas d) October 13 300 Texans began march from Gonzales under General Martin Perfecto de Cos i) Late June, 1936flood waters wash small iron cannon out of Sandys Creek; weapon was stored for next 32 years; acquired by Mexican gun collector in 1979 & sold to collector in San Refugio. This was identified as the original Come and Take it cannonnow in Gonzales Memorial Museum. e) Has the Come and Take It cannon been found? i) Thomas Ricks Lindley author of tall tales & explained to writer that people assumed a flood washed this cannon up. Said Gonzales gun was hauled to San Antonio; this cannon wasnt authenticsaid that REAL gun was a six-pounder. Said the museum was displaying a fakeended up being right. f) The Capture of Goliad i) Captain George M. Collingsworth (1) Landed with 500 men on Copono Bay; left small garrison at Goliad while he continued with larger force to San Antonio. (2) Texans immediately determined they wanted the MX out of Goliad; Collingsworth organized 49 men & headed towards Goliad; reached October 9 & met Ben Mylan who immediately joined him. (3) Texans killed 3 Mexicans; (a) McCollough struck in R. legonly Texan casualty g) The permanent council at San Felipe i) Determined what to do until all delegates from TX could meet (1) Thomas McKinney to USasked the people of US for aid (2) Authorized profiteering to control the coast (3) Appointed an army contractor (4) Established post office (5) Mainly kept Texans informed of events by committees of correspondence. ii) Assembled April 3, 1835 in San Felipe (1) Main question: Should delegates declare for independence from Mexico, or should they fight for the rights in MX federation as provided by Mexican federation? (a) Voted not to declare independence at that time; instead draw up list of causes for support of constitution iii) Hoped that other states wouldnt accept the withdrawl of the constitution & Texas wouldnt be only Mexican state to rebel against Santa Anna; eventually wanted to become independent (1) Provided for gov, lieutenant & general consult (a) Henry Smithgovernor (b) James W. Robinsonlieutenant governor (c) Sam Houstoncommander of army (that didnt exist; army was only volunteers) (2) Stephen F. Austin among people to go to US & request aid; commissioners were successful on behalf of Texas & considered among the first of Texas ambassadors. (a) January 1836 $280,000 and 40 acres of land for loan of $320. Stipulated that land in Texas would be $.50/acre. (3) Ended with agreement to meet in March 1836 6) The Battle for San Antonio1835 a) Meanwhile, Texans were in San Antonio, led by Juan N. Seguin b) Conception, grass fight, capture of San Antonio i) Morning of October 28, detachment of 90 Texans under Jim Buy attacked by 400 Mexican troops on San Antonio, a mile from Conceptin. (1) Texans repulsed Mexicans; MX lost 60 men ii) Grass fightNovember 26 (1) Mexicans3 killed, Texans4 killed iii) December 3, 1835 (1) Edward Burleson ordered army to break off siege & go to Goliad; Ben Mylam expressed opposition & wanted to go to San Antonio; 300 volunteered (a) 561 Texans engaged in fighting (b) After 5 days of house-to house fighting (December 9), Cos surrendered & agreed to withdraw his army (c) Texans30-35 casualties (including Mylam) ; 150 Mexicans wounded/captured c) Francis Johnson plans an expedition against Matamoras, Goliad Declaration of Independence i) By winter of 1835-1836, all seemed well on Texas frontier (1) No Mexican troops above Rio grande (2) Sam Houston had command; some texans wanted to go south & reclaim lands from Mexico ii) Johnson designated himself as leader of the exposition despite opposition from Houston (1) 91 men, including 2 Tejanos, ratified Goliad Declaration of Independence (a) Former dept of Texas to be a free sovereign & independent state within the Mexican federation states (b) Offered Mexico one last chance to shape up so Texas would stay in Mexico 7) General Lopez de Santa Anna, Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea, Lieutenant Francisco Castaeda, General Martn Perfecto de Cos, Juan N. Sequin Lecture 2: Texas Revolution (9/3/09) 1) General Lopez de Santa Anna sweeps north with the Mexican army a) No Mexican troops were north of the Rio Grande river b) Meanwhile, Mexican dictator Santa Anna decided the time was right, having suppressed revolts in Mexican states against his dictation, to move northward towards San Antonio during winter months of 1835-1836 i) Many recruits were Indians who couldnt speak Spanish; Santa Anna was jealous & suspicious of his junior officers ii) 5,000 soldiers were to march to SA under Santa Anna; others were dispersed under Urrea to get to Goliad through Coastal Road c) By Feb 21, 1836, the Mexican Army arrived about 20 miles away from San Antonio, unbeknownst to the Texas Army; Texas wasnt expecting that i) Buoy suspected it would take more men to surround the Alamo walls; neither Bowie nor Neill wanted to follow Sam Houstons orders given in February (demolish Alamo, abandon the town & retreat to Gonzalez) (1) Ben Proctor officially stated there was o transportation for the artillery, but their feelings ran much deeper. Believed the future of Texas depended on keeping SA out of Mexican hands. (2) Jim Buoy to Gov. Henry Smith...we (Bowie & Colonel Neill) would rather die in these ditches than give it to the enemy (3) Davy Crockett: you may all go to hell, I will go to Texas ii) February 11Neill left to tend to his family and placed Travis in charge of his men (1) Travis Alamo was more important to occupy than I first imagined. It is the key to Texas. 2) The siege of the Alamo a) February 23-March 6, 1836 i) February 23Mexican army arrived to San Antonio; blood-red flag was unhurled at San Fernando church (Santa Anna announcing that he wouldnt show any mercy) (1) Travis wrote for Bowie, who wrote to the people of texas and all Americans in the worldpledged I will never surrender or retreat and ending in victory or in death . Hoped to get reinforcements; got 32 men from Gonzales (2) 189 men at Alamo outnumbered 1:5 by Mexican Army ii) March 6, 1836 (1) Santa Annas army played song that signified the act of head or throat cutting; Alamo defenders knew the blood tuneknew that no prisoners would be taken (2) Mexican Army stormed Alamo in four columns, numbering about 1,800 men. On the third try, they surged over the walls. All defenders were killed during the battle except seven men, including Davy Crockett (executed later by Santa Annas orders) (a) Were some survivors of the Alamo siege; one Tejano soldier might have been spared because he might have said that he was coerced; black slaves; some women & childrensent down to Gonzales to tell that the Alamo had been fallen (b) Santa Anna remarked it was but a small affair. He lost600 men, or of his assault force; doesnt immediately assume trek east, which magnified the eventual San Jacinto achievement of the Texas (3) Did the Alamo defenders die with valor? (a) Were some captives, including Davy Crockett (b) Many of them did die valiantly; during assault some defenders tried to escape the Alamo and flee on foot, only to be cut down by mounted Mexican lancers who were there for that very purpose. b) Quarrel between Governor Henry Smith & the General Council i) Februaryprovisional government formed in 1835 nearly collapsed under weight of its own failures; disputes over army led to this quarrel (General Councilrepped Anglo settlements) ii) Mid January 1836 Governor Smith suspends council, which led to his impeachment (1) Council tried to work with Lieutenant Governor being promoted, but it didnt work iii) March 1: 52 delegates met on Washington-on-the-Brazos (1) Recognized that by now, the pro-independence forces were in the clear majority; people who agreed didnt make much of a show (2) Liberalisms collapsed in the interior of Mexico (3) Independence issue became a race war; Sam Houston supposedly the vigor of the Anglo Texans would never mix with the phlegm of the native Mexicans (a) Mexicans = Mongrels of Spanish c) Texas Declaration of Independence i) March 2, delegates approved the declaration of independence from Mexico, signed on March 3 (1) Lorenzo de Zavalanative of interior Mexico (a) Served in first congress of Mexican Republic (1822-1824) after Mexico got independence from Spain (b) Became first governor of Mexico; resigned in protest after Santa Anna took over & took his family to Texas out of fear (c) Also the only delegate with experience with writing a constitution & was the only one who had held both state & national office (2) Jose Francisco RuizTejano (3) Jose Antonio NavarroTejano ii) News of the fall of the Alamo came on March 15; spread like fire and high grass and caused complete panic; delegates remained long enough to adopt a constitution and to create a provisional government (1) BurnetPresident (2) deZavalaVice President iii) March 17 @ 4AMofficers sworn in & held first cabinet meeting later that morning d) Sam Houston took command of army at Gonzales on March 11total army was 375 men e) General Jose Urrea moves rapidly north from Matamoras along the coastal road i) Continued toward Goliad 3) Fannin at Goliad a) Fanninstarted for the Alamo February 26, but turned back to Goliad the next day i) Displayed indecisiveness; received order from Houston to fall back on Victoria, but he delayed his retreat until March 19. ii) Mexican army arrived with artillery, and realized he was doomed; surrendered at discretion without explicit guarantees for the safety of his men (1) Texas9 killed (a) Kept south of Goliad; 342 of these perfidious foreigners were shot as per Santa Annas orders even though Urrea wanted to give them clemency (2) Urrea50 dead, 140 wounded b) Runaway Scrape: the flight eastward i) Faced with loss of Alamo, Sam Houston had no choice but to lead his army eastward; along with Houstons army, Anglo-Americans headed eastward for their own safety c) Twin Sisters i) Cannon-less Texas received a gift of two six-pounder cannons from Cincinnati, Ohio; presented on Buffalo Bayou. Cannons dubbed Twin Sisters in honor of 2 sisters. ii) These cannons contributed to Texan victory at San Jacinto (1) Supposedly found in Houston by Confederates who had buried them so Yankees wouldnt get them during Civil War, then forgot the burial site. d) Houstons defeat i) April 13, Santa Anna learned that Texas governor was in Harrisburg; he abandoned plan to invade Houston & headed to Harrisburg. Texan government departed by boat to Galveston. Santa Anna again turned his attention to Houston again after this defeat. ii) Major question for Houston: should he keep moving eastward or go back and try to defeat Santa Anna? (1) In Harrisburg, Houston captured 2 Mexican soldiers who told him that if he went to Houston, he could end the war with one fatal stroke. Houston headed to San Jacinto 4) The Battle of San Jacinto a) April 21, 1836 i) Swarmed his 910-man army forward in two ranks with two cannons and attacked the sleeping Mexican camp (1) Speculationmany troops might have been US army troops on leave from American army ii) Mexican line was breached by Texans who were screaming remember the Alamo! and remember Goliad! iii) Actual battle only lasted 18 minutes, but carnage lasted much longer (1) Fleeing Mexican soldiers were killed & pursued into the river (2) Houston reported 630 killed, 700 taken prisoner iv) The next day, Santa Anna was captured wearing a Privates uniform & brought before Houston (who had a foot wound) under an oak tree. Readily agreed to order the remaining soldiers to b) Treaty of Velasco i) Santa Anna pledged to accept independence, to withdraw all MX forces below the Rio Grande (boundary between TX-MX) & to keep his soldiers from Texas forever. Was acting under duress, because he didnt have the ability to accept the independence after his defeat. (1) Returned to MX until called to duty in Pastry War where he lost a leg. Was president ad-interim in 1839, and was overthrown & exiled to Havana Cuba, where he was when Texas & Mexico fought in 1846. ii) General Vincente Filisola withdraws Mexican Army from Texas (1) This ended the Texas Revolution c) The tactics of war i) Stephen Hardin TexasIliad (1) Gave Houston praisesaid he could plan for the next battle, but showed that the impatient TX army turned towards San Jacinto. Concluded that SJ wasnt so much won by Houston, but squandered. (2) Images of Houston: timidly uncertain or cooly confident; said neither view is entirely true or entirely false 5) What if: the significance of the Texas Revolution a) President Jackson professed to be neutral once the war broke up; neutrality was supposed to be faithful when Texas & Mexico began fighting, but sent someone there anyway b) What if Texas had lost? i) Romo in all of my travels through Mexico, Ive never heard the Mexicans say what if? they knew they were going to lose. ii) Jose Fuentes maresMexico couldnt control TX because it couldnt populate it; Mexico lost Texas because it couldnt stem the flow of illegal immigration into the US. Lecture 3: Texas RevolutionRemembering the Alamo (Myths & Mystery) 1) Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the odds a) Thermopolae i) 300 Spartans vs. Trojans b) Waterloo i) Defeat of Napoleon c) The Alamo i) Battle cries Remember the Alamo! and Remember Goliad! ii) Silence in the PastSanta Anna recovered from [San Jacinto]in all, he was president of Mexico 11 times. He lost the battle of the day but he also lost the Battle of the Alamo. Houstons men had punctured the attack with repeated cries of Remember the Alamo!. iii) 40 years after: Alamos most enduring legend d) Camerone e) Little Big Horn f) Arnheims Bridge i) Alamo compares to these 2) Did Travis draw a line in the sand? a) ZuberEscape from the Alamo : William Barrett Travis gathered his command inside the Alamo and drew a line in the sand; those who wanted to go with him to cross the line. Everyone but one person, Rose, crossed the line. In his story (appeared in 1873 Almanac), the guy (Rose) who stayed behind went to Zupers fathers house and was taken care of. There, Rose told Zuber himself of the story. i) J. Frank Dobieno discussion of someone escaping from the Alamo, nor was there evidence of Traviss last speech to his men. Thought Zuber made the story up. ii) Rose supposedly called to testify in court b) Alamo-Vietnam analogy (LBJ) i) Goodman asked why he said that his grandfather had died in the Alamo even though it wasnt true; LBJ said that his grandfather was killed in the Battle of San Jacinto, but the Alamo was more important. After more investigation, it was revealed that his grandfather didnt die there either; he died in bed. c) Dying legends: three great heroes of the Alamo i) Crockett ii) Bowie iii) Travis 3) How did Davy die? a) Did he go down at the Alamo, or did he surrender only to be tortured & executed? Did he really wear a coonskin cap? i) Disney depicts Crockett standing tall above a hoard of Mexicans swinging his gun as he fades out; his fate not shown in the movie ii) John Wayne depiction of death with him trying to torch the Alamo to burn the Alamo with Mexicans inside (1) Theme of nationalism in the movie (made in 1960, middle of Cold War) b) Is the Jose Enrique de la Pena diary authentic or a modern forgery? i) Diarycollection of field notes and memoirs in prison (1) Vowed from prison that its imminent publication would set the record straight about Santa Anna (2) Essentially vanished, probably dead in the 1840s; memoirs vanished too ii) 1955: bookseller published the diary & in 1970s, John Peace, Jr. bought the manuscript and loaned it to library at UTSA. Asked Carmen Perry to undertake translation iii) Carmen Perry (1) Published book as WithSantaAnnainTexas iv) Dan Kilgore (1) HowDidDavyDie?provides clear summation of the documents and states that immediate reports of the fall of the Alamo already contained the news that Crockett was executed after the battle. (a) Texans immediately killed by Santa Annas order. Statements from several of his men that Davy Crockett was one of those taken alive (b) Shortly before Santa Annas speech, the 7 men who had survived the general carnage were bought before Santa Annaamong them was Crockett. In a moment of surprise, he had taken refuge in the Alamo and claimed to be a foreignermaybe trying to explain why he was among the Alamo garrison, saying that he was an innocent passer-by. Wouldnt have been respected. Santa Anna was indignant and ordered Crocketts execution. c) Bill Groniman i) James C. Crisp ii) William C. Davis iii) Paul Hutton iv) Dara Elizondo Guerra v) Stephen M. Harrigan d) Nobody knows how Bowie died though many have said-J. Frank Dobie i) Pneumonia or a disease of peculiar nature put Bowie in a cot, helpless, leaving Travis to take over his command. Soon after the Alamo fell, Bowie was found dead in his room. It was said that he was delirious in his bed and died around 3AM. One doctor said that there was blood splattering stains on his cot. Other theoriesMexican soldiers entered Bowies room and carried him away & Bowie shot himself and that he had a knife and when the soldiers entered his room, he was stabbed. e) Questions i) Where are the defenders of the Alamo buried? ii) Was stolen Spanish silver hidden within the Alamo compound? (1) Archaeologist Frank Buschbacher found no silver, no cannon iii) How many Heroes of the Alamo? (1) Early 30s Amelia Williams created list of defenders for her doctoral dissertation. Critical study of the siege, which was published in 1933. (2) Jardin Amelia changed dates, manipulated list (3) Lindley well probably never know how many, but also accused Williams of falsifying information. Susanna Dickinson & her daughter were two of the known survivors iv) Amelia Williams, Stephen Jardin, Thomas Ricks Lindley f) The Alamo Flag i) According to some accounts, the Mexican flag flew over the Alamo during the siege, even though it probably wasnt true. However, a flag carried by a group of volunteers was said to have survived the siegeknown as The Alamo Flag. Was removed and taken to Mexico City & reported to be on displayed in a military museum in mid-1980s. Refused to loan the flag to US because it had supposedly disintegrated so much & was fragile. In 1994, State senator proposed a swap, trading 3 flags captured at San Jacinto for the Alamo Flag, but Mexican officials said the flag was missing. George W. Bush, in June 1995, signed into law a bill that required Mexico to trade. 4) Books of the Alamo a) TheAlamo (1948)John Myers i) The Alamo is a symbol of valor in the minds of men & it cannot fall again b) ThirteenDaystoGlory (1958)Lori Tinkle c) ATimetoStand (1961)Walter Lord d) DualofEagles:TheMexican&theUSFightfortheAlamo (1998)Jeff Long e) ThreeRoadstotheAlamo (1988)William C. Davis Missing Lecture The TX Republic & Diplomacy of Annexation Lecture One The Texas Republic & the Diplomacy of Annexation: Lecture Two 1) The annexation of Texas issue in American politics during the John Tyler administration a) Independent texas i) Import international goods without tariffs (1) Britain also opposed slavery; but presence didnt keep them from supporting Texas in annexation b) Issue of Texas wasnt much of an issue in American until Harrison died of pneumonia in 1841 i) John Tyler of Virginia, for states rights, succeeded presidency ii) Wasnt difficult to get him to support anexation (1) Quickly broke with Whig Party over issues like chartering a 3rd national bankhe twice vetoed the bank bill 50 Whig men voted Tyler out of the Whig party. His entire cabinet, who he had inherited, had resigned (except for Daniel Webster, who was negotiating with Britain over Canadian boundaries.resigned in 1843.) (2) Texas issue offered opportunity to gain favor with dems & southerners and hopefully building up support for presidency campaign either as a rep or dem. c) Info i) Calhoun returned to democratic party over subtreasury plan ii) Written for desire to abolish slavery in America, including Texas (1) we have no choice but to accept Texas s a (2) President Houstonassumed indifferent attitude regarding Britain; on the edge of getting Britain & France to recognize TX as a state (a) Pointed out the unfavorable iii) Tylers rep (1) Gave Houston assurance of military d) Secretary of State Umpshire killedTyler had to appoint a new SoS i) John C. Calhoun made into the new Secretary of State e) Texas to be annexed as territory w/ slavery i) Public lands surrendered to US & US government would resume responsibility of paying Texas $10 million debt. (1) John Q Adams opposed annexation; not prepared to walk from a slaveholding Texas with open arms (2) Henry Clay anticipared that his dem opponent would be fmr president Van Burenhe would be voted in for a 3rd time in the dem party. ii) Treaty = DEFEATED. (1) Calhoun, replying to British government (a) Calhouns Aberdeen letter (i) Explained to lord Aberdeen that slavery was a positive good for whites & blacks. Used evidence from the federal census that was falsified that suggested that blacks couldnt prosper with freedom; would cause slaves to go mad. Declared that southern states couldnt make Texas become abolitionized; therefore, the annexation of TX was required for safeguarding of the south. (ii) Played into the role of the defeat of the annexation treaty; not only did the treaty fail to gain 2/3 Congress approval, but 2/3 of the Senate voted NO. Even Southern Whigs were opposed to annexation. 2) Presidential election of 1844 a) Henry Clay v. Martin Van Buren i) Both men wanted to avoid taking a stand on annexation issue, because whatever stand they took would definitely make them lose votes (1) Issued separate statements, so similar in tone that they might have consulted one another in advanceboth supported annexation, but only with the support with Mexico (a) Clay Raleigh Letter appeared in April 1844. I consider the annexation of TX, at this time, without the consent of Mexico as a major compromising of characterinexpedient of the financial issues of the country (b) Van Buren Washington Globe letter appeared on the same day as Clays letter. ii) Democrats: sentiment for annexation grew, especially from southerners. Became angry w/ Van Burens letter and ruined his chances for a 3rd term. Nominated James K Polk for president in the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore (1) Van Buren had majority of people pledged for him, but back then they used a different rule that required 2/3 vote for nomination. iii) Bargain of 1844reoccupation of Oregon & reannexation of Texas (1) US would be claiming territories that already belonging to it (2) Dems hoped to appeal to northern & southern votersnortherners would be happy with Oregon, southerners would have Texas iv) Clay stayed on the fence (1) no personal objections to annexationwould like to see Texas annexed if it could be done without a war with Mexico v) Polk won the presidential election 170-105, but popular vote was much closer (38,000 more than Clay) (1) Slight vote edge in New York State5,106 votesproved decisive in the elections of 1844. vi) Election disheartened the Whigs (1) in these gloomy times, the Whigs were still unconquered & feel unconquered (2) In 1844, Clay went down for defeat for a third time as a Whig, after which, they went back to nominating military heroes as president b) 1844 = turning point i) Clay winning the presidency over Polk would have changed things (1) Would have delayed territorial expansion ii) Polk = 1st dark horse candidate in America (1) Had been governor of Tennessee but had been twice defeated for reelection. In 1844, he had been out of public office for three yearswas thought to be POSSIBLE VP candidate on Van Burens ticket c) Texas offered annexation by joint resolution in Congress i) John tyler interpreted elections as mandate for annexation, but realized that 2/3 majority vote would be difficult for any new annexation bills ii) Would only require simple majority from both houses instead of 2/3 votes; Congress complied (1) February 1845resoultuon passed & allowed Texas annexation by treaty WITH slavery (a) Conditions (i) Would be responsible for debts (ii) Had to submit the US any boundary disputes (iii)Texas could be subdivided into no more than 4 additional states (b) Opposition of annexation in the north as a slave state (i) Land was enormous & that could mean up to 5 new slaves states & 10 new slave-state representatives in Congress d) Democratic mass meeting at Exeter, New Hampshire i) Texas is large enough for six states like New York (1) Easy to see that anti-slavery states would be weary of this annexation 3) Edward Everett Halen pamphlet: HowtoConquerTexasBeforeTexasConquersUs a) Young Unitarian minister who immediately returned to Boston to prepare the 16-page pamphlet i) Released March 17,1845 ii) Creation of an enormous state posed a threat to USit was the Austria of the Confederacy iii) Proposed n. immigration to Texas to dilute the state & spread Christianity (1) 200,000 immigrants could be in Texas 2 free states with majority that would be heard b) Texas joins the Union1845 i) On March 3, Tyler signed joint resolution of annexation in one of his last days in office. ii) Mexican minister protested, said that the resolution signaled a regression against Mexico iii) British tried to mediate settlement between Texas & Mexico (1) Memorandum: Mexico recognizes Texas as independent if Texas doesnt join the Union (a) Mexican government reluctantly agreed (b) Texas senate unanimously rejected Mexicos proposal & accepted the joint resolution. Adopted an ordinance approving annexation. (2) President Polk ordered naval guard to the Texas Gulf coast and ordered Zachary Taylor to move troops from Louisiana to Texas and to take station on or near the Rio Grande. iv) October 1845: Texas approved annexation (officially) & constitution; created state government to replace Republic of Texas v) December 22Congress passed joint resolution, accepting Texas into the Union vi) February 16, 18461st Texas legislature convened in Austin c) Statehood ceremony in Austin1846 d) Texas Trojan Horse in the Camp of Democracy e) 1995 Sesquicentennial of statehood To the Halls of Montezuma: Mexican War & its LegacyLecture 1 1) Origins of the Mexican war a) March 1, 1849only 3 days before leaving office, John Tyler signed joint resolution offering of Texas annexation i) President Polk didnt want to fight MX if he could retain the land (Texas) by negotiation of purchase. As precaution, while TX was mulling over resolution, he ordered Taylor to cross from LA into TX in July 1845 to protect the border between TX & MX on or around the Rio Grande. ii) Location of border was dispute TX said Rio Grande was border & US agreed, MX insisted that boundary was the smaller Nueces River 150 miles north. Area btw two areas was known as Nueces Strip. (1) Action of sending troops considered invasion iii) NovemberSlidell, LA democrat, sent to Mexico to try to claim disputed territory of Nueces Strip; ordered by Polk to cancel land debt if in return, MX would recognize the annexation of TX to US with the Rio as the boundary btw TX&US and Mexico (1) Also authorized by Polk to offer MX up to $30 million if they would sell NM & CA. (2) Polks instructions made it evident that his mission would be successful if MX recognized TX & had Rio as boundary. b) Polks mission was unsuccessful i) January 1846 Polk ordered Taylor to move army from Nueces (4,000 troops) to Rio Grande opposite Matamoros (present-day Brownsville). They then crossed Rio Grande into the Nueces Strip & was ambushed the area north of the river. MX army Inflicted casualties. (1) Polk was prepared to ask Congress for beginning of war, when Slidells proposal was refused, but he scrapped war message & spent Sunday preparing new war message. Could take high road because MX troops invaded our territoryand shed blood on American soil. ii) House quickly passed war resolution c) Opposition to the Mexican War in the United States i) US entered the war without a plan of operations, but Polk had no war experience (1) Setting precedents allowing the president, not congress, to have the authority to make the calls. Proved that a civilian president had what it took to be successful in war (2) Had senior commandersTaylor & Scott (a) Neither man was graduate of Westpoint (i) Scotthad an eye on the White House; was a meticulous planner & ready to modify plans if he needed to. ii) Less enthusiasm for war in the NE (1) AbolitionistsWar was a southern plot to extend slavery (2) Pascifistsargued that war went against Christianity (3) WhigsPolk had deliberately riled Mexico up (a) Abraham Lincoln called Polk to name precise spot where American blood was shed on American soil (called into question Polks legitimacy). (b) John Quincy Adamsit was a most unrighteous war. (c) Small group voted against military appropriations; by denouncing Polks war while loyally supporting him, the Whigs committed political suicide. (4) Democratic followers: joined Whig opponents to the war. iii) Anti-war movement had very little impact (1) No draft; military service was voluntary (2) Polk never suppressed critics, despite the attacks against him 2) Preparing for battle a) Both sides i) Policy had been reckless, risking war against MX AND Britain over Oregon Country ii) Mexican people considered them to be vandals b) Texas troops in the Mexican War i) US Regular soldiers & volunteers didnt get along (1) Volunteerfelt that he wasnt considered good enough because he didnt graduate from WestPoint ii) Governor Henderson (TX) received leave of absence from office & headed up troop in Texas; recognized at Battle of Monterrey. Returned in 1846 to resume his duties, but didnt seek re-election. iii) Approx 5,000 Texans served in Mexican war; many praised for bravery under fire. c) Mexico thought it would win i) Thought US was weak because of the issue of slavery between N & S. (1) Slaves would rebel, Indians would seek revenge from Trail of Tears ii) US army was small & MX officials considered them worthless iii) Mexico seemed powerful (1) Before war was underway, British papers printed propaganda that showed US as people who hadnt equipped themselves well for the war. Ridiculed backwards character of the American (Polk as Napoleon of the Back Woods) d) America! i) Polk originally named Scott as leader, but he had withdrawn his appointment after Scott became involved in a dispute. Taylor was named commander. 3) Taylor wins 2 battles north of the Rio Grande a) Palo Alto & Resaca de la Palma i) Taylors smaller army inflicted 800 casualties against the MX while he only had 200. He crossed the river & occupied Matamoras afterwards. Had to stop advance & await reinforcements & resupply. Was looking towards push in Monterrey. ii) Old, Rough & ReadyZachary Taylor (1) Polk agreed that Taylor should be named commander of the Mexican conquestTaylor was 61years old. (2) Taylor seemed an unlikely hero, and impressed Polk as less of a political nemesis than Scott. Assigned ___ as Taylors Chief of Staff. Was soon courted by Whig politicians & was seen as a contender as the next President of the United States. (a) Polk appted 9 volunteer generals (democrats) b) Weaknesses & strengths as a General i) Weaknesses ii) Strengths 4) Conquest of California & New Mexico a) June 1846: John Freemont moved into the San Fran valley. Americans in the area fell upon Sonoma, and claimed California; hung up bear flag i) End of June: F endorsed bear flag ii) Republic of California lasted less than a month (1) Force of 1500 men (army of the West) left Kansas in June, marched Santa Fe & occupied Santa Fe without firing a shot. After setting up civ admin, let 100 men westward toward Cali. Was defeated in California at Battle of San Pasqualecouldnt fire muskets & Mexico took them over. b) Taos Pueblo revolt of 1847 i) Loyal Mexicans revolted against the civilian administration in early January 1847; killed 15 Americans ii) Sterling price defeated NM in Taos Pueblo later 5) Two American columns advance on Chihuahua a) General John E. Wool & Colonel Alexander Doniphan i) Wool occupied ____ where he received news that ____ had fled. Men had marched 900 miles ii) Doniphanwon two battles over larger MX battles at ______. b) El Brazito & Rio SacramentoMissouri Anabasis i) March became known as MA Last missing lecture Sam & Anti-Sam: Texas Politics 1836-1861 (Lecture One) 1) Politics in the Republic of Texas (lasted 1836-1845) a) Placed emphasis on personalities rather than principles i) Member of TX legnoted in 1843 that we here in TX had nothing to do with parties in the US. At this time, the parties consisted of Democrats & Whigs. E. TX was for Houston & W against. b) Presidential election of 1836 i) Folled after the defeat of Santa Anna @ San Jacinto ii) Houston came as close to being a national hero as it was his lot to be; easily defeated Stephen F. Austin as Texas president (father of Texas) (1) Houston humiliated him; pop vote was 5,000: 587 (2) Austin named Secretary of State in October, but died in December at age 43. iii) Henry Smith (1) had been pres of provisional rep of TX, outpolled Stephen F Austin but still lost to Houston; he was named Texas secretary of Treasury. Then served in TX Congress iv) Since he couldnt succeed himself, Houston could only serve one term according to TX legislature, VP Mirabeau was front-runner of president in 1838 c) 1838 i) Lamar2nd president of Republic (1) Was front-runner for president in 1838 elections because he had been Houstons VP (a) Since Houston had served one term as president, and TX legislature said he couldnt run again for a consecutive term ( could be president after someone else was) (2) Collingsworth & Grayson, pro-Houston candidates for president, committed suicide; 3rd pro-Houston candidate lost. (3) Lamar became president-elect, and during his inauguration, Houston showed up and spoke about his successful term. (a) Lamar became angry, aide had to deliver his inaugural speech d) 1841 i) Houston vs. David G. Burnet (anti-Houston) (1) Houston was seeking a 2nd presidential term; Lamar wasnt eligible (2) Burnet (a) alluded to Houstons incompetence if not outright cowardly behavior of San Jacinto who fled by instinct (b) made much over Houstons drinking; thought he was incompetent (3) Houston (a) Accused Burnet of debauchery (b) Tagged Burnet with Indian term that meant hog thief (4) Texas Sentinel maintained that Houston had bragged that the streets would become a hunting ground (a) Houston didnt want Republic capital in Austin; wanted it in Houston, his namesake town. ii) Houston won the election over Burnet (1) Ole Sam H., with all of his faults, appears to be the only man for Texasdrunk in a ditch is worth 1,000 of Lamar & Burnet. e) 1844 i) Race between Edward Burleson( Houstons VP) & Anson Jones (1) Lacked the intense partisanship, and there were few critical issues ii) Jonesa mere stand-in for Houston (1) Never trusted Houston personally, but agreed with many of his policies in office. (2) Considered himself his own man, not a piece of political mistletoe didnt like that he was being called Houstons stand-in. iii) Burleson (1) Texans thought hed be out of his league as president of the Republic iv) Anson Jones won with Houstons endorsement (1) Burleson carried anti-Houston west (2) Jones pro-Houston east (3) Oversaw annexation of Texas into the Union; succeeded by first governor of Texas, Henderson 2) The role of the press in Texas politics a) Houston Telegraph & Texas Register was most prominent paper during rep era b) John F. Marshall was editor & politician i) 1852moved to Austin, where he purchased interest in Texas State Gazette (a) Extreme southern states rights views led his paper to be popular ii) Prominent physician & he faced off on Congress Avenue; faced 2 shots from his opponent, which missed him. Eventually, they began throwing rocks at each other after running out of ammunition and were eventually iii) Plunged into Texas politics (1) Was recognized leader of tx demo party (2) Advocated annexation of Cuba into the US (3) Supported Reopening the African slave trade iv) In 1850s, he was one of the catalysts that caused party realignment in Texas (1) Chairman of state demo party in 1856 and held that into secession years of Civil War v) Appointment as colonel was said to have been made in the spirit of favoritism (1) In spring 1862, many people in his regiment signed a petition asking him to resign; got tired of his big-headedness vi) Was killed in battle in Gaines Mill c) The first state electionDecember 1845 i) James Henderson (1) anti-Houston & self-proclaimed ambassador to US & Britain elected governor, Horton was lieutenant governor (2) Served in the Mexican War; when he returned to Austin, administration pawned on him & he didnt seek re-election after his two year term ii) Legislature assembled in Austin (not Congress because it wasnt a republic anymore) (1) Named Houston & Thomas J. Rusk as US Senators from Texas iii) Henderson didnt seek re-election (1) Van Zandt , thought to be a front-runner, favored dividing the state, but died before election was held (2) Wood, pro-Houston candidate won gubernatorial election& succeeded Henderson (a) Had participated in battle of Monterrey (b) Public debt & New Mexico controversy were among the items he had to deal with when he became governor. 3) New Mexico boundary dispute a) Eastern NM, as far as TX was concerned, was part of texassettled county i) Santa Fe refused to recognize any Texas claim; after being threatened with bodily harm the NMs didnt want to be associated with TX b) May 18, 1850 i) Convention met and drew up anti-slavery proposal ii) Peter Hansboro Bell had been elected governor & was determined to protect NM (1) Sent off letter to President Zachary Taylor (a) Proposed to resolve the issue whether MX should be slave soil or free soil (2) Taylor decided that the way to settle this was to have NM & Cali simply bypass the territorial stage & come into the Union as free, Whig states (3) When people of Texas heard that Taylor was asking Congress to admit Cali & NM as free states, they went into a frenzy iii) Texas senators called for armed resistance & swift occupation & military oppression of Mexican resistance in Santa Fe (1) Texans determined to fight for what they thought was rightfully theirs; said they would rather die than surrender. c) Pearce BillCompromise of 1850s i) Taylor (Whig) attended dedication of the Washington Monument on July 4, 1850 in Washington, DC. Returned to the White House & developed gastroenteritis died 5 days later d) Millard Fillmore became President; created Pearce Bill i) Gave Texas 33,000 square miles ii) California came into the Union as a free state; New Mexico was granted territorial status iii) Extending Texas western border to El Paso del Nortewestern boundary of today iv) Federal gov agreed to pay Texas $10 million, to pay public debt (1) Texas delegation endorsed Pearce Bill, considering it the best agreement they would get v) Passed in September as part of Compromise of 1850 (1) Bill passed in the state in November; signed by Bell on November 25, 1850. e) Bells stand against US re-election i) Resigned a few days before expiration to fill House seat that became vacant after death of a House member (1853-1861) 4) Whigs, Know-nothings & Democrats: Texas politics in the 1850s a) May 1846effort to reorganize Dem party failed i) Whiggish men in Texas were reluctant to bring labels into the state never fully organized b) Presidential election of 1848 i) Sam Houston reported there are but 6 men that belong to the Whig Party. (1) Never posed serious threat to Democratic control in Texas (2) National Dem party championed Texas annexation in the 1840s ii) By 1848, the immigrants from Mexico into Texas led the Whig Party in Texas c) 1853, Whig Party & 1855, Know-nothings became large enough to threaten Democratic party in Texas d) By 1855, the Whig Party that was already disintegrating, gave way to Knownothing party i) Often represented as a part of the union & drew support from Whigs ii) KN or American Party got boost when Houston gave sympathy to the organization in a speech (1) KNs referred to themselves as the Secret Order of Sam 9-8-09 Tuesday LECTURE 3 - REMEMBERING THE ALAMO Last stand: Famous battles against the odds Alamo is among the most famous last stands in history Alamo is the foremost Texas myth. Represents our independence, willingness to die for the cause of freedom Thermopolae - 300 Spartan warriors versus Persian warriors. Epic battle. Did Travis draw a line in the sand? Alamos most enduring legend. William P Zuber wrote escape from the alamo -william barron travis gathered his command in the alamo and drew a line in the dirt. All who would stay with him would cross the line. All did but one man. Rose, the man who stayed behind, left the Alamo and went to West texas. Zuber claimed he heard the story from Rose. Most historians believe he made the story up. If it really happened it was one of the greatest moments in democracy, but if not it is still a good story and doesnt really matter if it is true or not How did Davy Die? De La Penas description of how Davy died before santa annas speech Historians often disagree with his diary. Say it is a 20th century forgery and he had the support of charles hamilton, an expert on documents, back him up. Generally believed he died with bowie knife in hand. Still on the cot, back against the wall, said he rallied when mexicans came in the room and he was able to kill two with his pistol and knife one until he was overwhelmed. One story is that he wanted to defend the alamo to protect the stolen treasure and spanish silver that he had hidden in a well in the mission. It was later excavated and nothing has been found. 9-10-09 Thursday Texas Republic and the Diplomacy of Annexation Lecture One South eager for annexation of Texas. Opposition to annexation in the North. Benjamin Lundys, The War in TX Had a plan to establish colony of free blacks in TX on a land grant Plans were dashed by the TX revolution Mireauabeu Lamar Tried making peace with Mexico. Neither Britain or France wanted to see TX annexed from US, so that it would limit US expansion. Indians relations: To the Frontier white, all Indians were considered vermin. The only good Indian was a dead Indian. At a Cherokee treaty in 1886, the Indians pledged to remain neutral. Republic Senate refused to ratify Houstons treaty. Lamar - Expel, defeat, or exterminate Made his intentions known at his inaugural address. Between two fires: Cherokee War You are between two fires, if you remain, you will be destroyed Referred to being between Mexico and TX. Battle of Neches: Chief Bowls was slain. He supposedly displayed great courage. Comanche Battle of Plum Creek: Most severe blow to Indians in TX The Santa Fe Expedition Juan Seguin 9-15-09 Tuesday (Missed) 9-17-09 Thursday Origins of the Mexican War, Opposition to the Mexican War in the U.S. Didnt want to fight Mexico if land could be acquired through negotiation Polk ordered men form LA to TX to protect the border on or near the Rio Grande Mexico insisted the boundary was the Nueces River As soon as Taylor crossed Seguin River, Mexico thought they were invading Mexico Polk sent Liddell to try to attain disputed territory on a secret mission Offer 30 million if in addittion if they would sell New Mexico and California. Mexican troops crossed the river and attacked inflicted casualties to Americans Preparing for Battle/Texas Troops in the Mexican War Approximately 5000 Texans served in the War Mexico believed it would win the war. Thought the North would not aid and support the South. Taylor Wins two battles North of the Rio Grande & occupies Matamoras Occupied positions on the Rio Grande above Brownsville and Matamoras. Quick victories brought quick popularity to Taylor Zachary Taylor Handsome man, age 61 Rarely ever put on a uniform looked much more like a Yankee farmer Weaknesses and strengths as a general Conquest of California and New Mexico/Taos Pueblo Revolt of 1847 Two American columns advance on Chihuahaha 9/22/09 Tuesday LECTURE 2 Taylors two victories in Northern Mexico (Monterrey and Buena Vista) Took Mont. After a 5 day battle. Rev. Polk wasnt happy bc he granted them an 8 week armistice (no military operation on that front for 2 months) and in return they would evacuate Monterrey and return to the south. It confirmed Polks idea that Taylor was too passive to push further. Taylors outnumbered men suffered more than 500 casualties. It was barely capable for combat and ammo was in short supply, and no way to immediately restock. Polk ordered the armistice cancelled. Taylor wondered if he was being discredited for political partisan??? Try to take over Mexico City through the route of vera cruz? Met a 15,000 man army led by Santa Anna 14% of Taylors men were dead, wounded or missing, Mexican losses were also substantial and they retreated. Winfield Scotts campaign against Mexico City Taylor was required to give up most of his force to Scott. Army of 10,000, landed on beaches of Vera Cruz. Went ashore on surfboats. Mexicans did not contest the landing and drive them off the beach. Vera Cruz was battered into surrender. Santa Anna tried setting a trap at Cerro Gordo, but the terrain was scouted by Lee. They then attacked by flank and rear and the Mexican soldiers fled. Occupation of Pueblo -- Scott had his own problems where he lost about a third of his army. After Cerro Gordo, they thought they had seen enough. This left him with only 7000 men in the heart of Mexico. Molino Del Rey -- 2 hour fight that cost americans about 200 casualties Castle -- defended by 900 soldiers. American Army occupies Mexico City At national palace of battalion marines Fighting continued in the streets for two days, authorities had released prisoners from the local jails. Defiant Peacemaker: Nicholas Trist and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico gives up all claims to Texas, Rio grande is a boundary, and seceded new mexico and california to the United States. In return we give Mexico 15 million and assume the property claims which were 3.5 millions Treaty was submitted to senate and approved 38-14 The Legacy of the Mexican War/American Firsts Acquired more than 500,000 sq miles Gave the U.S. the far west First successful offensive war First major amphibious landing First occupation of an enemy national capital First in which martial law was declared 9/24/09 Thursday SAM AND ANTI-SAM: TEXAS POLITICS (LECTURE 1) Politics in the Republic of TX 1836-1845-- Presidential Elections 1836 -- Houston won presidency and Austin was named Secretary of State 1838 -- Houston couldnt succeed himself so Mirabeau Lamar was the candidate. Houstons followers faced bizarre occurrences and the candidates began to commit suicide. 1841 - 1844 - 1845 -- first state elections. Pinkney Henderson was elected governor. Legislature then assembled in Austin and named Houston and Rusk to represent TX in the US Senate. The Role of the Press in TX Politics, the first state elections New Mexico Boundary Dispute (Pearce Bill) March 1948, TX legislature established the county of Santa Fe which included Eastern N.M. Pearce Bill resolved the NM boundary dispute. 33,000 sq miles. Govt agreed to pay TX 10 million with which to pay its public debt. TEXAS REVOLUTION (3 lectures 9/1/2009) -1820's empreasarios in search of land -1821 mexico gained independence from spain -S Austin = son of moses austin (trying to sposor 300 anglo families) (never entered the promise land (texas)) =4600 acres each and no taxes for years =austin received 1000 acres for his personal use =him and his followers became mexican citizens =san felipe de austin =followers of S Austin were raided by Texas rangers before texas even existes =mexico allowed vulatary militia groups (to protect isolated ranches from indian attacks) =these groups created in 1823 were predecessors to modern rangers *groups lacked proper ammo,people, and horses to keep threats out =1826 anglo population increasing -Necodeches= disputes over land between original mexican colonists and new anglo pop -first immigrants to texas were from the US (after new law preventing immigartion to tx) -anastacio bostamonte (mexican president) -1824 constitution (more local authority rather than centralized authority) -1834 general santa ana reversed this -Texas must be an empire to slavery COME AND TAKE IT: GONAZALEZ (THE LEXINGTON OF TEXAS) first anglo colonizers had mexican culture and customs *many anglos viewed mexican as inferior The immortal 18 Gonzalez men *grew to 160 men *White wedding dress became a flag for texas fighters (a cannon on flag,a lone star, and words "come and take it") *Gonzalez became know as the Lexington of Texas *come and take it cannon....dug up frisrt and when Gonzalez grew in size was dug up. THE BATTLE FOR SAN ANTONIO in 1835 Dec 1835- the alamo taken by mexican first -wanted alamo back (one mexican dead and 5 injured.....only 1 injured in US) 38 to 33 not to declare complete indepence from mx sam houston became camnder of regular army *despite his success in TN, he had a delinquent boyhood and hit another congress before, failed first marriage, and stayed with the chrokee indians for a while * went to the US to request aid 1835 in SA about 400 mexican troops attacked *mex = 60 killed and texas only 1 killed *called grass fight ( 4 killed inmx, only 4 injured in Tx) *300 vlounteered and ultimately over 500 went to san antonio *Tx had 30 to 35 casualties with about 4 killed *5 days of street fighting *winter 1835 all seemed well in tx (tx had been cleared of mexican troops) -No mexican troops left in north of Rio Grande Francis johnson plans expedition against matamoros *Goliad declaration of indepencence Sept 02, 2009 -General santa anna (napolean of the west) sweeps north with the mexican army -2 priests, no adequate weapons, indian troops *5000 troops to san antonio under santa anna (mexico) *arrived at Medina river (close to san antonio) -jan 36, 1836 = bowie sent by US to send orders to abandon mission and go to more protective area *80 men only (bowie estimated it would take 1000 men to protect alamo) *Bowie didnt want to follow houstons orders to demolish Alamo. Why? -supposively no transportation for artillery -maybe believed that future of texas depended in this alamo -bowie had found a home (in SA) *we would rather die in this than give up to the enemy *you can all go to hell. And I will go to TX *12 men called themselves the from TN *travis stated = the alamo is the key of texas (water, money) The siege of the Alamo (feb 23 1836 march 6) -feb 23, 1836 (mexican army begins to arrive to SA) -189 men of the alamo were outnumbered 15 or 20 to 1. -march 6 (siege had lasted 13 days) -davy croquett suppsively dies at sants annas orders (all men died exept 72 slaves, and women and kids) Quarrel between Gov Henry Smith and General Council Texas Declration of independence (zavala, ruiz, Navarro) -Houston closed all ties with Mexico -independence arose utter difference between the 2 people, degenerate spaniards and indians -signing the independence were 3 mexicans (above people) -zavala real mex from yucatan (yuca was in revolt with central mex gov) & moved TX -New of fall of alamo reached march 15 -Zaval vp and bernett pres for new temp republic of TX -general jose urrea moves rapidly north of matamoros along the coastal road *continued towwards Goliad as he took out clusters of men -Fannin at Goliad *captured by urrea -Sam Houston continued his retreat eastward *The twin sister (2 cannons given to Tx army as gifts) *houstons defeat (sarcasm because women that lend him ox for the cannons was a fighter.satire becausehe came backwith torn shirt) -The battle of san jacinto (april 21, 1836) *santa anna only had less than 800 men (4000 men undefated all over tx) -if houston took santa anna off a cosiderable win for tx) *twin sister (2 cannons) versus the sleeping mexican canon *mexican siesta (actual battle lasted only 18 mins fighting) -TREATY OF VELASCO/ GENERAL VICENTE FILISOLA WITHDRAWS Mexican army fromTX *to retreat all mexican army (5000) to victoria below the rio grande *accepted rio grande as boundary between 2 countries *decisive battle in TX rev because snata annas troops retieved from tx -The tactics of war (stephen Hardin TEXAS ILLIAD) -what if? The texas rev was 2 most important even in the hist of the US. Others say important but not 2nd most important and that tx could easily have become us territory in the future. *what if tx had lost? Mexico never says what if because they knew they were going to loosethey couldnt populate it. Now majority is minority MISSED LECTURE 3 The Texas Republic and diplomacy of annexation (sept 10,2009) 2 lectures -south eager for annexation. Opposition to annexation in the north. *American south eager to annex TX to US (more cotton states) *law allowed TX to divide itself into as many as 5 states *north also wanted to seceded from US, close ties to Canada and Britain (not only south like we know) -Benjamin Lundys The War in Texas (1836) *same year as Texas independence -Jackson rebuffed annexation of TX in Washington *withdraws annexation offer *van buren once in office annexation will create war.Mexican *van buren didnt get 2/3 of votes (new law needed 2/3 votes not simply majority) *In Tx rebuffed annexation. -Dueling persists in Texas (feb 5, 1837) -huston vs Sydney Johnson (duel in feb 5, 1837) -No Mexican govt had strength to tell Texas was lost *Mex govt was bankrupt -President Mirabeau B. Lamar foreign policy/Indian relations *All Indians are native Americans *the only good Indian is a dead one (not originated in Tx) *expel defeat or exterminate them #the white man and red man cant live together *-Between 2 fires:the Cherokee war of 1839 (chief bowles, Battle of the neches) *Texas war to expel all Cherokees *Indians had an alliance with cordova of mexico *You are between 2 fires (mex and us) and will be destroyed) *chief bowles is killed (skinned for horse parts) -The Comanches (council house fight in SA, Buffalo Hump Raid to the gulf of Mexico, battle of Plum Creek, Jack Hayes) *summer 1840 a group of warriors led by Buffalo Hump (start stealing and raiding) *Tx rangers pursued and defeated the Comanches (8 Indians killed and 1 white men) -battle of Plump Creek -Texas pioneer women *women were brave, stood off Indians single handed *-The santa fee expedition (1841) *1841 (mexico was still declining lost of texas in this year) *expedition started of bad (started late) *split into several parties *expeditionists arrested (sickness) -locked up in mexico city -summer of 1842 released -Mexican army twice captures san Antonio (1842) *battle of salado creek (60 mex died, 1 died US) *dawson massacre (raised his white flag to surrender, some slow to stop firing) -mexican killed a lot of Texans (64) *juan N Seguin -commanded only Mexican army on US side (US hero) (tejano) -critics = he commited treason, fought against his own friends when he came with mexicans later, helped invaders escape to mexico. *- Soldiers of misfortune: the sommerville and mier expedition -600 mex died, 30 TX died -decimation (1 out of every 10 capturees would be killed) *white and black bean (black beans you die, white you live) -black bean episode (survivors of the bean live/die done in mx) *santa annas dying wife asked for tx prisoner to be releasedso they were -bigfoot Wallace (dies in a book, not in real life) *texas evident could not fight Mexicans all the time by themselves (no annexation) -The pig war *made the almost capital of Tx *Houston wanted the capitol to be in Houston (like his name) *1839 capitol moved to Austin 9/15/2009 lecture #2 Anexation of texas issue in American politics during john tyler admin -Admit texas as a non slave state or permit as a sovereign state with independent republic -president Houston (on a treaty with france and UK to make mexico admit texas as sovereign) -treaty of annexation(needed 2/3 votes) (didnt get it) -2/3 voted down (only 16 yes) -this defeat threw the issue to the presidential election of 1844 Presidential election of 1844 -henry clay (whigs) and van vuren (favorite) vs polk *if van vuren hadnt gotten NY votes clay would of won *some say they still wouldnt of voted for clay -both avoided any take in the annexation issue -both favored annexation (but with consent of mexico) -clay secured nomination -instead james polk was nominated (back then a majority wasnt enough, you needed 2/3 votes for a view of unity) -polk= gov of tn but 2 times defeated, -bargain of 1844=reannexation of texas and re-populationof Oregon (claimed they were theirs already) -polk won the election by 170 to 105 electoral (popular vote only had plurality not majority) -not change of party so not considered decisive election -Texas offered annexation by joint resolution (tx large enough for 6 states ) -if state wantedit could do it. It wasnt subdivided at all. Edward Everet halen pamphlet how to conquer tx before tx conquers us (march 17,1845) -us offered tx annexation as a slave state so mexico broke off relations with us -texas joins union in 1845 (oct 13 approved annexation) Statehood ceremony in 1846 Lecture 2 halls of Montezuma -Taylors 2 victories in Northern Mexico(monterrey and Buena vista) not in the us -1500 troops (out of 12,000 of Taylors troops) died of disease -7000 Mexican troops defending monterrey -polk not happy because taylor and mex general agreed to armistice (no fighting for 8 weeks) -polk said taylor was too passive -POLK CANCELLED ARMSTICE -taylor agrred to advance, but only one city (did not go to san luis pottosi) -santa anna lost a leg -replaced it with a wooden leg after days of singing and parades for his legs -santa anna captured and exiled from mexico (to havanna cuba) -aug 1846 santa anna permitted to enter mexico again. Named president of Mexico -forgot his promise to the US of selling land and started getting army again -Polk decided to move against mexico through Veracruz (like Montezuma did against Indians bef -jan 1847 taylor was required to give his army to Winfielf scott -he disobeyed Polks orders and continued to Mex -his regulars not there,but he got 15,000 volunteers -Buena vista war (last major action) -santa anna retrieved Winfield scotts campaign against Mexico -10,000 men (landed beach of Veracruz) and Veracruz surrendered -santa anna tried to set traps -scott left with only 7000 men in the heart of mexico (waited for reinforcement) -may 5, 1862 -scott resumed advance (santa anna had stationed 25,000 troops) but scott avoided it -70 men captured and branded and killed -peace conference that division at nueces river not rio -MOLINO DEL REY -2 hr fight caused 800 US deaths -ninos heroes (15 to 18) -santa anna ordered the kids withdrawed from castle (they disobeyed) -American army occucpies Mexico City in sept 18, 1847 -santa ana died at 84 Defiant Peacemaker Nicholas Trist and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) -polk refused to go home after polk said to -impudent squandrel -trist signed treaty of Guadalupe (mexico gave up all claims to texas, rio grande as boundary, seeded cali and new mexico) -US paid 15 million dollars -last US soldiers left mexico 1848 -1871 gave trist money after he was fired and left in poverty for what he did in mex -war cost 17,000 men US, desease killed way more men than by bullets -100 million for war costs, 500000 miles of territory -first successful offensive war, Lecture one Sam and Anti-Sam= Texas Politics 1836- 1861 West texas= against Houston, east= for Houston -Houston Easily defeated Stephen f Austin in presidency of texas *Austin named secretary of state -lamar became pres of republic after sam Houston -election of 1841 = sam Houston vs burnett * burnett always calling Houston a coward, and drinking, Houston won by a lot -presidents had to wait a term before running for reelection -jones (follower of Houston) vs ferguson (pro houston east was with jones, ferguson and west anti Houston) The press in Texas Politics -could write more malicious statements than any guy -made gazette a leading form of news -1857- only election Houston ever lost -1845 = first state elections *Henderson elected governor (anti Houston) -no loger a congress but a state legislature (no more republic) -henderson and both participated in war with Zachary taylor New mexico boundary dispute -one month after hidalgo treaty, santa fe was established in current NM. -taylor, elected 1848, decided that way to settle was that California and NM come in as free states -texas preferred anylition to surrender. -war maybe erupt between slave states and anti slave states in New Mexico Pearce Bill (el paso was set as western boundary) -delayed secession for another 10 yrs (slave conflict) WHIGS< DEMOCRATS< AND KNOWNOTHINGS -no set parties back then -1853 == whig and no nothings made significant impact in tx politics *pro houston called themselves (jacksonians) and anti Houston(Calhoun democrats) 1855- whig party gave way to the nonothings (party of the union) and gaines suppert from former whis * Review wed 11 30 to 1 30 in Os , business school atrium Texas 1845-1914 Brown The Texas Revolution 9/1/09 Lecture 1 of 3: Anglo American Migration into Texas/Stephen F. Austin/Origins of the Texas Rangers anglos under leadership of stephen f. austin & other empressarios (contractors) came mainly for land. Mexan officials allowed this for population of the sparse land & then a buffer between the indians. Austin was a master diplomat, workahaulic who could be paternalistic, a life long batchelor, obsessively driven to his calling that he saw as the americanization of texas. Son of moses Austin. 4,11,1823 Austin's colony in spanish was approved. THey would get 4,605 acres a piece and none would pay taxes for 6 years. Also received 100,000 acres for his personal use. He was given the title civil commendante by the spanish government. Settlers agreed to spanish law & pretty much the Roman Catholic church, but being so far out, the colony was pretty much untouched by the mexican government. Texas Rangers existed before texas did first company was called together in may 1823 were intended to protect the settlers from indian attack and outlaws. Conflicts between the American Settlers and MExican officials/Fredonian Rebellion of 1826/Law of April 6, 1830 Fredion rebellion was led by Haden Edwards who sought to separate his colony from Texas. Fredionia got opposition from not only Mexico, but Austin & the rebells fled the town when opposition came in. The fredonia revolt sparked Mexican concern about the United States being interested in the land, and the large # of anglos 4:1 against Anglos led to mexican law of 1830 which prohibited any additional anglo immigrants coming to Texas. Protests and Skirmishing at Anahuac on Galveston Bay/Clash at Velasco in 1832 velasco 10 texans & 5 mexicans were killed. Causes of the Texas Revolution Santa Anna established himself as a dictator & that revived fears of Texans because Mexican govt could enforse the mexican law that slavery was not allowed. Slavery was not the only cause of the Texas Revolution-undercurrent of racial & cultural differences were underlined. NEw settlers made few adjustments to Mexico's culture or law, but saw them as inferior. Bloodless Confrontation at Anahuac in late June 1835 25 or 30 Texans under William B. Travis forced a mexican garrison of 44 men to surrender. Anglos disliked his actions because it was calculated to involve them in confrontation with the Mexican government. ***"Come and Take It": Gonzalez-the "Lexington of Texas" Colnel Domingo de Ugartechea went to Texas to get back a cannon & Texas stalled and called on the other anglo groups because they thought the mexican govt was trying to make the Texan's resistence harder. Texans on one side of the river & Mexicans on the other--mexicans couldn't get across the river because the texans had removed the ferry & boats. Once reinforcements arrived, the Texans dug up the cannon where they had burried it in a peach orchard for safety, and two women made a flag out of an old wedding dress & then the next day Texas crossed the river and John H. Moore gave orders to fire the come & take it cannon. After one mexican casualty the rest retreated & gonzales became known as the lexington of texas. Has the "Come and Take It" cannon be found? (Thomas Ricks Lindley) on the centennial of the texas revolution, floodwaters washed a small cannon onto the creek banks and was placed discretely in the post office, it changed hands several times before being identified as having historical significance & identification as the come & take it cannon. Some historians doubt that this is the cannon though saying that the come & take it cannon was taken to the alamo & that the mexican army overtook the gonzalez cannon with it. The Capture of Goliad (Captain George M. Collingsworth) layed on the road to san antonio-held open a sea route for further reinforcement. Texans led by collingsworth immediately decided they wanted mexicans out of GOliad. Texans reached Goliad on Oct 9th and happened to meet Ben Milam who had recently been released from Mexico and they demanded the Mexicans leave the city & when they refused, the TExans attacked and won the city. The Permanent Council at San Felipe/The Consultation Formed to determine waht to do until all the members of texas could meet at a consultation. Sent a man Thomas McKinny to the US to try to get a loan of $10,000 and sent an appeal to them for aid. Established a post office, closed land surveying offices, and informed texans of goings on through committees of correspondence. Delegates from 14 comunities emereged in san Felipe in the consultation and the question was: should they declare independece & establish an independent republic, or should they fight for becoming a state. THey voted 34 to 15 not to declare themselves independent at that point, but say they were loyal mexican citizens who were fighting for their right to become a state in Mexico. THe resolution was adopted unanimously. 5 days later they showed their state plans including gov henry smith & lt gov. james W. robinson. Smith wanted outright tx independence, Sam houston became commander of the regular army. Dispite Houston's tennessee success he had been seriously injured in the war of 1812. <Sam Houston's personal history blah, blah> ***The Battle for San Antonio in 1835 700-800 men were by San Antonio, a company of Tejanos led by Colonel Juan N. Seguin and claimed themselves to be the protectors of the Mexican constitution of 1824. Battle lasted 30 mins, Texas won. Conception, Grass Fight, Capture of San Antonio Nov 26th. Was over attacking a train that Texans thought had gold in it, but it actually had grass to feed the horses December 3rd the army was ordered to go back to Goliad & Ben Milam charged who would go with him to go into san antonio. Dec 5th-9th, 30-35 texas casualties including Ben Milam. Before he departed the Mexican general turned over small arms, clothes, and supplies. Texans forced the Mexicans completely out of San Antonio & shaped Santa Anna's policy for the next year. Francis Johnson plans an expedition against Matamoas, Goliad Declaration of Independence Dec 20th 1895 the Goliad declaration of independence was ratified resolving that Texas should be free and sovereign. but did that mean a state w/in mexico or it's own independence. It offered mexico a last chance to overthrow centralism for texas to stay in the country. This alienated federalists in other mexican states that were supportive of the texans statehood. General Lopez de Santa Anna, Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea, Lieutenant Francisco Castenada, General Martin Perfecto de Cos, Juan N. Sequin The Texas Revolution Lecture Two 9/3/2009 The Texas Revolution Contd. General Lopez de Santa Anna sweeps North with the Mexican Army Toward San Antonio in the winter of 1835-1836. After suppressing revolts in other states, Santa Anna pushed North across the Rio Grande toward San Antonio without adequate supplies, medical staff & only two priests. Many recruits were non Spanish speaking Indians & Santa Anna was jealous & suspicious of his lower officers. Mexican invasion was two pronged: bulk under Santa Anna going to San Antonio, the other under Urreas taking the coastal road to Goliad. Unbenounsed to Texas they advanced and Texas was unprepared. Sam Houston ordered Jim Bowie to San Antonio with orders to demolish the Alamo, abandon San Antonio and withdraw Tx forces to Gonzales. Bowie gave the orders to Neil who had been left in charge of the San Antonio forces of 80 men. Bowie estimated it would take 1000 men to defend the Alamo. However, neither Bowie, nor Neil were willing to follow Houstons orders. Officially stating that there was no transport for the cannons, but they really believed that the future of Texas depended on keeping San Antonio from the Mexicans. Davy Crocket and additional men rode in with forces to back up the 80 men making it around 140 men. Travis wrote: it is the KEY of texas. The siege of the Alamo (February 23-March 6 1836) The Mexican army under Santa Anna began coming into San Antonio. Travis assumed full command because of Bowies illness sent appeals to aid for Fannins men in Goliad, Gonzales, & the people of texas, and all americans in the worldI shall never surrender or retreatvictory or death. After petitioning for reinforcements, although history sees that people were trying to help, but didnt have time. Only 32 men were able to help. There are new reports of about 250 to 257 men who fell defending the Alamo. On the morning of March 6th, 13 days into the siege, Santa Annas troops played degello that signifies a throat cutting blood tune, meaning no prisoners would be taken. Before 1st light, the Mexican army stormed the Alamo in 4 columns numbering about 1800 men & on the 3rd try breached the wall. All defenders were killed during the battle except 7 men, including David Crocket who were executed afterward as Santa Annas direct order per De La Penas diary. There were however some survivors, one tejano soldier may have been sparred because he had convinced Santa Anna hed served under coercion, two black slaves, and a dozen women & children including Suzanna Dickenson & her daughter. Santa Anna threated he would sweep his army all the way to the Sabine River (all the way to the United States Boundary with Mexico). 1/3 of Santa Annas troops died in the battle. But Santa Anna didnt automatically go east toward the border. Quarrel between Governor Henry Smith and General Counsel The provisional government established in Nov. 1835 was a quarrelall but failed because of internal conflict. Jan 1836, Governor Smith suspended the Counsel resulting in his impeachment. Texas Declaration of Independence (Lorenzo de Zavala, Jose Francisco Ruiz, Jose Antonio Navarro) Texas broke all remaining ties with Mexico because of the recent battles & Tejanos not coming to the clear aid of Texans at the Alamo. Independence arose out of the utter dissimilarity between the two people. On March 2nd the federalist agreed & on March 3rd it was signed. Among the signers were 3 Mexicans noted above. Ruiz & Navarro were both Tejanos but Zavala was a native of Yucatan in interior Mexico. Between 1822 & 1824 Zavala served on the independence committee-when Santa Anna rose to power, Zavala fled for his life into Texas. He was the only delegate who had any experience writing a constitution & being in any form of both state & national government. News of the fall of the Alamo arrived on march 15th causing panic. March 17th @ 4am, the officers were sworn in & later that morning held the first cabinet meeting for the Republic of Texas. General Jose Urrea moves rapidly north from Matamoras along the Coastal Road Urea was able to defeat the Texans because they were detached and not all together. Fannin at Goliad In response to Colonel Travis appeal, he headed to the Alamo, but then turned back b/c of his wagon wheel problems and he went against Sam Houstons orders to retreat to Victoria, he delayed too long and put his men down in an open field and when the Mexicans came with artillery, the Texans were doomed. Captured people were held in Goliad then 342 of them, on the order of Santa Anna were taken out & shot on Palm Sunday. Runaway Scrape: The flight Eastward, the twin sisters, Houstons defeat Sam Houston had control of about 375 men on March 11th, and they had no choice but to head eastward with the general public for safety. He was continuing his retreat eastward when Burnett ordered him that he must fight. Santa Anna joined the General trailing Sam Houston. Santa Anna then found out that the Texas government was in Harrisburg & Santa Anna took 700 soldiers to head for them. After departing on a boat for Galveston the Mexicans did not fire upon them because their wives & children were intermingled on the boat with them. Foiled, Santa Anna went again after Houston & Houstons troops took the right fork in the road toward Harrisburg and Santa Annas Army. On the retreat, the cannon-less Texans received a gift from ohio city & because it was illegal to send guns to Texans in the Mexican territory a family carried them down with them & they were then named the twin sisters after the two girls in the family. The lady who had let Houston borrow two oxen came back after them when he took the right fork in the road toward Santa Anna and took her oxen back. The battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836) Not a battle that Sam Houston won, but that Santa Anna Squandered Hardin. Couriers that Texans captured had WB Travis saddle bags & Houston learned that Santa Anna was in front of them with only part of his troops. Houston marched further toward San Jacinto & met Santa Anna the next day at around 3 oclock in the afternoon. He sent his army of 900 plus an additional 400 forward in 2 ranks. The sisters blasted Santa Annas troops by broken glass & horse shoes & the Texans blasted the Mexican troops while they were taking a siesta. The actual battle lasted only 18 minutes as Santa Anna was even in his tent with a girl Emily West. The carnage lasted much longer-the fleeing Mexican soldiers were flogged by guns used as clubs and followed into the river. The next day Santa Anna was found in a privates uniform and brought to Sam Houston under an oak tree. He ordered Mexican forces below the Rio Grande & then later signed a treaty with Burnett. Santa Anna returned to Mexico by way of the US in 1837. San Jacinto was a decisive battle of the Texas revolution b/c of Santa Annas 2nd in command followed orders to take the still undefeated Mexican troops back across the Rio Grande and so ended the Texas War for Independence. Treaty of Velasco/General Vicente Filisola withdraws Mexican Army from Texas The tactics of the War (Stephen Hardin Texas Illiad) What if: Significance of the Texas Revolution Texas 1845-1914 Lecture 3-Remembering the Alamo: Myths & Mystery Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds (Thermopolae, Waterloo, The Alamo, Comerone, Little Big Horn, Arnheims Bridge) **Did Travis Draw a Line in the Sand** Willam P. Zuber started the rumer appearing in the 1873 Almanac. He said that he gathered his command in the center of the Alamo and asked all who would stay to defend the Alamo cross the line. All but one, Rose, crossed the line. In Zubers story-Rose left the Alamo and made his way to east texas in the Zuber cabin to be cared for after his long journey where Zuber heard the story. Denied by academics, but acknowledged by popular writers. And noting a man named ross could it have been rose?? left the Alamo when given the ability to do so by Travis. Alamo-Vietnam Analogy (LBJ), Dying Legends: Three Great Heroes of the Alamo Crockett, Bowie, Travis **How did Davy die?** Did he go down near the Alamo chapel swinging his rifle like the John Wayne & Walt Disney movies? Or did he surrender? Or was he captured at the end of the battle only to be tortured later? & did he really wear a coonskin cap? John Waynes version of Crocketts death, has him trying to torch the Alamo with the remaining gun powder supply. There may be a cernel of truth in the tail said that Evans, another man tried to light the powder on fire, but was killed before he could do so. Is the Jose Enrique de la Pena diary authentic or a modern forgery? (Carmen Perry, Dan Kilgore) De la Pena diary is now owned by the University of Texas. Actually a collection of his field notes of his memoirs of the battle that he wrote in prison after Santa Anna returned to Mexico. De la pena disappeared in the 1840s, probably dead himself. and then 100 years later it was published. There is a lot of evidence that Crockett was captured & executed after the battle. Several of Santa Annas men have given an account that Davy Crockett was among about 7 men who were either captured or were surrendered and then later executed. Bill Groniman, James C. Crisp, William C. Davis, Paul Hutton Dara Elizondo Guerra, Stephen M. Harrigan Nobody knows how Bowie died though many have said J. Frank Dobie Where are the defenders of the Alamo buried? Was stolen Spanish silver hidden within the Alamo compound? (Archeologist Frank Buschbacher) How many heroes of the Alamo? (Amelia Williams, Stephen Garden, Thomas Ricks Lindley)

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

University of Texas - HIST - 320P
Confederate Texas (Lecture 1) I. Texas Contributions in Manpower to the Confederacy and the Union A. Texans respond enthusiastically to Daviss request for men B. More than 2/3 cavalry infantry difficult because no Texan walks a yard if they can help it i.
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
Texas 1845-1914 Brown The Texas Revolution 9/1/09 Lecture 1 of 3: Anglo American Migration into Texas/Stephen F. Austin/Origins of the Texas Rangers anglos under leadership of stephen f. austin &amp; other empressarios (contractors) came mainly for land. Mexa
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Texas Revolution Lecture Two 9/3/2009 The Texas Revolution Contd. General Lopez de Santa Anna sweeps North with the Mexican ArmyToward San Antonio in the winter of 1835-1836. After suppressing revolts in other states, Santa Anna pushed North across t
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
Texas 1845-1914 Lecture 3-Remembering the Alamo: Myths &amp; Mystery Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds (Thermopolae, Waterloo, The Alamo, Comerone, Little Big Horn, Arnheims Bridge) *Did Travis Draw a Line in the Sand* Willam P. Zuber started the ru
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Road to Spindletop: Economic Development In Gilded Age Texas (Lecture 1) I. The Cattle Kingdom (T.R. Fehrenback) A. II. The American Cowboy: The Myth and the Reality * A. (Deadwood Dick) III. Black Cowboys * A. IV. Nat Love, Bose Ikard, Bill Pickett A
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Road to Spindletop: Economic Development In Gilded Age Texas (Lecture 2) I. The Farmers Frontier A. In 1870 border of Cook County to Corpus B. Comparable to cattlemens frontier C. Within 10 years cattlemens frontier extend a lot more than farmers II.
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Texas Republic and the Diplomacy of Annexation (Lecture 1) I. South Eager for the Annexation of Texas A. In 1836 ratified constitution for new republic and made Houston their president B. Voted almost unanimously for annexation into U.S. when the oppo
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Texas Republic and the Diplomacy of Annexation (Lecture 2) I. The Annexation of Texas Issue in American Politics During the John Tyler Administration * A. Tyler = states right candidate B. Not hard to get Tyler to support annexation once in office bro
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Texas Revolution (Lecture 1) I. Anglo American Migration into Texas A. Came in 1820s in search of land B. Mexican government authorized immigration as means of populating frontier province and make it more productive C. Mexicans hoped that Americans w
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Texas Revolution (Lecture 2) I. General Lopez de Santa Anna Sweeps North with the Mexican Army A. Wanted to suppress latest rebellion against central Mexican authority B. Went north during winter months without proper supplies and medical attention C.
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Texas Revolution: Remembering the Alamo: Myths and Mystery (Lecture 3) I. Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds A. Thermopalae i. What happened in the movie 300 B. Waterloo C. The Alamo i. Most famous ii. Still being fought in the eyes of many i
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
To the Halls of Montezuma: The Mexican War and Its Legacy (Lecture 1) I. Origins of the Mexican War, Opposition to the Mexican War in the United States A. March 1, 1849 only 3 days before leaving office Tyler signed joint resolution of annexation B. Calho
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
To the Halls of Montezuma: The Mexican War and Its Legacy (Lecture 2) I. Taylors Two Victories in Northern Mexico (Monterrey and Buena Vista) A. California and New Mexico taken by US by Carney before Taylor fought his first battles in Northern Mexico B. A
University of Texas - HIST - 320P
The Freedmans Bureau and Black Texans essay The provided exert from the New York Times Book Review seems to be a very accurate assessment of Crouchs book, The Freedmans Bureau and Black Texans. Crouch admits that the Bureau was not a success, but he maint
University of Texas - UTL - 202
DEVELOPYOUROWNCDCOVER Youwilluseinformationfromthetopicof:OILDISCOVERIESINTEXAS todesignaCD cover. Youwillneed:anemptyCDcase,constructionpaper,notebookpaper Yourrequirementsare: FRONTCOVER:(17pointstotal) o DESIGN(canbeapicturethatyouhavedrawn,photocopied
University of Texas - UTL - 202
OIL IN TEXAS The student will be able to show an understanding of early Texas oil discoveries by developing a CD cover, complete with track titles and artists, relating them to the discoveries and evaluating and justifying their relationships. Grade: 7th
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Student Name _ GRADING RUBRIC: TEXAS OIL CDS FRONT COVER: Design- 7pts. Title- 10pts. REAR COVER: 10 Tracks (4pts. each) Name of Producer: 3 pts. EVALUATION: Justification of Relationship (4 points each) TOTAL:Teacher comments:Student Name _ GRADING RUB
University of Texas - UTL - 202
LAKETRAVISMIDDLE SCHOOLSTAFFHANDBOOK20092010LakeTravisMiddleSchoolStaffHandbook RevisedAugust20091PURPOSEOFTHEHANDBOOK The purpose of this handbook is to give each campus staff member information regarding the operationsofthecampusanddistrict.Eachsta
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Daily Agenda 1. Quiz 2. Vocab Words 1. Notes Ch 3 Section 1-22/2/101.2.Quiz Name the 5 themes of Geography. List all 4 of the Plains Indian Tribes.European ExplorationOur objective is to learn all about European exploration in Texas which lead to se
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Tuesday, November 3rdYou are a Spanish explorer. You have Ch 3 Section 3-5 Notes been sailing for weeks across an ocean. You spot land and go ashore. Natives come out of nowhere and approach you. Write about What you would do? You must write at least 3 s
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Classroom ConstitutionWe the Students of Ms. Hansliks class, in order to _ , _ , _ , _ , _ , and _ , do ordain and establish this Constitution for our classroom.
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 PortfolioUTL 202 Lopez Fall 2009 Cooperating Teacher Sheri Hanslik
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Current Events Scavenger Hunt AnswersDirections: Using Thursdays Austin American-Statesman Newspaper, answer the following questions. Please include the title of the article, the section, and the page number containing the answer. Once you have found the
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Current Events Scavenger HuntDirections: Using Thursdays Austin American-Statesman Newspaper, answer the following questions. Please include the title of the article, the section, and the page number containing the answer. Once you have found the article
University of Texas - UTL - 202
My School and MentorReflections on the Teaching ProfessionObservationsLessonsWeb ActivitiesAdditional Information
University of Texas - UTL - 202
LakeTravisIndependentSchoolDistrict HANDBOOK FOR EMPLOYEES 20082009 DepartmentofAdministrative&amp; HumanResourceServices3322RanchRoad620South Austin,TX78738www.ltisdschools.org (512)53360241TABLEOFCONTENTSDISTRICTFACILITIESANDDEPARTMENTCONTACTINFORMATI
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez September 9, 2009 Expectations of 202 After teaching my first lesson in UTL 101 I knew that I was in the right profession. Teaching a student a knew concept and then seeing the excitement on their face once it finally clicks and they underst
University of Texas - UTL - 202
King FerdinandWe need the spices of Indian for Europe. One hundred years of fighting the Muslims in our holy Crusade has failed. The way through land is now closed. We must find another way to India. We need the cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and pepper that
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Football Review Questions 1. What was the Reconquista? a. An 800-year struggle for control of Spain. b. Religious battle Christianity (Spanish) vs. Islam (Moors) 2. Who were the Spanish fighting during the Reconquista? a. Moors 3. Who are the Moors? a. Is
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Navajo Fry Bread Recipe - How To Make Navajo Fry Bread Fry bread is wonderfully lumpy (puffed here and there). It can be served as a dessert or used as a main dish bread. Our family will often take them and stuff them, much like one might use bread or tor
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez November 17, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #6 ReflectionFor my sixth and final lesson I did a life as an explorer activity. This involved putting the students into a boat (circle of desks) while I played the part of
University of Texas - UTL - 202
September 18, 2009 UTL 202 Lopez Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #1: The Preamble to the Constitution I. Materials A. Preamble PowerPoint B. Classroom Constitution Handout II. TEKS A. NO TEKS SPECIAL LESSON PLAN FOR FREEDOM WEEK III. Obj
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 2, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #2: Current Events I. Materials A. Austin American Statesmen Newspaper B. Scavenger Hunt Worksheet C. Students Current Event Worksheet II. TEKS A. (21) Social studies skills.
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 27, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #3 Reflection For my third lesson I made Indian Fry Bread with the students. The purpose of this lesson was to give the students a hands-on approach to learn about Native Ame
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 23, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #3: Indian Fry Bread I. Materials A. Pots B. Vegetable Oil C. Flour D. Water E. Baking Powder F. Powdered Milk G. Salt H. Powdered Sugar I. Honey J. Measuring Cups K. Sifter
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez November 4, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #4 Reflection For my fourth lesson I had the students write letters to soldiers overseas in honor of Veterans Day. Before I had them write the letters, I had a slide show of
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 30, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #4: Letters to Soldiers I. Materials A. PowerPoint with troops pictures B. Letter from soldier II. TEKS A. NO TEKS. SPECIAL LESSON FOR VETERANS DAY III. Objectives A. The stu
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez November 17, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #5 Reflection For my fifth lesson I did a football review game for an upcoming test on explorers. I divided the class in half then had a student from each team pick a number
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez November 13, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #5: Football Review Game I. Materials A. Coin B. Football Field Paper II. TEKS A. 7.2 B Identify the important individuals, events, and issues related to European exploratio
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez November 16, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan #6: Life as an Explorer I. Materials A. Limes B. Biscuits C. Necklaces that have storm, starvation etc. on it D. CD with ocean sounds E. Water bottle II. TEKS A. 7.2 B Ident
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez September 20, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan Reflection #1a For the first lesson I taught the students about the Preamble to the Constitution for celebrating Constitution Day. I started off the lesson by having the st
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez September 20, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan Reflection #1b For the first lesson I taught the students about the Preamble to the Constitution for celebrating Constitution Day. I started off the lesson by having the st
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 5, 2009 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Lesson Plan Reflection #2 My second lesson was teaching the students about current events by having the students do a scavenger hunt using the Austin American Statesman newspaper. To star
University of Texas - UTL - 202
My unit recently received a care package that contained a letter in it from each of you. If I read correctly, you are both students at Hudson Bend Middle School in Austin, Texas? I figured since you both had the same return email address, I would respond
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Syllabus for 7th grade Texas HistoryTeacher:MissHanslik&amp;Mr.Butler Room122&amp;202892006 GENERAL COURSE DESCRIPTION:Ingrade7,studentsstudythehistoryofTexasfromearlytimestopresent.Thiscourseallowsstudents totakeacloserlookataparticularsegmentofhistoryandgive
University of Texas - UTL - 202
University of Texas - UTL - 202
20092010 Middle School Student Handbook and Student Code of ConductTable of ContentsLake Travis Independent School District Campuses.1 Administration.2 PREFACE.3 SECTION I: REQUIRED NOTICES AND INFORMATION FOR PARENTS.4 STATEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION.
University of Texas - UTL - 202
National Council for the Social StudiesNational Standards for Social Studies TeachersNational Standards for Social Studies Teachers Volume IRevised2002Prepared initially in 1997 by National Council for the Social Studies Task Force on Social Studies
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 14, 2004 Sheri Hanslik 7th Grade Texas History Observation #4: School Policies 1. What is the school policy on child abuse? a. All employees are required by state law to report any suspected child abuse or neglect to a law enforcemen
University of Texas - UTL - 202
I am delighted to learn of your interest in Operation Interdependence, www.oidelivers.org. We are a non political organization of volunteers across the US shipping 70,000 quart baggies of treats and notes to the troops deployed in Kuwait, Iraq, and Afghan
University of Texas - UTL - 202
2/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/102/2/10
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Table of Contents Section 1: My School and Mentor Web Activity 1: My School Observation 1: Interview Questions for Supervising Teacher Calendar &amp; Schedule of School/Class Hours Section 2: Reflections on the Teaching Profession Self-Reflection Expectation
University of Texas - UTL - 202
ThePreambletotheU.S. ClicktoeditMastersubtitlestyle ConstitutionFreedomWeek2009WhydidtheFoundersWrite thePreambleandReplacedtheArticlesof Confederation.ProblemswiththeArticlesof ConfederationUndertheArticlestherewasnoseparationof powers. Thecentralgo
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez November 24, 2009 Self-Reflection on Teaching at the End of the Semester At the beginning of my second semester in the UTeach program, I was extremely nervous about how, and if, I would be able to handle older students. I was worried that I
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Portfolio
University of Texas - UTL - 202
Table of Contents Section 1: My School and Mentor Web Activity 1: My School Observation 1: Interview Questions for Supervising Teacher Calendar &amp; Schedule of School/Class Hours Section 2: Reflections on the Teaching Profession Self-Reflection Expectation
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 14, 2009 Web Activity #2: Teaching Resources I. Go to the following address on the web: http:/www.eduref.org/virtual/lessons II. Do a search for sample lesson plans for the grade level to which you are assigned. Be sure to check the
University of Texas - UTL - 202
UTL 202 Lopez October 14, 2009 Web Activity #3: Educational Standards I. Find the Texas educational standards for the subject and the level you are observing. These can be located at the Texas Education Agency (TEA) A. Give the URL for the standards i. ht
University of Texas - UTL - 341R
ALAN Volume 28, Number 3 - Sunya Osborn&lt;4/24/08 1:28 PMDigital Library &amp; ArchivesETDsImageBaseEjournalsNewsEReserveSpecial CollectionsEditors: James Blasingame James.Blasingame@asu.edu Lori A. Goodson lagoodson@cox.net Spring/Summer 2001 Volume 2
University of Texas - UTL - 341R
ABC Books Aren't for Babies! Looking for some inspiration for an activity that will engage students - from kindergarten to college - while they learn? Why not challenge students to create their own ABC books? Included: More than 200 ABC book ideas - spann
University of Texas - UTL - 341R
AMENDED CALENDAR Tentative Schedule of TopicsNote: This schedule is subject to modification based on the needs of the class and the opportunities available for special instruction. Changes in topics or meeting place will be communicated either in class o