Power emergence of conflict ppt
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Power emergence of conflict ppt

Course Number: CAS 404, 2009

College/University: Penn State

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2 PowerandPolitics PowerandPolitics Power:Theabilityofone personorgrouptocause anotherpersonorgroupto dosomethingthatthey otherwisemightnothave done. OrganizationalPolitics: Activitiesinwhichmanagers engagetoincreasetheir powerandtopursuegoals thatfavortheirindividual andgroupinterests. 3 TheDarkSideofPowerandPolitics TheDarkSideofPowerandPolitics Powerandpoliticsoften havenegativeconnotations...

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PowerandPolitics Power:Theabilityofone personorgrouptocause 2 PowerandPolitics anotherpersonorgroupto dosomethingthatthey otherwisemightnothave done. OrganizationalPolitics: Activitiesinwhichmanagers engagetoincreasetheir powerandtopursuegoals thatfavortheirindividual andgroupinterests. 3 TheDarkSideofPowerandPolitics TheDarkSideofPowerandPolitics Powerandpoliticsoften havenegativeconnotations becausepeopleassociate themwithattemptstouse organizationalresources forpersonaladvantageand toachievepersonalgoals attheexpenseofother goals. 4 TheBrightSide TheBrightSide Managerscanusepowerto controlpeopleandother resourcessothatthey cooperateandhelptoachieve anorganizationscurrent goals. Managerscanusepowerto engageinpoliticsand influencethedecisionmaking processtohelppromotenew, moreappropriate organizationalgoals. 5 Insert Figure 18.1 here 6 SourcesofIndividualPower SourcesofIndividualPower Formalindividualpower isthepowerthatstems fromapersonspositionin anorganizations hierarchy. Informalindividual poweristhepowerthat stemsfrompersonal characteristics. 7 SourcesofFormalPower SourcesofFormalPower Legitimate:Thepowertocontrolanduse organizationalresourcestoaccomplish organizationalgoals. Reward:Thepowertogivepayraises, promotion,praise,interestingprojects,andother rewardstosubordinates. Coercive:Thepowertogiveorwithhold punishment,suchassuspension,termination,or eventhewithholdingofpraiseandgoodwill. Information:Thepowerthatstemsfromaccess toandcontroloverinformation. 8 SourcesofInformalPower SourcesofInformalPower Expert:Informalpowerthatstemsfrom superiorabilityorexpertise. Referent:Informalpowerthatstemsfrom beingliked,admired,andrespected. Charismatic:Anintenseformofreferent powerthatstemsfromanindividuals personalityorphysicalorotherabilities, whichinduceotherstobelieveinandfollow thatperson. Political Strategies for Increasing Power Figure 17.4 17-8 Strategies Controlling Uncertainty Being Irreplaceable Being in a Central Position Generating Resources Building Alliances Reduce uncertainty for others in the firm Develop valuable special knowledge or skills Have decision-making control over the firms crucial activities and resources Hire skilled people or find financing when it is needed Develop mutually beneficial relations with others inside and outside the organization PoliticalStrategiesforGainingand MaintainingPower 17-9 Political Strategies for Exercising Power Figure 17.5 1710 Strategies Relying on Objective Information Bringing in an Outside Expert Controlling the Agenda Providing impartial information causes others to feel the managers course of action is correct. Using an experts opinion to lend credibility to managers proposal Influencing those issues included (and those dropped) from the decision process. Making sure that everyone whose support is needed benefits personally from providing that support. Making Everyone a Winner StrategiesforExercisingPower 1711 UsageofPowerTactics:FromMostto LeastPopular When Managers Influenced Superiors* Most Popular Reason Coalition Friendliness Bargaining Assertiveness Higher authority Least Popular * Sanctions is omitted in the scale that measures upward influence. When Managers Influenced Subordinates Reason Assertiveness Friendliness Coalition Bargaining Higher authority Sanctions Managing with Power and Politics DirtyPolitics: IntheEyesoftheBeholder DirtyPolitics Kissingup Applepolishing Coopting Coalitionbuilding Scheming Coveringyourrear Creatingconflict Blamingothers EffectiveManagement Positivereinforcement Demonstratingloyalty Negotiating Facilitatingteamwork Planningahead Documenting Encouragingchange Fixingresponsibility Managing with Power and Politics Impression Management Tactics Impression Tactics Behavioral matching Description The target of perception matches his or her behavior to that of the perceiver. Example Self-promotion Conforming to situational norms Appreciating or flattering others Being consistent A subordinate tries to imitate her boss's behavior by being modest and soft-spoken because her boss is modest and soft-spoken. The target tries to present herself A worker reminds his boss about or himself in as positive a light as his past accomplishments and possible associates with coworkers who are evaluated highly The target follows agreed-upon A worker stays late every night rules for behavior in the even if she has completed all of organization. her assignments because staying late is one of the norms of her organization. The target compliments the A coworker compliments a perceiver. This tactic works best manager on his excellent when flattery is not extreme and handling of a troublesome when it involves a dimension employee. important to the perceiver. The target's beliefs and behaviors A subordinate whose views on are consistent. There is diversity are well known flatters agreement between the target's her boss for her handling of a verbal and nonverbal behaviors. conflict between two coworkers of different racial backgrounds. When speaking to her boss, the target looks her boss straight in the eye and has aPower and Politics Managing with sincere expression on her face. Comparisons Among Influence Strategies (Retribution) INFLUENCE WHEN TO USE IT STRATEGY Retribution POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES POSSIBLE COMPLAINTS U Q nequal power, in uick, direct influencer's favor action C ommitment and quality not important Tight time constraints Serious violation Issue not important to target If issue is important, retribution not likely Specific, unambiguous request R esistance to request is likely Stifles commitment, iolation of V creativity rights Insecurity of boss Ethical violations Engenders resentment M ust increase seriousness of threats to maintain pressure Managing with Power and Politics Examples of Influence Strategies (Retribution) RETRIBUTION (COERCION AND INTIMIDATION) General form: Threat: Social pressure: Had enough? Perceived scarcity and time pressure: Avoid causing pain to others: If you dont do X, you will regret it! If you do not comply, I will punish you. Others in your group have agreed; whats your decision? I will stop nagging you if you comply. If you dont act now, youll lose this opportunity/cause problems for others. If you dont agree, other will be hurt/disadvantaged. Managing with Power and Politics Comparisons Among Influence Strategies Comparisons (Reciprocity) INFLUENCE WHEN TO USE IT STRATEGY Reciprocity POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES POSSIBLE COMPLAINTS Parties mutually Low incidence Engenders Unfairness, dependent of resentment instrumental view of dashed work (expectation of expectations, Each party has Justification for specific rewards for manipulation resources valued by request specific rewards for other required specific actions) Adequate time for Encourages people to negotiating feel that the terms of Established assignments are open exchange norms for negotiation exist Parties viewed as trustworthy Commitment to broad goals and values not critical Needs are specific and short-term Managing with Power and Politics Examples of Influence Strategies (Reciprocity) RECIPROCITY (EXCHANGE AND INTEGRATION) General form: Promise: Esteem: Pregiving: Obligation: Reciprocal compromise: Escalation of commitment: If you dont do X, you will receive Y! If you comply, I will reward you. People you value will think better (worse) of you if you do (do not) comply. I will do something you like for you; then will you do this for me? You owe me compliance because of past favors. (Even though I implied there would be no future obligation.) I have lowered my initial offer/price, and now I expect you to reciprocate (no matter how unreasonable my initial position was). Im only interested in a small commitment. (But Ill be back later for more.) Managing with Power and Politics Comparisons Among Influence Strategies (Reason) INFLUENCE WHEN TO USE IT STRATEGY Reason POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES Considerable time required to build trust (time increases as number of people increases) Requires common goals and values POSSIBLE COMPLAINTS Difference of opinions, conflicting perceptions of priorities Adequate time for Need for extensive discussion surveillance enhanced Common goals/values Parties share mutual respect/credibility Parties share ongoing relationship Managing Power with and Politics Examples of Influence Strategies (Reason) REASON (PERSUASION BASED ON FACTS, NEEDS, OR PERSONAL VALUES) General form: Evidence: Need: Goal attainment: Value congruence: Ability: Loyalty: Altruism: I want you to do X, because its consistent with/good for/ necessary to . . . These facts/experts opinions demonstrate the merits of my position/request. This is what I need; will you help out? Compliance will enable you you reach a personally important objective. This action is consistent with your commitment to X. This endeavor would be enhanced if we could count on your ability/experience. Because we are friends/minorities, will you do this? The group needs your support, so do it for the good of us all. Managing with Power and Politics OrganizationalPolitics Activitiestakenwithinorganizationsto acquire,develop,andusepowerand otherresourcestoobtainonespreferred outcomesinasituationwherethereis uncertaintyoralackofconsensus Managing with Power and Politics Rationalvs.PoliticalModelsofOrganization Organizational Characteristic Goals, preference Power and control Decision process Rules and norms Information Beliefs about causeeffect relationships Decisions Rational Model Consistent across participants Centralized Orderly, logical, rational Norm of optimizing Extensive, systematic, accurate Known, at least to a probability estimate Based on outcomemaximizing choice Efficiency and effectiveness Political Model Inconsistent, pluralistic within the organization Decentralized, shifting coalitions and interest groups Disorderly, characterized by push and pull of interests Free play of market forces; conflict is legitimate and expected Ambiguous; information used and withheld strategically Disagreements about causes and effects Result of bargaining and interplay among interests Struggle, conflict, winners and losers Managing with Power and Politics Ideology StrategicContingenciesThatInfluence HorizontalPowerAmongDepartments Dependency Financial Resources Centrality Nonsubstitutability Coping with Uncertainty Managing with Power and Politics Department Power PowerandPoliticalTacticsin Organizations Tactics for Increasing the Power Base 1. Enter areas of high uncertainty 2. Create dependencies 3. Provide resources 4. Satisfy strategic contingencies Political Tactics for Using Power 1. Build coalitions 2. Expand networks 3. Control decision premises 4. Enhance legitimacy and expertise 5. Make preferences explicit, but keep power implicit Managing with Power and Politics Determinants of Position Power CHARACTERISTIC Criticality Flexibility Visibility Relevance DESCRIPTION Impact on tasks performed in a work flow Amount of discretion vested in a position Degree to which task performance is seen by influential people in the organization Alignment of assigned tasks and organizational priorities Managing with Power and Politics Model of Power and Influence Sources of Personal Power Expertise Reputation Personal characteristics Network connections Information POWER OF AN INDIVIDUAL Sources of Position Power Criticality Flexibility Visibility Relevance Selection of proper strategy to influence others Assertive responses to inappropriate influence attempts by others Increasing authority via upward influence INFLUENCE OVER OTHERS Managing with Power and Politics Factors Influencing Political Behavior Individual factors oPersonality oOrganizational investment o Perceived job alternatives o Expectations of success Political behavior Organizational factors o Uncertainty oScarce resources oInterdependence o Low trust oAmbiguity o Unclear evaluation system o Zero-sum reward practices o Participative decision making o High performance pressures o Self-serving senior managers Low High Favorable outcome Rewards Averted punishments Managing with Power and Politics TurningBarriersintoPointsof Leverage Corporatecuttingfunds MDCFocus:increase ROA DoesnotfitUSMGcharity startsathomemission Freedomtodefinemission Clendeninislowin hierarchy Servingothersand controllingothers Barriers Leverage MDCstaffedwithmisfitsHighcommitmentto Clendenin Managing with Power and Politics All Organizations are Social Networks Social Network = A set of nodes (e.g., persons, organizations) linked by a set of social relationships (e.g., friendship, transfer of funds, etc.) Underlying Assumption: The actions of actors in organizations can be explained in terms of their position in the social network. Managing with Power and Politics Careerovertime Pay Promotions Adaptationtonewsituations Effectiveness Health Happiness Organizationaleffects EffectsofNetworking Managing with Power and Politics Departments, units and external ties can be depicted as a social network: Alliance with sub-contractors Boundary of Firm Sales and Customer Service Alliance with major supplier Alliance with a major customer Manufacturing Other alliance (e.g. R & D) Engineering Managing with Power and Politics Product development (Cross functional team) The Structure of Social Networks Network Centrality How close an actor is to the other actors in the network. Density The proportion of ties that are actually present in the network. Density = 0.5 (3/6) Structural Hole Redundancy The lack of a relationship between two contacts who are tied to a third actor. Ties that duplicate to the same sources of information and resources. Tie A is redundant with Tie B. A Mgr. Marketing B Mgr. Sales Production Managing with Power and Politics Prototypical Examples: Clique Network vs. Prototypical Entrepreneurial Network Entrepreneurial Clique Network Ties sustain one another Actors equally central High density No structural holes High redundancy Manager Creates social support Minimal access to new information Entrepreneurial Network Ties sustained by manager Manager is mostly central Low density Many structural holes Little or no redundancy Managing with Power and Politics Manager Manager adds value as essential bridge Access to diverse information Stratified Jumpingnetworks Strengthofweakties Underutilizedstrategy StrongandWeakTies Managing with Power and Politics InfluenceTactics Reason:useoffacts,data,orlogic Values:appealtopersonalorgeneralprinciples Emotion:appealtotargetsfeelings Bargaining:exchangeofresourcesorfavors Ingratiation:humbleness,flatteryorfriendliness Coercion:forcefuldemandsorthreats Sanctions:useofrewardsorpunishment Coalition:gettingsupportfromothers Higherauthority:gettingsupportfromsuperiors Managing with Power and Politics WaystoCreatePower Developandnurtureanetworkofconnections, especiallywithpowerfulallies Manageyourpublicimage Understandhowpowerisdistributedand executedwithintheorganization Chooseappropriatetacticsofinfluence Buildcoalitions Knowhowtosellimportantissues Managing with Power and Politics EffectiveOrganizationalPoliticians Understandhowpowerisdistributedandhow politicsoperatewithintheirorganization Understandthepriorities&perspectivesof differentpartiesandadapttheirbehavior accordingly Consciouslyworkonmaintainingapositive image Useawiderangeofpowerbasesandinfluence tactics,andknowwhentousewhichones Haveaclearsetofethicalstandardstoguide theirpoliticalbehavior Managing with Power and Politics To say a leader is preoccupied with power is like saying that a tennis player is preoccupied with making shots his opponent cannot return. Of course leaders are preoccupied with power! The significant questions are: What means do they use to gain it? How do they exercise it? To what ends do they exercise it? John Gardner On Leadership, 1990 Managing with Power and Politics Factors Contributing to a Sense of Powerlessness Organization Level Factors Significant organizational changes that are not explained Control by rules High level of centralization Restricted access to networks and opportunities Managerial Level Factors Authoritarian Leadership Style Lack of explanation of rationale for action Job Level Factors Lack of role clarity Lack of training Limited ability to participate in decisions Managing with Power and Politics People low in power may tend to: Behaveinmoreauthoritarianways Placemorerestrictionsonthoseworkingfor them Holdbacktalentedemployees(presumably becausetheyarethreatened) Belesswelllikedbyemployeesandbosses Usemorecoercivepower Fosterlowergroupmorale Managing with Power and Politics

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