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Zipperstein Jacob Chemistry 3rd November 27, 2007 Reading Log: Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Section 6.1 Antoine Lavoisier 1790s compiled a list of 23 elements known at his time John Newlands 1864 English chemist proved that when elements were arranged in increasing atomic mass, their properties repeated every eighth element. Lothar Meyer 1896 German chemist with Russian partner Dmitri Mendeleev demonstrated a connection between atomic mass and elemental properties. Mendeleev shaped the first periodic table leaving blanks where elements should go Henry Moseley: -1913- disapproved Mendeleev order of his periodic table. He arranged the atoms in increasing atomic number instead of atomic mass. Elements with similar properties are in the same row. 1. H 8. F 2. Li 9. Na 3. G 10. Mg And so on Periodic Law: There is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements whey they are arranged by increasing atomic number Periodic Table: Groups (families) columns arranged in increasing atomic number Periods rows arranged in increasing atomic number Representative elements - elements that are designated with an A. possesses a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Transition elements elements that are designated with a B. further divided into transition metals and inner transition metals. Classifying the Elements Metals elements that are shiny when clean, solid at room temperature, conductors of heat and electricity Most elements are metals Nonmetals usually gases Section 6.2 Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Metalloids combination between metal and nonmetal Alkali Metals elements in the group 1A (not hydrogen) Alkaline Earth Metals elements group in 2A Noble Gases unreactive elements in group 8A Halogens extremely reactive elements in group 7A Hydrogen Lithium Sodium Potassium 1s^1 1s^1 2s^1 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^1 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^1 1s^1 [He]2s^1 [Ne]3s^1 [Ar]4s^1 Valence Electrons - Highest principal energy level of an atom. Atoms in the same group have similar chem. Properties cause they have same # of valence electrons So, the energy level of an elements valence electrons indicates the period on the periodic table Period 1 2 3 4 Section 6.3 Atomic Radius half the distance between adjacent nuclei in a crystal of the element In periods the atomic radii decreases as you move left-to-right. In groups the atomic radii increases as you move down a group Ion an atom or bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge Ionization Energy the energy required to remove an electron form a gaseous atom Octet Rule atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence elections. Electronegativity an element indicates the relative ability of its atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond. Principal energy level N=1 N=2 N=3 N=4 Element Helium Neon Argon krypton Electron configuration 1s^2 [He]2s^2 2p^6 [Ne]3s^2 3p^6 [Ar]4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 Electron dot structure He: :Ne: :Ar: :Kr: Element Li Be B C N O F Ne Valence Electrons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Ionization Energy (Kj/Mol) 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 520 900 800 109 0 140 0 131 0 168 0 208 0 730 0 176 0 243 0 235 0 286 0 339 0 337 0 395 0 1485 0 3660 4620 4580 5300 6050 6120 2502 0 6220 7480 7470 8410 9370 3783 0 9440 1098 0 1102 0 1218 0 5327 0 1333 0 1516 0 1524 0 7133 0 1787 0 2000 0 9204 0 2307 0 115380 ... View Full Document

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