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Psychology Chapter Social 12 Chapter 12 Learning Objective Menu LO 12.1 LO 12.2 LO 12.3 LO 12.4 LO 12.5 LO 12.6 LO 12.7 LO 12.8 LO 12.9 LO 12.10 LO 12.11 LO 12.12 LO 12.13 Factors affecting conformity Four ways to gain compliance Obedience Components, formation and change of an attitude When attitudes do not match actions Social categorization and implicit personality theories How people explain others' actions Prejudice and discrimination Why people are prejudiced and how to stop it Factors that govern attraction and the different forms of love Biology and learning influences on aggression Altruism and deciding to help others Why people join cults LO 12.1 Conformity Social Psychology and Conformity Social psychology the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social influence - the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual. Elements of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience Menu Confirmity Conformity - changing one's own behavior to match that of other people. Acceptance and Belonging - We tend to gain acceptance by being in accord with others, sometimes even when it violates our own beliefs. LO 12.1 Conformity Menu LO 12.1 Conformity Groupthink and Compliance Groupthink The kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned. Why Groupthink Occurs Fear of "Rocking the Boat" and the real or imagined pressure from others. Menu LO 12.1 Conformity Menu LO 12.1 Conformity Menu Consumer Psychology The branch of psychology that studies the behavior of consumers in the marketplace. Devoted to figuring out how to get people to buy goods and services. Compliance - changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change. LO 12.2 Four ways to gain compliance Four Ways to Gain Compliance Foot-in-the-door technique asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment. Door-in-the-face technique asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment. Norm of reciprocity - assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return. Menu LO 12.2 Four ways to gain compliance Four Ways to Gain Compliance Lowball technique getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment. That's-not-all technique - a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision. Menu LO 12.3 Obedience Obedience Obedience - changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure. Milgram study "teacher" administered what they thought were real shocks to a "learner." Menu LO 12.3 Obedience Menu LO 12.3 Obedience Social Loafing and Social Facilitation Social facilitation - the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task. Social loafing - the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task. Menu LO 12.4 Components formation and change of an attitude Attitudes Attitude - a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation. The three components of an attitude are the affective (emotional) component, the behavioral component, and the cognitive component. Attitudes are often poor predictors of behavior unless the attitude is very specific or very strong. Menu LO 12.4 Components, formation and change of an attitude Menu LO 12.4 Components formation and change of an attitude Formation of Attitudes Direct contact with the person, situation, object, or idea. Direct instruction from parents or others. Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude. Watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations. Menu LO 12.4 Components formation and change of an attitude Persuasion Persuasion - the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. Key elements in persuasion are the source of the message, the message itself, and the target audience. Menu LO 12.4 Components formation and change of an attitude Processing Persuasion Elaboration likelihood model model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it, and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not. Central-route processing - type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself. Peripheral-route processing - type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other noncontent factors. Menu LO 12.5 When attitudes do not match actions Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance - sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's true beliefs. Lessened by changing the conflicting behavior, changing the conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior. Spool and Peg experiment (Festinger and Carlsmith) Menu LO 12.6 Social categorization and implicit personality theories Social Cognition and Impressions Social cognition - the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them. Impression formation - forming of the first knowledge a person has about another person. Primacy effect - the very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary. Menu Social categorization - the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past. Stereotype - a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category. Menu Social Cognition and Social Categorization LO 12.6 Social categorization and implicit personality theories personality Implicit theory Social Cognition and Social Categorization LO 12.6 Social categorization and implicit personality theories categorization based upon sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other. (ex: Fat people are jolly.) Schemas - mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people. Schemas can become stereotypes. Menu LO 12.7 How people explain others' actions Attributions Attribution - the process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others. Attribution theory - the theory of how people make attributions. Situational cause- cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation. Dispositional cause - cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character. Menu LO 12.7 How people explain others' actions Attributions Fundamental attribution error (actorobserver bias) the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors. Menu LO 12.8 Prejudice and discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice - negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group. Discrimination - treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong. Forms of prejudice include ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice toward those who are too fat or too thin. Menu LO 12.8 Prejudice and discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination In-groups - social groups with whom a person identifies; "us." Out-groups - social groups with whom a person does not identify; "they." Realistic conflict theory - conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination. Scapegoating - tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence. Menu LO 12.9 Why people are prejudiced and how to stop it Stopping Prejudice Social cognitive theory views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences. Social identity theory theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. Social identity - the part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category. Social comparison the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self-esteem. Menu LO 12.9 Why people are prejudiced and how to stop it Stopping Prejudice Stereotype vulnerability - the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior. Self-fulfilling prophecy - the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur. Menu LO 12.9 Why people are prejudiced and how to stop it Stopping Prejudice Equal status contact - contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither group having power over the other. "Jigsaw classroom" educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution. Menu LO 12.10 Factors that govern attraction and the different forms of love Attraction Interpersonal attraction - liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person. Proximity - physical or geographical nearness. People like people who are similar to themselves OR who are different from themselves (complementary). Reciprocity of liking - tendency of people to like other people who like them in return. Menu LO 12.10 Factors that govern attraction and the different forms of love Love Love - a strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests. Sternberg states that the three components of love are intimacy, passion, and commitment. Romantic love - type of love consisting of intimacy and passion. Companionate love - type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment. Menu LO 12.10 Factors that govern attraction and the different forms of love Menu LO 12.11 Biology and learning influences on aggression Aggression Aggression - behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. Biological influences on aggression may include genetics, the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels. Environmental effects, e.g. plastics, sugar consumption. Social role - the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position. Violent TV, movies, and videos are related to aggression. Menu LO 12.11 Biology and learning influences on aggression Menu LO 12.12 Altruism and deciding to help others Altruism Prosocial behavior - socially desirable behavior that benefits others. Altruism - prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself. Menu LO 12.12 Altruism and deciding to help others Bystander Effect Bystander effect - referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases. Diffusion of responsibility - occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility. Menu LO 12.12 Altruism and deciding to help others Diffusion of Responsibility Researchers Latan and Darley found that people who were alone were more likely to help in an emergency than people who were with others. One bystander cannot diffuse responsibility. Menu Five Steps in Making a Decision to Help 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Noticing Defining an emergency Taking responsibility Planning a course of action Taking action LO 12.12 Altruism and deciding to help others Menu LO 12.12 Altruism and deciding to help others Menu LO 12.13 Why people join cults Cults People who join cults tend to be under stress, unhappy, unassertive, gullible, dependent, want to belong, and idealistic. Young people are likelier to join cults than are older people. Cults use love-bombing, isolation, rituals, and activities to keep the new recruits from questions and critical thinking. Menu LO 12.12 Why people join cults Menu ... View Full Document

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