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xercise E 6-10: Break-Even Analysis (LO2, LO4, LO5) Chi Omega Sorority is planning i ts annual Riverboat Extravaganza. The E xtravaganza committee has assembled the following expected costs for t he event:
D inner (per person) $ 7 Favors and program (per person) $ 3 Band
$ 1,500 Tickets and advertising $ 700 Riverboat rental $ 4,800 Floorshow and strolling entertainers $ 1,000
The committee members would like to charge $30 per person for the evenings activities. Requi rement 1: Compute the break-even point for the Extravaganza (in terms of the n umber of persons who must attend). Break-even point
persons
Requi rement 2: Assume that last year only 250 persons attended the Extravaganza. If the same number attend this year, what price per ticket must be charged to b reak even? ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.) Ticket price $
E xercise 6-13: Break-Even Analysis; Ta rget P rofit; Ma rgin of S afety; C M Ratio (LO1, LO3, LO5, LO6, LO7) Pringle Company distributes a single product. The company's sales and expenses for a recent month follow:
Total Per Unit Sales
$ 600,000
$ 40
Variable expenses
420,000
28
Contribution margin
180,000
$ 12
F ixed expenses
150,000
Net operating income
$ 30,000
R equi rement 1: What is the monthly break-even point in units sold and in sales dollars? ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.)
B reak-even point in units sold
u nits Break-even point in sales dollars $
R equi rement 2: Without resorting to computations, what is the total contribution margin a t the break-even point? ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.) Contribution margin $
R equi rement 3: (a) How many units would have to be sold each month to earn a target profit of $18,000? Use the contribution margin method.
Sales level in units
units
(b) Verify your answer by preparing a contribution format income statement a t the target sales level. ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.)
Total Sales $
Variable expenses
Contribution margin
F ixed expenses
Net operating income $
R equi rement 4: Refer to the original data. Compute the company's margin of safety in both dollar and percentage terms. ( Round your answer Ma rgin of Safety P ercentage to 1 decimal place. Omit the "%" sign, which is p rovided for you. Omit the "$" sign in your response.)
M argin of safety in dollars $
M argin of safety percentage
%
R equi rement 5: (a) What is the company's CM ratio? ( Omit the "%" sign, which is provided for you.)
CM ratio
%
(b) If sales increase by $80,000 per month and there is no change in fixed expenses, by how much would you expect monthly net operating income to i ncrease? ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.)
Net operating income $
Exercise 6-16: Operating Leverage (LO4, LO8) Superior Door Company sells prehung doors to home builders. The doors a re sold for $60 each. Variable costs are $42 per door, and fixed costs total $450,000 per year. The company is currently selling 30,000 doors per year.
Requi rement 1: (a) P repare a contribution format income statement for the company at the p resent level of sales. ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.)
Total Sales (30,000 doors) $
Variable expenses
Contribution margin
F ixed expenses
Net operating income $
(b) Compute the degree of operating leverage.
Operating leverage
Requi rement 2: Management is confident that the company can sell 37,500 doors next year (an increase of 7,500 doors, or 25%, over current sales).
( a) Compute the expected percentage increase in net operating income for next year. ( Omit the "%" sign, which is provided for you.)
Expected percentage increase
%
(b) T he expected total dollar net operating income for year. next (Do not p repare an income statement; use the degree of operating leverage to compute your answer.) ( Omit the "$" sign in your response.)
Total expected net operating income $
Exercise 6-17: I n te rp retive Questions on the CVP Graph (LO2, L O5) A CVP graph, as illustrated below, is a useful technique for showing relationships among an organization's costs, volume, and profits.
R equi rement 1: Identify the numbered components in the CVP graph.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
R equi rement 2: State the effect of each of the following actions on line 3, line 9, and the b reak-even point. For line 3 and line 9, state whether the action will cause t he line to: Remain unchanged. Shift upward. Shift downward. Have a steeper slope (i.e., rotate upward). Have a f lat ter slope (i.e., rotate downward). Shift upward a nd have a steeper slope. Shift upward a nd have a f latter slope. Shift downward a nd have a steeper slope. Shift downward a nd have a f lat ter slope.
I n the case of the break-even point, state whether the action will cause the b reak-even point to:
Remain unchanged. Increase. Decrease. Probably change, but the direction is uncertain.
Treat each case independently. x. Example. F ixed costs are reduced by $20,000 per period.
A nswer (see choices above): L ine 3: Shift upward.
L ine 9: Remain unchanged.
B reak-even point: Increase.
a. The unit selling price is decreased from $30 to $27.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
b. Unit variable costs are increased from $12 to $15.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
c. The total fixed costs are reduced by $40,000.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
d. Five thousand fewer units are sold during the period than were budgeted.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
e. Due to automating a task that was previously done by workers, fixed costs a re increased by $25,000 per period, and variable costs are reduced by $8 per unit.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
f. Due to a decrease in the cost of materials, both uni t variable costs and the selling price are decreased by $3.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
g. Advertising costs are increased by $50,000 per period, resulting in a 10% i ncrease in the number of units sold.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
h. Due to paying salespersons a commission rather than a f lat salary, fixed costs are reduced by $21,000 per period, and unit variable costs are i ncreased by $6.
L ine 3:
L ine 9:
B reak-even point:
P roblem 6-18A: M issing Data; Basic CVP Concepts (LO1, LO9) Fill in the missing amounts in each of the eight case situations below. E ach case is independent of the others. (Hint: One way to find the missing amounts would be to prepare a contribution format income statement for each case, enter the known data, and then compute the missing i tems.)
Requi red:
a. Assume that only one product is being sold in each of the four following case situations: ( Omit the "$" sign in your response)
Case Units Sold Sales Variable Expenses Contribution Margin per Unit Fixed Expenses Net Operating Income (Loss) 1 12,000 $ 360,000 $ 144,000 $
$ 190,000 $
2
$ 50,000 $
$ 6 $ 25,000 $
5,000
3 2,000 $
$ 16,000 $ 12 $
$
(6,000)
4 7,000 $ 280,000 $
$
$
120,000 $
34,000
b. Assume that more than one product is being sold in each of the four following case situations: ( Omit the "%" sign, which is provided for you. Omit the "$" sign in your response)
Case Sales Variable Expenses Average Contribution Margin (Percent) Fixed Expenses Net Operating Income (Loss) 1 $ 100,000 $
40 % $
$
(2,000)
2 $ 300,000 $ 165,000
% $ 85,000 $
3 $
$
15 % $ 20,000 $
10,000
4 $ 460,000 $
138,000
% $
$
62,000

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